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Sample records for undetermined origin ail

  1. Pulmonary and Ileal Tuberculosis Presenting as Fever of Undetermined Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surewad, Gajanan; Lobo, Ivona

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with prolonged fever with no obvious focus on either history or clinical examination. High-resolution computerized tomography of the chest revealed the ‘tree-in-bud’ sign in the right lung and necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes. Barium meal showed multiple ileal strictures. The child was treated with anti-tuberculous therapy for six months. At follow-up six months later, the child had gained weight and had no signs of intestinal obstruction. Tuberculosis is a common cause of fever of undetermined origin and should be investigated for especially in countries with a high prevalence. PMID:25478420

  2. Unilateral perinephric pseudocyst of undetermined origin in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.G.; Jergens, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Unilateral perinephric pseudocyst of undetermined origin was diagnosed in a 131/2 year old dog with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst was based on radiographic and sonographic findings. In survey radiographs, asymmetrical unilateral renomegaly was seen. The mass was anechoic. There was absence of opacification of the mass during excretory urography. A celiotomy was performed for removal of the perinephric mass, and histologic review of this structure confirmed it to be a pseudocyst. Perinephric accumulation of fluid is a rare condition in domestic animals. Seven examples of perinephric pseudocysts have been previously reported in the cat. Predominant clinical findings include progressive abdominal distension and nonspecific signs of renal disease. The presence of unilateral or bilateral renomegaly is a characteristic radiographic feature. This clinical report describes the first case of perinephric pseudocyst diagnosed in the dog

  3. New approach to imaging HIV-positive patients with pyrexia of undetermined origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J.; Miller, R.; Lui, D.; Ell, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper established if imaging with Tc-99m human immunoglobulin (HIG) in addition to Ga-67 citrate increased the diagnostic sensitivity in patients who have pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and who have tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The authors studied 18 HIV-positive patients with PUO for 3 or more weeks. Imaging was performed 4 and 20 hours after administration of 200 MBq of Tc-99m HIG and 24, 48, and (if indicated) 72 hours after administration of 300 MBq of Ga-67. Anterior whole body and relevant spot view were obtained for both agents. Twenty-four sites of infection were confirmed microbiologically in 12 patients. Ga-67 scan results were positive in 22 of these sites, and Tc-99m HIG results were positive in 13; the nine Ga-positive sites that were Tc-negative were intrathoracic (one Pneumocystis carinii, eight Mycobacterium intracellulare)

  4. Papel dos testes provocativos esofagianos na investigação de pacientes com dor torácica de origem indeterminada Role of esophageal provocative tests in the investigation of patients with chest pain of undetermined origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz J. Abrahão Jr.

    2005-09-01

    a dor era provável e em 6 dos 14 pacientes (42,8% com exames habitualmente empregados normais ou inconclusivos [ganho diagnóstico de 45% (18/40]. Dois pacientes com testes provocativos negativos apresentaram o índice de sintomas positivo à pHmetria, totalizando 25 (62,5% pacientes com dor esofagiana comprovada. CONCLUSÃO: Os testes provocativos permitiram apontar a dor como de origem esofagiana comprovada em 62,5% dos casos, o que representou um ganho diagnóstico de 45% quando comparados aos exames habitualmente empregados, constituindo ferramenta importante na investigação de pacientes com dor torácica de origem indeterminada.BACKGROUND: Traditional methods employed in esophageal investigation of patients with chest pain of undetermined origin includes upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry and pH monitoring. These methods many times disclose abnormalities that can only be enrolled as the possible cause of chest pain. Provocative tests can reproduce pain in the laboratory, establishing its esophageal origin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the positivity of acid perfusion test, edrophonium and balloon distension in patients with chest pain of undetermined origin and compare with results of traditional exams, establishing the gain for the diagnosis of esophageal pain. RESULTS: Forty patients with chest pain of undetermined origin (normal coronary angiography, 80% female, mean age of 54.7 years were submitted to traditional exams and provocative tests. Upper endoscopy disclosed erosive esophagitis in two (5% and peptic ulcer in one (2.5%, esophageal manometry was abnormal in 60%. pH monitoring was abnormal in 14 (35% with a positive symptom index in 7. Chest pain was considered of proved esophageal origin by traditional exams in 7 (17.5% patients with a positive symptom index and of probable esophageal origin in 19 (47.5% being 8 with gastroesophageal reflux disease and 11 abnormal esophageal motility. In 14 (35% an esophageal origin could not be demonstrated. The acid

  5. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K. (Michigan); (NIH); (Michigan-Med)

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  6. Yersinia pestis Ail: multiple roles of a single protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejek, Anna M.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Minnich, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of the most virulent bacteria identified. It is the causative agent of plague—a systemic disease that has claimed millions of human lives throughout history. Y. pestis survival in insect and mammalian host species requires fine-tuning to sense and respond to varying environmental cues. Multiple Y. pestis attributes participate in this process and contribute to its pathogenicity and highly efficient transmission between hosts. These include factors inherited from its enteric predecessors; Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, as well as phenotypes acquired or lost during Y. pestis speciation. Representatives of a large Enterobacteriaceae Ail/OmpX/PagC/Lom family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are found in the genomes of all pathogenic Yersiniae. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the role of Ail in Y. pestis pathogenesis and virulence. The pronounced role of Ail in the following areas are discussed (1) inhibition of the bactericidal properties of complement, (2) attachment and Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) delivery to host tissue, (3) prevention of PMNL recruitment to the lymph nodes, and (4) inhibition of the inflammatory response. Finally, Ail homologs in Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are compared to illustrate differences that may have contributed to the drastic bacterial lifestyle change that shifted Y. pestis from an enteric to a vector-born systemic pathogen. PMID:22919692

  7. Ail and PagC-related proteins in the entomopathogenic bacteria of Photorhabdus genus.

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    Annabelle Mouammine

    Full Text Available Among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, the proteins of the Ail/OmpX/PagC family form a steadily growing family of outer membrane proteins with diverse biological properties, potentially involved in virulence such as human serum resistance, adhesion and entry into eukaryotic culture cells. We studied the proteins Ail/OmpX/PagC in the bacterial Photorhabdus genus. The Photorhabdus bacteria form symbiotic complexes with nematodes of Heterorhabditis species, associations which are pathogenic to insect larvae. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that in Photorhabdus asymbiotica and Photorhabdus luminescens only Ail and PagC proteins are encoded. The genomic analysis revealed that the Photorhabdus ail and pagC genes were present in a unique copy, except two ail paralogs from P. luminescens. These genes, referred to as ail1Pl and ail2Pl, probably resulted from a recent tandem duplication. Surprisingly, only ail1Pl expression was directly controlled by PhoPQ and low external Mg2+ conditions. In P. luminescens, the magnesium-sensing two-component regulatory system PhoPQ regulates the outer membrane barrier and is required for pathogenicity against insects. In order to characterize Ail functions in Photorhabdus, we showed that only ail2Pl and pagCPl had the ability, when expressed into Escherichia coli, to confer resistance to complement in human serum. However no effect in resistance to antimicrobial peptides was found. Thus, the role of Ail and PagC proteins in Photorhabdus life cycle is discussed.

  8. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies: definitive and still undetermined causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Silvana; Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-02-04

    To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized.

  9. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia O, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  10. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in CT-undetermined focal liver lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrose, Sebastian; Karstrup, S.; Gerke, Oke

    2016-01-01

    , surgical resection, PET/CT and clinical follow-up. Results: The 78 included patients had 163 undetermined focal liver lesions, mean size 1.1 cm, range 0.1–5.3 cm. There were 18 malignant and 145 benign liver lesions, as defined by the standard of reference. In differentiating between benign vs. malignant...

  11. Investigação do valor da categoria diagnóstica de células epiteliais atípicas, de significado indeterminado, e origem indefinida da nomenclatura brasileira para laudos citopatológicos cervicais Investigation of the value of the atypical epithelial cells of undetermined significance and origin diagnostic category proposed by the Brazilian nomenclature for reporting cervical cytological diagnosis

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    Álvaro Piazzetta Pinto

    2006-04-01

    um achado raro e uma cuidadosa revisão da lâmina, na maioria dos casos, resultará no encontro de campos de AGUS. Vale ainda salientar a forte associação desse diagnóstico com áreas de má fixação nos esfregaços. Novos estudos sobre o assunto serão necessários. Com base nos achados do presente estudo, sugerimos que a persistência desse termo deva ser questionada em futuras revisões da nomenclatura nacional para laudos citopatológicos.BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Brazilian Nomenclature for Reporting Cervical Cytological Diagnosis was revised. A category of atypical epithelial cells of undetermined significance (AUS and another (sub-classification of atypical epithelial cells of undetermined significance and undetermined origin (AUSUO were introduced. Like atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS, the diagnostic category AUSUO is controversial. Despite controversies, no previous national study had investigated its importance. OBJECTIVES: This study has the main objective of investigate the importance of the diagnostic category AUSUO. Another purpose is to contribute to spread the Brazilian Nomenclature for Reporting Cervical Cytological Diagnosis, by publishing it entirely. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study resulted from the contribution of two private pathology and cytopathology laboratories. Cases diagnosed as ASCUS or AGUS with follow-up were selected from archives of cytopathology exams, collected from the period between 2000 and 2004. In total, 30 cases were selected and revised, being identified cytological diagnostic fields of ASIOI, ASCUS and AGUS. RESULTS: After revision, from the 30 cases, 26 were selected for the study. Among these, 19 presented cytological fields with diagnosis of only ASCUS and/or AGUS and were used as a control group. Only seven cases contained fields compatible with AUSUO, 4 (57,1% were associated with AGUS; 1 (14.3% with ASCUS; 1 (14.3% with both

  12. Gas phase THz spectroscopy of toxic agent simulant compounds using the AILES synchrotron beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, A.; Smirnova, I.; Bocquet, R.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Yang, C.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.

    2010-02-01

    A new study is currently underway aiming at recording and assigning the gas phase rovibrational spectra of several organophosphorus and organosulphur compounds in the THz frequency domain. Thanks to the exceptional properties of flux, brilliance and spectral range of the AILES beamline coupled to the FTIR spectrometer, the gas phase vibrational spectra of low volatility organophosphorous compounds have been recorded across the entire THz frequency range. High resolution FTIR spectroscopy was used to record the pure rotational and the low-frequency rovibrational spectrum of DMSO. A comparison between the spectra measured with the AILES beamline and the spectra obtained with optoelectronic THz sources is possible.

  13. Coordination of growth in root and shoot apices by AIL/PLT transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Krizek, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Growth at the root tip and organ generation at the shoot tip depend on the proper functioning of apical meristems and the transitioning of meristematic cell descendants from a proliferating state to cell elongation and differentiation. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT)

  14. [Adaptogenic potentialities of dynamic magnetotherapy in the treatment and prevention of ENT pathology in ailing children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotova, N V; Grinkevich, A V; Grishchenko, T P; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Tupkin, V D

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy of dynamic magnetotherapy (in transcranial and adrenal variants) for treatment of ENT pathology and prevention of its exacerbations is demonstrated in 126 ailing children. Mechanism of action of this magnetotherapy is due to formation of adequate adaptation reactions raising resistance to pathogens.

  15. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  16. On the origin of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, A.; Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    Physico-chemical processes leading to the dynamic formation and physical evolution of comets are reviewed in relationship to the various theories that propose solar origins, protoplanetary origins, planetary origins and interstellar origins. Evidence points to the origins of comets by the growth and agglomeration of small particles from gas and dust at very low temperatures at undetermined regions in space.

  17. High resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yong; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Park, Sang Ho; Rai, Ratan; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Opella, Stanley J.; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail’s biological activity. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra can be obtained from samples of Ail in detergent-free phospholipid liposomes, prepared with a lipid to protein molar ratio of 100. The spectra, obtained with 13 C or 1 H detection, have very narrow line widths (0.40–0.60 ppm for 13 C, 0.11–0.15 ppm for 1 H, and 0.46–0.64 ppm for 15 N) that are consistent with a high level of sample homogeneity. The spectra enable resonance assignments to be obtained for N, CO, CA and CB atomic sites from 75 out of 156 residues in the sequence of Ail, including 80% of the transmembrane region. The 1 H-detected solid-state NMR 1 H/ 15 N correlation spectra obtained for Ail in liposomes compare very favorably with the solution NMR 1 H/ 15 N TROSY spectra obtained for Ail in nanodiscs prepared with a similar lipid to protein molar ratio. These results set the stage for studies of the molecular basis of the functional interactions of Ail with its protein partners from human host cells, as well as the development of drugs targeting Ail.

  18. High resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yong; Dutta, Samit Kumar [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States); Park, Sang Ho; Rai, Ratan [University of California San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Fujimoto, L. Miya; Bobkov, Andrey A. [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States); Opella, Stanley J. [University of California San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbp.edu [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail’s biological activity. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra can be obtained from samples of Ail in detergent-free phospholipid liposomes, prepared with a lipid to protein molar ratio of 100. The spectra, obtained with {sup 13}C or {sup 1}H detection, have very narrow line widths (0.40–0.60 ppm for {sup 13}C, 0.11–0.15 ppm for {sup 1}H, and 0.46–0.64 ppm for {sup 15}N) that are consistent with a high level of sample homogeneity. The spectra enable resonance assignments to be obtained for N, CO, CA and CB atomic sites from 75 out of 156 residues in the sequence of Ail, including 80% of the transmembrane region. The {sup 1}H-detected solid-state NMR {sup 1}H/{sup 15}N correlation spectra obtained for Ail in liposomes compare very favorably with the solution NMR {sup 1}H/{sup 15}N TROSY spectra obtained for Ail in nanodiscs prepared with a similar lipid to protein molar ratio. These results set the stage for studies of the molecular basis of the functional interactions of Ail with its protein partners from human host cells, as well as the development of drugs targeting Ail.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF SECRETOLYTIC THERAPY IN REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN FREQUENTLY AILING CHILDREN

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    V.V. Kiselev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of rehabilitation of frequently ailing children (FAC is one of the actual problems in pediatrics. Disorders of mucosal immunity, depending on different factors including the state of mucociliary transport, play important role in formation of FAC group including patients with recurrent episodes of obstructive bronchitis. Morphological and functional unity of mucous tunic of respiratory tract allows determining the state of mucociliary clearance and effectiveness of secretolytic therapy by the state of mucosal tunic of nose and nasopharynx (it is the most accessible mucosal tunic for the objective examination. Specified rates of time of mucociliary transport in different groups of FAC are presented in this article. An effectiveness of mucoregulatory medication ambroxol in complex treatment of FAC with adenoids and recurrent episodes of obstructive bronchitis, and advisability of its prolonged (14–18 days use for the recovery of disturbed system of mucociliary transport were described in this article.Key words: frequently ailing children, somatotype, mucociliary clearance, treatment.

  20. TOPICAL IMMUNOCORRECTION IN PROPHYLAXIS AND TREATMENT OF FREQUENTLY AND LONG AILING CHILDREN

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    Ye. A. Vishneva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections remain serious social and economical problem. Modern medicine estimates immunomodulators as one of promising methods of treatment and preventing of acute respiratory infections (ARI especially in frequently and long ailing children. Prophylactic administration of immunomodulators allows decreasing the risk of recurrent ARI, and treatment with these drugs in acute phase shortens terms of a disease and compensates immunosuppression.

  1. Expansion of Parents’ Undetermined Experience in Socioeducational Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Dany

    2017-01-01

    The Dialogic Self Theory (DST—Hermans et al. Integrative Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 51(4), 1-31, 2017) is extended here in its dynamic aspects through focusing on the notions of indeterminacy, emptiness and movement. Linking with Husserl, I propose moving the dialogical self (DS) from...... a clear position in the “repertory of the Self” to an undetermined horizon. This makes it possible to introduce “holes” (emptiness) into the schematic representation of the “repertory of the Self”. Yet Husserl’s concept of horizon seems to focus too much on making the indeterminable determinate....... To overcome this limit, I incorporate Bergson’s concept of empty form into the DST. This enables conceptualising the extension and emergence of horizon. Extending Bergson’s concept of organisation, it is possible to see how the expansion of the horizon in a movement of globalisation does not necessarily...

  2. Origin,

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    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  3. Nonprofit pharma: solutions to what ails the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, W H; Kodukula, K

    2011-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) play an increasingly important role providing solutions to the significant challenges faced today by both large pharmaceutical and smaller biotechnology companies, not to mention academia. NPOs chartered for the public benefit are common in the USA and in selected other parts of the world. SRI International, originally founded as the Stanford Research Institute in 1946, is one of the largest and most successful independent NPOs. To provide a perspective on NPO business models, a number of SRI case studies spanning a broad range of technical and business initiatives will be summarized, including basic and contract research, discovery and development of new drugs and biologics, pharmaceutical and biotech research and development and contract services, technology pivots, company spin-ins and spin-outs, and the creation of new NPOs. How to bridge the National Institute of Health's "Valley of Death" and how to navigate the Food and Drug Administration's "Critical Path" will be discussed. We conclude with lessons learned about collaborations and routes to commercialization, along with food for thought for bioscience companies and outsourcing participants. Throughout, we attempt to explain why the role of NPOs is important to both the scientific and business communities and to patients and caregivers.

  4. Les ailes de glossines, une carte d'identité de l'insecte ?

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    De La Rocque S.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans les études de dynamique de population des glossines, vecteurs des trypanosomoses en Afrique, la taille de l'insecte peut être mise en relation avec leur longévité et leur capacité vectorielle. La taille des individus est généralement appréciée par la mesure de nervures remarquables de l'aile. Un logiciel semi-automatique a été développé par le Cirad et l'IRD pour réaliser une série de mesures à partir de photos numérisées des ailes. Il a été utilisé sur des populations sauvages de Glossina tachinoides Westwood et G. palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera : Glossinidae capturées autour de Bobo Dioulasso, au Burkina Faso. A partir d'une photo de l'aile, réalisée sous une loupe binoculaire et numérisée, le logiciel calcule la longueur des segments alaires, le rapport entre ces segments, la surface de la cellule "en hache" caractéristique des glossines et le niveau de gris de la membrane. Ces variables ont révélé leur intérêt taxonomique pour la diagnose entre ces espèces, mais également apportent des informations sur les caractéristiques physiologiques de la population étudiée.

  5. Presence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates from game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt-Samoraj, A; Syczyło, K; Szczerba-Turek, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Jabłoński, A; Łabuć, S; Pajdak, J; Oshakbaeva, N; Szweda, W

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the presence of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. Strains belonging to biotype 1A do not possess pYV plasmids, often harbour the ystB gene and usually lack the ail gene, which is the main virulence marker for Y. enterocolitica. The simultaneous presence of ail and ystB is uncommon. In this study, 21/218 (9.6%) biotype 1A Y. enterocolitica isolates from rectal swabs of wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 18), red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 2) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 1) in Poland harboured both ail and ystB genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. RESULTS OF MULTICENTER STUDY OF PIDOTIMOD FOR THE PROPHYLAXIS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN FREQUENTLY AILING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova-Baranova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes actual pediatric problem — frequent development of respiratory infections in children. Authors present the results of Russian multicenter study of effectiveness and safety of pidotimod (Imunorix in frequently ailing children. It was shown that treatment with pidotimod during 30 days resulted in decreased rate of acute respiratory infections and their complications including ones with necessity of antibacterial therapy compared to children from control group. The dynamics of immunological rates in blood serum was studied.Key words: frequently ailing children, acute respiratory infections, prophylaxis, pidotimod.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:40-44

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infection to Undetermined

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichia ewingii infection to Undetermined - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases...

  8. Study of experimentally undetermined neutrino parameters in the light of baryogenesis considering type I and type II Seesaw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Rupam

    2017-01-01

    We study to connect all the experimentally undetermined neutrino parameters namely lightest neutrino mass, neutrino CP phases and baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of a model where both type I and type II seesaw mechanisms can contribute to tiny neutrino masses. In this work we study the effects of Dirac and Majorana neutrino phases in the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry through the mechanism of leptogenesis. Type I seesaw mass matrix considered to a tri-bimaximal (TBM) type neutrino mixing which always gives non zero reactor mixing angle. The type II seesaw mass matrix is then considered in such a way that the necessary deviation from TBM mixing and the best fit values of neutrino parameters can be obtained when both type I and type II seesaw contributions are taken into account. We consider different contribution from type I and type II seesaw mechanism to study the effects of neutrino CP phases in the baryon asymmetry of the universe. We further study to connect all these experimentally undetermined neutrino parameters by considering various contribution of type I and type II seesaw. (author)

  9. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Kirjavainen

    Full Text Available Many pathogens are equipped with factors providing resistance against the bactericidal action of complement. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative enteric pathogen with invasive properties, efficiently resists the deleterious action of human complement. The major Y. enterocolitica serum resistance determinants include outer membrane proteins YadA and Ail. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-antigen (O-ag and outer core (OC do not contribute directly to complement resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible mechanism whereby Y. enterocolitica could inhibit the antibody-mediated classical pathway of complement activation. We show that Y. enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9 bind C4b-binding protein (C4bp, an inhibitor of both the classical and lectin pathways of complement. To identify the C4bp receptors on Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 surface, a set of mutants expressing YadA, Ail, O-ag, and OC in different combinations was tested for the ability to bind C4bp. The studies showed that both YadA and Ail acted as C4bp receptors. Ail-mediated C4bp binding, however, was blocked by the O-ag and OC, and could be observed only with mutants lacking these LPS structures. C4bp bound to Y. enterocolitica was functionally active and participated in the factor I-mediated degradation of C4b. These findings show that Y. enterocolitica uses two proteins, YadA and Ail, to bind C4bp. Binding of C4bp could help Y. enterocolitica to evade complement-mediated clearance in the human host.

  10. PIDOTIMOD IN TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION IN FREQUENTLY AILING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Kharlamova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial studied effectiveness and safety of pidotimoid (Imunorix in complex treatment of children with acute respiratory infection (ARI. Treatment with pidotimoid during 2 weeks (n = 30 resulted in lesser duration of fever and intoxication symptoms, and symptoms of laryngo-tracheitis, compared to control group (n = 30. Besides, children from pidotimoid group showed more rapid transformation of dry cough to hydrated cough, and decrease of its intensity. This beneficial change was accompanied by improvement of microbiocenosis. Effectiveness of pidotimoid was estimated by 73% of doctors as «good» (67% in control group. There was no any complication, related to treatment with this medication. The rate of repeated cases of ARI was three times lower then in control group in 6 months. All patients with ARI had no recurrent laryngeal stenosis.Key words: frequently ailing children, acute respiratory infection, treatment, prophylaxis, pidotimoid.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:27-33

  11. AILES: the infrared and THz beamline on SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Brubach, J.B.; Rouzieres, M.; Pirali, O.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a new infrared beamline (ligne de lumiere AILES) at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is underway. This beamline utilizes infrared synchrotron radiation from both the edge emission and the constant field conventional source. The expected performances including flux, spatial distribution of the photons, spectral range and stability are calculated and discussed. The optical system, spectroscopic stations and workspace are described. The calculation in the near field approach and the simulation by ray tracing show that the source with its adapted optics offers high flux and brilliance for a variety of infrared experiments. We also review the main research themes and the articulation and developments of the infrared sources at SOLEIL. (authors)

  12. Transfusion-dependent anaemia of undetermined origin: a distinctive syndrome in paediatric medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm C W

    2012-07-01

    The underlying diagnosis of severe anaemic illnesses in children may not be easy to identify at times, especially when regular blood transfusion has been started. International children patients attending a haematology clinic for diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively if they had to receive repeated blood transfusions with an undiagnosed illness or an incorrect diagnosis. Their demographic data, presenting features, and eventual diagnosis were described. Twelve children including 7 boys were enrolled from March 2007 to August 2011. Five came from Vietnam; 2 each came from Bangladesh and Indonesia; and 1 each from Hong Kong, Myanmar, and Ukraine. Their illnesses started at a mean age of 1.5 years (0.1 to 6.6) and they had been receiving blood transfusion for a mean duration of 2.5 years (0.1 to 9.9) years prior to the evaluation. Thalassemia major was the fi rst diagnosis in 5 cases; one had been treated for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia while the rest had not been given a diagnosis. After the evaluation, 4 children were diagnosed with Diamond Blackfan anaemia, 3 were diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis, and one each with hereditary pyropoikilocytosis, congenital sideroblastic anaemia, congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, transient erythroblastopenia of childhood, and autoimmune myelofibrosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A definitive diagnosis can be identified in this cohort of children on medical tourism with severe anaemic illnesses requiring repeated transfusions with diagnostic approaches that circumvent the interference of transfused cells.

  13. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales

  14. Backbone structure of Yersinia pestis Ail determined in micelles by NMR-restrained simulated annealing with implicit membrane solvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marassi, Francesca M.; Ding, Yi; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tian, Ye; Yao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) is a virulence factor of Yersinia pestis that mediates cell invasion, cell attachment and complement resistance. Here we describe its three-dimensional backbone structure determined in decyl-phosphocholine (DePC) micelles by NMR spectroscopy. The NMR structure was calculated using the membrane function of the implicit solvation potential, eefxPot, which we have developed to facilitate NMR structure calculations in a physically realistic environment. We show that the eefxPot force field guides the protein towards its native fold. The resulting structures provide information about the membrane-embedded global position of Ail, and have higher accuracy, higher precision and improved conformational properties, compared to the structures calculated with the standard repulsive potential

  15. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbmri.org [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales.

  16. Apixaban for treatment of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ATTICUS randomized trial): Rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Tobias; Poli, Sven; Meisner, Christoph; Schreieck, Juergen; Zuern, Christine S; Nägele, Thomas; Brachmann, Johannes; Jung, Werner; Gahn, Georg; Schmid, Elisabeth; Bäezner, Hansjörg; Keller, Timea; Petzold, Gabor C; Schrickel, Jan-Wilko; Liman, Jan; Wachter, Rolf; Schön, Frauke; Schabet, Martin; Lindner, Alfred; Ludolph, Albert C; Kimmig, Hubert; Jander, Sebastian; Schlegel, Uwe; Gawaz, Meinrad; Ziemann, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    Rationale Optimal secondary prevention of embolic stroke of undetermined source is not established. The current standard in these patients is acetylsalicylic acid, despite high prevalence of yet undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Aim The ATTICUS randomized trial is designed to determine whether the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban administered within 7 days after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of new ischemic lesions documented by brain magnetic resonance imaging within 12 months after index stroke. Design Prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel-group, open-label, German multicenter phase III trial in approximately 500 patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. A key inclusion criterion is the presence or the planned implantation of an insertable cardiac monitor. Patients are 1:1 randomized to apixaban or acetylsalicylic acid and treated for a 12-month period. It is an event-driven trial aiming for core-lab adjudicated primary outcome events. Study outcomes The primary outcome is the occurrence of at least one new ischemic lesion identified by axial T2-weighted FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging and/or axial DWI magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months when compared with the baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Key secondary outcomes are the combination of recurrent ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, systemic embolism; combination of MACE including recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death and combination of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding defined according to ISTH, and change of cognitive function and quality of life (EQ-5D, Stroke Impact Scale). Discussion Embolic stroke of undetermined source is caused by embolic disease and associated with a high risk of recurrent ischemic strokes and clinically silent cerebral ischemic lesions. ATTICUS will investigate the impact of atrial fibrillation detected by insertable cardiac monitor and the effects of

  17. Accidents and undetermined deaths: re-evaluation of nationwide samples from the Scandinavian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøllefsen, Ingvild Maria; Thiblin, Ingemar; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Hem, Erlend; Kastrup, Marianne; Nyberg, Ullakarin; Rogde, Sidsel; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Østevold, Gunvor; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2016-05-27

    National mortality statistics should be comparable between countries that use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases. Distinguishing between manners of death, especially suicides and accidents, is a challenge. Knowledge about accidents is important in prevention of both accidents and suicides. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of classifying deaths as accidents and undetermined manner of deaths in the three Scandinavian countries and to compare cross-national differences. The cause of death registers in Norway, Sweden and Denmark provided data from 2008 for samples of 600 deaths from each country, of which 200 were registered as suicides, 200 as accidents or undetermined manner of deaths and 200 as natural deaths. The information given to the eight experts was identical to the information used by the Cause of Death Register. This included death certificates, and if available external post-mortem examinations, forensic autopsy reports and police reports. In total, 69 % (Sweden and Norway) and 78 % (Denmark) of deaths registered in the official mortality statistics as accidents were confirmed by the experts. In the majority of the cases where disagreement was seen, the experts reclassified accidents to undetermined manner of death, in 26, 25 and 19 % of cases, respectively. Few cases were reclassified as suicides or natural deaths. Among the extracted accidents, the experts agreed least with the official mortality statistics concerning drowning and poisoning accidents. They also reported most uncertainty in these categories of accidents. In a second re-evaluation, where more information was made available, the Norwegian psychiatrist and forensic pathologist increased their agreement with the official mortality statistics from 76 to 87 %, and from 85 to 88 %, respectively, regarding the Norwegian and Swedish datasets. Among the extracted undetermined deaths in the Swedish dataset, the two experts

  18. Recurrent Embolic Strokes of Undetermined Source in a Patient with Extreme Lipoprotein(a Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Bulwa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a is a plasma lipoprotein and known cardiovascular risk factor most recently implicated in the development of high-risk carotid atherosclerotic plaques without significant carotid stenosis. We present a case of a young African-American female with recurrent embolic strokes of undetermined source. After our thorough investigation we identified the link between a small, irregular plaque in the right internal carotid artery and an extremely elevated plasma level of lipoprotein(a as the source of her embolic strokes.

  19. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of Undetermined Abdominal Lesions: A Multidisciplinary Decision-Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS guided biopsy of undetermined abdominal lesions in multidisciplinary treatment (MDT decision-making approach. Methods. Between Jan 2012 and Dec 2015, 60 consecutive patients (male, 37; female, 23; mean age, 51.3 years ± 14.6 who presented with undetermined abdominal lesions were included. CEUS and core needle percutaneous biopsy was performed under real-time CEUS guidance in all lesions. Data were recorded and compared with conventional ultrasound (US guidance group (n=75. All CEUS findings and clinical data were evaluated in MDT. Results. CEUS enabled the delimitation of more (88.3% versus 41.3% and larger (14.1 ± 10.7 mm versus 32.3 ± 18.5 mm nonenhanced necrotic areas. More inner (20.0% versus 6.7% and surrounding (18.3% versus 2.7% major vessels were visualized and avoided during biopsies. CEUS-guided biopsy increased the diagnostic accuracy from 93.3% to 98.3%, with correct diagnosis in 57 of 60 lesions (95.0%. The therapeutic plan was influenced by CEUS guided biopsies findings in the majority of patients (98.3%. Conclusion. The combination of CEUS guided biopsy and MDT decision-making approach is useful in the diagnostic work-up and therapeutic management.

  20. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of Undetermined Abdominal Lesions: A Multidisciplinary Decision-Making Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feng; Dong, Yi; Ji, Zhengbiao; Cao, Jiaying; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided biopsy of undetermined abdominal lesions in multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) decision-making approach. Methods. Between Jan 2012 and Dec 2015, 60 consecutive patients (male, 37; female, 23; mean age, 51.3 years ± 14.6) who presented with undetermined abdominal lesions were included. CEUS and core needle percutaneous biopsy was performed under real-time CEUS guidance in all lesions. Data were recorded and compared with conventional ultrasound (US) guidance group ( n = 75). All CEUS findings and clinical data were evaluated in MDT. Results. CEUS enabled the delimitation of more (88.3% versus 41.3%) and larger (14.1 ± 10.7 mm versus 32.3 ± 18.5 mm) nonenhanced necrotic areas. More inner (20.0% versus 6.7%) and surrounding (18.3% versus 2.7%) major vessels were visualized and avoided during biopsies. CEUS-guided biopsy increased the diagnostic accuracy from 93.3% to 98.3%, with correct diagnosis in 57 of 60 lesions (95.0%). The therapeutic plan was influenced by CEUS guided biopsies findings in the majority of patients (98.3%). Conclusion. The combination of CEUS guided biopsy and MDT decision-making approach is useful in the diagnostic work-up and therapeutic management.

  1. Hypersensitivity to aeroallergens in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis of undetermined etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sami; Caliskaner, Zafer; Karaayvaz, Mehmet; Dede, Murat; Gulec, Mustafa

    2007-08-01

    Recent findings show that the vaginal mucosa can develop an allergic response to environmental allergens and there is a strong association between atopy and some recurrent vulvovaginal infections. In this study, we investigated prospectively the rate of atopy in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis of undetermined etiology (RVV). After being investigated by a gynecologist, 35 patients with RVV who were considered as undetermined etiology formed the study group. The control group consisted of 150 healthy females. Study and control groups were investigated for atopy by means of skin prick test for common aeroallergens. Associated allergic disease and familial atopy history of the subjects were recorded. The rate of atopy (11/35; 31.4% vs 9/150; 6%) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group than in the controls. Familial history of atopy was significantly more frequent in the study group than in the controls (10/35; 28.6% vs 8/150; 5.3%, P < 0.05). RVV in atopics is more associated with seasonal rhinitis than in nonatopics (5/11; 45.4% vs 2/24; 8.3%, P < 0.05). We concluded that a significant number of RVV is associated with atopy. Although the exact mechanism(s) of this relationship remains to be investigated atopy might be a causative and/or contributing factor in the pathogenesis of RVV.

  2. Determining the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tonsils using PCR and culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Yersiniosis is believed to be the third most common intestinal zoonosis in the European Union, after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species responsible for human infections. Pigs are regarded as the biggest reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, which are mainly isolated from pig tonsils. The aim of this paper is to examine the prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in pigs which were slaughtered in a Polish abattoir. Real-time PCR and culture methods were used to assess the prevalence of patho- genic Y. enterocolitica strains in pig tonsils. Real-time PCR was applied to detect inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. Y. enterocolitica was also isolated by applying direct plating, unselective (tryptic soy broth) and selective (irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate bouillon) enrichment. A total of 180 pigs were studied, of which 85% and 32% respectively were found to be infected with inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica. The 92 inv-positive and ail-positive isolates, from 57 culture- positive tonsils, underwent bio- and serotyping. The most common was bioserotype 4/O:3, which was found in 53 (93%) out of 57 culture-positive tonsils. Strains of bioserotypes 2/O:5, 2/O:9 and 2/O:5.27 occurred in significantly lower numbers. The prevalence of inv-positive and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was found to be high in the ton- sils of slaughtered pigs, using real-time PCR. The real-time PCR method for the detection and identification of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is sensitive and specific, which has been verified by specificity and sensitivity tests using the pure cultures. Serotypes were distinguished from each other using PCR serotyping. The PCR method was essential in forming our conclusions.

  3. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM): a practical guide to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciocia, Nicola; Wechalekar, Ashutosh; Yong, Kwee

    2017-12-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma are precursor conditions of symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Diagnostic principles are aimed at excluding MM requiring therapy, other conditions associated with paraproteins that may require different management, and risk stratifying patients for the purposes of tailored follow-up and investigation. The International Myeloma Working Group have recently published a revised definition of MM, which singles out a small group of patients with smoldering multiple myeloma who are at very high risk of progression and organ damage; such patients are now included under the definition of MM and recommended to start anti-myeloma treatment. Furthermore, the recently published National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline recommends cross-sectional imaging techniques in place of skeletal survey. These recent recommendations are discussed, and practical guidance for investigation and management are presented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance showing lambda-type Bence Jones protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Tomoaki; Okura, Takafumi; Miyoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Sanae; Manabe, Seiko; Kurata, Mie; Irita, Jun; Fukuoka, Tomikazu; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2005-09-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of leg edema due to a nephrotic syndrome. Urinary and serum immunoelectrophoresis showed positive for the lambda type of Bence Jones protein. A bone marrow aspiration test revealed mild plasmacytosis (6.4% of the total cells). These findings confirmed her diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Her renal biopsy specimen revealed mild mesangial cell proliferation and an increase in the mesangial matrix. Immunofluorescence studies showed positive staining for IgG, IgA, C3, and kappa and lambda light chains in the capillary wall and mesangium area. Electron microscopy showed that the electron deposits in the thickened basement membrane were formed by randomly arranged 16- to 18-nm nonbranching fibrils. A Congo red stain for amyloid was negative. These findings corresponded with the diagnosis of fibrillary glomerulonephritis. Therefore, this case showed a rare combination of fibrillary glomerulonephritis and MGUS.

  5. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin; PET y PET/CT en tumor de origen indeterminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J R [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  6. Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegels Guy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We

  7. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance cytology: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, Celesta; Kagie, Marjolein; Veldhuizen, Roel; de Groot, Christianne; Denny, Lynette; Zwinderman, Koos; Trimbos, Baptist

    2003-01-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with cervical smears diagnosed as atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance. (2) To evaluate the role of colposcopy and the presence of human papillomavirus in detecting

  8. Akademik Başarının Arttırılmasında Aile Katılımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Keçeli-Kaysılı

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Çocukların başarılarının arttırılmasını amaçlayan aile katılımı, ailelerin konuya özgü becerileri öğrenmelerinden aile içinde uygun ilişkilerin geliştirilmesine kadar pek çok becerinin kazandırılmasını kapsamaktadır. Aile katılımının her ne kadar yasalarda geçen hükümlerle gerekliliği belirlenmiş olsa da uygulama alanında günümüzde halen pek çok ülke için katılımın sağlanması güç olmaktadır. Alan yazında aile katılımının akademik başarıya etkisine yönelik birbiriden farklı sonuçlarla karşılaşılmıştır. Bunun nedeni aile katılımı kavramının, pek çok değişkeni barındırıyor olması ve bu kavramın farklı şekillerde tanımlanıyor olmasıdır. Her ne kadar aile katılımının hangi bileşeninin akademik başarıya etki ettiği açıkça ortaya konulamasa da araştırma bulguları aile katılımının öğrencilerin akademik becerilerini arttırdığını göstermektedir. Bu alan yazın taramasında aile katılımı ve akademik başarı tanımlanmış, aile katılımını engelleyen etmenler, açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Aile katılımının akademik başarıya etkisini gösteren çalışmalara ayrıntılı olarak yer verilmiş, bu çalışmaların bulduğu farklı sonuçlar ve nedenleri tartışılmıştır. Aile katılımının sağlanması, ekolojik bakış açısı ve sistem yaklaşımı bağlamında ele alınarak, okul açısından aile katılımını destekleyici stratejilere değinilmiştir. Parental involvement, which aims to increase the academic achievement of children, encompasses a wide of range of skills from the families’ learning the relevant skills to the development of appropriate relationships within the family. Although the need for parental involvement is stipulated by clauses in various laws, in practice, participation is not fully established yet in many countries. The literature of the field has various findings regarding the impact of

  9. Diagnosis of atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance: An institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Q Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The overall malignancy rate for the thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS ranges from 5% to 30%. In this study, we present our institutional experience with thyroid nodules diagnosed as AUS/FLUS and further stratified into subcategories. In addition, we also assessed the significance of various clinicopathologic factors that may influence AUS/FLUS diagnoses and their outcomes. Design: A search of our laboratory information system was performed to identify all in-house thyroid FNA cases diagnosed as AUS/FLUS from 2008 to 2012. The data were collected and characterized by patient demographic information, cytopathology diagnosis with sub-classifiers and follow-up. Results: The case cohort included 457 cases diagnosed as AUS/FLUS. These were further sub-classified into one of six subcategories depending on the cytomorphologic findings and suspicion for or against a neoplastic process. Of the 457 cases, repeat FNA and/or surgical follow-up was available in 363 cases. There were 182 (39.8% cases with cytologic follow-up only; 18 (9.9% remained as AUS/FLUS, while 158 (86.8% were re-classified with the majority being benign (142 cases. Histologic follow-up was available in 181 (39.6% cases. There were 60 malignant cases confirmed by surgical excision, with an overall malignancy rate of 33.1%. The malignancy rate was 38.8% for cases with a repeat FNA versus 25.6% for cases that went directly to surgery without a repeat FNA. Papillary thyroid carcinoma accounted for 93.3% (56 cases of the malignant cases. Conclusion: Based on our study, even though the malignancy rate of AUS/FLUS cases is similar to those reported for cases diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm, we are of the belief that these comparable malignancy rates are a product of better clinical management and selection of patients diagnosed as AUS

  10. Management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is defined as a serum M protein level of less than 3 g/dL, less than 10% clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the absence of end-organ damage. The prevalence of MGUS is 3.2% in the white population but is approximately twice that high in the black population. MGUS may progress to multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, or lymphoma. The risk of progression is approximately 1% per year, but the risk continues even after more than 25 years of observation. Risk factors for progression include the size of the serum M protein, the type of serum M protein, the number of plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the serum free light chain ratio. Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) is characterized by the presence of an M protein level of 3 g/dL or higher and/or 10% or more monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow but no evidence of end-organ damage. The overall risk of progression to a malignant condition is 10% per year for the first 5 years, approximately 3% per year for the next 5 years, and 1% to 2% per year for the following 10 years. Patients with both MGUS and SMM must be followed up for their lifetime.

  11. Expansion of Parents' Undetermined Experience in Socioeducational Programs: Extending the Dialogical Self Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Dany

    2017-12-01

    The Dialogic Self Theory (DST-Hermans et al. Integrative Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 51(4), 1-31, 2017) is extended here in its dynamic aspects through focusing on the notions of indeterminacy, emptiness and movement. Linking with Husserl, I propose moving the dialogical self (DS) from a clear position in the "repertory of the Self" to an undetermined horizon. This makes it possible to introduce "holes" (emptiness) into the schematic representation of the "repertory of the Self". Yet Husserl's concept of horizon seems to focus too much on making the indeterminable determinate. To overcome this limit, I incorporate Bergson's concept of empty form into the DST. This enables conceptualising the extension and emergence of horizon. Extending Bergson's concept of organisation, it is possible to see how the expansion of the horizon in a movement of globalisation does not necessarily entail the disorganisation of the DS but rather to its further organisation. Extending the system of DS by Hermans et al. Integrative Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 51(4), 1-31, (2017), I open by suggesting that movements are both horizontal (between people) and vertical (between the person, the institutions and the norms) connectors. My conceptual propositions are illustrated by parents' and educators' discourses in two Canadian socio-educational programs.

  12. Clinical impact of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. A cytohistologic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousuebsakul, V; Knutsen, S M; Gram, I T; Akin, M R

    2000-01-01

    To assess the percentage of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cytologic diagnosis. From January 1994 to December 1995, 421 cervical Pap smears with a diagnosis of ASCUS were followed with cervical biopsies within three months. The ASCUS cytologic diagnosis was correlated with the histologic findings and stratified according to age group, previous abnormal history and cell type of ASCUS (squamoid vs. metaplastic). Histologic diagnosis showed that of ASCUS diagnoses, 13% were normal, 34% were reactive, 4.8% were atypical, 43% were low grade SIL, 4% were high grade SIL, 1% were carcinoma in situ, and none were invasive lesions. The patients in the youngest group, up to 25 years, demonstrated the highest percentage of SIL. Patients with a previous abnormal gynecologic history showed a higher percentage of SIL than those without an abnormal history. SILs were observed in 51.5% of squamoid ASCUS and 36.5% of metaplastic ASCUS. Forty-eight percent of females having an ASCUS diagnosis on Pap smears had SIL and thus a preneoplastic lesion. The highest percentage of SIL was found in females 25 years and younger. Our findings suggest that an ASCUS diagnosis warrants ongoing follow-up.

  13. Cytological analysis of atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance using the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiya, Kiyotada; Abe, Ichinosuke; Ambo, Junichi; Iwai, Muneo; Okusawa, Estuko; Asanuma, Kyousuke; Watanabe, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The low-level consistency of the cytodiagnosis of uterine cervical atypical squamous epithelial cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) employing the Bethesda System has been reported, suggesting the necessity of a wide survey. We presented cases judged as ASC-US on the Web and analyzed the voting results to investigate ASC-US cytologically. Cytology samples from 129 patients diagnosed with ASC-US were used. Images of several atypical cells observed in these cases were presented on the Web. The study, based on the voting results, was presented and opinions were exchanged at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Clinical Cytology. The final diagnosis of ASC-US was benign lesions in 76 cases and low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in 44, but no definite diagnosis could be made for the remaining 9. The total number of votes was 17,884 with a 36.5% consistency of cases judged as ASC-US. Benign cases were divided into 6 categories. Four categories not corresponding to the features of koilocytosis and small abnormal keratinized cells were judged as negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy at a high rate. A Web-based survey would be useful which could be viewed at any time and thereby facilitate the sharing of cases to increase consistency. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Diagnosis of Follicular Lesions of Undetermined Significance in Fine-Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ratour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology for follicular lesions of undetermined significance (FLUS, the risk of cancer and diagnostic improvement with use of immunocytochemistry. Methods. For each FLUS diagnosis, we analyzed the cytological criteria (9 Bethesda criteria, secondary fine-needle aspiration (FNA results, surgical procedures, contribution of immunocytochemistry with the antibodies cytokeratin 19 (CK19 and monoclonal anti-human mesothelial cell (HBME1. Results. Among patients with 2,210 thyroid FNAs, 244 lesions (337 nodules were classified as FLUS (11% of all thyroid FNAs. The 3 criteria most often applied were cytological atypia suggesting papillary carcinoma (36%, microfollicular architecture but sparse cellularity (23.1%, cytological atypia (21.5%. With secondary FNA, 48.8% of nodules were reclassified as benign. For about half of all cases (41.4% for the first FNA, 57.6% for the second FNA, immunocytochemistry helped establishing a diagnosis favoring malignant or benign. No benign immunocytochemistry results were associated with a malignant lesion. In all, 22.5% of the 39 removed nodules were malignant. Conclusion. The FLUS category is supported by well-described criteria. The risk of malignancy in our series was 22.5%. Because we had no false-negative immunocytochemistry results, immunocytochemistry could be helpful in FLUS management.

  15. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density

  16. Management of Patients With Hepatitis C Virus, Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, and Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisse Hannaford BS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The vast majority of the 2.7 million individuals in the United States who are currently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV were born between 1945 and 1965. The median age of these patients in this particular generation at the time of this writing was 55 years. In the general population, older age is a risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM and other monogammopathies. As the baby boomer population ages, HCV providers are increasingly likely to encounter HCV-infected patients with a monoclonal gammopathy. Guidelines for managing these patients are needed. Methods: We conducted a detailed case series investigation of 4 HCV-positive patients with MM or a monoclonal gammopathy disorder. Patients were followed at the Mount Sinai Faculty Practice liver clinic. We also performed a detailed review of the literature exploring if there is any known association between HCV, MM, and monoclonal gammopathy. Results and Conclusions: There is no convincing evidence of a causal association between HCV and MM. HCV is linked to type II and type III cryoglobulinemia, specific kinds of monoclonal gammopathies of determinable significance. Whether a link exists between HCV and MM or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is unclear. Our case series provides the first evidence that modern HCV treatments with direct-acting antivirals can be safely and effectively co-administered with MM chemotherapy.

  17. Evaluating the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenxian; Feng, Youzhen; Lu, Weibiao; Xie, Xie; Xiong, Zhilin; Jing, Zhen; Cai, Xiangran; Huang, Li'an

    2016-11-15

    To determine the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo (UIV) patients using 320-detector row computed tomography (CT). A total of 150 patients who underwent CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging were divided into UIV group and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) group. Sixty individuals with sex- and age-matched without vertigo and cerebral diseases served as the control. The morphological changes of intracranial arteries, perfusion parameters and vascular risk factors (VRFs) were analyzed, calculated and compared. In UIV patients, hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia and number of VRFs≥3 occurred more commonly (P<0.0125, respectively). The incidence of vertebral artery dominance (VAD), vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) and basilar artery curvature (BAC) were significantly higher (P<0.0125, respectively). HT was an independent risk predictor of non-VAD (OR: 5.411, 95%CI: 1.401; 20.900, P=0.014). HT and VAD associated with BAC served as risk predictors (OR: 4.081, 95%CI: 1.056;15.775, P=0.041 and OR: 6.284, 95%CI: 1.848; 21.365, P=0.003, respectively). The absolute difference in relative values of CTP parameters from cerebellum and brainstem were significantly different (P<0.05), and hypoperfusion was found in the territories of the non-VAD side and the BAC cohort (P<0.05, respectively). On the basis of multiple VRFs, morphological changes of vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) and the unilateral hypoperfusion of the cerebellum and brainstem, that acts as a herald for IV occurrence, which should be paid cautious attention to UIV patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The value of transesophageal echocardiography for embolic strokes of undetermined source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Bhole, Rohini; Frogoudaki, Alexandra; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Goyal, Nitin; Vrettou, Agathi-Rosa; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Pappas, Konstantinos; Parissis, John; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Alexandrov, Anne W; Triantafyllou, Nikos; Malkoff, Marc D; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2016-09-06

    Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in consecutive patients with ischemic stroke (IS) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS). We prospectively evaluated consecutive patients with acute IS satisfying ESUS criteria who underwent in-hospital TEE examination in 3 tertiary care stroke centers during a 12-month period. We also performed a systematic review and meta-analysis estimating the cumulative effect of TEE findings on therapeutic management for secondary stroke prevention among different IS subgroups. We identified 61 patients with ESUS who underwent investigation with TEE (mean age 44 ± 12 years, 49% men, median NIH Stroke Scale score = 5 points [interquartile range: 3-8]). TEE revealed additional findings in 52% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40%-65%) of the study population. TEE findings changed management (initiation of anticoagulation therapy, administration of IV antibiotic therapy, and patent foramen ovale closure) in 10 (16% [95% CI: 9%-28%]) patients. The pooled rate of reported anticoagulation therapy attributed to abnormal TEE findings among 3,562 acute IS patients included in the meta-analysis (12 studies) was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3%-10.4%). In subgroup analysis, the rates of initiation of anticoagulation therapy on the basis of TEE investigation did not differ (p = 0.315) among patients with cryptogenic stroke (6.9% [95% CI: 4.9%-9.6%]), ESUS (8.1% [95% CI: 3.4%-18.1%]), and IS (9.4% [95% CI: 7.5%-11.8%]). Abnormal TEE findings may decisively affect the selection of appropriate therapeutic strategy in approximately 1 of 7 patients with ESUS. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Macêdo Barcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, ASC-US, or ASC-H; and Regione Emilia Romagna Screening Protocol. Patients underwent a colposcopic examination, and test for Candida sp., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV were performed. Results. Upon review, ASCUS was diagnosis in 70/103 (67.9%, being 38 (54.2% reactive ASCUS and 32 (45.71% neoplastic ASCUS; 62 (88.5% ASC-US and 8 (11.41% ASC-H. ASCUS (Regione Protocol, respectively 1-5: 15 (21.4%, 19 (27.1%, 3 (27.1%, 16 (22.8%, and 1 (1.4%. A higher number of cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III in the biopsies of patients with ASC-H compared to ASC-US (P=.0021. High-risk HPV test and presence of CIN II/III are more frequent in ASC-H than ASC-US (P=.031. Conclusions. ASC-H is associated with clinically significant disease. High-risk HPV-positive status in the triage for colposcopy of patients with ASC-US is associated with increased of CIN.

  20. MDS-associated somatic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis are common in idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Brian; Hall, Jeff M; Witte, John S; Xu, Yin; Reddy, Prashanti; Lin, Keming; Flamholz, Rachel; Dabbas, Bashar; Yung, Aine; Al-Hafidh, Jenan; Balmert, Emily; Vaupel, Christine; El Hader, Carlos; McGinniss, Matthew J; Nahas, Shareef A; Kines, Julie; Bejar, Rafael

    2015-11-19

    Establishing a diagnosis in patients suspected of having a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be challenging and could be informed by the identification of somatic mutations. We performed a prospective study to examine the frequency and types of mutations encountered in 144 patients with unexplained cytopenias. Based on bone marrow findings, 17% were diagnosed with MDS, 15% with idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS) and some evidence of dysplasia, and 69% with ICUS and no dysplasia. Bone marrow DNA was sequenced for mutations in 22 frequently mutated myeloid malignancy genes. Somatic mutations were identified in 71% of MDS patients, 62% of patients with ICUS and some dysplasia, and 20% of ICUS patients and no dysplasia. In total, 35% of ICUS patients carried a somatic mutation or chromosomal abnormality indicative of clonal hematopoiesis. We validated these results in a cohort of 91 lower-risk MDS and 249 ICUS cases identified over a 6-month interval. Mutations were found in 79% of those with MDS, in 45% of those with ICUS with dysplasia, and in 17% of those with ICUS without dysplasia. The spectrum of mutated genes was similar with the exception of SF3B1 which was rarely mutated in patients without dysplasia. Variant allele fractions were comparable between clonal ICUS (CCUS) and MDS as were mean age and blood counts. We demonstrate that CCUS is a more frequent diagnosis than MDS in cytopenic patients. Clinical and mutational features are similar in these groups and may have diagnostic utility once outcomes in CCUS patients are better understood. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Agent Orange Exposure and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: An Operation Ranch Hand Veteran Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Ola; Shim, Youn K; Michalek, Joel; Costello, Rene; Burton, Debra; Ketchum, Norma; Calvo, Katherine R; Caporaso, Neil; Raveche, Elizabeth; Middleton, Dan; Marti, Gerald; Vogt, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma has been classified as exhibiting "limited or suggestive evidence" of an association with exposure to herbicides in Vietnam War veterans. Occupational studies have shown that other pesticides (ie, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides) are associated with excess risk of multiple myeloma and its precursor state, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); however, to our knowledge, no studies have uncovered such an association in Vietnam War veterans. To examine the relationship between MGUS and exposure to Agent Orange, including its contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), in Vietnam War veterans. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in 2013 to 2014, testing for MGUS in serum specimens collected and stored in 2002 by the Air Force Health Study (AFHS). The relevant exposure data collected by the AFHS was also used. We tested all specimens in 2013 without knowledge of the exposure status. The AFHS included former US Air Force personnel who participated in Operation Ranch Hand (Ranch Hand veterans) and other US Air Force personnel who had similar duties in Southeast Asia during the same time period (1962 to 1971) but were not involved in herbicide spray missions (comparison veterans). Agent Orange was used by the US Air Force personnel who conducted aerial spray missions of herbicides (Operation Ranch Hand) in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. We included 479 Ranch Hand veterans and 479 comparison veterans who participated in the 2002 follow-up examination of AFHS. Agent Orange and TCDD. Serum TCDD levels were measured in 1987, 1992, 1997, and 2002. Risk of MGUS measured by prevalence, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% CIs. The 479 Ranch Hand veterans and 479 comparison veterans had similar demographic and lifestyle characteristics and medical histories. The crude prevalence of overall MGUS was 7.1% (34 of 479) in Ranch Hand veterans and 3.1% (15 of 479) in comparison veterans. This translated into a 2.4-fold increased risk

  2. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS cytology on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears is 15.9%. Women with ASCUS favor

  3. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  4. Web-based thyroid imaging reporting and data system: Malignancy risk of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance thyroid nodules calculated by a combination of ultrasonography features and biopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Shin, Jung Hee; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Seon-Ok; Lee, Won-Hong; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae Yong; Chung, Ki-Wook; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2018-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to construct a web-based predictive model using ultrasound characteristics and subcategorized biopsy results for thyroid nodules of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) to stratify the risk of malignancy. Data included 672 thyroid nodules from 656 patients from a historical cohort. We analyzed ultrasound images of thyroid nodules and biopsy results according to nuclear atypia and architectural atypia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to predict whether nodules were diagnosed as malignant or benign. The ultrasound features, including spiculated margin, marked hypoechogenicity, calcifications, biopsy results, and cytologic atypia, showed significant differences between groups. A 13-point risk scoring system was developed, and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the development and validation sets were 0.837 and 0.830, respectively (http://www.gap.kr/thyroidnodule_b3.php). We devised a web-based predictive model using the combined information of ultrasound characteristics and biopsy results for AUS/FLUS thyroid nodules to stratify the malignant risk. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeat fine-needle aspiration for thyroid biopsies read as atypia of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Michael; Zanocco, Kyle; Zydowicz, Sara; Elaraj, Dina; Nayar, Ritu; Sturgeon, Cord

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 National Cancer Institute (NCI) conference on Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) introduced the category atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS). Repeat FNA in 3 to 6 months was recommended for low-risk patients. Compliance with these recommendations has been suboptimal. We hypothesized that repeat FNA would be more effective than diagnostic lobectomy, with decreased costs and improved rates of cancer detection. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in which we compared diagnostic lobectomy with repeat FNA. A Markov model was developed. Outcomes and probabilities were identified from literature review. Third-party payer costs were estimated in 2010 US dollars. Outcomes were weighted by use of the quality-of-life utility factors, yielding quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were used to examine the uncertainty of probability, cost, and utility estimates. The diagnostic lobectomy strategy cost $8,057 and produced 23.99 QALYs. Repeat FNA cost $2,462 and produced 24.05 QALYs. Repeat FNA was dominant until the cost of FNA increased to $6,091. Dominance of the repeat FNA strategy was not sensitive to the cost of operation or the complication rate. The NCI recommendations for repeat FNA regarding follow-up of AUS/FLUS results are cost-effective. Improving compliance with these guidelines should lead to less overall costs, greater quality of life, and fewer unnecessary operations. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. İş - Aile Yaşamı Çatışması ve Roller: Kamu Sektörü Örneğinde Bir Değerlendirme

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZMETE, Emine; EKER, Işıl

    2012-01-01

    Bu araştırma kamu sektöründe çalışan kadınlar ve erkeklerin rollerine ilişkin algıları ile iş yaşamının aile yaşamına etkisi ve aile yaşamının iş yaşamına etkisi açısından iş-aile yaşamı çatışmasını ortaya koymak amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Kamu sektöründe çalışan toplam 300 kadın ve erkek araştırma örneklemini oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; çalışan bireylere ebeveyn ve eş olma sorumluluklarının ağır geldiği belirlenmiştir. Aile yaşamının iş yaşamına etkisi ile ilgili olarak; çok ço...

  7. Cinsiyet Ayrımcılığı Olarak Üstün Erillik Olgusunun Aile İşletmelerindeki Etkisi: Kuramsal Bir Bakış

    OpenAIRE

    Soyşekerci, Serhat

    2006-01-01

    Erkekler aile ilişkilerinde koca, baba, oğul, ağabey gibi rollere sahiptirler. Benzer rol aile işletmelerinde ‘patron' ya da ‘kurucu-girişimci' olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Erillik söylemleri ile yerine getirilen ana fonksiyonlardan birisi, erkek gücü ve iktidarının kabul ettirilmesine dayalı üstün erillik (hyper-masculinity) olgusudur. Erillik-dişillik ikiliği, güçlü-güçsüz, sert-yumuşak, aktif-pasif, verimli-verimsiz, savaşçı-boyun eğen karşıtlığı olarak devam etmekle beraber, ko...

  8. Value of PAX1 Methylation Analysis by MS-HRM in the Triage of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wang, Xi-Bo; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiang, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detection of cervical high grade lesions in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is still a challenge. Our study tested the efficacy of the paired boxed gene 1 (PAX1) methylation analysis by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) in the detection of high grade lesions in ASCUS and compared performance with the hybrid capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) test. A total of 463 consecutive ASCUS women from primary screening were selected. Their cervical scrapings were collected and assessed by PAX1 methylation analysis (MS-HRM) and high-risk HPV-DNA test (HC2). All patients with ASCUS were admitted to colposcopy and cervical biopsies. The Chi- square test was used to test the differences of PAX1 methylation or HPV infection between groups. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for detecting CIN2 + lesions were: 95.6%, 82.4%, and 94.6%, respectively, for the PAX1 MS-HRM test; and 59.7%, 64.7%, and 60.0% for the HC2 HPV test. The PAX1 methylation analysis by MS-HRM demonstrated a better performance than the high-risk HPV-DNA test for the detection of high grade lesions (CIN2 +) in ASCUS cases. This approach could screen out the majority of low grade cases of ASCUS, and thus reduce the referral rate to colposcopy.

  9. The Hematologic Definition of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Relation to Paraproteinemic Keratopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Kivelä, Tero; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sekundo, Walter; Pleyer, Uwe; Lisch, Christina; Desuki, Alexander; Rossmann, Heidi; Weiss, Jayne S

    2016-08-01

    To determine if paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) in the setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) causes distinct patterns of corneal opacification that can be distinguished from hereditary, immunologic, or inflammatory causes. A retrospective, interventional study of patients showed distinct bilateral opacity patterns of the cornea at the eye clinics of Hanau, Mainz, Helsinki, Marburg, and Berlin between 1993 and 2015. Data on patient characteristics and clinical features on ophthalmic examination were collected, and serum protein profiles were evaluated. A literature review and analysis of all published studies of MGUS with PPK is also presented. The largest group of patients diagnosed with MGUS-induced PPK is analyzed in this study. We studied 22 eyes of 11 patients (6 male, aged 43 to 65, mean age 54; 5 female, aged 49 to 76, mean age 61) with distinct corneal opacities and visual impairment who were first suspected of having hereditary, inflammatory, or immunologic corneal entities. Subsequently, serum protein electrophoresis revealed MGUS to be the cause of the PPK. Literature review revealed 72 patients with bilateral PPK (34 male, mean age 57; 38 female, mean age 58) in 51 studies of MGUS published from 1934 to 2015 and disclosed six additional corneal opacity patterns. This thesis shows that MGUS is not always an asymptomatic disorder, in contrast to the hematologic definition, which has no hint of PPK. The MGUS-induced PPK can mimic many other diseases of the anterior layer of the eye. A new clinical classification for PPK in MGUS is proposed.

  10. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30......-65 years with ASC-US during 2005-2011 who were tested for HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA using PreTect HPV-Proofer (n = 3,226) or for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (n = 9,405) or Linear Array HPV-Genotyping test (LA) (n = 1,533). Women with ≥1 subsequent examination in the register (n = 13...... those testing HC2 negative (3.2% [95% CI: 2.2-4.2%] versus 0.5% [95% CI: 0.3-0.7%]). Patterns were similar after 18 months and 5 years'; follow-up; for CIN2+ and cancer as outcomes; across all age groups; and when comparing mRNA testing to hrHPV DNA testing using LA. In conclusion, the HPV16...

  11. Prevalence of High-Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Patients with Cytology Presenting Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Lopes, Ana Cristina; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Henrique, Laílca Quirino

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of histological high-grade lesions and cervical cancer in patients with ASCUS cytology. This is a cross-sectional prospective study involving 703 women with a uterus and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). The patients were submitted to a colposcopy and underwent a guided biopsy when changes on the colposcopy were detected. The findings revealed 456 (64.9%) women with a normal colposcopy and 247 (35.1%) with colposcopic abnormalities. The biopsy results were: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) in 51 (20.6%) patients, CIN 2 in 11 (4.5%) patients, CIN 3 in 8 (3.2%) patients, and a negative result in 177 (71.7%) patients; no cases of cancer were detected. Tallying of 456 normal colposcopies and 177 negative biopsies yielded a total of 90.04% negative exams. Furthermore, around 7.2% (51/703) of the patients exhibited CIN 1, a lesion associated with a high potential for regression. The biopsy results were not associated with patient age or menopausal status. We conclude that cytological surveillance of patients with ASCUS is feasible and safe given the low risk of CIN 2/3 or cervical cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr. The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8% of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years, 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years, and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years. The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with 5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

  13. MYC protein expression is detected in plasma cell myeloma but not in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ruobing; Cerny, Jan; Devitt, Katherine; Dresser, Karen; Nath, Rajneesh; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Rodig, Scott J; Chen, Benjamin J; Woda, Bruce A; Yu, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    It has been recognized that monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) precedes a diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma in most patients. Recent gene expression array analysis has revealed that an MYC activation signature is detected in plasma cell myeloma but not in MGUS. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical studies using membrane CD138 and nuclear MYC double staining on bone marrow biopsies from patients who met the diagnostic criteria of plasma cell myeloma or MGUS. Our study demonstrated nuclear MYC expression in CD138-positive plasma cells in 22 of 26 (84%) plasma cell myeloma samples and in none of the 29 bone marrow samples from patients with MGUS. In addition, our data on the follow-up biopsies from plasma cell myeloma patients with high MYC expression demonstrated that evaluation of MYC expression in plasma cells can be useful in detecting residual disease. We also demonstrated that plasma cells gained MYC expression in 5 of 8 patients (62.5%) when progressing from MGUS to plasma cell myeloma. Analysis of additional lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation, including lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and plasmablastic lymphoma, reveals that MYC detection can be a useful tool in the diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma.

  14. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  15. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  16. Public inquiry report. Les Ailes de Taillard wind farm project on the territory of municipalities of Burdignes, Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue. Conclusion. Les Ailes de Taillard: a territorial collaboration for a participative wind energy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    The public inquiry report contains some generalities about the legal frameworks and the project (location, characteristics, environmental context, inquiry file content), a report of the inquiry organisation and procedure (decrees, modalities, meetings and visits, public information, noticed incidents, general atmosphere), remarks made by associations, concerned communities and the public, and then the statement of the inquiry commissioner on the various aspects of the project. A conclusive report notably outlines themes raised by remarks from different origins (negative remarks which mainly concerned environmental issues, and positive remarks). A last publication presents the project and highlights its participative dimension

  17. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. Methods A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of ...

  18. Risk factors for unnatural death: Fatal accidental intoxication, undetermined intent and suicide: Register follow-up in a criminal justice population with substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Martin O; Bradvik, Louise; Öjehagen, Agneta; Hakansson, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Risk factors for suicide and fatal accidental intoxication are extensively studied, while risk factors for intoxications/injuries of undetermined intent are less well known. The latter have shown an overlap with suicides, but also with fatal accidental intoxications. The objective was to analyze potential differences and similarities in the patterns of risk factors for accidental intoxications, injuries/intoxications with undetermined intent, and suicides, respectively. A follow-up register study was conducted, using data from ASI interviews with clients in the criminal justice system in Sweden (n=6744), followed in the National Causes of Death Register. A set of risk factors from the ASI interview were tested in bivariate analysis with the respective cause of death, yielding significant risk factors further analyzed in three Cox regression models. In Cox regression analyses, death from fatal accidental intoxication was associated with male gender (HR 4.09), use of heroin (HR 2.86), and use of cannabis (HR 1.94), and death from intoxication/injury of undetermined intent was associated with use of heroin (HR 3.48), binge drinking of alcohol (HR 2.46) and previous psychiatric hospitalization (HR 2.41), while negatively associated with depression (HR 0.33). Death from suicide was associated with previous suicide attempts (HR 2.78) and use of sedatives (HR 2.17). In this population of criminal justice clients with reported substance use problems, fatal injuries/intoxications with undetermined intent - like fatal accidental intoxications - appear to be associated with substance use variables, and cannot readily be assumed to represent the same background factors as suicide. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and type of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an apparently healthy Nigerian population: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwah, A Lawretta; Adeyemo, Titilope A; Adediran, Adewumi; Ajibola, Sarah O; Akanmu, Alani S

    2012-06-28

    The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria. A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters. Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent) of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain. Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM.

  20. Prevalence and type of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an apparently healthy Nigerian population: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters. Results Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain. Conclusion Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM.

  1. Symbol of Undetermined Faith. A Note on Aleksej Kručënyx’s Vowel Poem “Heights”

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    Denis Crnković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Denis Crnković“Symbol of Undetermined Faith: A Note on Aleksej Kručënyx’s Vowel Poem ‘Heights’”This article looks at Aleksej Kručënyx’s poem “Vysoty” (Heights. Consisting entirely of vowels culled from the Church Slavic version of the “Symvol Very” (the eastern Nicene Creed the poem has been traditionally examined as a prime example of the transrational expression (zaum’ of the Futurist movement. As such, analyses have tended to focus on the phonic and phonemic features of the poem with little attention paid to the relationship between the source text and the poem itself. Thus, “missing” or “transferred” vowels in the poem have often been regarded as mistakes or dismissed as the result of Kručënyx’s artistic whim. The paper therefore examines the poem in the context of its Church Slavic antecedent, concentrating on those places where the vowels of the poem diverge from those of the Creed. A close analysis of the apparent anomalies between poem and prayer reveals a sophisticated level of word-play that hinges on a complete understanding of the source text and the manipulation of the source vowels. Moreover, our research shows that in the broader context of the antipathy between the Symbolist and Futurist movements, each missing or transposed vowel constitutes a crucial hint for grasping a hidden significance in the poem and for understanding Kručënyx’s revamped statement of belief as a playful new literary “creed” that challenges the more “orthodox” literary tenets of the Symbolist poets.

  2. Biomarkers of Atrial Cardiopathy and Atrial Fibrillation Detection on Mobile Outpatient Continuous Telemetry After Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebasigari, Denise; Merkler, Alexander; Guo, Yang; Gialdini, Gino; Kummer, Benjamin; Hemendinger, Morgan; Song, Christopher; Chu, Antony; Cutting, Shawna; Silver, Brian; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-06-01

    Biomarkers of atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" are associated with embolic stroke risk. However, it is unclear if this risk is mediated by undiagnosed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). We aim to determine whether atrial cardiopathy biomarkers predict AF on continuous heart-rhythm monitoring after embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). This was a single-center retrospective study including all patients with ESUS undergoing 30 days of ambulatory heart-rhythm monitoring to look for AF between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. We reviewed medical records for clinical, radiographic, and cardiac variables. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of AF detected during heart-rhythm monitoring. The primary predictors were atrial biomarkers: left atrial diameter on echocardiography, P-wave terminal force in electrocardiogram (ECG) lead V1, and P wave - R wave (PR) interval on ECG. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between atrial biomarkers and AF detection. Among 196 eligible patients, 23 (11.7%) were diagnosed with AF. In unadjusted analyses, patients with AF were older (72.4 years versus 61.4 years, P atrial diameter (39.2 mm versus 35.7 mm, P = .03). In a multivariable model, the only predictor of AF was age ≥ 60 years (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.06-8.5; P = .04). Atrial biomarkers were weakly associated with AF after ESUS. This suggests that previously reported associations between these markers and stroke may reflect independent cardiac pathways leading to stroke. Prospective studies are needed to investigate these mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for Papanicolaou smears in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, J T; Wang, H H

    2001-04-25

    The current study was conducted to determine the significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The reports for all Papanicolaou (Pap) smears viewed in the study institution's cytology laboratory over a 6-month period were reviewed. Women were divided into premenopausal (age ages 46-54 years), and postmenopausal (age > or = 55 years) categories. Slide review and 2-year follow-up were obtained for selected cases diagnosed as ASCUS. ASCUS cases among the perimenopausal women were compared with an age-matched control group. The total number of abnormal Pap smears in the premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal categories were 770 (6.8%), 104 (4.3%), and 67 (2.9%), with 482, 83, and 41 diagnoses of ASCUS, respectively. The ratio of ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) was 2.2 overall and 1.9, 7.5, and 4.1, respectively, for each group (P ASCUS cases appeared to have a higher percentage of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio increase and nuclear membrane irregularities compared with the other categories (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively) and the perimenopausal group was found to have more ASCUS in metaplastic cells (P = 0.03). In perimenopausal women, slides diagnosed as ASCUS demonstrated more air-drying artifact than the control group (P = 0.004) but had less obvious atrophy (P = 0.01). Despite a decreased abnormality rate with increasing age, the results of the current study show that the perimenopausal and postmenopausal groups appear to have elevated ASCUS-to-SIL ratios. ASCUS appears to have a particularly low positive predictive value for SIL in perimenopausal women, and therefore most likely is overcalled in this age group. This may be attributable in part to air-drying artifact and subtle atrophic changes.

  4. Commande en boucle fermee sur un profil d'aile deformable dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Jeremy

    The purpose of the ATR-42 project is to apply the concept of morphing wings by fabricating a morphing composite wing model of the Regional Transport Aircraft-42 to reduce drag and improve the aerodynamic performance. A control-command system coupled to an actuator mechanism will morph the wing skin. However, for best results, the control of the deformation must be studied carefully to insure the precision. Thus, a dual digitalexperimental approach is required. The solution proposed in this paper focuses on the controlled deformation of the upper wing of the ATR-42. A composite wing model with morphing capabilities was built and tested in the wind tunnel to evaluate its aerodynamic performance and serve as reference. A deformation mechanism, consisting of two engines and two camshafts, was subsequently designed and integrated within this model to obtain the optimum wing shapes according to the different flight condition. A control loop position was modeled in Matlab / Simulink and implemented experimentally to control the mechanism. Two types of results have been obtained. The first set concerned regulation and the second concerned aerodynamics. The control loop has achieved the desired skin displacement with an accuracy of 5%. Deformations of the upper skin were performed by a actuation system driven by motors, limitations supply were assured by the regulation architecture. For several flight conditions, the pressure measurements, validated with simulation results, have confirmed a reduction of the induced drag, compared to the original ATR-42 airfoil drag reduction.

  5. Evaluation of work-based screening for early signs of alcohol-related liver disease in hazardous and harmful drinkers: the PrevAIL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Penny A; Morleo, Michela; Billington, David; Sanderson-Shortt, Kevin; Jones, Colin; Gabbay, Mark; Sheron, Nick; Bellis, Mark A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Gilmore, Ian T

    2015-06-04

    The direct cost of excessive alcohol consumption to health services is substantial but dwarfed by the cost borne by the workplace as a result of lost productivity. The workplace is also a promising setting for health interventions. The Preventing Alcohol Harm in Liverpool and Knowsley (PrevAIL) project aimed to evaluate a mechanism for detecting the prevalence of alcohol related liver disease using fibrosis biomarkers. Secondary aims were to identify the additive effect of obesity as a risk factor for early liver disease; to assess other impacts of alcohol on work, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants (aged 36-55 y) from 13 workplaces participated (March 2011-April 2012). BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and self-reported alcohol consumption in the previous week was recorded. Those consuming more than the accepted UK threshold (men: >21 units; female: >14 units alcohol) provided a 20 ml venous blood sample for a biomarker test (Southampton Traffic Light Test) and completed an alcohol questionnaire (incorporating the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire). The screening mechanism enrolled 363 individuals (52 % women), 39 % of whom drank above the threshold and participated in the liver screen (n = 141, complete data = 124 persons). Workplaces with successful participation were those where employers actively promoted, encouraged and facilitated attendance. Biomarkers detected that 30 % had liver disease (25 %, intermediate; 5 % probable). Liver disease was associated with the frequency of visits to the family physician (P = 0.036) and obesity (P = 0.052). The workplace is an important setting for addressing alcohol harm, but there are barriers to voluntary screening that need to be addressed. Early detection and support of cases in the community could avert deaths and save health and social costs. Alcohol and obesity should be addressed simultaneously, because of their known multiplicative effect on liver disease risk, and because employers

  6. Detection and prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in refrigerated and frozen dairy products by duplex PCR and dot hybridization targeting the virF and ail genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y W; Ling, N; Han, Y J; Wu, Q P

    2014-11-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is involved in yersiniosis through expression of chromosome-borne or plasmid-borne virulence factors. Yersinia enterocolitica is a cold-tolerant pathogen frequently isolated from refrigerated or frozen foods. However, little attention has been focused on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in refrigerated or frozen dairy samples in China. In this study, we developed a new duplex PCR targeting the plasmid-borne virF gene and chromosome-borne ail gene for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates. We established a detection limit for the duplex PCR of 6.5 × 10(2)cfu/mL in artificially contaminated dairy samples. In addition, the duplex PCR could detect directly 4.5 to 5.7 cfu of Y. enterocolitica in 5 mL of brain heart infusion broth after 6 h of enrichment at 28 °C. A newly developed dot hybridization assay further confirmed specificity of the duplex PCR for detection of virulent Y. enterocolitica. Furthermore, 13 Y. enterocolitica and 5 pathogenic strains, from 88 commercial frozen or refrigerated dairy products, were detected successfully by the China National Standard method (GB/T4789.8-2008) and the duplex PCR, respectively. Finally, biotypes and serotypes of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were further characterized. The duplex PCR developed here is reliable for large-scale screening, routine monitoring, and risk assessment of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in refrigerated or frozen dairy products. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Verbal autopsy completion rate and factors associated with undetermined cause of death in a rural resource-poor setting of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliti Deodatus V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used tool to assign probable cause of death in areas with inadequate vital registration systems. Its uses in priority setting and health planning are well documented in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. However, there is a lack of data related to VA processing and completion rates in assigning causes of death in a community. There is also a lack of data on factors associated with undetermined causes of death documented in SSA. There is a need for such information for understanding the gaps in VA processing and better estimating disease burden. Objective The study's intent was to determine the completion rate of VA and factors associated with assigning undetermined causes of death in rural Tanzania. Methods A database of deaths reported from the Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2002 to 2007 was used. Completion rates were determined at the following stages of processing: 1 death identified; 2 VA interviews conducted; 3 VA forms submitted to physicians; 4 coding and assigning of cause of death. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with deaths coded as "undetermined." Results The completion rate of VA after identification of death and the VA interview ranged from 83% in 2002 and 89% in 2007. Ninety-four percent of deaths submitted to physicians were assigned a specific cause, with 31% of the causes coded as undetermined. Neonates and child deaths that occurred outside health facilities were associated with a high rate of undetermined classification (33%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.05, 1.67, p = 0.016. Respondents reporting high education levels were less likely to be associated with deaths that were classified as undetermined (24%, OR = 0.76, 95% CI (0.60, -0.96, p = 0.023. Being a child of the deceased compared to a partner (husband or wife was more likely to be associated with undetermined cause of death classification

  8. Clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in detecting preinvasive cervical lesions in post- menopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmak, Aytekin; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Ozgu, Emre; Oz, Murat; Akbay, Serap; Erkaya, Salim; Gungor, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in PAP test in post-menopausal women and compare with reproductive age women. A total of 367 patients who referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic were included to the study between September 2012 and August 2013. Data for 164 post-menopausal (group 1) and 203 pre-menopausal (group 2) women with ASCUS cytology were evaluated retrospectively. Immediate colposcopy and endocervical curettage was performed for both groups and conization for all women with a result suggestive of CIN2-3. Histopathological results and demographic features of patients were compared between the two groups. Mean age of the patients was 54.6±6.5 years in group 1 and 38±6.6 years in group 2. Some 14 (8.5%) of post- menopausal women and 36 (17.7%) of pre-menopausal women were current smokers (p=011). Totals of 38 (23.2%) post-menopausal and 64 (31.5%) pre-menopausal women were assessed for HPV-DNA. High risk HPV was detected in 7 (4.3%) and 21 (10.3%), respectively (p=0.029). Final histopathological results recorded were normal cervix, low grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 1), and high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3). In group 1 results were 84.8%, 12.2% and 1.8%, respectively, and in group 2 were 71.9%, 23.2% and 4.9%. There were no cases of micro invasive or invasive cervical carcinoma in either group. Two cases were detected as endometrial carcinoma in the menopausal group (1.2%). In current study we found that preinvasive lesions were statistically significantly higher in pre-menopausal women than post- menopausal women with ASCUS. Cervicitis was more common in menopausal women. Therefore, we think that in case of ASCUS in a post-menopausal woman there is no need for radical management.

  9. Paraganglioma of Prostatic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Padilla-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Paragangliomas are usually benign tumors arising from chromaffin cells located outside the adrenal gland. Prostatic paraganglioma is an unusual entity in adult patients, with only 10 cases reported in the medical literature. Case Report A 34-year-old male with a history of chronic prostatitis consulted for perineal pain. On digital rectal examination the prostate was enlarged and firm, without nodules. The PSA level was 0.8 ng/mL and the catecholamines in the urine were elevated. On ultrasound a retrovesical 9 cm mass of undetermined origin measuring was present. A PET-CT scan showed a pelvic lesion measuring 9 cm with moderate increase in glucidic metabolism localized in the area of the prostate. A biopsy of the prostate revealed a neuroendocrine tumor, possibly a prostatic paraganglioma. A body scintigraphy with MIBG I-123 ruled out the presence of metastases or multifocal tumor. A radical prostatectomy with excision of the pelvic mass was performed under adrenergic blockade. One year after surgery the patient is asymptomatic and disease free. Discussion/Conclusions Prostatic paraganglioma is a rare, usually benign tumor, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prostate tumors in young males. Its diagnosis is based on the determination of catecholamine in blood and 24-hour urine and in imaging studies principally scintigraphy with MIBG I-123. Diagnostic confirmation is by histopathological study. The treatment consists of radical resection under adrenergic blockade and volume expansion. Given the limited number of cases reported, it is difficult to establish prognostic factors. Malignancy is defined by clinical criteria, and requires life long follow-up.

  10. Comparison of diagnostic efficacy between CLE, tissue sampling, and CLE combined with tissue sampling for undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya-Dong; Qu, Ya-Wei; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The accurate diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures remains challenging. Current ERCP-guided tissue sampling methods are of low sensitivity. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new procedure and allows real optical biopsies that may improve the diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic yield of CLE, tissue sampling, and CLE combined with tissue sampling for undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures. Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database were reviewed for relevant studies. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects meta-analysis model. The summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve was constructed, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated. Twelve studies involving 591 patients were enrolled in our analysis. The overall sensitivity and the specificity estimate of CLE for discriminating benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures were 87% (95%CI, 83-91%) and 76% (95%CI, 70-81%), respectively. The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.8705. For tissue sampling, the overall sensitivity and the specificity estimate were 64% (95%CI, 57-70%) and 94% (95%CI, 90-97%), respectively. The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.8040. A combination of both methods increased the sensitivity (93%; 95%CI, 88-96%) with a specificity of 82% (95%CI, 74-89%). The AUC to assess the diagnostic efficacy was 0.9377. There was no publication bias by Deeks' Funnel Plot with p = .936. Compared with tissue sampling, CLE may increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures. A combination of both can effectively diagnose malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures.

  11. L'aile dite « des prélats » au château de Grignan (Drôme 1684-1689

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Trézin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La construction de l'aile « des prélats » au château de Grignan de 1684 à 1689 correspond à la requalification d'un secteur composite constitué du XIIe au XVIIe siècle. Commanditée sans intervention d'architecte par l'évêque de Carcassonne et l'archevêque d'Arles, frères du comte de Grignan, elle est bâtie en deux chantiers successifs selon des partis distincts dont l'harmonisation laborieuse est restée inachevée. Si le bâtiment de Carcassonne reflète initialement le savoir traditionnel de l'entrepreneur Florent Loiseleur, celui d'Arles est imprégné des œuvres récentes de l'agence de Jules Hardouin-Mansart dont le maçon Jacque Jaquet dit Beaufleury a probablement été tenu de s'inspirer. Ce chantier est un exemple du mode d'action des architectes amateurs dans le milieu conservateur de la noblesse provençale.The "prelates" wing of the castle of Grignan was built from 1684 to 1689. It was supposed to be a requalification and a renewal of a heterogeneous area erected between 12th to 17th century. Sponsored by the bishop of Carcassonne and the archbishop of Arles, brothers of the count of Grignan, no architect was involved in its design. It was built in two successive phases reflecting distinct conceptions and accordingly its architctural harmonization was made difficult and remained unfulfilled. If the Carcassonne building reflects the traditional savoir faire of the building contractor Florent Loiseleur, Arles's was deeply close to the recent works of Jules Hardouin-Mansart's agency whom the master builder Jacque Jaquet, said Beaufleury, had most probably to be inspired of. This construction is an example of the way amateur architects used to work in the conservative circle of provençal nobility.

  12. Autoimmunity related to IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Peripheral neuropathy and connective tissue sensibilization caused by IgM M-proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, V; Schrøder, H D; Nolsøe, C

    1988-01-01

    of them, including two siblings with a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, the IgM was bound to the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) of peripheral nerves. One had axonal neuropathy with IgM activity against the peri- and endoneurium, while another case with post-infectious neuritis had IgM activity......In eight of 10 consecutive cases of IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the M-protein had specificity towards various tissues as estimated by direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies of skin and/or sural nerve biopsies. Five of the cases had neuropathy. In three...

  13. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of trade-off and elements implied in the decision-making process of becoming a long-distance commuter. Intense commuting patterns appear to be the result of compromises between job career, residential attachment and life choices. Thus they may be a “happy medium” that allows to conciliate professional and personal life. Finally these spatial mobilities paradoxically allow to preserve residential, social and family anchors.De raíces y de alas. La movilidad pendular como estrategia de conciliación entra la vida privada y la vida profesionalLas movilidades pendulares parecen aumentar en Europa desde hace una década. Esta aumentación del tiempo consagrado a los desplazamientos nos lleva a poner en entredicho la conjetura de Zahavi porque es relativamente inexplicable con relación al paradigma clásico del actor racional, habitualmente utilizado en el ámbito de los transportes. Si en los diferentes estudios realizados el tiempo utilizado en los transportes es explicado por el contexto de la residencia, la forma urbana y el trabajo, este marco explicativo no evoca siquiera los procesos de decisión que inducen pendularidades intensivas. A partir de una encuesta cualitativa llevada a cabo sobre grupos « pendulares » franceses, suizos y belgas, esta contribución propone el análisis de las mediaciones y de los elementos determinantes en estos procesos. Las movilidades cotidianas pendulares son una manera de asumir el compromiso entre actividad profesional, lugar de residencia y elección de modo de vida y toman la forma de estrategias de conciliación entre lo privado y lo profesional. Estas movilidades espaciales permiten paradójicamente de preservar el enraizamiento residencial, profesional y familiar.

  14. A New Approach of Asymmetric Homoclinic and Heteroclinic Orbits Construction in Several Typical Systems Based on the Undetermined Padé Approximation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In dynamic systems, some nonlinearities generate special connection problems of non-Z2 symmetric homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits. Such orbits are important for analyzing problems of global bifurcation and chaos. In this paper, a general analytical method, based on the undetermined Padé approximation method, is proposed to construct non-Z2 symmetric homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits which are affected by nonlinearity factors. Geometric and symmetrical characteristics of non-Z2 heteroclinic orbits are analyzed in detail. An undetermined frequency coefficient and a corresponding new analytic expression are introduced to improve the accuracy of the orbit trajectory. The proposed method shows high precision results for the Nagumo system (one single orbit; general types of non-Z2 symmetric nonlinear quintic systems (orbit with one cusp; and Z2 symmetric system with high-order nonlinear terms (orbit with two cusps. Finally, numerical simulations are used to verify the techniques and demonstrate the enhanced efficiency and precision of the proposed method.

  15. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  16. The presence of advanced lesions and associating risk factors for advanced cervical carcinoma in patients with atypical sguamous cells of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L L; Chen, W; Fan, Y Y; Wang, M L; Wang, L N

    2015-01-01

    To characterize histopathological status, high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection status, and associated risk factors in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Cervical biopsies obtained from 130 ASCUS patients were subjected to histopathological examination and hr-HPV testing. Associations between advanced lesions and hr-HPV load or age were analyzed, and the confounding factors for high-grade cervical lesions were identified. Cervical biopsies from ASCUS patients had a wide range of pathological states, ranging from normal to invasive cervical carcinoma. High-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients; hr-HPV infection and the number of gestations were risk factors for developing advanced cervical disease. A significant portion of ASCUS patients harbor advanced cervical lesions. The number of gestations and hr-HPV infection can increase the risk of developing advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients.

  17. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  19. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  20. Comparison of the clinical performance of an HPV mRNA test and an HPV DNA test in triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrom, M; Ornskov, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been well documented. New tests detecting HPV E6/E7 mRNA are emerging, claiming to be more specific for detecting high-grade disease. We evaluated the cl...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  6. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  8. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pezhman Kharazm

    treatment in 32 patients who were admitted in Shohada-E-Tajrish hospital with final diagnosis of AMI from March 1996 to March 2002. ... of the patient and diagnostic studies and early surgical or non surgical intervention is the most ... operative diagnosis of etiology was based on presence of pulse at the origin of mesenteric.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  10. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A facility based comparative cross-sectional study ... Health care delivery should consider the desire for children by men and .... Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the .... For substitution, children are an important part of marriage, current child needs sibling, original desires .... does not, the only way to avoid the risk of.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de- termined and ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ..... ferral rate of females in comparison to males as pre- .... nors at blood bank of a medical college,. Australia. Med J Armed Forces 61: 131- 4.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  13. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  14. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... shown that, about 80.0% of women contracted HPV infection before ... 2010), age of initial sexual contact, and lack of symp- toms for ...

  16. Pro-inflammatory State in Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and in Multiple Myeloma Is Characterized by Low Sialylation of Pathogen-Specific and Other Monoclonal Immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Bosseboeuf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM and its pre-cancerous stage monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS allow to study immune responses and the chronology of inflammation in the context of blood malignancies. Both diseases are characterized by the production of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (mc Ig which for subsets of MGUS and MM patients targets pathogens known to cause latent infection, a major cause of inflammation. Inflammation may influence the structure of both polyclonal (pc Ig and mc Ig produced by malignant plasma cells via the sialylation of Ig Fc fragment. Here, we characterized the sialylation of purified mc and pc IgGs from 148 MGUS and MM patients, in comparison to pc IgGs from 46 healthy volunteers. The inflammatory state of patients was assessed by the quantification in serum of 40 inflammation-linked cytokines, using Luminex technology. While pc IgGs from MGUS and MM patients showed heterogeneity in sialylation level, mc IgGs from both MGUS and MM patients exhibited a very low level of sialylation. Furthermore, mc IgGs from MM patients were less sialylated than mc IgGs from MGUS patients (p < 0.01, and mc IgGs found to target an infectious pathogen showed a lower level of sialylation than mc IgGs of undetermined specificity (p = 0.048. Regarding inflammation, 14 cytokines were similarly elevated with a p value < 0.0001 in MGUS and in MM compared to healthy controls. MM differed from MGUS by higher levels of HGF, IL-11, RANTES and SDF-1-α (p < 0.05. MGUS and MM patients presenting with hyposialylated pc IgGs had significantly higher levels of HGF, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, TGF-β1, IL-17, and IL-33 compared to patients with hyper-sialylated pc IgGs (p < 0.05. In MGUS and in MM, the degree of sialylation of mc and pc IgGs and the levels of four cytokines important for the anti-microbial response were correlated, either positively (IFN-α2, IL-13 or negatively (IL-17, IL-33. Thus in MGUS as in MM

  17. Non-invasive markers of bone turnover and plasma cytokines differ in osteoporotic patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, T.; Levy, S.; Smith, A.; Day, P.; Manoharan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common malignancy manifest by bone marrow infiltration with malignant plasma cells, the production of a paraprotein and lytic bone lesions. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is assumed to be the precursor of clinically apparent myeloma, with one or more additional genetic events being required for progression to MM. Elderly patients presenting with osteoporosis and skeletal fractures are not infrequently found to have elevated serum paraprotein concentrations suggestive of either MM or MGUS. Differentiating between these two clinical disorders may prove challenging, despite bone marrow biopsy evidence of plasmacytosis. The underlying pathogenesis of bone loss in these conditions is complex and may be attributed to cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis coupled with increased osteoclastic bone resorption. In the present study, various markers of bone turnover and plasma cytokines were measured in order to determine whether they may be of value in differentiating between these two disorders. It is concluded that the urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion rate is a sensitive marker of bone resorption and of underlying bone disease activity. It may also help to differentiate between MM and MGUS

  18. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  19. Quench origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss the quench origins. I shall first establish a method of classification and introduce the notions of conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. Next the paper will be devoted to the study of conductor-limited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of plateau and of fraction of short sample. Also the paper will be devoted to the study of energy-deposited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of training and of minimum energy deposit; I shall then review the possible causes of energy release. Lastly, I shall introduce the notion of operating margin, and I shall indicate how to optimize the operating margin in order to limit the risk of premature quenching. 112 refs., 14 figs

  20. The diagnostic value of SE MRI and DWI of the spine in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma and multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutoit, Julie C.; Vanderkerken, Matthias A.; Dochy, Frederick; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Anthonissen, Joris [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate DWI of the bone marrow in the differentiation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smouldering myeloma (SMM) and multiple myeloma (MM). The retrospective study includes 64 patients with MGUS, 27 with SMM, 64 with new MM and 12 controls. Signal intensity (SI) of spinal SE-MRI and DWI (b0-1000) as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured in the T10 and L3. Qualitative assessment of b-images was performed by one experienced radiologist. ADC600 and ADC1000 are the best ADC values in differentiating patient groups (p < 0.030). SIT2, SIb1000 and ADC1000 are higher and SIT1 lower in L3 compared to T10 (p < 0.050). All quantitative parameters of L3 can differentiate significantly between MGUS and MM (p < 0.050) and between patients with percentage plasma cells (PC%) between 0-10 % compared to >50 % (p = 0.001). Only SIT2 for L3 can differentiate MGUS from SMM (p = 0.044) and PC%0-10 from PC%10-25 (p = 0.033). Qualitative interpretation of b1000 images allows differentiating MM patients from those with MGUS or SMM (p < 0.001). Spinal SE-MRI can differentiate among MGUS, SMM, MM and control subjects. DWI based on the SI on b1000 images and ADC values is increased in MM compared to MGUS and SMM. Qualitative assessment of b-images can differentiate MM from MGUS or SMM. (orig.)

  1. Clinical progress of human papillomavirus genotypes and their persistent infection in subjects with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology: Statistical and latent Dirichlet allocation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yee Suk; Lee, Sungin; Zong, Nansu; Kahng, Jimin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in prognosis based on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, persistent infection and genotype variations for patients exhibiting atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in their initial Papanicolaou (PAP) test results. A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based tool was developed that may offer a facilitated means of communication to be employed during patient-doctor consultations. The present study assessed 491 patients (139 HPV-positive and 352 HPV-negative cases) with a PAP test result of ASCUS with a follow-up period ≥2 years. Patients underwent PAP and HPV DNA chip tests between January 2006 and January 2009. The HPV-positive subjects were followed up with at least 2 instances of PAP and HPV DNA chip tests. The most common genotypes observed were HPV-16 (25.9%, 36/139), HPV-52 (14.4%, 20/139), HPV-58 (13.7%, 19/139), HPV-56 (11.5%, 16/139), HPV-51 (9.4%, 13/139) and HPV-18 (8.6%, 12/139). A total of 33.3% (12/36) patients positive for HPV-16 had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 or a worse result, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of CIN2 of 1.8% (8/455) in patients negative for HPV-16 (Paged ≥51 years (38.7%) than in those aged ≤50 years (20.4%; P=0.036). Progression from persistent infection to CIN2 or worse (19/34, 55.9%) was higher than clearance (0/105, 0.0%; Page and long infection period with a clinical progression of CIN2 or worse. Therefore, LDA results may be presented as explanatory evidence during time-constrained patient-doctor consultations in order to deliver information regarding the patient's status. PMID:28587376

  2. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of HPV test for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) was evaluated. Median age was 44 years (range, 17 to 75 years). ASCUS was more frequently observed in older patients while LSIL was more common in younger patients (P=0.002). CIN2+ was found in 11.3% (32/284) of the ASCUS patients and 12.9% (20/155) of patients with LSIL. Older patients with ASCUS showed lower HPV infection rates (P=0.025), but not LSIL (P=0.114). However, the prevalence of CIN2+ was similar between the age groups with ASCUS or LSIL. In patients with ASCUS, the false negative rate of HPV test for CIN2+ was 6.2%. The false negative rate of the HPV test became higher with increasing of the age after the age of 50 (P=0.034). Our findings suggest that false negative rate of the HPV test for CIN2+ in ASCUS patients older than 50 years might become higher with increasing of the age. Negative HPV results in patients of the age >50 years with ASCUS should be carefully interpreted.

  3. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in patients with HPV positive DNA testing and correlation with disease progression by age group: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Reynolds, Jordan P; Jenkins, Sarah M; Winter, Stephanie M; Henry, Michael R; Nassar, Aziza

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a broad diagnostic category that could be attributed to human papillomavirus infection (HPV), malignant neoplasia and reactive conditions. We evaluated our institutional experience with ASC-US in women who are positive for high risk HPV (HRHPV+) by the Digene hybrid capture method from 2005-2009 to identify the risk of progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in association with age. We reviewed cytologic and follow-up surgical pathology reports for all specimens available. Progression was defined as a diagnosis of at least CINI on follow-up biopsy or resection or SIL on cytology. We identified 2613 cases and follow-up was available in 1839 (70.4%). Of these 74.2% had just one follow-up, 16.2% had a total of 2 follow-ups, 5.3% had a total of 3 follow-ups, and the remaining had as many as 6 follow-ups. Among the 1839 patients, 69.4% were age 30 or younger, 16.0% were between 31 to 40, 9.0% were between 41 to 50, and 5.6% were 51 or older. Among these, 25-30% progressed to dysplasia. The risk of progression varied by age (p=0.04) and was lowest among women between the ages of 41-50. Our findings highlight the importance of continued cytologic follow-up in women with HRHPV+ ASC-US in order to detect progression of disease, although the risk of progression is age dependent.

  4. Eğitim Seviyesindeki Yükselmenin Geleneksel Aile Anlayışının Değişimine Etkisi: Karabük Üniversitesi Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde aile ile ilgili yeni yaklaşımlar ortaya çıkmış ve geleneksel aile anlayışları değişmeye başlamıştır. Evlilik yaşının yükselmesi, boşanmaların artması, nikâhsız birlikte yaşama anlayışının yaygınlaşmaya başlaması, hanehalkı sayısının küçülmesi, çocuk sayısının azalması vb. yeni yaklaşım ve anlayışlar, sıradan bir insanın bile gözlemleyebileceği ölçüde yaygınlaşmıştır. Aile ile ilgili yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasını tetikleyen elbette pek çok neden vardır. Bu araştırmada, aile ile ilgili bu yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasında eğitimin rolünün ne olduğu araştırılmaktadır. Araştırmada, aile anlayışında meydana gelen değişmelerle ilgili olarak TÜİK verilerinden yararlanıldığı gibi üniversite öğrencileri üzerinde yapmış olduğumuz bir araştırmanın sonuçlarına da yer verilmiştir. İstatistiksel veriler eğitim seviyesinin düşük olduğu dönemlerle karşılaştırılmış, böylece eğitim seviyesindeki yükselmenin nasıl bir değişim ve dönüşüme neden olduğu tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Özellikle ikinci dünya savaşı sonrasında aile ile ilgili olarak Avrupa ve Amerika’da yaşanan gelişmeler de incelenmiş ve Türk ailesindeki gelişmelerle karşılaştırılarak benzer dönüşümlerin yaşanıp yaşanmayacağı tartışılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile, Türk Ailesi, Geleneksel aile, Yeni aile anlayışları, Eğitim ve aile. The Effect of Increasing Education Level on Changes in Traditional Family Patterns: The Case of Karabuk University Today, new approaches about the family have emerged, and traditional family patterns have started to change. The increase of marriage age, the increase in the number of divorces, the tendency for cohabitation, the decrease in the number of family members and the decline in the number of offspring have become so wide-spread that these changes could be easily

  5. Association between metformin use and progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma in US veterans with diabetes mellitus: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Luo, Suhong; O'Brian, Katiuscia K; Thomas, Theodore S; Colditz, Graham A; Carlsson, Nils P; Carson, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is one of the most common haematological malignancies in the USA and is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We aimed to assess the association between metformin use and progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. We did a retrospective cohort study of patients registered in the US Veterans Health Administration database and diagnosed with MGUS between Oct 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2009. We included patients (aged >18 years) with at least one International Classification of Diseases (9th revision) code for diabetes mellitus and one treatment for their diabetes before MGUS diagnosis. We reviewed patient-level clinical data to verify diagnoses and extract any available data for size of baseline M-protein and type of MGUS. We defined metformin users as patients with diabetes who were given metformin consistently for 4 years after their diabetes diagnosis and before multiple myeloma development, death, or censorship. Our primary outcome was time from MGUS diagnosis to multiple myeloma diagnosis. We used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models to analyse the association between metformin use and MGUS progression. We obtained data for 3287 patients, of whom 2003 (61%) were included in the final analytical cohort. Median follow-up was 69 months (IQR 49–96). 463 (23%) participants were metformin users and 1540 (77%) participants were non-users. 13 (3%) metformin users progressed to multiple myeloma compared with 74 (5%) non-users. After adjustment, metformin use was associated with a reduced risk of progression to multiple myeloma (hazard ratio 0·47, 95% CI 0·25–0·87). For patients with diabetes diagnosed with MGUS, metformin use for 4 years or longer was associated with a reduced risk of progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether this association is causal and whether these results can be extrapolated to non-diabetic individuals. Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation

  6. Diagnostic terminology for urinary cytology reports including the new subcategories 'atypical urothelial cells of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade' (AUC-H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaton, E; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Mege-Lechevallier, F; Advenier, A-S; Devonec, M; Ruffion, A

    2014-02-01

    We studied whether atypical, non-superficial urothelial cells (AUC) could be separated into new subcategories including AUC 'of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade'' (AUC-H) in order to help to standardize urine cytopathology reports, as it is widely accepted in the Bethesda system for gynaecological cytopathology. We investigated whether AUC-US and AUC-H, defined by distinctive cytological criteria, might be separated with statistical significance according to actual diagnosis and follow-up data. A series of 534 cyto-histological comparisons taken in 139 patients, including 221 AUC at various steps of their clinical history was studied. There were 513 (96.1%) postcystoscopy and 469 (87.8%) ThinPrep® liquid-based specimens (95.9% and 89.1% of AUC cases, respectively). Patients viewed between 1999 and 2011 had histological control in a 0- to 6-months delay and were followed-up during an additional 5.9 ± 9.2 (0- to 56-) months period. The 221 AUC represented 0.8-2% of the specimens viewed during the study period. Among AUC-H cases, 70 out of 185 (37.8%) matched with high-grade lesions, compared with 3 of 38 (8.3%) of AUC-US cases (P = 0.0003). Conservatively treated patients with AUC-H more frequently developed high-grade lesions than those with AUC-US (54.1% versus 16.7%, P = 0.0007) with a 17.6-months mean delay. Nuclear hyperchromasia, a nuclear to cytoplasm (N/C) ratio > 0.7 and the combination of both were the more informative diagnostic criteria, all with P < 0.01. We conclude that the new subcategories could help to standardize urine cytopathology reports and contribute to the patient's management, provided it is validated by multicentric studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The low risk of precancer after a screening result of human papillomavirus-negative/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance papanicolaou and implications for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Behrens, Catherine; Sharma, Abha; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Cuzick, Jack; Yang, Zi Hua; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-11-01

    Different US practice guidelines have conflicting recommendations for when women should return after a screening result of human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative with an equivocal Papanicolaou (Pap) result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (ie, return in either 3 or 5 years). One way to determine management is to compare the risk of precancer/cancer after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result with the risks after other negative screening results. For example, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result was similar to the risk after a negative Pap test, a 3-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women with negative Pap test results should return in 3 years. Alternatively, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result is similar to that after a cotest-negative result (HPV negative/Pap test negative), a 5-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women testing cotest negative should return in 5 years. The authors compared risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) and cervical cancer among women aged 30 years to 64 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern California with the following test results from 2003 through 2012: 17,191 women testing HPV negative/ASC-US; 980,268 women testing Pap test negative (regardless of HPV result); and 892,882 women testing cotest negative. The 5-year CIN3+ and cancer risks after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result were closer to the risks after a negative Pap test result (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.31% [P =.0019]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.031% [P =.4]) than after a negative cotest (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.11% [P<.0001]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.014% [P =.016]). Women testing HPV negative/ASC-US were found to have precancer/cancer risks that were more closely aligned with women with negative Pap test results, suggesting that women testing HPV negative/ASC-US should be managed similarly to women testing negative on Pap tests with a 3-year return for screening. © 2014

  8. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü’nde Aile Temi Üzerinden Türk Modernleşmesinin Seyri Looking At The Turkish Modernisation Via Family Theme In Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanife ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    ınmıştır. Romanın olay örgüsü, başkahraman Hayri İrdal’ın hatıralarına dayanır. Eserde tarih, ekonomi, bürokrasi, bilim, felsefe, hurafe, aile, kadın, Doğu, Batı vb. kavramlar, “eski-yeni” zihniyeti çerçevesinde ele alınmış, bu kavramların art alanlarında köklü değişmelerin çok süratli bir şekilde yaşandığına işaret edilmiştir. Roman Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun son dönemi ile Cumhuriyet’in ilk yarısını kapsayan bir süreci kurgulamış, bu süreç içinde de aile yapısının nasıl değiştiği gözler önüne serilmiştir. Yazar aile kurumundaki gelişmeleri veya değişmeleri, ailenin bağlı bulunduğu ve içinde bir çekirdek rolü üstlendiği toplumdaki gelişmelere paralel bir şekilde almıştır. Yine farklı nesillere mensup aileler arasındaki farklı anlayış ve eğilimleri toplumsal gelişmelerle bazen doğrudan, bazen de dolaylı olarak ilintilediği görülmektedir. Bilindiği gibi, toplumsal yapıdaki her gelişmenin yahut da değişmenin eski bir örneği, bu örneğin bazı etkenlerle yeniyi hazırlayan koşulları, yine bu koşulların etkisi ile yeniye doğru gelişen eğilim ve yeninin, eskinin yerini alması süreci söz konusudur. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü’nde de böyle bir sürecin varlığından söz edilebilir. Romanda bu süreç içinde Osmanlı Türk ailesinin; geleneksel yapıya sahip olanlar, eskiye bağlı ama aynı zamanda eskinin baskısını yaşayan, bu bakımdan da yeniye geçiş konumunda bulunanlar ile yeninin, modernin yansıtıcısı aileler şeklinde üç grupta ele alındığını söylemek mümkündür.

  9. İş ve Aile Yaşamı Dengesi(zliğinin Kadın Çalışanlar Üzerindeki Etkileri(The Effects of The Work and Famıly Life (ImBalance on Female Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda TOPGÜL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ş ve aile yaşamı dengesi son dönemlerde dikkat çeken konulardan biridir. Kişinin iş ve aile alanlarından kaynaklanan taleplerin uyumsuz olması sonucunda sadece kişisel olarak değil aynı zamanda toplumu etkilemesi nedeniyle konu daha çok önem kazanmıştır. Kadınlar hem evdeki sorumluluklarını hem de iş yerindeki görev ve sorumluluklarını dengelemek konusunda sıkıntılar yaşamaktadırlar. Bu çalışmanın amacı yoğun çalışma saatlerine sahip olan çeşitli kademelerdeki banka çalışanı kadınların bakış açısından, iş ve aile yaşamı arasındaki dengeyi sağlama çabalarını incelemektir. Bu amaçla altı banka çalışanı kadın ile yarı yapılandırılmış soruları içeren derinlemesine mülakatlar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Böylece bankacılık sektörü açısından, çalışan kadınların iş ve aile yaşamı dengeleri analiz edilerek, dengeyi sağlamak yönündeki çabaları ortaya konmuştur. Sonuç olarak, banka çalışanlarının maddi anlamda ve kariyer anlamında tatmin olması meslekten tatmini beraberinde getirmektedir. İş ve aile yaşamı dengesi konusunda zaman zaman uzayan iş saatleri sıkıntı olabilmektedir. Küçük çocukların bakımı hususunda ise akrabaların desteği kadınlar açısından iş ve aile dengesi sağlamada önemli rol oynamaktadır. The work and family life balance is one of the subjects that stand out in recent years. This issue has become even more important since it affects not only individuals, but also the society due to incompatible demands of individual’s work and family life. Women have difficulties in balancing their responsibilities at home and responsibilities and duties at work. The aim of this study is to examine efforts to establish a balance between the work and family life from the perspective of women working at a bank at various levels, who have busy working hours. For this purpose, indepth interviews involving semi-structured questions

  10. Atipias de Células Escamosas de Significado Indeterminado (ASCUS: estudo de 208 Casos Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS: study of 208 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eleutério Junior

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar aspectos clínicos, colposcópicos e acompanhamento citológico de quadros classificados como atipias de células escamosas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS. Métodos: foram analisados retrospectivamente 208 casos de ASCUS diagnosticados entre 1996 e 1998 e tabulados quanto a idade, queixas clínicas, colposcopia e seguimento. Resultados: a relação ASCUS:lesão intra-epitelial escamosa foi de 1:1,2, confirmando adequado controle de qualidade. Pacientes com menos de 35 anos corresponderam a 72,6% dos casos. Um grande número não tinha queixas clínicas (36,5%. Nos casos em que foi realizada colposcopia (n = 58, a zona de transformação atípica foi observada em 60%. A subclassificação das ASCUS em provavelmente displásico (D, provavelmente reativo (R e não-determinado (U indicou predominância do primeiro (65%. O acompanhamento de 86 pacientes mostrou que, após 3 a 6 meses (média de 4,5 meses, em 12,5% foi possível detectar citologicamente uma lesão intra-epitelial escamosa. Conclusão: com base nos resultados deste trabalho foi possível concluir que as ASCUS incidem em mulheres jovens, com queixas clínicas corriqueiras e apresentam correlação colposcópica positiva. Nestes casos o acompanhamento citológico se faz imprescindível para esclarecimento de lesão intra-epitelial escamosa subjacente ou subseqüente.Purpose: to assess clinical, colposcopic profile and follow-up of patients with a cytological report of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Methods: a total of 208 cases of ASCUS diagnosed between 1996 e 1998 were analyzed retrospectively regarding age, symptoms, colposcopy and follow-up. Results: the ASCUS:SIL (squamous intraepithelial lesion ratio reported was 1:1.2, showing an adequate quality control. Most of the patients were between 15 and 35 years old (72.6 %. The majority referred no symptoms (36.5 %. The colposcopy showed (n = 58 the atypical zone of transformation in

  11. Eğitim Seviyesindeki Yükselmenin Geleneksel Aile Anlayışının Değişimine Etkisi: Karabük Üniversitesi Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Yılmaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetGünümüzde aile ile ilgili yeni yaklaşımlar ortaya çıkmış ve geleneksel aile anlayışları değişmeye başlamıştır. Evlilik yaşının yükselmesi, boşanmaların artması, nikâhsız birlikte yaşama anlayışının yaygınlaşmaya başlaması, hanehalkı sayısının küçülmesi, çocuk sayısının azalması vb. yeni yaklaşım ve anlayışlar, sıradan bir insanın bile gözlemleyebileceği ölçüde yaygınlaşmıştır. Aile ile ilgili yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasını tetikleyen elbette pek çok neden vardır. Bu araştırmada, aile ile ilgili bu yeni anlayışların ortaya çıkmasında eğitimin rolünün ne olduğu araştırılmaktadır. Araştırmada, aile anlayışında meydana gelen değişmelerle ilgili olarak TÜİK verilerinden yararlanıldığı gibi üniversite öğrencileri üzerinde yapmış olduğumuz bir araştırmanın sonuçlarına da yer verilmiştir. İstatistiksel veriler eğitim seviyesinin düşük olduğu dönemlerle karşılaştırılmış, böylece eğitim seviyesindeki yükselmenin nasıl bir değişim ve dönüşüme neden olduğu tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Özellikle ikinci dünya savaşı sonrasında aile ile ilgili olarak Avrupa ve Amerika’da yaşanan gelişmeler de incelenmiş ve Türk ailesindeki gelişmelerle karşılaştırılarak benzer dönüşümlerin yaşanıp yaşanmayacağı tartışılmıştır. AbstractToday, new approaches about the family have emerged, and traditional family patterns have started to change. The increase of marriage age, the increase in the number of divorces, the tendency for cohabitation, the decrease in the number of family members and the decline in the number of offspring have become so wide-spread that these changes could be easily observed even by ordinary people. There are, of course, a lot of reasons that stimulate these new approaches about the family, yet this study focuses upon the role of education concerning the emergence of

  12. Etiologic classification of TIA and minor stroke by A-S-C-O and causative classification system as compared to TOAST reduces the proportion of patients categorized as cause undetermined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jamsheed A; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R; Imoukhuede, Oje; Bernbaum, Manya L; Modi, Jayesh; Demchuk, Andrew M; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2014-01-01

    The assortment of patients based on the underlying pathophysiology is central to preventing recurrent stroke after a transient ischemic attack and minor stroke (TIA-MS). The causative classification of stroke (CCS) and the A-S-C-O (A for atherosclerosis, S for small vessel disease, C for Cardiac source, O for other cause) classification schemes have recently been developed. These systems have not been specifically applied to the TIA-MS population. We hypothesized that both CCS and A-S-C-O would increase the proportion of patients with a definitive etiologic mechanism for TIA-MS as compared with TOAST. Patients were analyzed from the CATCH study. A single-stroke physician assigned all patients to an etiologic subtype using published algorithms for TOAST, CCS and ASCO. We compared the proportions in the various categories for each classification scheme and then the association with stroke progression or recurrence was assessed. TOAST, CCS and A-S-C-O classification schemes were applied in 469 TIA-MS patients. When compared to TOAST both CCS (58.0 vs. 65.3%; p TIA and minor stroke patients classified as 'cause undetermined.' ASCO resulted in the fewest patients classified as cause undetermined. Stroke recurrence after TIA-MS is highest in patients with multiple high-risk etiologies or cryptogenic stroke classified by ASCO. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Ortaöğretimde Okul- Aile İşbirliği İle İlgili Öğretmen ve Veli Görüşlerinin İncelenmesi (Karacasu Lisesi Örneği)

    OpenAIRE

    CEYLAN, Mehmet; AKAR, Birkan

    2011-01-01

    Durum saptamaya yönelik betimsel bir çalışma olan bu araştırmada, okul- aile işbirliği ile ilgili öğretmen ve veli görüşlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma grubuna araştırmanın yapıldığı okulda görevli 25 öğretmen ile okulda öğrencisi bulunan 287 veli alınmıştır. Öğrenciler aracılığıyla velilere gönderilen anket formlarından 200 tanesinin geri dönüşümü sağlanmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulgularına göre hem öğretmenlerin hem de velilerin mevcut okul- aile işbirliğinin geli...

  14. İşitme Kayıplı Çocuğu Olan Bir Annenin Etkileşim Davranışlarının Aile Eğitimi Bağlamında İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ertürk Mustul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu eylem araştırmasında çok ileri dereceli işitme kayıplı çocuğu olan işiten bir annenin etkileşim davranışları ve bu davranışlarının desteklenme biçiminin aile eğitimi bağlamında incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın verileri aile eğitimi video kayıtları, anneyle yapılan görüşmeler, yazarlar arasında yapılan aile eğitimi değerlendirmeleri ile geçerlik güvenirlik toplantılarında alınan ses kayıtları, aile eğitimi seans planları ve araştırmacı günlükleriyle toplanmıştır. Toplam sekiz aile eğitimi yapılmıştır ve annenin etkileşim davranışlarını incelemek amacıyla ikinci, dördüncü, altıncı ve sekizinci aile eğitimlerinde yer alan on dakikalık anne-çocuk etkileşimi bölümleri temsili video kaydı olarak belirlenmiş ve tümevarım analizi uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonucunda beş etkileşim davranışı belirlenmiĢ ve bu davranışlar iki tema altında toplanmıştır. Annenin etkileşim davranışları bu davranış tanımları altında incelenmiş, davranışların görülme sıklığına bakılmış ve bu davranışları desteklemeye dair eylem planları geliştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları annenin etkileşimi destekleyen davranışlarının arttığını, etkileşimi olumsuz etkileyen davranışlarının da azaldığını göstermiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarını genellemek mümkün olmasa da elde edilen bulguların etkileşime odaklanan aile eğitimi programının bu anne-çocuk çifti için işlediğini ve erken çocukluk dönemi boyunca aile eğitiminin devam etmesi gerektiğini gösterdiği ileri sürülebilir. The main purpose of this action research was to examine the interactive behaviour of a mother who has a child with a hearing loss and the way these skills were supported in the context of parent guidance process. The data were collected by the video recordings of the parent guidance sessions, audio recordings of session evaluation meetings among

  15. Instructor Revs Up Ailing Motorcycle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bob Monroig smiles every day on his way to work at Lake Washington Technical College (LWTC), high atop a hill overlooking the affluent Seattle suburb of Kirkland, Washington. He's created his own job within a job, where he's the Harley-Davidson University program coordinator and tenured faculty in the Motorcycle, Marine, & Power Equipment…

  16. Ailing uranium millworkers seek recognition, aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, M.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium millworkers who helped produce uranium for the U.S. nuclear defense program in the 1950's and 1960's are suing the federal government and uranium companies for compensation for illnesses that they believe are job-related. Symptoms of these illnesses include frequent blackouts, chronic bronchitis, asthma, constant fatigue, and susceptibility to colds. Research is being conducted to determine whether the millworkers' symptoms are due to excessive radiation exposure. Studies to date indicated that during the 1950's and early 1960's, radiation protection procedures at uranium milling facilities were extremely deficient

  17. Ailing voters advance attractive congressional candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Palumbo, Rocco

    2015-01-06

    Among many benefits of facial attractiveness, there is evidence that more attractive politicians are more likely to be elected. Recent research found this effect to be most pronounced in congressional districts with high disease threat-a result attributed to an adaptive disease avoidance mechanism, whereby the association of low attractiveness with poor health is particularly worrisome to voters who feel vulnerable to disease. We provided a more direct test of this explanation by examining the effects of individuals' own health and age. Supporting a disease avoidance mechanism, less healthy participants showed a stronger preference for more attractive contenders in U.S. Senate races than their healthier peers, and this effect was stronger for older participants, who were generally less healthy than younger participants. Stronger effects of health for older participants partly reflected the absence of positive bias toward attractive candidates among the healthiest, suggesting that healthy older adults may be unconcerned about disease threat or sufficiently wise to ignore attractiveness.

  18. Meningitis, spondylodiscitis, pneumonia and septic shock with Streptococcus pneumoniae in a previously healthy woman with isolated IgG2-, IgG3-, IgA-deficiency and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Gudnason, David; Steig, Bjarni

    2018-01-01

    A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X...... not respond serologically on vaccination with 13-valent conjugate and 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines. Further evaluations revealed a positive M-component in her blood and a bone marrow biopsy diagnosed her to have monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. To protect her against...... significance in an apparently healthy woman with at least three life threatening documented pneumococcal infections in a two-year period and poor pneumococcal vaccine response....

  19. Origin of Bacteriochlorophyll a and the Early Diversification of Photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanai Cardona

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis originated in the domain Bacteria billions of years ago; however, the identity of the last common ancestor to all phototrophic bacteria remains undetermined and speculative. Here I present the evolution of BchF or 3-vinyl-bacteriochlorophyll hydratase, an enzyme exclusively found in bacteria capable of synthetizing bacteriochlorophyll a. I show that BchF exists in two forms originating from an early divergence, one found in the phylum Chlorobi, including its paralogue BchV, and a second form that was ancestral to the enzyme found in the remaining anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The phylogeny of BchF is consistent with bacteriochlorophyll a evolving in an ancestral phototrophic bacterium that lived before the radiation event that gave rise to the phylum Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes, but only after the divergence of Type I and Type II reaction centers. Consequently, it is suggested that the lack of phototrophy in many groups of extant bacteria is a derived trait.

  20. The Origin of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    There have been a lot of discussions of the origin of language. Some people think that the origin of words is onomatopoeias. Meanwhile, according to expressive theories, the origin of words and language is the innate cries of pain or pleasure produced by nonhuman animals. Others insist that language originated as a means of communication. Another theory holds that a learned vocalization systems, more like birdsong than innate calls, formed a middle term in language evolution. Others claim tha...

  1. Origin of DNA-Induced Circular Dichroism in a Minor-Groove Binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgaard List, Nanna; Knoops, Jérémie; Rubio-Magnieto, Jenifer; Idé, Julien; Beljonne, David; Norman, Patrick; Surin, Mathieu; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-10-25

    Induced circular dichroism (ICD) of DNA-binding ligands is well known to be strongly influenced by the specific mode of binding, but the relative importance of the possible mechanisms has remained undetermined. With a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, CD response calculations, and experiments on an AT-sequence, we show that the ICD of minor-groove-bound 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) originates from an intricate interplay between the chiral imprint of DNA, off-resonant excitonic coupling to nucleobases, charge-transfer, and resonant excitonic coupling between DAPIs. The significant contributions from charge-transfer and the chiral imprint to the ICD demonstrate the inadequacy of a standard Frenkel exciton theory of the DAPI-DNA interactions.

  2. İzmir’de ikinci ve üçüncü basamak sağlık kuruluşlarına başvuran gebelerin aile hekimi tarafından izlenme sıklıkları ve etkileyen etmenler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetAmaç: İzmir’de ikinci ve üçüncü basamak sağlık kuruluşlarına başvuran gebelerin aile hekimi (AH tarafından tespit ve izlem sıklıklarını ve bunları etkileyen etmenleri değerlendirmek. Yöntem: Tanımlayıcı olan bu araştırma için, Aralık 2008 - Şubat 2009 tarihleri arasında İzmir’de bir ikinci, bir üçüncü basamak hastaneye izlem ya da doğum için başvuran 580 kadınla görüşülmüştür. Sosyodemografik özellikler, gebelikteki ilk izlem zamanları, AH’ne kayıt ve izlem durumu, 27 sorudan oluşan bir anketle sorgulanmıştır. Analizlerde ki-kare, McNemar ve t-testi kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırmaya katılan 580 gebenin 397’siyle (%64 ikinci basamak, 183’üyle (%32 üçüncü basamak hastanede görüşüldü. Kadınların  %55’i ilkokul ve altı eğitim düzeyine sahipti, %28’ini yeşil kartı olanlar veya sağlık güvencesi olmayanlar oluşturmaktaydı.  Kadınların 307’si (%53 ilk çocuğuna hamileydi ve yaş ortalamaları 27.1±5.5 idi. Gebelerin %26’sı gebelik testini aile sağlığı merkezinde yaptırmıştı ve ilk kontrolleri için en sık başvurdukları yerler sırasıyla devlet hastanesi (%33 ve aile hekimidir (%27.  Gebelerin %14’ünün AH’lerini bilmediği, %10’unun AH’de gebe kaydının bulunmadığı ve %15’inin AH tarafından izlenmediği saptanmıştır. Gebeler ortalama 11.3±6.3 kez izlenmişlerdir, bunun 4.3±3.3’ü aile sağlığı biriminde gerçekleşmiştir. AH tarafından izlenen gebelerin %95’i AH’ne kendisi başvurmuştu. Gebelerin ancak %69’u zamanında tespit edilmişti, %49’unu sadece ebeler izlemekteydi ve sadece %3’üne ev ziyareti yapılmış, %77’si telefonla kuruma çağrılmıştır. Son iki yılda İzmir’e göçle gelen, okuryazar olmayan, yükseköğrenim mezunu olan, çalışan, emekli sandığı mensubu olan, yüksek gelir düzeyine sahip olan gebelerin aile hekimleri tarafından izlenme oranları daha d

  3. Manisa merkez yarı kentsel bölgede bir aile sağlığı birimine kayıtlı kadınlarda bazı birinci basamak sağlık hizmet özelliklerinin değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Özkan Bambal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Özet                       Amaç: Birinci basamak sağlık hizmet özellikleri kaynakça doğrultusunda bilimsel olarak ölçülebilir niteliktedir ve ilk başvuru, süreklilik, kapsayıcılık ve koordinasyon gibi temel hizmet özellikleri üzerinden değerlendirilir. Yöntem: Örnek seçiminde çok aşamalı küme örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmış, veriler yüz yüze görüşme tekniğine göre yapılandırılmış anketle toplanmıştır. Araştırma bölgesindeki toplam hane sayısı 870’tir. Küme örnekleme yöntemi ile 376 haneden 318 kadına ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmanın ulaşılabilirlik oranı % 84.6’dır. Araştırmanın bağımlı değişkenleri; İlk başvuru, Süreklilik, Kapsayıcılık ve OHS (Olağan Hizmet Sürekliliği gibi hizmet özellikleridir. Bağımsız değişkenler ise kadının ve eşinin yaşı, kadın ve eşinin eğitimi, medeni hal, kadının çalışma durumu, sosyal sınıf (eşin işine göre, gelir algısı, bölgede yaşama yılı, göç edilen bölge, sağlık güvencesi, aile tipi, beş yaşından küçük çocuk varlığı ve hanedeki çocuk sayısı kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Katılımcıların yaş ortalaması 38.3±15.3’tür. Bir sağlık sorunu nedeniyle aile hekimine başvurma % 61.0, ondan bir önceki sağlık sorununda AH’ne (Aile Hekimi başvuru %55,2 oranındadır. Bu soruların her ikisine de “aynı aile hekimine başvururum” cevabını verenlerin (OHS oranı  %40.1 olmuştur. Aile Sağlığı Birimini yakın, normal mesafe bulanların oranı %93.1’dir. Aile hekiminin ismini bilme %84, ebenin ismini bilme %36.2, her türlü sorununuzla sürekli ilgilenen bir hekim veya sağlık kuruluşuna kayıtlı olduğunu söyleyenlerin %74.5’tir. Son bir yılda evime ebe ziyareti aldım diyenler %40.6 oranındadır. Sonuç: Araştırmanın yapıldığı ASB’de geçen bir yıllık ilk AH uygulama döneminde sosyalleştirme dönemiyle karşıla

  4. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  5. Marxismo original e Utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nildo Viana

    2016-01-01

    O marxismo original – desenvolvido por Marx e Engels – geralmente é contraposto ao socialismo utópico como se fosse uma recusa absoluta e total. O objetivo do artigo é discutir a relação entre o marxismo original e o socialismo utópico e com a utopia. A tese defendida no artigo é a de que o caráter antiutópico do marxismo original é uma simplificação, pois o que ele realiza é uma suplantação do utopismo, o que significa manter os seus elementos positivos e negar os seus elementos negativos. P...

  6. Libertarianism and Original Appropriation

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the structure of libertarian theory of justice. It tries to present a map of the main concepts and principles of this theory and to investigate its possible justifications. It explains such fundamental concepts as original appropriation, homesteading, labour theory of property or first possession theory of original appropriation. The article shows merits and drawbacks of alternative libertarian principles of justice in first acquisition and proposes a ...

  7. Risk of Japanese carriers of hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7, the first autosomal-dominantly inherited risk factor for hematological neoplasms, to develop monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Sandra; Iida, Shinsuke; Wikowicz, Aleksandra; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Inagaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Ziepert, Marita; Ueda, Ryuzo; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7 (pP-7) is a frequent target of paraproteins in German patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/multiple myeloma (MM). The frequency of MGUS/MM is lower in Japan than in Europe. As pP-7, the first molecularly defined autosomal-dominant risk factor for any hematological neoplasm, is inherited in a dominant fashion, we determined the incidence of the pP-7 carrier state in a Japanese population, and compared the frequency of pP-7-specific paraproteins and the pP-7 carrier state in Japanese and German patients with MGUS/MM. Peripheral blood from 111 Japanese patients with MGUS/MM and 278 healthy blood donors was analyzed for the pP-7 carrier state by isoelectric focusing and for pP-7-specific antibodies by ELISA. The Japanese group was compared with 252 German MGUS/MM patients and 200 healthy controls. Five of 111 (4.5%) Japanese and 35/252 (13.9%) German IgA/IgG MGUS/MM patients had a pP-7-specific paraprotein (P=0.009). The prevalence of healthy pP-7 carriers in the Japanese study group was 1/278 (0.36%), whereas it was 4/200 in the German group (P=0.166). The relative risk for pP-7 carriers developing MGUS/MM had an odds ratio of 13.1 in the Japanese and 7.9 in the German group. In conclusion, the fraction of pP-7 carriers with a pP-7-specific paraprotein is lower among Japanese than in German patients with MGUS/MM, but pP-7 carriers in both ethnic groups have a high risk of developing MGUS/MM. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix with human papilloma virus infection among young women aged less than 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ki-Jin; Lee, Sanghoon; Min, Kyung-Jin; Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Jae Yun; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2016-12-01

    Current ASCCP guidelines recommend repeat cytology 12 months after HPV-positive results in women aged 21-24 years with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). The purpose of this study was to validate an algorithm in such women with ASCUS or LSIL. A multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out at three academic hospitals involving 40,847 Korean women who underwent cervical cancer screening with cytology and HPV testing with or without subsequent colposcopic biopsies between January 2007 and December 2013. Among a total of 3,193 women with available histopathology data, 762 women with ASCUS and 758 with LSIL were HPV-positive. Among HPV-positive women with ASCUS, 38.5% of women aged 21-24 years had ≥CIN2, compared to 20.8% of women aged 30-65 years and 21.1% of the total women. Among HPV-positive women with LSIL, 25.8% aged 21-24 years had ≥CIN2, compared to 21.2% of women aged 30-65 years and 21.9% of the total women. In HPV-positive women with ASCUS/LSIL aged less than 25 years, the prevalence of ≥CIN2 lesions was 34.5%, which was significantly higher than that (21.0%) in women aged ≥25 years. The risk of ≥CIN2 lesions in HPV-positive Korean women aged 21-24 years with ASCUS or LSIL was not lower than that in older women. Colposcopic examination should be considered for management of HPV-positive young women with ASCUS or LSIL. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:959-963. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with cytologic evidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: baseline data from a randomized trial. The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study (ALTS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections appear to be central to the development of cervical cancer. This study addresses the question of whether testing women who have low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) of the uterine cervix for HPV DNA is useful as a triage strategy. Four clinical centers in different areas of the United States participated in a randomized clinical trial of the use of HPV DNA testing in women with cytologic evidence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or LSIL. The study sample in this article consists only of women who had LSIL at enrollment. Within 6 months of an LSIL diagnosis (based on a Pap smear read by a community-based cytopathologist), women who were 18 years of age or older completed a standardized questionnaire and underwent a pelvic examination that included collection of cervical specimens for HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture II (HCII)(R) assay. Among the 642 women referred with LSIL who had analyzable test results, the mean chronologic age and age at first coitus were similar among the four clinical centers, despite the centers' ethnic and geographic diversity. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in cervical samples from 532 (82.9%) of the 642 women (95% confidence interval = 79.7%-85.7%). This high frequency of HPV positivity was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in a subset of 210 paired specimens tested by HCII and PCR (81.4% were positive by both methods). Because a very high percentage of women with an LSIL diagnosis from Pap smears are positive for HPV DNA by HCII testing, there is limited potential for this assay to direct decisions about the clinical management of women with LSIL. The role of HPV testing in the management of women with ASCUS is still under study.

  10. Origins: science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    From 8 December 2011 to 17 February 2012, Geneva University's physics faculty will be holding an exhibition called "L'Origine – un voyage entre la Science et l'Art". Thirty artists from Europe and Africa will be exhibiting their work.   The aim of the exhibition is to take the visitor on an imaginary journey to the origins of mankind and to show how science and art approach the same theme from different angles. The works on display will include pieces of Makonde art, a traditional art form native to Mozambique, created by artists of the Nairucu Arts centre. The cultural programme that will run alongside the exhibition will include lectures on contemporary scientific themes aimed at the general public. Visitors will also have the opportunity to discover "L’Origine", a book of poetry by Beatrice Bressan (Ed. Loreleo, Geneva, 2010), which was awarded the third prize in the “Poeti nella società&...

  11. Origin of solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''.

  12. Origin of solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''. (Ha)

  13. Authentic, Original, and Valuable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The idea of genetic authenticity and origin has been an important issue within genetics for decades for scientific, political, and economic reasons. The question of where species and populations come from, as well as the linking of genetic traits to particular geographical locations, has resurfaced....... Using the case of human and non-human genetics to compare and contrast the various facets associated with genetic identity, we seek to develop a broader picture of the ways in which genetics plays an important role in stabilizing categories of origin....

  14. Aile hekimliği uygulamalarının Doğankent Sağlık, Eğitim ve Araştırma Bölgesindeki durumu/The condition of family medicine practices in the Doğankent Health, Training and Research Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetAmaç: Sağlık hizmetlerinin temel amacı, kişilerin ve toplumun sağlığının korunması ve geliştirilmesidir. Bunları sağlayacak en önemli araç, sağlık hizmeti sunumudur. Bu amaçla Türkiye’deki temel sağlık hizmetleri, aile hekimliği uygulamaları temelinde yeniden düzenlenmiştir. Bu çalışma, Adana ili kırsalında, aile hekimliği uygulamalarını hizmeti alanlar ve sunanlar açısından değerlendirmek amacıyla planlanmıştır. Yöntem: Veriler, Adana ili Doğankent sağlık, eğitim ve araştırma bölgesindeki kırsal alanda birinci basamak sağlık hizmetinden yararlanan 543 erişkin ile hizmeti sunan 43 sağlık personelinden Nisan-Eylül 2011 tarihlerinde yüz yüze görüşmeyle toplanmıştır. Bulgular: Hizmeti alanlar %44.0 muayene, %43.5 reçete yazdırmak için başvurduklarını bildirmişlerdir. Sürekli aynı kişilerden hizmet almalarını, her ilacı reçeteye yazdırabilmelerini, her eczaneden ilaç alımını ve sevksiz her yere gidebilmelerini avantaj, mesai dışı hizmet alamamalarını ise dezavantaj olarak nitelemişlerdir. ASM çalışanları çalışma ortamı ve ücretlerinden büyük oranda memnun oldukları belirtmiş, bunun yanında çalışma koşulları ile ilgili bazı yakınmalarda bulunmuşlardır. TSM çalışanlarının %77’si, genel olarak bu yeni sistemde kendilerine değer verilmediğinden yakınmışlardır. Sonuç: Sağlık hizmeti kullanıcıları, mesai dışı sağlık hizmeti alamamakta ve her muayenede para ödemektedir. Birinci basamak sağlık hizmetleri, kesintisiz ve tamamen ücretsiz olarak sunulmalıdır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile hekimliği, temel sağlık hizmeti, memnuniyet, aile sağlığı merkezi, kırsal bölgeAbstract Objective: The primary objective of health care services is to protect and improve the health of individuals and populations. The most important facility ensuring this objective is provided by healthcare services. For this objective, basic

  15. Bazı aile hekimliği pilot uygulama birimlerinde birinci basamak değerlendirme ölçeği (BDÖ (Primary Care Assessment Survey ile sağlık hizmet özelliklerinin değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Lağarlı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu kesitsel çalışmanın amacı 2008 yılından başlayan Aile ÖzetAmaç: 1 Ocak 2008’de başlayan Aile Hekimliği Manisa İli pilot uygulamasının yapısal ve işleyiş özelliklerini PCAS (Primary Care Assessment Survey Birinci Basamak Değerlendirme Ölçeği ile değerlendirmektir. Yöntem: Çalışma 20.8.2009 - 27.8.2009 tarihleri arasında Manisa merkez ilçede 6 aile sağlığı birimine bağlı bölgede yürütülmüştür. Araştırma bölgesindeki toplam hane sayısı 6900 dür. Küme örnekleme yöntemi ile 360 haneden birer kişiye ulaşılarak, 18 yaş üstü 381 bireye PCAS anketi yüz yüze görüşme yöntemiyle uygulanmıştır. Araştırmaya katılım oranı (327/360 %90’dır. Bulgular: Örneğin yaş ortalaması 41.2±13.9 dur. Araştırma kapsamındaki kişilerin %86.4’ü kadındır. Araştırma grubunun %16.5’i eğitimsiz, %17.0’ı ise sağlık güvencesi olmayanlar ve yeşil kart sahipleridir. Ölçek puanları, boyutlara göre: Ulaşılabilirlik:53.56±17.41; Süreklilik: 74.01±11.95; Kapsayıcılık: 49.04±20.51; Eşgüdüm: 43.13±43.3; Hizmet memnuniyeti :70.01±13.57; Hekimin kişisel yakınlığı :71.94±17.41 ve Güven :71.95±11.96 ‘dır. En başarılı özellik sürekliliktir. Ulaşılabilirlik: Hanede 5 yaş çocuk ve 0-12 aylık bebek varlığında, sağlık güvencesi ve yeşil kart sahibi olanlarda, hanede kronik hastalığı olan birey varlığında ve ailenin tüm bireyleri aynı aile hekimine kayıt olanlarda daha yüksektir. Süreklilik: Yaşlı ve kadınlarda ve eğitimsizlerde, beş yaş altı çocuk ve kronik hasta bulunmayan hanelerde daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Kapsayıcılık: Yaş ilerledikçe ve sağlık güvencesi olanlarda, hanede kronik hastalıklı ve engelli birey varlığında daha yüksektir. Çok değişkenli analizler sonucunda sağlık güvencesi, yaş, eğitim, aynı aile hekimine kayıtlı olma etkili bulunmuştur. Yapısal özet boyut, ilişki özet boyutuna g

  16. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  17. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...

  18. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  19. Origin (?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Origin (?) of the Universe The Big Bang. Jayant V Narlikar. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 6-12. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0006-0012 ...

  20. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...

  1. Making cocoa origin traceable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  2. Origin(?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weaknesses of the big bang cosmology, conceptual as well as observational. ... They argue that this event marks the origin of the ... a change of the lowest energy state of matter, normally designated as ... Rapid expansion of this kind produces some lasting effects in the universe. .... This attitude coupled with attempted ...

  3. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  4. 66 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY JAN 2016 ISBN 1595-689X VOL 17 No.1 ..... WOMEN. Social characteristics. No. examined (n = 310). No. positive. (n=30) (%). Education. Illiterate. Primary. Secondary. Tertiary. Occupation. Civil servant. House wife. Students.

  5. The moon's origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, P.; Benz, W.

    1987-01-01

    Planet formation theory is recalled. The different existing hypothesis on the moon's origins are reviewed also to see how much they are compatible with the planet formation theory. Up to now, the giant impact model seems to be the only model to satisfy all the constraints. Computerized simulation results have been presented in colloquiums and their scenarios are recalled [fr

  6. Symbiotic Origin of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward F; Vatolin, Sergei

    2018-06-01

    Normally aging cells are characterized by an unbalanced mitochondrial dynamic skewed toward punctate mitochondria. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion cycles can contribute to both accelerated and decelerated cellular or organismal aging. In this work, we connect these experimental data with the symbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin to generate new insight into the evolutionary origin of aging. Mitochondria originated from autotrophic α-proteobacteria during an ancient endosymbiotic event early in eukaryote evolution. To expand beyond individual host cells, dividing α-proteobacteria initiated host cell lysis; apoptosis is a product of this original symbiont cell lytic exit program. Over the course of evolution, the host eukaryotic cell attenuated the harmful effect of symbiotic proto-mitochondria, and modern mitochondria are now functionally interdependent with eukaryotic cells; they retain their own circular genomes and independent replication timing. In nondividing differentiated or multipotent eukaryotic cells, intracellular mitochondria undergo repeated fission/fusion cycles, favoring fission as organisms age. The discordance between cellular quiescence and mitochondrial proliferation generates intracellular stress, eventually leading to a gradual decline in host cell performance and age-related pathology. Hence, aging evolved from a conflict between maintenance of a quiescent, nonproliferative state and the evolutionarily conserved propagation program driving the life cycle of former symbiotic organisms: mitochondria.

  7. Origin of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Intended for use with college students, this booklet contains a traditional Hupa story (in Hupa and English) followed by information to aid in a critical literary analysis of the story and topics for student discussion. The introduction explains that "Origin of Fire"--first written down by P.E. Goddard in 1902 and still told by…

  8. Origins of Rolling Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    When a hard object rolls on a soft surface, or vice versa, rolling friction arises from deformation of the soft object or the soft surface. The friction force can be described in terms of an offset in the normal reaction force or in terms of energy loss arising from the deformation. The origin of the friction force itself is not entirely clear. It…

  9. Headache of cervical origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burguet, J L; Wackenheim, A

    1984-08-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''.

  10. About greenhouse effect origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrhenius, S.; Chamberlin, Th.; Croll, J.; Fourier, J.; Pouillet, C.; Tyndall, J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand and decipher the ecological crisis in progress, an historical prospect of its origins and evolution at the worldwide scale is necessary. This book gathers seven founder articles (including 4 original translations), harbingers of the present day climate change. Written during the 19. century by famous scientists like Joseph Fourier, Claude Pouillet, James Croll, John Tyndall, Svante Arrhenius and Thomas Chamberlin, they relate a century of major progress in the domain of Earth's sciences in praise of these scientists. This book allows to (re)discover these texts: discovery of the greenhouse effect principle (Fourier), determination of solar radiation absorption by the atmosphere (Pouillet), rivalry between the astronomical theory of glacial cycles (Croll) and the carbon dioxide climatic theory (Tyndall), influence of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on the global warming (Arrhenius), and confirmation of the major role of CO 2 in the Earth's temperature regulation (Chamberlin). (J.S.)

  11. Archaeal origin of tubulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutin Natalya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tubulins are a family of GTPases that are key components of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotes and are distantly related to the FtsZ GTPase that is involved in cell division in most bacteria and many archaea. Among prokaryotes, bona fide tubulins have been identified only in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter. These bacterial tubulin genes appear to have been horizontally transferred from eukaryotes. Here we describe tubulins encoded in the genomes of thaumarchaeota of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum that we denote artubulins Phylogenetic analysis results are compatible with the origin of eukaryotic tubulins from artubulins. These findings expand the emerging picture of the origin of key components of eukaryotic functional systems from ancestral forms that are scattered among the extant archaea. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Gáspár Jékely and J. Peter Gogarten.

  12. Origin of family symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilles, Hans Peter

    2012-04-01

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  13. Entrepreneurship: Origins and Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Berglann, Helge; R. Moen, Espen R.; Røed, Knut; Skogstrøm, Jens Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    We examine the origins and outcome of entrepreneurship on the basis of exceptionally comprehensive Norwegian matched worker-firm-owner data. In contrast to most existing studies, our notion of entrepreneurship not only comprises self-employment, but also employment in partly self-owned limited liability firms. Based on this extended entrepreneurship concept, we find that entrepreneurship tends to be profitable. It also raises in-come uncertainty, but the most successful quartile gains much mo...

  14. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  15. Origin of tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The origin of tektites has been obscure because of the following dilemma. The application of physical principles to the data available on tektites points strongly to origin from one or more lunar volcanoes; but few glasses of tektite composition have hitherto been reported from the lunar samples. Instead, the lunar silicic glasses consist chiefly of a material very rich in K2O and poor in MgO. The ratio of K2O/MgO is higher in these glasses than in any tektites reported. The solution of the dilemma seems to come from the study of some recently discovered terrestrial deposits of tektite glass with high values of K2O/MgO at the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary. These glasses are found to be very vulnerable to crystallization into sandine or to alteration to smectite. These end products are known and are more abundant than any terrestrial deposits of tektite glass. It seems possible that, in fact, the moon produces tektite glass, mostly of the high K2O-low MgO type; but on Earth these deposits are destroyed. The much less abundant deposits with lower K and higher Mg are observed because they survive. Other objections to the lunar origin hypothesis appear to be answerable.

  16. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  17. Origin of superelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, M.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of superelectrons lies in the atomic nature. Superelectrons are derived from four special electron pair sets of 1s 2 , 2p 6 , 3d 10 , and 4f 14 , which can be represented as 1 S 0 of s-type spin-singlet pairing in the Russel-Saunders term symbol. Tc increases with the increase of the compressive pressure against these spherical electron clouds by the pinch effect due to excess oxygen in cuprate oxide superconductors and the outermost electrons in the superconducting elements, suggesting the increase of the attractive interaction between electrons. (orig.)

  18. The origins of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one's current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

  19. Fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou

    1990-01-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.)

  20. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  1. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+ using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US. HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+ in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. Methods During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Results Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7% had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years. hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions -HSIL were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI = 85.5-99.9 and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI

  2. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Raquel; Moreno-Crespi, Judit; Sardà, Montserrat; Autonell, Josefina; Fibla, Montserrat; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, María; Català, Isabel; Alameda, Francesc; Casas, Miquel; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2012-01-26

    A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+) in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV) triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7%) had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years). hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p < 0.01). At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions--HSIL) were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI) = 85.5-99.9) and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI = 63.1-73.2). The odds ratio for CIN2

  3. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  4. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  5. Origins of mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ( W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive ( i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  6. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  7. Factor of originality in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ešner, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with exploitation of original attitudes in advertising. The thesis solves answers, what role plays the factor of originality in advertising, when and why firms use that factor, how creators work with it, how consumers perceive the factor and what other elements it generally contains. The bachelor thesis qualifies relationship of advertising and originality, describes and probes practical situations, when originality in advertising can be used as a serious competitive...

  8. Looking at our origins

    CERN Document Server

    Nairucu Arts

    2011-01-01

    Exhibition by Nairucu-Arts, in collaboration with the Anthropology Museum Giuseppe Sergi, Università la Sapienza, Roma, Italy and ECOLINT, Campus des Nations. The exhibition comprises: posters (in English and French) intended for a large audience with text from Prof. Giorgio Manzi, Julia Rizzo, Fabio Di Vincenzo, illustrated with art drawings from Carlo Ranzi, Italy. The exhibition will also present drawings from the students of the Art Classes of Karin Bain and Fabien Bruttin at ECOLINT,Geneva. On 2nd March at 5 p.m. you will be welcomed with a drink before the conference that will be given in English at 6 p.m in the CERN Council Room by Wim De Geest, a retired Professor from KUB (Catholic University of Brussels). Title: There's no language like our language, like no language we know. But how did it evolve? A summary in French will be made available for the public. http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Origins.html

  9. Origins of magnetospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Allen, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the scientific investigation of the earth magnetosphere during the period 1946-1960 is reviewed, with a focus on satellite missions leading to the discovery of the inner and outer radiation belts. Chapters are devoted to ground-based studies of the earth magnetic field through the 1930s, the first U.S. rocket flights carrying scientific instruments, the rockoon flights from the polar regions (1952-1957), U.S. planning for scientific use of artificial satellites (1956), the launch of Sputnik I (1957), the discovery of the inner belt by Explorers I and III (1958), the Argus high-altitude atomic-explosion tests (1958), the confirmation of the inner belt and discovery of the outer belt by Explorer IV and Pioneers I-V, related studies by Sputniks II and III and Luniks I-III, and the observational and theoretical advances of 1959-1961. Photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs, and copies of original notes and research proposals are provided. 227 references

  10. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  11. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  12. Origin of Hawking radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajicek, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the possible influence that quantum corrections could have on the existence and position of an event horizon in a spherically symmetric collapse is studied. A counterexample is constructed proving that the small value of near the gravitational radius does not guarantee the formation of an event horizon. In an exactly solvable model of black-hole evaporation, the spacetime structure is manipulated in the Planck neighborhood of the singularity so that the event horizon is shifted arbitrarily to the future or removed completely. This change in the position of the event horizon has no observable consequences until the retarded time of the end of the black-hole evaporation is reached. However, even in the absence of the event horizon, the Hawking radiation survives. In the second part of the paper, its origin is studied. The old idea is adopted that it is coming from a neighborhood of the so-called ergosphere. The concept of the ergosphere is generalized to nonstationary, spherically symmetric spacetimes using the notion of Hawking quasilocal mass. The boundary of such an ergosphere is shown to coincide with the locus of apparent horizons. It seems, therefore, that the Hawking effect is associated with the apparent rather than the event horizon. An extrapolation of some properties of from a neighborhood of the Schwarzschild horizon to that of an apparent horizon forming in a collapse leads to the result that too much energy is radiated away already before the apparent horizon forms, similarly as in the Boulware scenario of gravitational collapse

  13. Origins of narcissism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Nelemans, S.A.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Overbeek, G.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in

  14. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  15. Deeline and Fail: The ailing nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoler, P.

    1985-01-01

    Peter Stoler, a Time correspondent, believes that if the government had regulated the nuclear power industry more strictly instead of being so friendly to it, the industry would be better off today. But Stoler thinks the dying industry can and should be saved. Better management, learning from foreign experience plus more governmental concern with safety are the main prescriptions. Most of the book contains a detailed history of the industry

  16. Aile İçi Şiddet

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNAL, Gülseren

    2007-01-01

    Family violence is a widespread problem thatoccurs among all ages, society, educationalbackgrounds and socioeconomic groups. Theseproblems can exist independently or incombination in the same household.Violence and the threat of violence at homecreates fear and can destroy normal familyfunctioning. Violence in the home alsoaffects specially vvomen and child. Living withdomestic violence can cause physical andemotional harm to all family members.This article provides an overview of the subject...

  17. Akademik Bir Disiplin Olarak Aile Hekimliği

    OpenAIRE

    Ak, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    Family medicine is freuquently identified as a health transformation system in the community. However, Family Medicine is a distinct and independent academic discipline with specific clinic interventions, journals and associations represented both nationaly and internationaly. In this respect brief history of development, core competencies and role of family medicine in health service delivery in the process of health transformation system was evaluated. Key words: Family Medicine; Acada...

  18. Regionalization: The Cure for an Ailing Intelligence Career Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    lenses, and it must resist judging the world as if it operated along the same principles and values that drive America.16 A competent strategic... microeconomics – an officer must spend years working within the region and studying within the network of people with long dwell time and deep 12...nurturing those relationships. One of MG Flynn’s principle initiatives for intelligence improvements in Afghanistan directed the analysts to divide their

  19. What Really Ails the Eurozone?: Faulty Supranational Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Razin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis which erupted in the United States instantaneously swept across Europe. Like the United States, the European Monetary Union (EMU was ripe for a crash. It had its own real estate bubble, specifically in Ireland and Spain, indulged in excessive deficit spending, financially deregulated, and rapidly expanded credit. Policy responses and recovery patterns for key EU members like Germany, France (within the Eurozone and the United Kingdom (outside the Eurozone were similar. However, after the bubble burst and the crisis began unfolding it became clear that the Eurozone plight differed from America’s in one fundamental respect. There was no exact counterpart of Eurozone GIIPS (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal and Spain in the United States. The disparity is traced to the EU’s and Eurozone’s special form of governance called “supranationality” (a partially sovereign transnational organization that has been largely ignored in economic treatises about the costs and benefits of customs unions, economic communities, and monetary unions. EZ members have put themselves in a monetary cage, akin to the gold standard. Member states have surrendered control over their monetary and foreign exchange rate policies to the German dominated European Central Bank (ECB, without supplementary central fiscal, private banking and political union institutions. This should be enough in general competitive theory, but too often leads to factional and societal gridlock that compounds the misery, and could cause the EU to permanently and gravely underperform relative to community’s “un-caged” potential.

  20. Can Six Sigma be the "cure" for our "ailing" NHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Jiju; Downey-Ennis, Kay; Antony, Frenie; Seow, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse whether Six Sigma business strategy can be used to improve the financial and operational performance of the NHS. The paper will also look at some of the major challenges and barriers in the implementation of this powerful process improvement strategy within the healthcare sector. This paper discusses whether Six Sigma DMAIC methodology can be a useful and disciplined approach to tackle process- and quality-related problems in the NHS. The paper presents some key findings from other researchers in the field, followed by some comments on whether Six Sigma is a useful approach to be considered by the NHS for cost reduction and defect reduction strategies. The paper illustrates the point that Six Sigma is not confined just to manufacturing industry, rather it is equally applicable to service industry, especially the healthcare and financial sectors. The application of Six Sigma in the UK health sector is relatively new and the purpose of the paper is to increase the awareness of this powerful business strategy in healthcare discipline.

  1. SA's ailing public health sector 'responding to treatment'? | Bateman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only one of the most vital patient care domains in public healthcare facilities today meets minimum local and international standards – that of positive caring staff attitudes – but while patient waiting times have increased, other critical areas show 'marginal to good' improvements.

  2. Generating original ideas: The neural underpinning of originality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, Naama; Eran, Ayelet; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-08-01

    One of the key aspects of creativity is the ability to produce original ideas. Originality is defined in terms of the novelty and rarity of an idea and is measured by the infrequency of the idea compared to other ideas. In the current study we focused on divergent thinking (DT) - the ability to produce many alternate ideas - and assessed the neural pathways associated with originality. Considering that generation of original ideas involves both the ability to generate new associations and the ability to overcome automatic common responses, we hypothesized that originality would be associated with activations in regions related to associative thinking, including areas of the default mode network (DMN) such as medial prefrontal areas, as well as with areas involved in cognitive control and inhibition. Thirty participants were scanned while performing a DT task that required the generation of original uses for common objects. The results indicate that the ability to produce original ideas is mediated by activity in several regions that are part of the DMN including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Furthermore, individuals who are more original exhibited enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), which was also positively coupled with activity in the left occipital-temporal area. These results are in line with the dual model of creativity, according to which original ideas are a product of the interaction between a system that generates ideas and a control system that evaluates these ideas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Informações sobre mortalidade por causas externas e eventos de intenção indeterminada, Paraná, Brasil, 1979 a 2005 Data on mortality from external causes and events of undetermined intent, Paraná State, Brazil, 1979 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mitiko Konno de Lozada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a qualidade do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM para óbitos por causas externas no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, entre 1979 e 2005, focalizando os eventos de intenção indeterminada. Os óbitos foram agrupados em acidentes de transporte, homicídios, suicídios, eventos de intenção indeterminada, e calculadas a mortalidade proporcional e a variação percentual anual dos coeficientes entre triênios. Os acidentes de transporte foram as causas mais freqüentes de óbito no período e, a partir de 1997, os homicídios passam à segunda posição. Os óbitos por eventos de intenção indeterminada por arma (de fogo ou branca reduziram de 4,8% em 1981 para 0,3% em 2005. Os coeficientes dos eventos (todos de intenção indeterminada passaram de 14,9 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes em 1979/1981 para 2,0 em 2003/2005. A variação percentual anual foi de -13,1% entre 1980 e 1985; -6% entre 1996 e 2000 e -11% entre 2000 e 2004. Os resultados evidenciam a boa qualidade do SIM sobre causas externas no Estado do Paraná, permitindo análises com potencial para subsidiar ações de prevenção e promoção da saúde.This study analyzed the quality of data from the Mortality Information System (SIM for deaths due to external causes in the State of Paraná, Brazil, 1979 to 2005, focusing on events of undetermined intent. Deaths were grouped in motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, and events of undetermined intent, and proportional mortality and relative annual variation of rates over the three-year period were analyzed. Motor vehicle accidents (more than 30% of the total were the most frequent causes of death throughout the period, and since 1997 homicides have become the second most frequent cause. Deaths due to events of undetermined intent caused by weapons (firearms or knives decreased from 4.8% in 1981 to 0.3% in 2005. Mortality rates for events of undetermined intent (overall decreased from 14.9 deaths per 100

  4. Origin of solar radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmr, J.

    1977-01-01

    Solar radiowave radiation amounts to about 10 -7 of the total solar radiation. The solar atmosphere emits radiation of different wavelengths from a fraction of nanometer to kilometer waves. The solar radiowaves are of thermal origin and except for neutral hydrogen emission and solid body radio emission their emission always results from free electrons. The radiowave radiation active components were classified in several types, such as noise storms, flashes, flares, continuum, and flashes lasting for several minutes. The respective types are discussed and their origins shown. The mechanisms are described permitting the formation of radio waves of nonthermal origin, i.e., plasma oscillations, gyromagnetic emission, synchrotron and Cherenkov radiations. (J.P.)

  5. The origins of originality: the neural bases of creative thinking and originality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Adler, N; Aharon-Peretz, J; Perry, D; Mayseless, N

    2011-01-01

    Although creativity has been related to prefrontal activity, recent neurological case studies postulate that patients who have left frontal and temporal degeneration involving deterioration of language abilities may actually develop de novo artistic abilities. In this study, we propose a neural and cognitive model according to which a balance between the two hemispheres affects a major aspect of creative cognition, namely, originality. In order to examine the neural basis of originality, that is, the ability to produce statistically infrequent ideas, patients with localized lesions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior parietal and temporal cortex (PC), were assessed by two tasks involving divergent thinking and originality. Results indicate that lesions in the mPFC involved the most profound impairment in originality. Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions indicated that while the extent of lesion in the right mPFC was associated with impaired originality, lesions in the left PC were associated with somewhat elevated levels of originality. A positive correlation between creativity scores and left PC lesions indicated that the larger the lesion is in this area the greater the originality. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between originality scores and lesions in the right mPFC. It is concluded that the right mPFC is part of a right fronto-parietal network which is responsible for producing original ideas. It is possible that more linear cognitive processing such as language, mediated by left hemisphere structures interferes with creative cognition. Therefore, lesions in the left hemisphere may be associated with elevated levels of originality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estudo das atipias indeterminadas em relação à prevalência e ao percentual de discordância nos casos do Programa de Prevenção do Câncer Uterino do Paraná Study of undetermined atypias in relation to prevalence and disagreement percentile in cases of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Martins Sebastião

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Sistema Bethesda criou a categoria de atipias de significado indeterminado para albergar o diagnóstico citológico de alterações limítrofes entre o processo reacional e o neoplásico. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a prevalência e o percentual de discordância dos casos de atipias indeterminadas em células escamosas (ASCUS e em células glandulares (AGUS do Programa de Prevenção do Câncer de Colo Uterino do Paraná (PPCUPR que foram revistos pela Unidade de Monitoramento Externo da Qualidade Citológica (UMEQC. Da mesma forma tem como objetivo avaliar o padrão de reclassificação entre os casos de atipias indeterminadas (AI, que foram discordantes. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A UMEQC revisou 65.753 casos num período de 25 meses, dos quais foram selecionados casos de AI. Esses casos foram classificados em concordantes e discordantes para a obtenção da prevalência de cada um deles. RESULTADOS: O total de AI antes e após a revisão foi 4.067 casos (5,45% e 3.584 (6,19%, respectivamente. O diagnóstico de ASCUS correspondeu, após a revisão, a 4,91% (3.235 do total da amostra; e o de AGUS, a 0,51% (338. Após a reclassificação dos casos discordantes, de acordo com o padrão estabelecido pela UMEQC, o diagnóstico negativo foi responsável pela maioria (57,32% daqueles que deixaram o grupo das AI. O diagnóstico primário agrupado de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical grau I (NIC I e vírus do papiloma humano (HPV foi responsável pela maioria (51,1% dos casos que foram reclassificados como AI. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Entre todos os casos discordantes as AI ocupam o segundo lugar em freqüência.BACKGROUND: The Bethesda Pap Smear System introduced two categories of undetermined atypias: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. The objective of this study is to report the prevalence and the disagreement percentile of ASCUS and AGUS

  7. Origines de la nomenclature astrale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne-Guillemin, J.

    Within a survey of the Indo-European, Sumero-Babylonian, Greek, Arabic, and modern origins of the names of the constellations, stars, planets, satellites, asteroids, etc., an explanation is offered of the Omega sign used in Greek horoscopes for the lunar nodes but already appearing on Babylonian reliefs. Its origin is traced back to the Sumerian constellations of the Yoke, later called the Dragon.

  8. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  9. ORIGIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-06

    Aug 6, 2012 ... (ACCORD),1 Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and DiamicroN ... (8-10 years) type 2 diabetes and who had previous. CVD. The ACCORD ... presented at the American Diabetes Association annual meeting in ...

  10. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  11. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  12. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  13. Social Origin and Graduation Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960–1975. These are cohorts for whom university...

  14. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  15. Origin of the Gribov ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Gribov ambiguity for the non-abelian transverse gauge field has the same origin as the Johnson-Sudarshan problem for the spin-3/2 field as well as the propagation problem discovered by Velo and Zwanziger. (Auth.)

  16. The Country of Origin Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lala; Baldin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the country of origin (COO) effect on wine purchase in China by considering a sample from an e-commerce website. The paper contribute to the literature on hedonic pricing by applying this model to the Chinese market and including COO as product attribute....

  17. Nature and origin of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Jockers, K.

    1983-01-01

    The review examines basic history and morphology, motion, dynamic evolution, physical properties of neutral gaseous matter, vaporization of gases and outflow from the nucleus, chemistry of the coma gases, the comet nucleus, dust particles, solar wind-comet interactions and tail formation and the origin of comets. (U.K.)

  18. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  19. International Trade: Rules of Origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C; Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ...), used to determine the country of origin of merchandise entering the U.S. market, can be very simple, noncontroversial tools of international trade as long as all of the parts of a product are manufactured and assembled primarily in one country...

  20. The Origin of the Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramazanov, Sabir

    . For this purpose, we employ the quadratic maximum likelihood method, and apply it to the search of the statistical anisotropy in the seven-year WMAP data. We confirm the large quadrupole anisotropy detected in V and W bands, which has been argued to originate from systematic eects rather than from cosmology. We...

  1. Historical Development of Origins Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller’s seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller’s viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  2. The origin of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-12-16

    Risk aversion is one of the most basic assumptions of economic behavior, but few studies have addressed the question of where risk preferences come from and why they differ from one individual to the next. Here, we propose an evolutionary explanation for the origin of risk aversion. In the context of a simple binary-choice model, we show that risk aversion emerges by natural selection if reproductive risk is systematic (i.e., correlated across individuals in a given generation). In contrast, risk neutrality emerges if reproductive risk is idiosyncratic (i.e., uncorrelated across each given generation). More generally, our framework implies that the degree of risk aversion is determined by the stochastic nature of reproductive rates, and we show that different statistical properties lead to different utility functions. The simplicity and generality of our model suggest that these implications are primitive and cut across species, physiology, and genetic origins.

  3. Origins of eponymous orthopaedic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Wang, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Orthopaedists make great use of eponymous equipment, however the origins of these tools are unknown to many users. This history enriches, enlightens, and enhances surgical education, and may inspire modern innovation. We explored the origins of common and eponymous orthopaedic equipment. We selected pieces of equipment named for their inventors and in the broadest use by modern orthopaedists. We do not describe specialized orthopaedic implants and instruments owing to the overwhelming number of these devices. The history of this equipment reflects the coevolution of orthopaedics and battlefield medicine. Additionally, these stories evidence the primacy of elegant design and suggest that innovation is often a process of revision and refinement rather than sudden inspiration. Their history exposes surgical innovators as brilliant, lucky, hardworking, and sometimes odd. These stories amuse, enlighten, and may inspire modern orthopaedists to develop creative solutions of their own. The rich history of the field's eponymous instruments informs an ongoing tradition of innovation in orthopaedics.

  4. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (approx. 10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (approx. 10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to Dirac's large number hypothesis. (orig.)

  5. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1981-02-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (--10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (--10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to the Dirac's large number hypothesis. (author)

  6. On origin of stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmasyan, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    The ratios of the gas component of the mass of young stellar clusters to their stellar mass are considered. They change by more than four orders from one cluster to another. The results are in direct contradiction with the hypothesis of formation of cluster stars from a preliminarily existing gas cloud by its condensation, and they favour the Ambartsumian hypothesis of the joint origin of stars and gas clouds from superdense protostellar matter

  7. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  8. Product Origin and Food Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Delagneau, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    The consumer's knowledge and perception of a product's country of ongm play an important role m food marketing strategies. "Think-national" campaigns are used widelym some EC countries but are not, however, as effective as quantitative restnctions on imports. Surveys and leg1slat10n at both national and EC levels reflect the desire of European consumers for "origin markmg" to appear on food product labels. National stereotypes are frequently adopted by generic and brand advertisers to promote...

  9. On the origin of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culetu, H.

    1990-09-01

    A dynamical origin to the Minkowski geometry is suggested in this paper. The Minkowski internal (-x α x α ) 1/2 plays the role of the fifth dimension. We found the energy-momentum vector p μ (associated to a ''motion in scale'') of a ''free'' relativistic particle in position-dependent. When x i and ''t'' are not independent, we are naturally led to the law of inertia. (author). 10 refs

  10. Origins of Inner Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene

    2017-06-01

    Over the past couple decades, thousands of extra-solar planetshave been discovered orbiting other stars. The exoplanets discovered to date exhibit a wide variety of orbital and compositional properties; most are dramatically different from the planets in our own Solar System. Our classical theories for the origins of planetary systems were crafted to account for the Solar System and fail to account for the diversity of planets now known. We are working to establish a new blueprint for the origin of planetary systems and identify the key parameters of planet formation and evolution that establish the distribution of planetary properties observed today. The new blueprint must account for the properties of planets in inner solar systems, regions of planetary systems closer to their star than Earth’s separation from the Sun and home to most exoplanets detected to data. I present work combining simulations and theory with data analysis and statistics of observed planets to test theories of the origins of inner solars, including hot Jupiters, warm Jupiters, and tightly-packed systems of super-Earths. Ultimately a comprehensive blueprint for planetary systems will allow us to better situate discovered planets in the context of their system’s formation and evolution, important factors in whether the planets may harbor life.

  11. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chushiro; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Miyama, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The study on the origin of the solar system entered a stage of synthetic and positivistic science around 1960, as the observation and the theory of protostars began to develop, the solar chemical composition became almost definite, and the amounts of chemical and mineralogical data greatly increased. In accordance with this scientific situation, the first research meeting in Japan on the origin of the solar system was held in 1965 at the Research Institute for Fundamental Physics, Kyoto University. It was discussed how a variety of the data on the solar system can be explained in a unified way. Since 1977, the workshop on the origin has been held annually. Through a series of the workshops, so-called Kyoto model has been talked and discussed frequently. For three years from 1985, the workshop in Kyoto was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, and one of the main items of this grant was to publish the results of the workshop as the Supplement of the Progress of Theoretical Physics. The chronology of the solar system, the formation processes of protostars, the stability of solar nebulae, the physical processes in solar nebulae, the physical processes related to planetary growth, the growth of planets, and the formation of asteroids and meteorites are described in this book. (K.I.)

  12. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  13. The origins of medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Francis A

    2014-06-01

    The historical origins of medical physics are traced from the first use of weighing as a means of monitoring health by Sanctorius in the early seventeenth century to the emergence of radiology, phototherapy and electrotherapy at the end of the nineteenth century. The origins of biomechanics, due to Borelli, and of medical electricity following Musschenbroek's report of the Leyden Jar, are included. Medical physics emerged as a separate academic discipline in France at the time of the Revolution, with Jean Hallé as its first professor. Physiological physics flowered in Germany during the mid-nineteenth century, led by the work of Adolf Fick. The introduction of the term medical physics into English by Neil Arnott failed to accelerate its acceptance in Britain or the USA. Contributions from Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Nollet, Matteucci, Pelletan, Gavarret, d'Arsonval, Finsen, Röntgen and others are noted. There are many origins of medical physics, stemming from the many intersections between physics and medicine. Overall, the early nineteenth-century definition of medical physics still holds today: 'Physics applied to the knowledge of the human body, to its preservation and to the cure of its illnesses'. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Origins of the Etruscans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Humanist period there was a development of the historical studies as well as epigraphic and archaeological investigations. It was then that the first hypotheses about the origins of the Etruscans appeared. Yet, the more or less scientific approaches to the question of the origins made their appearance in the eighteenth century and they took three different directions. The one theory assumes an oriental origin, the second one a northern origin and the third one presupposes that the Etruscans are an autochthonous people. The first theory is based on the tradition handed down to us by Herodotus, who narrates the migration of a group of Lydians under the guidance of Tyrrhenos, son of king Atys, and this one would be the reason why the Greeks called the Etruscans “Tyrrhenians”. Although having been rejected by modern criticism, this idea found some support in the discovery of epigraphic material in the Isle of Lemnos, in front of the Lydian seaside. The writing and some linguistic elements of the Lemnian epigraphs are very similar to the language spoken by the Etruscans. Other historians, setting out from the great number of objects of oriental origin and, generally speaking, on the culture of the VII and VI century BC which was strongly influenced by eastern elements, spoke emphatically in favour of an oriental origin. According to the latter historians, such an abundance of eastern cultural elements could only be explained by a mass immigration in Etruria of a people coming from the East. Another theory, based on the archaeological studies of the paleo-ethnologist Luigi Pigorini, hypothesizes a southward migration of Etruscan and Italic peoples coming from the north. These peoples are assumed to have introduced in Italy the ritual of incineration or cremation, which partly ousted inhumation. This theory, which did not enjoy much favour, assumes that the Etruscan element is connected with the Villanovan. The third theory, going back

  15. 17 CFR 200.505 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 200... Information and Material § 200.505 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to classify any information on an original basis. (b) If a Commission employee originates...

  16. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... authority. The name and position, or personal identifier, of the original classification authority shall...

  17. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  18. Becquerel and natural origin radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the Becquerel as radioactivity measurement unit, this document briefly explains the origin of natural radioactivity (Earth formation and cosmic rays), gives and comments the evolution of radioactivity of some radionuclides (U 238 and descendants, Th 232 and descendants, K 40 ) between 4.5 billions yeas ago and nowadays. It also gives assessments of natural radioactivity due to radon in the atmosphere and in the soil, of natural radioactivity in building materials, coals, ashes, seawater and food. Some remarkable figures are then given

  19. Origins of the "Western" Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Roslyn M.

    The development of the 48 Greek constellations is analyzed as a complex mixture of cognitive layers deriving from different cultural traditions and dating back to different epochs. The analysis begins with a discussion of the zodiacal constellations, goes on to discuss the stellar lore in Homer and Hesiod, and then examines several theories concerning the origins of the southern non-zodiacal constellations. It concludes with a commentary concerning the age and possible cultural significance of stars of the Great Bear constellation in light of ethnohistorical documentation, folklore, and beliefs related to European bear ceremonialism.

  20. Origin of Scottish oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conacher, H R.J.

    1916-12-01

    Oil shales contain two distinct types of organic material, one is comparable to the woody material in coal and the other consists of yellow bodies. When distilled, the latter yields the liquid product typical of oil shale, whereas the woody material produces large amounts of ammonia. The yellow bodies have been described by various investigators as fossil algae, spores, or dried-up globules of petroleum. In this study it was concluded that the yellow bodies were fragments of resins set free by the decay and oxidation of the vegetable matter with which they were originally associated.

  1. Origin of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.; Iungelson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of field faint blue stars that are placed in the HR diagram to the left of the main sequence is discussed. These include degenerate dwarfs and O and B subdwarfs. Degenerate dwarfs belong to two main populations with helium and carbon-oxygen cores. The majority of the hot subdwarfs most possibly are helium nondegenerate stars that are produced by mass exchange close binaries of moderate mass cores (3-15 solar masses). The theoretical estimates of the numbers of faint blue stars of different types brighter than certain stellar magnitudes agree with star counts based on the Palomar Green Survey. 28 references

  2. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2015-01-01

    to be reconceived in terms of explaining the natural origins of content. Second, the pivotal assumption that intentionality is always and everywhere contentful must be abandoned. Reviving and updating Haugeland’s baseball analogy in the light of these changes, we propose ways of redirecting the efforts of players...... on each base of his intentionality All-Star team, enabling them to start functioning effectively as a team. Only then is it likely that they will finally get their innings and maybe, just maybe, even win the game....

  3. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process).

  4. Electronic Computer Originated Mail Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Takao

    Electronic mail originated by computer is exactly a new communication media which is a product of combining traditional mailing with electrical communication. Experimental service of this type of mailing started in June 10, 1985 at Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Its location in various communication media, its comparison with facsimile type electronic mailing, and status quo of electronic mailing in foreign countries are described. Then, this mailing is briefed centering around the system organization and the services. Additional services to be executed in near future are also mentioned.

  5. The origin of life at the origin of ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currais, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    At first glance, the ageing of unicellular organisms would appear to be different from the ageing of complex, multicellular organisms. In an attempt to describe the nature of ageing in diverse organisms, the intimate links between the origins of life and ageing are examined. Departing from Leslie Orgel's initial ideas on why organisms age, it is then discussed how the potentially detrimental events characteristic of ageing are continuous, cell-autonomous and universal to all organisms. The manifestation of these alterations relies on the balance between their production and cellular renewal. Renewal is achieved not only by repair and maintenance mechanisms but, importantly, by the process of cell division such that every time cells divide ageing-associated effects are diluted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Origin of Heterotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönheit, Peter; Buckel, Wolfgang; Martin, William F

    2016-01-01

    The theory of autotrophic origins of life posits that the first cells on Earth satisfied their carbon needs from CO2. At hydrothermal vents, spontaneous synthesis of methane via serpentinization links an energy metabolic reaction with a geochemical homologue. If the first cells were autotrophs, how did the first heterotrophs arise, and what was their substrate? We propose that cell mass roughly similar to the composition of Escherichia coli was the substrate for the first chemoorganoheterotrophs. Amino acid fermentations, pathways typical of anaerobic clostridia and common among anaerobic archaea, in addition to clostridial type purine fermentations, might have been the first forms of heterotrophic carbon and energy metabolism. Ribose was probably the first abundant sugar, and the archaeal type III RubisCO pathway of nucleoside monophosphate conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate might be a relic of ancient heterotrophy. Participation of chemiosmotic coupling and flavin-based electron bifurcation--a soluble energy coupling process--in clostridial amino acid and purine fermentations is consistent with an autotrophic origin of both metabolism and heterotrophy, as is the involvement of S(0) as an electron acceptor in the facilitated fermentations of anaerobic heterotrophic archaea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Origins of narcissism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-24

    Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by lack of parental warmth). We timed the study in late childhood (ages 7-12), when individual differences in narcissism first emerge. In four 6-mo waves, 565 children and their parents reported child narcissism, child self-esteem, parental overvaluation, and parental warmth. Four-wave cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results support social learning theory and contradict psychoanalytic theory: Narcissism was predicted by parental overvaluation, not by lack of parental warmth. Thus, children seem to acquire narcissism, in part, by internalizing parents' inflated views of them (e.g., "I am superior to others" and "I am entitled to privileges"). Attesting to the specificity of this finding, self-esteem was predicted by parental warmth, not by parental overvaluation. These findings uncover early socialization experiences that cultivate narcissism, and may inform interventions to curtail narcissistic development at an early age.

  8. Phenomenology in Its Original Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Max

    2017-05-01

    In this article, I try to think through the question, "What distinguishes phenomenology in its original sense?" My intent is to focus on the project and methodology of phenomenology in a manner that is not overly technical and that may help others to further elaborate on or question the singular features that make phenomenology into a unique qualitative form of inquiry. I pay special attention to the notion of "lived" in the phenomenological term "lived experience" to demonstrate its critical role and significance for understanding phenomenological reflection, meaning, analysis, and insights. I also attend to the kind of experiential material that is needed to focus on a genuine phenomenological question that should guide any specific research project. Heidegger, van den Berg, and Marion provide some poignant exemplars of the use of narrative "examples" in phenomenological explorations of the phenomena of "boredom," "conversation," and "the meaningful look in eye-contact." Only what is given or what gives itself in lived experience (or conscious awareness) are proper phenomenological "data" or "givens," but these givens are not to be confused with data material that can be coded, sorted, abstracted, and accordingly analyzed in some "systematic" manner. The latter approach to experiential research may be appropriate and worthwhile for various types of qualitative inquiry but not for phenomenology in its original sense. Finally, I use the mythical figure of Kairos to show that the famous phenomenological couplet of the epoché-reduction aims for phenomenological insights that require experiential analysis and attentive (but serendipitous) methodical inquiry practices.

  9. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  10. Intracardiac metastasis originated from chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurea, Nicola; Ragone, Gianluca; Coppola, Carmela; Caronna, Antonietta; Tocchetti, Carlo G; Agozzino, Lucio; Apice, Gaetano; Iaffaioli, Rosario V

    2017-05-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare. By comparison, metastatic involvement of the heart is over 20 times more common and has been reported in autopsy series in up to one in five patients dying of cancer. Cardiac metastasis of chondrosarcoma is absolutely not frequent. In the recent literature, a cardiac metastasis from chondrosarcoma has never been described. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a diagnosis of cardiac metastasis that originated from a left scapular chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma is a skeletal tumor with various grades of malignancy, rapidly evolving, and with a strong tendency to metastasize, with low responsiveness to chemotherapy. The onset of characteristic systemic symptoms in the late stage of the disease led to the diagnosis of a mass localized in the right atrium. Management and differential diagnosis of infective heart lesions were also very complex in a rapidly evolving life-threatening condition.

  11. The Solar System Origin Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    2016-10-01

    A novel theory will be presented based in part on astronomical observations, plasma physics experiments, principles of physics and forensic techniques. The new theory correctly predicts planetary distances with a 1% precision. It accounts for energy production mechanism inside all of the planets including our Earth. A log-log mass-luminosity plot of G2 class stars and solar system planets results in a straight line plot, whose slope implies that a fission rather than a proton-proton fusion energy production is operating. Furthermore, it is a confirmation that all our planets had originated from within our Sun. Other still-born planets continue to appear on the Sun's surface, they are mislabeled as sunspots.

  12. Origin and development of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1989-01-01

    The comets are the most primitive and probably also the oldest members of the solar system. Comet cores are brittle bodies of an irregular shape and of a size of 1 to 10 km whose main component is ice. Around 130 comets move along short-period paths whose aphelia are concentrated in the area of Jupiter. They are in the last stage of development. About 20 comets have periods of 20 to 200 years and feature higher motion stability. Roughly 180 comets have elliptical orbits of a period exceeding 200 years, 200 comets have parabolic and 120 comets have hyperbolic orbits. The most distant comets form the Oort cloud around the solar system consisting of about one billion comets. Comets originated roughly 4.6 thousand million years ago together with planets, probably inside the Oort cloud. (M.D.). 11 figs

  13. Chemical origins of frictional aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2012-11-02

    Although the basic laws of friction are simple enough to be taught in elementary physics classes and although friction has been widely studied for centuries, in the current state of knowledge it is still not possible to predict a friction force from fundamental principles. One of the highly debated topics in this field is the origin of static friction. For most macroscopic contacts between two solids, static friction will increase logarithmically with time, a phenomenon that is referred to as aging of the interface. One known reason for the logarithmic growth of static friction is the deformation creep in plastic contacts. However, this mechanism cannot explain frictional aging observed in the absence of roughness and plasticity. Here, we discover molecular mechanisms that can lead to a logarithmic increase of friction based purely on interfacial chemistry. Predictions of our model are consistent with published experimental data on the friction of silica.

  14. L’origine, la ferita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Fimiani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shutter Island (Paramount Pictures 2010 is a much-criticized and highly debated film. Scorsese, in fact, has been accused of distorting the facts and altering his historical sources. The depictions we see of the Holocaust are false, not based on visual documents, a mix of incompatible evidences and iconographies, an amalgam of irreconcilable informations and representations. The director has created a visual style and a sound design that vacillate between thriller and horror, drama and fantasy, while betraying the medial transparency of the reconstruction and the ethical responsibility of interpretation. The viewer sees and believes in the images of the concentration camp of Dachau which are, in reality, dialectical imaginings of another scene: in these images, constructed according to the clinical and critical vision of Scorsese as cinephile, the past and the repressed return in the present. In our present too. On the one hand, in fact, the viewer participates empathically in the mental images relived and suffered by the protagonist in his post-traumatic hallucinations; on the other hand, the viewer is prompted to recall the pictures quoted or paraphrased from the archives of the imagery of cinema and of the photojournalism of war–in which Pontecorvo, Resnais, Fuller, George Stevens and John Huston live side by side with the RKO horror films of Jacques Tourneur and Mark Robson. For Scorsese, the images of the violence of war and of the horror of extermination cannot be linked to an origin or past that have definitively been concluded. They are more than recorded pictures or concrete evidences: they are clues and symptoms. They come from a conflictual and endless descent of which cinema is the living and ambiguous memory; they are the open wounds of an original struggle between human and inhuman and of man–they still survive, here and now.

  15. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type γ-Ray Active Galactic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... of this optical spectroscopic analysis is to identify the AGN class for the source asso- .... absorption lines of an old stellar population, typical of ellipticals. .... AGNs is a fundamental science case for instruments designed to ...

  16. Immune Deficiency Disease' of Undetermined Aetiology in Infancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... The case of a young female child with a combined immuno- deficiency ... was present, but no other stigmata of Turner's syndrome were noted. Generalised lymphadenopathy and a 2-finger hepatosplenomegaly were found. There was a purulent dis<:harge from drainage tubes placed in both middle ears.

  17. Immune Deficiency Disease' of Undetermined Aetiology in Infancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... J., 48, 687 (1974). Immune deficiency diseases in infancy are best known as ... tion at the age of 10 months confirmed the mental retarda- tion, and on further ... Examination of other organ systems was non-contributory. Triple .... linked recessive transmitted disease, and has not been re- ported in females.

  18. New Forces Yet Undetermined: The Challenge of Biodefense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    and Luther E. Lindler, Frank J. Lebeda, and George W. Korch, eds., Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism (Totowa... Cantor , In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made (New York, NY: The Free Press, 2001). National Institute of Allergy and...Missiakas and Olaf Schneewind, "Bacillus anthracis and the Pathogensis of Anthrax," in Lindler, Luther E., Frank J. Lebeda, and George W. Korch, eds

  19. Search for Pompe disease among patients with undetermined myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, C; Anderson, B; Engvall, M; Hult, M; Oldfors, A

    2015-07-20

    Pompe disease is a rare treatable glycogen storage disease with in adults - a limb-girdle muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy may fail to show the typical vacuolar myopathy. We asked if we had un-diagnosed patients with Pompe disease in western Sweden. We searched the muscle biopsy registry during the time period 1986 until 2006 including 3665 biopsies and included patients at our Neuromuscular Center with unspecified myopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. The dry blood spot test was used to identify patients with Pompe disease. A total of 82 patients (46 from the biopsy register and 36 from our center) were seen and dry blood spot test was obtained. No patient with Pompe disease was found. The dry blood spot test was low in three cases (11, 16, and 18% of normal) but a second blood sample showed a normal result based on GAA enzyme activity in lymphocytes in all three patients. In one patient with low normal result of the analysis in lymphocytes a genetic test showed no pathogenic mutations. Further investigation gave a definite diagnose of another myopathy in 12 patients. The prevalence of Pompe disease in western Sweden (3 in 1.27 million or 0.24 per 100.000 inhabitants) is lower than in the Netherlands and New York. Re-evaluation of patients with myopathies but without definite diagnosis is rewarding since 12 of 82 patients in our study had a definite molecular diagnosis after workup. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Avaliação da qualidade das informações de mortalidade por acidentes não especificados e eventos com intenção indeterminada Evaluation of the quality of mortality information by unspecified accidents and events of undetermined intent in a metropolis of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Drumond Jr

    1999-06-01

    ções de mortalidade por causas externas pode contribuir para o monitoramento da violência, como base à tomada de decisões para sua redução.INTRODUCTION: Mortality data are important for monitoring violence, making it possible to assess the trends and the impact of interventions towards its reduction. The objective of the study is to assess the quality of the filling out and codification of the death certificates for unspecified accidents and events of undetermined intent in the city of S. Paulo in 1996. METHODS: Death certificates on which the underlying cause of death (UCD given was an unspecified accident (ICD-10 X59 or an event of undetermined intent (ICD-10 Y10-Y34 were selected for investigation at the Legal Medicine Institute (IML. After consulting the police reports which accompany the corpses to the IML, the autopsy reports and other legal forms, these were analysed and the UCD was recoded. RESULTS: For unspecified accidents, 53.2% were changed to a specified cause: 15.1% due to pedestrians injured in traffic accidents, 17.5% due to other traffic accidents and 14.5% due to falls. Homicides and suicides constituted 9.8%. In 20.9% no additional information was found. For events of undetermined intent, 2/3 had no clarification; in 1/3 of the cases, the underlying cause changed to falls (10.6%, homicides (7.5% and pedestrians injured in transport accidents (6.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of mortality information by external causes in the City of S. Paulo is not satisfactory. The IML has not used all the available information to fill out the death certificates. The findings reveal that the instruction of the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Center for the Classification of Diseases to codify as accidents those events for which there is no information on the death certificate about the external cause, does not seem to be appropriate. In that category 66.0% of the deaths were found to have been inferred incorrectly as accidental. The improvement of the

  1. The Origin of the Chemical Elements, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbin, Joel

    1973-01-01

    The problem of the origin is inextricably interwoven with such matters as the origin of the universe, the structure and evolution of galaxies, stars and other astronomical objects, and with nuclear physics. (Author/DF)

  2. 19 CFR 10.594 - Originating goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.594 Originating goods. Except as otherwise provided in... good otherwise satisfies any applicable regional value content or other requirements specified in...

  3. Origin of the solar system. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, A.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A theory for the origin of the solar system, which is based on ideas of supersonic turbulent convection and indicates the possibility that the original Laplacian hypothesis may by valid, is presented. (Auth.)

  4. Human origins: Out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  5. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not designed to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-@Lg/L), the consequences of exposure to multiple compounds having different as w

  6. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    1982-01-01

    Many studies on the origin of the solar system have so far been made until now. These are divided into three categories; Cameron's model, Safronov's model and Kyoto model. In Cameron's model, as an initial stage of the formation of the solar system, a massive solar nebula is assumed whose mass is as large as one solar mass. This solar nebula is unstable against gravitational fragmentation, which leads to massive gaseous protoplanets. On the other hand, in both models of Safronov and us, the mass of the nebula is of the order of a few percent of the solar mass or less. However, a significant difference between Safronov's and ours lies in the continuing accumulation process of planetesimals; in the former, the accumulation is assumed to proceed in a gas-free space, but in the latter, the gas drag effect of the solar nebula is fully taken into account on the planetary growth. In this paper, the scenario of Kyoto model is reviewed, which has been developed by Hayashi and his co-workers in Kyoto group for these ten years. We will see that the gas of the solar nebula has played extensively important roles on the various stages of the planetary formation. (author)

  7. Origins of Deconstruction in Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Mosleh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Derrida’s deconstruction is formed in relation to different philosophical movements such as existentialism, phenomenology, and structuralism. In this inquiry, we will search the origin of deconstruction in texts and philosophy of Friedrisch Nietzsche. We will show that Derrida’s thought is a development of Nietzsche’s critic of metaphysical thought. Most important Derridean concepts such as metaphysics of presence, diferrance, and critic of logocentrism are basically Nietzschean. Nietzsche was very pessimistic about philosophical thought and sought a nonphilosophical and nontheoretical thought. He introduced art as a view to the world that is free from limitations of theoretical thought. In Derrida, also, we can see this pessimistic view to philosophical thought, but he insists that this view is formed inside of philosophical thought. He introduced a practical thought instead of theoretical thought and systematically criticized the latter. We will show that Derrida’s deconstruction is an attempt to make a distance from theoretical thought and, thus, is a Nietzschean movement. This is an attempt to find a way in philosophy that does not have to be theoretical an attempt begun in Nietzsche and culminated in Derrida.

  8. Origins of Deconstruction in Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Mosleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Derrida’s deconstruction is formed in relation to different philosophical movements such as existentialism, phenomenology, and structuralism. In this inquiry, we will search the origin of deconstruction in texts and philosophy of Friedrisch Nietzsche. We will show that Derrida’s thought is a development of Nietzsche’s critic of metaphysical thought. Most important Derridean concepts such as metaphysics of presence, diferrance, and critic of logocentrism are basically Nietzschean. Nietzsche was very pessimistic about philosophical thought and sought a nonphilosophical and nontheoretical thought. He introduced art as a view to the world that is free from limitations of theoretical thought. In Derrida, also, we can see this pessimistic view to philosophical thought, but he insists that this view is formed inside of philosophical thought. He introduced a practical thought instead of theoretical thought and systematically criticized the latter. We will show that Derrida’s deconstruction is an attempt to make a distance from theoretical thought and, thus, is a Nietzschean movement. This is an attempt to find a way in philosophy that does not have to be theoretical an attempt begun in Nietzsche and culminated in Derrida.

  9. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  10. Phylogenetic Origins of Brain Organisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Robertshaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The regionalisation of the nervous system begins early in embryogenesis, concomitant with the establishment of the anteroposterior (AP and dorsoventral (DV body axes. The molecular mechanisms that drive axis induction appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom and may be phylogenetically older than the emergence of bilateral symmetry. As a result of this process, groups of patterning genes that are equally well conserved are expressed at specific AP and DV coordinates of the embryo. In the emerging nervous system of vertebrate embryos, this initial pattern is refined by local signalling centres, secondary organisers, that regulate patterning, proliferation, and axonal pathfinding in adjacent neuroepithelium. The main secondary organisers for the AP neuraxis are the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, zona limitans intrathalamica, and anterior neural ridge and for the DV neuraxis the notochord, floor plate, and roof plate. A search for homologous secondary organisers in nonvertebrate lineages has led to controversy over their phylogenetic origins. Based on a recent study in hemichordates, it has been suggested that the AP secondary organisers evolved at the base of the deuterostome superphylum, earlier than previously thought. According to this view, the lack of signalling centres in some deuterostome lineages is likely to reflect a secondary loss due to adaptive processes. We propose that the relative evolutionary flexibility of secondary organisers has contributed to a broader morphological complexity of nervous systems in different clades.

  11. The Origin of Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, R.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2000-12-01

    Milliarcsecond astrometry provided by Hipparcos and by radio observations makes it possible to retrace the orbits of some of the nearest runaway stars and pulsars to determine their site of origin. The orbits of the runaways AE Aurigae and μ Columbae and of the eccentric binary ι Orionis intersected each other ~2.5 Myr ago in the nascent Trapezium cluster, confirming that these runaways were formed in a binary-binary encounter. The path of the runaway star ζ Ophiuchi intersected that of the nearby pulsar PSR J1932+1059, ~1 Myr ago, in the young stellar group Upper Scorpius. We propose that this neutron star is the remnant of a supernova that occurred in a binary system that also contained ζ Oph and deduce that the pulsar received a kick velocity of ~350 km s-1 in the explosion. These two cases provide the first specific kinematic evidence that both mechanisms proposed for the production of runaway stars, the dynamical ejection scenario and the binary-supernova scenario, operate in nature.

  12. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    The methodology of the problem of the origin and evolution of the Solar System is analysed and it is pointed out that one can approach it in two different ways. (1) One can postulate that long ago there was a certain more or less likely-state, and then calculate how this developed into the present state. In principle this approach is 'mythological' and it differs from the old myths mainly in the respect that it is formulated in a mathematical way. (2) One can start from the present state and reconstruct increasingly older states. This is what the geologists call the 'actualist approach' and is the only one which can claim to be scientific. The 'Laplacean' type of theories is criticized. There is no indication that there was a 'Laplacean' homogeneous disc as an intermediate state, and there is no acceptable mechanism through which the present solar system could be formed from such a disc. The solar system today has a band structure, the planets as well as the satellites all fall in certain bands characterized by certain values of the gravitational potential. The band structure is explained as a result of the ionization of infalling matter when its velocity has reached the 'critical velocity' for ionization. (Auth.)

  13. Nanogranular origin of concrete creep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Matthieu; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-06-30

    Concrete, the solid that forms at room temperature from mixing Portland cement with water, sand, and aggregates, suffers from time-dependent deformation under load. This creep occurs at a rate that deteriorates the durability and truncates the lifespan of concrete structures. However, despite decades of research, the origin of concrete creep remains unknown. Here, we measure the in situ creep behavior of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the nano-meter sized particles that form the fundamental building block of Portland cement concrete. We show that C-S-H exhibits a logarithmic creep that depends only on the packing of 3 structurally distinct but compositionally similar C-S-H forms: low density, high density, ultra-high density. We demonstrate that the creep rate ( approximately 1/t) is likely due to the rearrangement of nanoscale particles around limit packing densities following the free-volume dynamics theory of granular physics. These findings could lead to a new basis for nanoengineering concrete materials and structures with minimal creep rates monitored by packing density distributions of nanoscale particles, and predicted by nanoscale creep measurements in some minute time, which are as exact as macroscopic creep tests carried out over years.

  14. Fetal Origin of Sensorimotor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fagard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to track the fetal origin of infants’ sensorimotor behavior. We consider development as the self-organizing emergence of complex forms from spontaneously generated activity, governed by the innate capacity to detect and memorize the consequences of spontaneous activity (contingencies, and constrained by the sensory and motor maturation of the body. In support of this view, we show how observations on fetuses and also several fetal experiments suggest that the fetus’s first motor activity allows it to feel the space around it and to feel its body and the consequences of its movements on its body. This primitive motor babbling gives way progressively to sensorimotor behavior which already possesses most of the characteristics of infants’ later behavior: repetition of actions leading to sensations, intentionality, some motor control and oriented reactions to sensory stimulation. In this way the fetus can start developing a body map and acquiring knowledge of its limited physical and social environment.

  15. On the Origin of Interoception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Erik; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van Diest, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of a century, the meaning of interoception has changed from the restrictive to the inclusive. In its inclusive sense, it bears relevance to every individual via its link to emotion, decision making, time-perception, health, pain, and various other areas of life. While the label for the perception of the body state changes over time, the need for an overarching concept remains. Many aspects can make any particular interoceptive sensation unique and distinct from any other interoceptive sensation. This can range from the sense of agency, to the physical cause of a sensation, the ontogenetic origin, the efferent innervation, and afferent pathways of the tissue involved amongst others. In its overarching meaning, interoception primarily is a product of the central nervous system, a construct based on an integration of various sources, not per se including afferent information. This paper proposes a definition of interoception as based on subjective experience, and pleas for the use of specific vocabulary in addressing the many aspects that contribute to it.

  16. Origin of giant Martian polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgill, George E.; Hills, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive areas of the Martian northern plains in Utopia and Acidalia planitiae are characterized by 'polygonal terrane'. Polygonal terrane consists of material cut by complex troughs defining a pattern resembling mudcracks, columnar joints, or frost-wedge polygons on earth. However, the Martian polygons are orders of magnitude larger than these potential earth analogues, leading to severe mechanical difficulties for genetic models based on simple analogy arguments. Plate-bending and finite element models indicate that shrinkage of desiccating sediment or cooling volcanics accompanied by differential compaction over buried topography can account for the stresses responsible for polygon troughs as well as the large size of the polygons. Although trough widths and depths relate primarily to shrinkage, the large scale of the polygonl pattern relates to the spacing between topographic elevations on the surface buried beneath polygonal terrane material. Geological relationships favor a sedimentary origin for polygonal terrane material, but our model is not dependent on the specific genesis. Our analysis also suggests that the polygons must have formed at a geologically rapid rate.

  17. The Origins of Human Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of the human species during a relatively short period in its evolutionary history, the last forty millennia of the Pleistocene. The hitherto dominant hypotheses of “modern” human origins, the replacement and various other “out of Africa” models, have recently been refuted by the findings of several disciplines, and by a more comprehensive review of the archaeological evidence. The complexity of the subject is reconsidered in the light of several relevant frames of reference, such as those provided by niche construction and gene-culture co-evolutionary theories, and particularly by the domestication hypothesis. The current cultural, genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is reviewed, as well as other germane factors, such as the role of neurodegenerative pathologies, the neotenization of humans in their most recent evolutionary history, and the question of cultural selection-based self-domestication. This comprehensive reassessment leads to a paradigmatic shift in the way recent human evolution needs to be viewed. This article explains fully how humans became what they are today.

  18. The Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies to be submitted by NASA Headquarters to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. The observatory will cover a wavelength range between 5 μm and 600 μm in order to enable the study of the formation of proto-planetary disks, detection of bio-signatures from extra-solar planet's atmospheres, characterization of the first galaxies in the universe, and many more. The five instruments that are currently studied are two imaging far-infrared spectrometers using incoherent detectors, providing up to R 10^5 spectral resolution, one far-infrared infrared heterodyne instrument for even higher spectral resolving powers, one far-infrared continuum imager and polarimeter, plus a mid-infrared coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopy mode. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST.

  19. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  20. Cosmic ray origin: the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A W

    2003-01-01

    Despite their discovery being 90 years ago cosmic rays are still characterised by their uncertain masses at high energy and their uncertain origin. This paper deals with the origin problem. The case is put for the majority of the particles being of galactic origin - a generally accepted result. Specific models are put forward for the galactic mechanism and that for the minority extragalactic component

  1. Becoming original : Effects of strategy instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, M.-T.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2016-01-01

    Visual arts education focuses on creating original visual art products. A means to improve originality is enhancement of divergent thinking, indicated by fluency, flexibility and originality of ideas. In regular arts lessons, divergent thinking is mostly promoted through brainstorming. In a previous

  2. 46 CFR 503.54 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original classification. 503.54 Section 503.54 Shipping... Program § 503.54 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to... classification, it shall be sent to the appropriate agency with original classification authority over the...

  3. 22 CFR 9.4 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 9.4 Section 9.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.4 Original classification. (a) Definition. Original classification is the initial determination that certain information...

  4. 5 CFR 1201.2 - Original jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original jurisdiction. 1201.2 Section 1201.2 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Jurisdiction and Definitions § 1201.2 Original jurisdiction. The Board's original...

  5. 46 CFR 67.70 - Original owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original owner. 67.70 Section 67.70 Shipping COAST GUARD... Acceptable Title Evidence; Waiver § 67.70 Original owner. The builder's certification described in § 67.99 serves as evidence of the original owner's title to a vessel. ...

  6. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original classification. 2500.3 Section... SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information. ...

  7. 21 CFR 814.104 - Original applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original applications. 814.104 Section 814.104...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.104 Original... applicant. (d) Address for submissions and correspondence. Copies of all original HDEs amendments and...

  8. Becoming Original: Effects of Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Visual arts education focuses on creating original visual art products. A means to improve originality is enhancement of divergent thinking, indicated by fluency, flexibility and originality of ideas. In regular arts lessons, divergent thinking is mostly promoted through brainstorming. In a previous study, we found positive effects of an explicit…

  9. Origin of hominids: European or African origin, neither or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senut, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, some scientists have suggested that the African ape and humans lineages emerged in Europe, a scenario known as the “Back to Africa Hypothesis”. Even though hominoids were widespread in Eurasia during the Middle and Upper Miocene due to the tropical conditions which prevailed in this region, we cannot dismiss the fact that they were present in Africa (contra some authors. Actually, they were highly diverse at that same time (at least 10 lineages represented even if the fossil record is less complete than in Eurasia. Postcranial elements from African species suggest that some features of modern hominoids were already present in the Lower and Middle Miocene of Africa and were not restricted to European ones. Considering the available evidence, it is not possible at this stage to favour a European origin over an African one. Hominoids were living in the tropical areas of Northern Africa and Southern Eurasia and faunal exchanges between the two continents occurred throughout the Middle and Upper Miocene, as the Tethys did not act as an effective barrier to interchanges between Europe and Asia.

    Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores. En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas, incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a

  10. [The origin of informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallardi, V

    2005-10-01

    The principle of informed consent, aimed at the lawfulness of health assistance, tends to reflect the concept of autonomy and of decisional autodetermination of the person requiring and requesting medical and/or surgical interventions. This legal formula, over the last few years, has gained not only considerable space but also importance in the doctrinal elaboration and approaches, as well as juridical interpretations, thereby influencing the everyday activities of the medical profession. Informed consent is still the object of continuous explorations, not only asfar as concerns the already confirmed theoretical profile but, instead, the ambiguous practical and consequential aspect. Analysing how the concept and role of consensus was born and developed with the more adequate and reasonable excursions to make it valid and obtain it, it is impossible not to take into consideration, on the one hand, the very ancient philosophical origins and, on the other, the fact that it was conditioned by religion with the moral aspects and the accelerated deontological evolution with pathways parallel to the needs and the progress offered by new forms of treatment and novel biotechnological applications. The principle of consent is a relatively new condition. In fact, already in the times of not only the Egyptian civilisation, but also the Greek and Roman, documents have been found which show how the doctor's intervention had, in some way, first to be approved by the patient. Plato (law IV) had already foreseen the problems, the procedures and the modes of information which are, in synthesis, at the root of the principles of the present formula of informed consent and correlated the practice of the information and consensus with the quality and social position of the patient. The only guarantee that the patient might have, derived from a fundamental principle of medicine of all times: "in disease, focus on two aims, to improve and not to cause damage". A figure can be recognised

  11. Structural Origins of Silk Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Tuna; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2011-02-22

    Uniaxially oriented, piezoelectric silk films were prepared by a two-step method that involved: (1) air drying aqueous, regenerated silk fibroin solutions into films, and (2) drawing the silk films to a desired draw ratio. The utility of two different drawing techniques, zone drawing and water immersion drawing were investigated for processing the silk for piezoelectric studies. Silk films zone drawn to a ratio of λ= 2.7 displayed relatively high dynamic shear piezoelectric coefficients of d(14) = -1.5 pC/N, corresponding to over two orders of magnitude increase in d(14) due to film drawing. A strong correlation was observed between the increase in the silk II, β-sheet content with increasing draw ratio measured by FTIR spectroscopy (C(β)∝ e(2.5) (λ)), the concomitant increasing degree of orientation of β-sheet crystals detected via WAXD (FWHM = 0.22° for λ= 2.7), and the improvement in silk piezoelectricity (d(14)∝ e(2.4) (λ)). Water immersion drawing led to a predominantly silk I structure with a low degree of orientation (FWHM = 75°) and a much weaker piezoelectric response compared to zone drawing. Similarly, increasing the β-sheet crystallinity without inducing crystal alignment, e.g. by methanol treatment, did not result in a significant enhancement of silk piezoelectricity. Overall, a combination of a high degree of silk II, β-sheet crystallinity and crystalline orientation are prerequisites for a strong piezoelectric effect in silk. Further understanding of the structural origins of silk piezoelectricity will provide important options for future biotechnological and biomedical applications of this protein.

  12. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  13. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Origins of galactic spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Theories of galactic structure are reviewed briefly before comparing them with recent observations. Also reviewed is the evidence for an intergalactic magnetic field and its possible effects on gas concentrations and patterns of star creation, including spiral arms. It is then shown that normal spiral galaxies may be divided into the M51-type and others. The rare M51-type have H I gas arms coincident with unusually filamentary and luminous optical arms; they also have a companion galaxy. The remaining great majority of spirals have no well-defined gas arms and their optical arms are irregular, broader and less luminous; they have no companion galaxy. It appears that without exception the half-dozen or so galaxies whose structures appear to support the density-wave theory show one or more of the characteristics of the rare type of spiral, and that 'the three principal confirmations of the spiral-wave idea' (M51, M81, M101) have companions which may account for their arms. Toomre has rejected this idea on the grounds that his models do not agree with the observed structures. It is shown that these models are inadequate in two major respects, and when replaced by magneto-tidal models using non-uniform gas disks one might expect agreement. The original hydromagnetic model of spiral arms is now reserved for non-interacting galaxies, of which M33 might be taken as a prototype. The model predicts broad or 'massive' optical arms and no corresponding arms of neutral hydrogen, as observed. (Auth.)

  15. Mapping replication origins in yeast chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1991-07-01

    The replicon hypothesis, first proposed in 1963 by Jacob and Brenner, states that DNA replication is controlled at sites called origins. Replication origins have been well studied in prokaryotes. However, the study of eukaryotic chromosomal origins has lagged behind, because until recently there has been no method for reliably determining the identity and location of origins from eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we review a technique we developed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows both the mapping of replication origins and an assessment of their activity. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with total genomic DNA are used to determine whether a particular restriction fragment acquires the branched structure diagnostic of replication initiation. The technique has been used to localize origins in yeast chromosomes and assess their initiation efficiency. In some cases, origin activation is dependent upon the surrounding context. The technique is also being applied to a variety of eukaryotic organisms.

  16. Modern human origins: progress and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropological debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself. It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, be...

  17. 75 FR 735 - Original Classification Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... classify information originally as ``Top Secret'' or ``Secret'': TOP SECRET Executive Office of the... Space Administration The Director, Information Security Oversight Office SECRET Executive Office of the...

  18. Schwannoma Originating From the Periphereral Intercostal Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Aksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are usually solitary, encapsulated, and asymptomatic, benign neurogenic tumors originating from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas rarely show malignant transformation, however, require close monitoring. They are primarily located in the thorax in the costovertebral sulcus, may rarely originate from peripheral intercostal nerves. Less than 10% of primary thoracic neurogenic tumors originate from the peripheral intercostal nerves. The main treatment and diagnosis of schwannomas are complete surgical resection. We report a rare case of a 40-year-old male with asymptomatic schwannoma originating from an intercostal nerve which was found incidentally on his chest X-ray and was treated with surgery.

  19. Country of origin effect on brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been a substantial amount of empirical evidence on the country of origin phenomenon. However, marketing scholars have different perspectives and views on how the country of origin effect has impacted the brand perceptions of consumers. This paper presents...... an extensive review of the literature on the COO effect and traces the conceptual development of the country-of-origin construct in order to provide scholars and practitioners with a critical appraisal of the existing research on this topic. By following the grounds of the systematic literature, this study...... seeks to establish a solid base for country-of-origin research review....

  20. The Halo Model of Origin Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander; Lukas, Bryan A.; Whitwell, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    National origin has gained importance as a marketing tool for practitioners to sell their goods and services. However, because origin-image research has been troubled by several fundamental limitations, academia has become sceptical of the current status and strategic implications of the concept....... The aim of this paper was threefold, namely, to provide a state-of-the-art review of origin-image research in marketing, develop and empirically test a new origin-image model and, present the implications of the study....

  1. Consumer ethnocentrism and Country of origin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    The research on consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin effect is quite substantial in the area of consumer research, but there are competing views as to how low involvement products influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin in a transitional market setting...

  2. Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)

    1985-01-01

    Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

  3. On the biosynthetic origin of carminic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas A.; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Khorsand-Jamal, Paiman

    2018-01-01

    provides solid evidence of a polyketide, rather than a shikimate, origin of coccid pigments. Based on the newly identified compounds, we present a detailed biosynthetic scheme that accounts for the formation of carminic acid (CA) in D. coccus and all described coccid pigments which share a flavokermesic...... distribution suggests a common evolutionary origin for the trait in all coccid dye producing insect species....

  4. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported into...

  5. 27 CFR 478.44 - Original license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original license. 478.44 Section 478.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND....44 Original license. (a)(1) Any person who intends to engage in business as a firearms or ammunition...

  6. The Gestural Theory of Language Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David F.

    2008-01-01

    The idea that iconic visible gesture had something to do with the origin of language, particularly speech, is a frequent element in speculation about this phenomenon and appears early in its history. Socrates hypothesizes about the origins of Greek words in Plato's satirical dialogue, "Cratylus", and his speculation includes a possible…

  7. The origin of turtles: a paleontological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    The origin of turtles and their unusual body plan has fascinated scientists for the last two centuries. Over the course of the last decades, a broad sample of molecular analyses have favored a sister group relationship of turtles with archosaurs, but recent studies reveal that this signal may be the result of systematic biases affecting molecular approaches, in particular sampling, non-randomly distributed rate heterogeneity among taxa, and the use of concatenated data sets. Morphological studies, by contrast, disfavor archosaurian relationships for turtles, but the proposed alternative topologies are poorly supported as well. The recently revived paleontological hypothesis that the Middle Permian Eunotosaurus africanus is an intermediate stem turtle is now robustly supported by numerous characters that were previously thought to be unique to turtles and that are now shown to have originated over the course of tens of millions of years unrelated to the origin of the turtle shell. Although E. africanus does not solve the placement of turtles within Amniota, it successfully extends the stem lineage of turtles to the Permian and helps resolve some questions associated with the origin of turtles, in particular the non-composite origin of the shell, the slow origin of the shell, and the terrestrial setting for the origin of turtles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Renal artery origins: best angiographic projection angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuyl, E J; Kaatee, R; Beek, F J; Patel, N H; Fontaine, A B; Daly, C P; Coldwell, D M; Bush, W H; Mali, W P

    1997-10-01

    To determine the best projection angles for imaging the renal artery origins in profile. A mathematical model of the anatomy at the renal artery origins in the transverse plane was used to analyze the amount of aortic lumen that projects over the renal artery origins at various projection angles. Computed tomographic (CT) angiographic data about the location of 400 renal artery origins in 200 patients were statistically analyzed. In patients with an abdominal aortic diameter no larger than 3.0 cm, approximately 0.5 mm of the proximal part of the renal artery and origin may be hidden from view if there is a projection error of +/-10 degrees from the ideal image. A combination of anteroposterior and 20 degrees and 40 degrees left anterior oblique projections resulted in a 92% yield of images that adequately profiled the renal artery origins. Right anterior oblique projections resulted in the least useful images. An error in projection angle of +/-10 degrees is acceptable for angiographic imaging of the renal artery origins. Patients sex, site of interest (left or right artery), and local diameter of the abdominal aorta are important factors to consider.

  9. Prevalência de lesões intraepiteliais em atipias de significado indeterminado em um serviço público de referência para neoplasias cervicais Prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales en atipias de significado indeterminado en un servicio público de referencia para neoplasias cervicales Prevalence of atypical squamous cell intraepithelial lesions of undetermined significance in a public health referral service for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railda Fraga Costa

    2011-01-01

    óstico colpocitológico de atipias de significado indeterminado (ASCUS fue del 23,7%, el aumento del riesgo fue directamente proporcional al de la edad y hubo mayor prevalencia de lesión intraepitelial de bajo grado, asociada a la infección por el Papilomavirus humano.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of low and high grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. Knowing the influence of age and the etiological agents for sexually transmitted diseases on the risk of developing low and high grade intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: Cross sectional prevalence study at a public referral center for cervical cancer. We studied records of 253 women with atypical diagnoses of undetermined significance, in 2007. RESULTS: The prevalence of intraepithelial lesions was 23.7%; 26.7% were low grade and 73.3% high grade. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was 23.7%; the increase in risk was directly proportional to the age and higher prevalence of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion associated with papillomavirus infection.

  10. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  11. Browsing the Origins of Comic Book Superheroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2017-01-01

    This article tries to explore and explain the significance of comic book superheroes and their origins stories. The analysis of the two selected case examples from the sociale video sharing site WatchMojo.com focus on four aspects or theme: Comic book hermeneutics, types of origin, subjectivization...... of superheroes, and, user reactions. These analytical themes are based on an approach combining cultural semiotics, comic book superhero studies, studies in participatory culture, cultural studies and media user studies. The analysis presented provide some evidence to the claim, that superhero origins stories...

  12. [Origin and evolution of human immunodeficiency viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Constantin V

    2009-01-01

    After the diagnosis of the AIDS symptoms, in 1981, and after the discovery of the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983, the virologists have formulated different theories about its origin. Some of them involved natural causes, e.g., HIV origin from SIV strains. Other theories go further to the possibility of a deadly man-made virus escaped from laboratories or voluntary spread by some conspirative organisations. At this moment, the scientists limits themselves to search proofs to sustain the zoonotic origin of HIV from SIV and its accomodation to human body conditions.

  13. Quality of original and biosimilar epoetin products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Vera; Hawe, Andrea; Basmeleh, Abdul H H; Joachin-Rodriguez, Liliana; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W; Jiskoot, Wim; Schellekens, Huub

    2011-02-01

    To compare the quality of therapeutic erythropoietin (EPO) products, including two biosimilars, with respect to content, aggregation, isoform profile and potency. Two original products, Eprex (epoetin alpha) and Dynepo (epoetin delta), and two biosimilar products, Binocrit (epoetin alpha) and Retacrit (epoetin zeta), were compared using (1) high performance size exclusion chromatography, (2) ELISA, (3) SDS-PAGE, (4) capillary zone electrophoresis and (5) in-vivo potency. Tested EPO products differed in content, isoform composition, and potency. Of the tested products, the biosimilars have the same or even better quality as the originals. Especially, the potency of originals may significantly differ from the value on the label.

  14. On origin of mass and supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, Kazunari; Tsuda, Motomu

    2007-01-01

    We show that the nonlinear supersymmetric general relativity gives new insights into the origin of mass and elucidates the mysterious relations between the cosmology and the (low energy) particle physics.

  15. New Step Underground in Universe Origins Quest

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Europe's top particle physics research center has taken a major step in its plan to build the world's biggest "particle smasher" which it hopes will eventually unlock the secrets of the origins of the universe (½ page)

  16. Dynamics of comets: their origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Comets can be considered as remnants of the original population of planetesimals and the study of their origin and dynamical histories can provide insight into the accretion phenomena; the original mass, energy and angular momentum distribution across the solar system; the collisional fragmentation of minor bodies; the impact rates on planets and the nature of impacting bodies. The interaction of comets with other solar system bodies certainly provides one of the best possibilities for a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the whole system, and a challenging test for all theories of celestial mechanics dealing with the gravitational behaviour of multiple-body systems. Comets could also be considered as the last footprints left by the interaction of the protosun and its original galactic environment. (orig.)

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramadan period, which assisted in compliance with fasting. The clinical parameters ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE adequate depth penetration, and is suitable for obese subjects. A 5.0 ... group difference for continuous variables. Chi-square and ...

  18. God particle and origin of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongjian; Kuang Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The new Higgs boson discovered at the CERN LHC could be the God particle expected from the standard model. This revolutionary discovery opens up a new era of exploring the origin of masses for all elementary particles in the universe. It becomes a turning point of the particle physics in 21 th century. This article presents the following: (1) Scientific importance of searching and testing the God particle(s); (2) The history of studying the origin of mass, and why Newton mechanics and Einstein relativity could not resolve the origin of mass; (3) The mysterious vacuum and the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking; (4) How the God particle was invented and how the LHC might have discovered it; (5) The perspective of seeking the origin of mass and new physics laws. (authors)

  19. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archaean-Hadean oceans releasing Hz- The solar flux in the. Hadean and ... universe. However, Rikken and Raupach (2000) have demonstrated that static magnetic field can bias .... origin of life is ho~ did such an interdependent system of.

  20. Origin of the Chernobyl myths and stereotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A.V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the origin of main negative Chernobyl myths and stereotypes in Belarus' society which do not meet the reality, hinder the revival and development processes of affected territories. (authors)

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE An Assessment of Mathematics Classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bdu

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. An Assessment of Mathematics Classroom Teaching- ... the study was to assess whether the learning classroom environment was compliant with constructivism. ... of our education system. Applefield ... share control of the design, management, and evaluation ..... development of formative assessment.

  2. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Academic hospital accreditation strengthens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study originated from the combined experiences of the accreditation process of a ... (iv) the benefits of hospital accreditation and quality management. The study ... Tertiary healthcare is in a crisis after nearly 3 decades of neglect,2,3.

  4. Original Research Rotavirus antigen, cytokine, and neutralising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology; University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 3. .... onset of illness.10 However, we were unable to find original records and thus ..... position paper, 2013:p. 49–64. 12.

  5. The Solar System and Its Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormand, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

  6. Quality of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinks, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31395979X; Hawe, A.; Basmeleh, A.H.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337907331; Joachin-Rodriguez, L.; Haselberg, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822647; Somsen, G.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/117149357; Jiskoot, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084557397; Schellekens, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068406762

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of therapeutic erythropoietin (EPO) products, including two biosimilars, with respect to content, aggregation, isoform profile and potency. Methods: Two original products, Eprex (epoetin alfa) and Dynepo (epoetin delta), and two biosimilar products, Binocrit (epoetin

  7. Is supersymmetric origin of monojets viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.

    1985-01-01

    The laboratory and cosmological bounds on the masses of the scalar leptons and the photino are used to put constraints on the supersymmetric origin of the CERN monojets. The latest MAC data at PEP exclude the scalar quarks, of masses up to 45 GeV, as the origin of these monojets; the cosmological bounds, for a stable photino, exclude the mass range necessary for the gq production interpretation

  8. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  9. NIRS database of the original research database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kyoko

    1991-01-01

    Recently, library staffs arranged and compiled the original research papers that have been written by researchers for 33 years since National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) established. This papers describes how the internal database of original research papers has been created. This is a small sample of hand-made database. This has been cumulating by staffs who have any knowledge about computer machine or computer programming. (author)

  10. Generational Variations in Mexican-Origin Intermarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Cedillo, Rosalio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines intermarriage across generations of the Mexican-origin population in order to better understand how this population is incorporating in U.S. society, and looks at parental migration status and parental nativity as factors that may impede or facilitate intermarriage incorporation. Using data from the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) survey the research shows that: the majority of intermarriages among the Mexican-origin ...

  11. Origin of stars and structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1988-01-01

    The substance is described of molecular clouds from interstellar mass and the origin, process and termination of the gravitational collapse are described which lead to the creation of stars. The probability is described of the origin of high-mass and lower-mass stars. The connection is discussed between the creation of stars, molecular clouds and the structure of galaxies. (E.S.). 7 figs

  12. Upheaval Dome, Utah, USA: Impact Origin Confirmed

    OpenAIRE

    Buchner, Elmar; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Upheaval Dome is a unique circular structure on the Colorado Plateau in SE Utah, the origin of which has been controversially discussed for decades. It has been interpreted as a crypto volcanic feature, a salt diapir, a pinched-off salt diapir, and an eroded impact crater. While recent structural mapping, modeling, and analyses of deformation mechanisms strongly support an impact origin, ultimate proof, namely the documentation of unambiguous shock features, has yet to be successfully provide...

  13. The origin of the elements. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the questions: how the present chemical composition is related to the original composition of the Universe, and what was the nature of that original composition. In particular, the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is discussed. Section headings are: observations of chemical composition (stars, cosmic gases, galaxies, element abundance); theoretical considerations (nucleosynthesis); cosmological element production (the Hot Big Bang theory); galactic nucleosynthesis. (U.K.)

  14. The origins of language in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-01

    I introduce seven criteria for determining the validity of competing theories for the original function of language. I go on to present a novel explanation that meets all the criteria: language originally evolved to teach kin. I suggest that the use of symbols subsequently generated evolutionary feedback at two levels, in the form of self-modified selection pressures that favored structures in the mind that functioned to manipulate and use symbols with efficiency, and cultural selection on languages for learnability.

  15. Luna 24 origins: some trace element constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Jensen, K.J.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Luna 24 basaltic material originated in the particular volume of the lunar crust that produced Apollo 11 and Luna 16 basaltic material; it has the same Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 signature. Ru--Os contents (Barsukov et al., 1977) and a number of radiogenic age measurements place Luna 24 basalt origins stratigraphically in a layer between those from which Apollo 15 and Apollo 11 and 17 basalts were derived. 20 references

  16. The origin of the universe. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciama, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The observational and theoretical evidence in favour of the Big Bang origin, and the question whether an actually singular origin of the universe can be avoided, are discussed. Sections are headed: the world of galaxies (main facts about galaxies); the recession of the galaxies (red-shift, Hubble's law); the cosmic black body background (behaviour of the Universe in its hot early epochs, nuclear reactions, abundance of hydrogen, helium and deuterium). (U.K.)

  17. Contextualising primate origins--an ecomorphological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Christophe; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2016-04-01

    Ecomorphology - the characterisation of the adaptive relationship between an organism's morphology and its ecological role - has long been central to theories of the origin and early evolution of the primate order. This is exemplified by two of the most influential theories of primate origins: Matt Cartmill's Visual Predation Hypothesis, and Bob Sussman's Angiosperm Co-Evolution Hypothesis. However, the study of primate origins is constrained by the absence of data directly documenting the events under investigation, and has to rely instead on a fragmentary fossil record and the methodological assumptions inherent in phylogenetic comparative analyses of extant species. These constraints introduce particular challenges for inferring the ecomorphology of primate origins, as morphology and environmental context must first be inferred before the relationship between the two can be considered. Fossils can be integrated in comparative analyses and observations of extant model species and laboratory experiments of form-function relationships are critical for the functional interpretation of the morphology of extinct species. Recent developments have led to important advancements, including phylogenetic comparative methods based on more realistic models of evolution, and improved methods for the inference of clade divergence times, as well as an improved fossil record. This contribution will review current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic (including cladistic relationships and character evolution) and environmental (including chronology, geography, and physical environments) contextualisation, before attempting an up-to-date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  18. How to write an original article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu Arrom, L; Huguet, J; Errando, C; Breda, A; Palou, J

    2018-05-17

    A correctly drafted original article gives information on what was done, why it was done, how it was done, the result of what was done, and the significance of what was done. Many articles fail to report their results effectively. To describe the characteristics of an original article and to give practical recommendations to prevent the most common errors in our environment. We performed a systematic search of the terms "how to write a scientific article", "structure of the original article" and "publishing an article" in the databases PubMed and SCOPUS. We analysed the structure of an original article and the characteristics of its parts and prepared advice on the publication of an article. The journal's guidelines for authors should be read. It is usual for the original article to follow the IMRAD structure: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. The introduction states briefly why the study was performed. The methods' section should give a detailed explanation of how the study was performed. The results should be clearly presented, with the help of tables, without repeating information. The discussion explains the relevance of the results and contrasts them with those of other authors. Any limitations and a conclusion supported by the results must be included. Writing an original article correctly requires practice and it must be supported by a good research work in order to be published. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A Review of Ideas Concerning Life Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindilis, L. M.

    2014-10-01

    Since the times of Antiquity the and for a long time the idea of self-origination of life was the dominant one. It reappeared again after microorganisms were discovered (XVII century). The possibility of abiogenesis at microbial level was discussed for more than a century. Pateur demonstrated that spontaneous origination of microorganisms in sterile broth was due to those same microorganisms transported by dust particles. Thus proving that every form of life originates from the parental life form. So the question arises: how did the first microorganisms appear on the Earth. There are three possible versions: 1) accidental origination of a viable form; 2) primal organisms were transported to the Earth from outer space; 3) they were formed on the Earth in the process of prebiotic chemical evolution. We discuss the problems of prebiotic evolution from simple monomers up to living cells. An important item of nowadays conceptions of life origination is the hypothesis of the ancient world of RNA as possible precursor of life on Earth. The discovery in carbonaceous chondrites of traces of bacterial life evidences the existence of life in the Solar System even before the formation of the Earth. The idea of life as brought to the Earth out of Cosmos originated under the impression of self-origination hypothesis downfall. It went through several stages (Helmholtz, W. Thompson, XIX century; Arrhenius, early XX century; Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, second half of XX century) and presently evokes constantly growing interest. The panspermia theory does not solve the problem of origination of life, only moves it onto other planets. According to V.A. Mazur, the probability of accidental formation of RNA molecule is negligible not only on the Earth, but in the whole Universe over all the time span of its existence. But it is practically equal to unit in the domain formed at the inflation stage of the evolution of the Universe. A.D.Panov considered panspermia in the Galaxy at the level

  20. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  1. Origin of life in a digital microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    C G, Nitash; LaBar, Thomas; Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    While all organisms on Earth share a common descent, there is no consensus on whether the origin of the ancestral self-replicator was a one-off event or whether it only represented the final survivor of multiple origins. Here, we use the digital evolution system Avida to study the origin of self-replicating computer programs. By using a computational system, we avoid many of the uncertainties inherent in any biochemical system of self-replicators (while running the risk of ignoring a fundamental aspect of biochemistry). We generated the exhaustive set of minimal-genome self-replicators and analysed the network structure of this fitness landscape. We further examined the evolvability of these self-replicators and found that the evolvability of a self-replicator is dependent on its genomic architecture. We also studied the differential ability of replicators to take over the population when competed against each other, akin to a primordial-soup model of biogenesis, and found that the probability of a self-replicator outcompeting the others is not uniform. Instead, progenitor (most-recent common ancestor) genotypes are clustered in a small region of the replicator space. Our results demonstrate how computational systems can be used as test systems for hypotheses concerning the origin of life. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  2. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.       

  3. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  4. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Claudia A; Irmis, Randall B; Mancuso, Adriana C; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Dinosaurs have been major components of ecosystems for over 200 million years. Although different macroevolutionary scenarios exist to explain the Triassic origin and subsequent rise to dominance of dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs), all lack critical support from a precise biostratigraphically independent temporal framework. The absence of robust geochronologic age control for comparing alternative scenarios makes it impossible to determine if observed faunal differences vary across time, space, or a combination of both. To better constrain the origin of dinosaurs, we produced radioisotopic ages for the Argentinian Chañares Formation, which preserves a quintessential assemblage of dinosaurian precursors (early dinosauromorphs) just before the first dinosaurs. Our new high-precision chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the assemblage is early Carnian (early Late Triassic), 5- to 10-Ma younger than previously thought. Combined with other geochronologic data from the same basin, we constrain the rate of dinosaur origins, demonstrating their relatively rapid origin in a less than 5-Ma interval, thus halving the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with early dinosaurs. After their origin, dinosaurs only gradually dominated mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems millions of years later, closer to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  5. Bilateral subclavian origin of the bronchial arteries combined with absence of other origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Bing; Sun, Xi-Wen; Yu, Dong; Jiang, Sen

    2014-08-01

    There are numerous anatomical variations of the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs). A subclavian origin of a BA involves an aberrant artery that originates from the subclavian artery (SCA) or its branches. However, the aberrant artery usually originates directly from the SCA, and an SCA-origin BA arising from the branches of the SCA is rare. We herein present an extremely rare case of a right BA arising from the ipsilateral costocervical trunk, and a left BA arising from the ipsilateral thyrocervical trunk, in the absence of other origins of the BA. This anatomical variation was detected during pretherapeutic evaluation by multidetector-row computed tomography and confirmed by selective angiography. Recognition of these anatomic variations is important to surgical, diagnostic, and interventional radiologic procedures in the thorax.

  6. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

    2014-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis.

  7. Symbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing work to test the hypothesis of the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles by microbial symbioses is discussed. Because of the widespread acceptance of the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET) of the origin of plastids and mitochondria, the idea of the symbiotic origin of the centrioles and axonemes for spirochete bacteria motility symbiosis was tested. Intracellular microtubular systems are purported to derive from symbiotic associations between ancestral eukaryotic cells and motile bacteria. Four lines of approach to this problem are being pursued: (1) cloning the gene of a tubulin-like protein discovered in Spirocheata bajacaliforniesis; (2) seeking axoneme proteins in spirochets by antibody cross-reaction; (3) attempting to cultivate larger, free-living spirochetes; and (4) studying in detail spirochetes (e.g., Cristispira) symbiotic with marine animals. Other aspects of the investigation are presented.

  8. What is the origin of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Krishan K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of pancreatic cancer origin is controversial. Acinar, ductal or islet cells have been hypothesized as the cell of origin. The pros and cons of each of these hypotheses are discussed. Based on the world literature and recent observations, pancreatic cells seem to have potential for phenotypical transdifferentiation, i.e ductal-islet, ductal-acinar, acinar-ductal, acinar-islet, islet-acinar and islet-ductal cells. Although the possibility is discussed that cancer may arise from either islet, ductal or acinar cells, the circumstances favoring the islet cells as the tumor cell origin include their greater transdifferentiation potency into both pancreatic and extrapancreatic cells, the presence of a variety of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, some of which are present exclusively in islet cells and the growth factor-rich environment of islets.

  9. Coronary artery with aberrant origin malignant right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Demirkol, S.; Saglam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries is a major cause of sudden death, especially in young patients. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present a young patient with chest pain who had malignant right coronary artery (RCA) with aberrant origin. Materials and methods: 24-year-old man who applied cardiology clinic for chest pain and palpitations especially after exercise, was referred to our clinic for coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate coronary artery anomalies. Results: In CT angiography; we detected aberrant RCA with origin of tubularly part of ascendant aorta with a malignant course between aorta and pulmonary artery. Left main coronary artery, left anterior descending and circumflex artery had normal origin and course. Conclusion: Coronary artery with malignant course may cause sudden death especially after exercise. Coronary CT angiography has an important role in diagnosis of congenital coronary artery anomalies, with high resolution multiplanner reformatted images

  10. Planetary Environments and Origins of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Marc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present strategies proposed for the search for the origins of life and for extra-terrestrial life are mainly based on Earth-life and its adaptation along geological eras to the Earth environment. These strategies should however face the difficulty that one cannot as yet accurately date the appearance of life on Earth, and consequently one cannot identify a chronology of phenomena related to the transition from the non-living to the living and the dependence of these phenomena on the Earth environment. In this paper, we present new approaches to search for the origins of life on the Earth and next, for life on exoplanets. This study is based on our experience gained at the head of the CNRSc interdisciplinary research initiative "Environnements Planétaires et Origines de la Vie (EPOVd, and on the analysis of the projects the initiative funded.

  11. Origins of Life Research: a Bibliometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinoglu, Arsev Umur; Taşkın, Zehra

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wolchtershauser 1988, etc.), and popular journals ( Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres and Astrobiology) for OoL research are identified. Moreover, interdisciplinary research conducted through research networks, institutions (NASA, Caltech, University of Arizona, University of Washington, CNRS, etc.), and keywords & concepts (astrobiology, life, Mars, amino acid, prebiotic chemistry, evolution, RNA) are explored.

  12. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  13. Origins Of Magnetospheric Physics An Expanded Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Van Allen, James A

    2004-01-01

    Early in 1958, instruments on the space satellites Explorer I and Explorer III revealed the presence of radiation belts, enormous populations of energetic particles trapped in the magnetic field of the earth. Originally published in 1983 but long out of print until now, Origins of Magnetospheric Physics tells the story of this dramatic and hugely transformative period in scientific and Cold War history. Writing in an accessible style and drawing on personal journals, correspondence, published papers, and the recollections of colleagues, James Van Allen documents a trail-blazing era in space hi

  14. Origins of the protein synthesis cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    Largely derived from experiments in molecular evolution, a theory of protein synthesis cycles has been constructed. The sequence begins with ordered thermal proteins resulting from the self-sequencing of mixed amino acids. Ordered thermal proteins then aggregate to cell-like structures. When they contained proteinoids sufficiently rich in lysine, the structures were able to synthesize offspring peptides. Since lysine-rich proteinoid (LRP) also catalyzes the polymerization of nucleoside triphosphate to polynucleotides, the same microspheres containing LRP could have synthesized both original cellular proteins and cellular nucleic acids. The LRP within protocells would have provided proximity advantageous for the origin and evolution of the genetic code.

  15. Origin, development, and evolution of butterfly eyespots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-07

    This article reviews the latest developments in our understanding of the origin, development, and evolution of nymphalid butterfly eyespots. Recent contributions to this field include insights into the evolutionary and developmental origin of eyespots and their ancestral deployment on the wing, the evolution of eyespot number and eyespot sexual dimorphism, and the identification of genes affecting eyespot development and black pigmentation. I also compare features of old and more recently proposed models of eyespot development and propose a schematic for the genetic regulatory architecture of eyespots. Using this schematic I propose two hypotheses for why we observe limits to morphological diversity across these serially homologous traits.

  16. Pregeometric origin of the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, K.; Terazawa, H.; Tokyo Univ., Tanashi

    1981-07-01

    The temperature-dependent effective action for gravity is calculated in pregeometry. It indicates that the effective potential for the space-time metric has the minimum at the origin for extremely high temperature. The origin of the big bang can be taken as a local and spontaneous phase transition of the space-time from the pregeometric phase to the geometric one. It is suggested that in our universe there may exist ''pregeometric holes'' where the space-time metric absolutely vanishes and/or ''space-time discontinuities'' where the metric discretely changes. (author)

  17. Cosmic Origins Program Annual Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bruce Thai; Neff, Susan Gale

    2016-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time.

  18. The origins of the universe for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pincock, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Do you want to learn about the physical origin of the Universe, but don't have the rest of eternity to read up on it? Do you want to know what scientists know about where you and your planet came from, but without the science blinding you? 'Course you do - and who better than For Dummies to tackle the biggest, strangest and most wonderful question there is! The Origins of the Universe For Dummies covers: Early ideas about our universeModern cosmologyBig Bang theoryDark matter and gravityGalaxies and solar systemsLife on earthFi

  19. Protestant Origins of Human Rights Challenged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Chrom Jacobsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will challenge common views about Protestantism as the originator or foremost promoter of human rights. The idea of a Protestant origin is launched by Georg Jellinek and disputed by Emile Boutmy. The idea is still current and John Witte can thus claim that Protestantism was in part a human rights movement. The point of departure for this strain of thinking is religious toleration, which is seen as a particularly Protestant achievement. We will argue that a more precise notion of what 18th-century human rights were and a closer look at mainstream Protestant political philosophy will tell another story.

  20. 7 CFR 800.117 - Who shall perform original services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who shall perform original services. 800.117 Section... REGULATIONS Original Services § 800.117 Who shall perform original services. (a) General. Original services... official agency is not available on a regular basis to provide original services, and no official agency...

  1. 7 CFR 868.44 - New original inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New original inspection. 868.44 Section 868.44... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Original Inspection Service § 868.44 New original... applicant may request a new original inspection on any previously inspected lot; except that a new original...

  2. The origin of the eukaryotic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, H.

    1984-01-01

    The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of the eukaryotic cell has been applied to the origin of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. However as has been pointed out by Mereschowsky in 1905, it should also be applied to the nucleus as well. If the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts are endosymbionts, then it is likely that the organism that did the engulfing was not a DNA-based organism. In fact, it is useful to postulate that this organism was a primitive RNA-based organism. This hypothesis would explain the preponderance of RNA viruses found in eukaryotic cells. The centriole and basal body do not have a double membrane or DNA. Like all MTOCs (microtubule organising centres), they have a structural or morphic RNA implicated in their formation. This would argue for their origin in the early RNA-based organism rather than in an endosymbiotic event involving bacteria. Finally, the eukaryotic cell uses RNA in ways quite unlike bacteria, thus pointing to a greater emphasis of RNA in both control and structure in the cell. The origin of the eukaryotic cell may tell us why it rather than its prokaryotic relative evolved into the metazoans who are reading this paper.

  3. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article John Campbell and Ove Pedersen argue that the way policy ideas are generated by knowledge regimes varies considerably across countries; and the effect on national politics is significant. The article is adapted from The National Origins of Policy Ideas: Knowledge Regimes...

  4. Origin of the Earth and planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the Schmidt hypothesis on planets formation by combining cold solid particles and bodies in the protoplanet dust cloud is briefly outlined in a popular form. The most debatable problems of the planet cosmogony: formation of and processes in a protoplanet cloud, results of analytical evaluations and numerical simulation of origin of the Earth and planets-giants are discussed [ru

  5. Theoretical origin of quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical origin of specific quark mass matrices in the grand unified theories. The author discusses the first natural derivation of the Stech-type mass matrix in unified gauge theories. A solution to the strong CP-problem is provided

  6. The origin and mission of material religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, B.; Morgan, D.; Paine, C.; Plate, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning its sixth year of publication, Material Religion is an interdisciplinary journal that seeks to gather the best work from around the world engaged in materializing the study of religions. The editors welcome original scholarship on any religion and from any period in human history that

  7. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  8. Quantum mechanical effects of topological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    Following a brief review of the original Casimir and Aharonov-Bohm effects, some other effects of similar natures are mentioned. A Casimir interaction between AB fluxes is presented. Possible realizations of the Casimir effects for massive charged fields in solid state structures and a new AB effect for photons are suggested.

  9. The origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormand, J.R.; Woolfson, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes in detail the capture theory of the origin of the solar system. Traces the history of solar system theories from pre-Christian Greece through the late 1920's. The authors examine the shortcomings of modern theories, and show how new knowledge supports the capture hypothesis

  10. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.

  11. ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF PROGRAM BUDGETING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOVICK, DAVID

    THE ORIGIN AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM BUDGETING, WHICH IS CURRENTLY APPLIED TO ALL THE EXECUTIVE OFFICES AND AGENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, IS TRACED. IT WAS RECOGNIZED AND APPLIED AS EARLY AS 1924 BY INDUSTRY, UTILIZED AS PART OF THE WARTIME CONTROL SYSTEM IN 1942, AND IS USED TODAY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. THIS IS A…

  12. Recognition in ants: social origin matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Meunier

    Full Text Available The ability of group members to discriminate against foreigners is a keystone in the evolution of sociality. In social insects, colony social structure (number of queens is generally thought to influence abilities of resident workers to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. However, whether social origin of introduced individuals has an effect on their acceptance in conspecific colonies remains poorly explored. Using egg-acceptance bioassays, we tested the influence of social origin of queen-laid eggs on their acceptance by foreign workers in the ant Formica selysi. We showed that workers from both single- and multiple-queen colonies discriminated against foreign eggs from single-queen colonies, whereas they surprisingly accepted foreign eggs from multiple-queen colonies. Chemical analyses then demonstrated that social origins of eggs and workers could be discriminated on the basis of their chemical profiles, a signal generally involved in nestmate discrimination. These findings provide the first evidence in social insects that social origins of eggs interfere with nestmate discrimination and are encoded by chemical signatures.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Huntington's disease: Genetic heterogeneity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... African origin.5 HD is considered rare among South African blacks, with an ... functions, syphilis, HIV and other tests in selected patients. We .... The discovery of a second genetic locus, resulting in HDL2,7 suggests the need ...

  14. Comet mission hopes to uncover Earth's origins

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2004-01-01

    "A European spacecraft that will hunt down a comet in search of clues to the origin of life on Earth will blast off tomorrow from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana. The Rosetta probe will take 12 years to catch up with Churyumov-Gerasimenko before becoming the first spacecraft to make a soft, controlled landing on a comet's nucleus" (1 page).

  15. Origin, structure and evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments of the origin, structure and evolution of galaxies have been reviewed. The contents of this book are: Inflationary Universe; Cosmic String; Active Galaxies; Intergalactic Medium; Waves in Disk Galaxies; Dark Matter; Gas Dynamics in Disk Galaxies; Equilibrium and Stability of Spiral Galaxies

  16. The origin of large scale cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Palmer, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the origin of large scale cosmic structure. The evolution of density perturbations, the nonlinear regime (Zel'dovich's solution and others), the Gott and Rees clustering hierarchy, the spectrum of condensations, and biassed galaxy formation, are all discussed. (UK)

  17. Animal evolution: stiff or squishy notochord origins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    The notochord is considered an evolutionary novelty and one of the defining characters of chordates. A new study of an annelid challenges this view and proposes an earlier evolutionary origin in the most recent common ancestor of chordates and annelids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The origins of Technetium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoppa, P.

    1986-01-01

    The origins of Technetium in the environment are briefly illustrated, taking into account its main sources represented by same plants of nuclear fuel cycle and by fallout fallowing nuclear explosion in atmosphere. An evaluation is also made of the TC-99 quantitees deriving from the production of nuclear power present in radioactive wastes before their final disposal

  19. Human Behaviour and the Origin of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, M. J.; Washburn, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The study of origin and evolution of man gives new perspective for understanding his behavior. Physical behaviors such as walking and throwing are results of biological evolution which has not kept pace with sociocultural evolution. Irrational decisions by man in social, cultural, and political fields are results of this brain activity. (PS)

  20. On the origin of hyperfast neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an explanation for the origin of hyperfast neutron stars (e.g. PSR B1508+55, PSR B2224+65, RX J0822-4300) based on the hypothesis that they could be the remnants of a symmetric supernova explosion of a high-velocity massive star (or its helium core) which attained its peculiar velocity

  1. Extraembryonic origin of circulating endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Pardanaud

    Full Text Available Circulating endothelial cells (CEC are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to study CEC origin and participation to the developing vasculature. CEC are traced with different markers, in particular the QH1 antibody recognizing only quail endothelial cells. Using yolk-sac chimeras, where quail embryos are grafted onto chick yolk sacs and vice-versa, we show that CEC are generated in the yolk sac. These cells are mobilized during wound healing, demonstrating their participation to angiogenic repair processes. Furthermore, we found that the allantois is also able to give rise to CEC in situ. In contrast to the yolk sac and allantois, the embryo proper does not produce CEC. Our results show that CEC exclusively originate from extra-embryonic territories made with splanchnopleural mesoderm and endoderm, while definitive hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells are of intra-embryonic origin.

  2. Extraembryonic origin of circulating endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Eichmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to study CEC origin and participation to the developing vasculature. CEC are traced with different markers, in particular the QH1 antibody recognizing only quail endothelial cells. Using yolk-sac chimeras, where quail embryos are grafted onto chick yolk sacs and vice-versa, we show that CEC are generated in the yolk sac. These cells are mobilized during wound healing, demonstrating their participation to angiogenic repair processes. Furthermore, we found that the allantois is also able to give rise to CEC in situ. In contrast to the yolk sac and allantois, the embryo proper does not produce CEC. Our results show that CEC exclusively originate from extra-embryonic territories made with splanchnopleural mesoderm and endoderm, while definitive hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells are of intra-embryonic origin.

  3. Fetal and infant origins of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duijts (Liesbeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have suggested that asthma, like other common diseases, has at least part of its origin early in life. Low birth weight has been shown to be associated with increased risks of asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease, and impaired lung function in adults, and increased

  4. Original Sin and T. E. Hulme's Aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishler, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    T. E. Hulme, a vigorous opponent of romanticism in art, poetry, and philosophy, insisted that the underlying flaw of the romantic view was its rejection of the dogma of Original Sin and the fall of man. His views are explored for the significant bearing they have on the development of aesthetic insight and indirectly on value and outlook.…

  5. The Basque Language: History and Origin1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the widespread adoption by Hindi of Urdu words, ultimately of Persian origin, e.g. ...... Cf. Ge‟ez nigūś, Amharic nigūs „king, emperor‟, Hebrew nōgēś „taskmaster, .... http://journal.nostratic.ru/db/files/%2833%29jlr2010-3%2879-116%29.pdf.

  6. Tribal Colleges: The Original Extreme Makeover Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powless, Donna

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author states "our experience with education is a prime example in proving we are experts at problem-solving and are the originators of the extreme makeover." Educational institutions were introduced to the Native people in an outrageous manner--often as a mask for assimilating American Indians, routinely resulting…

  7. On the origin of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders J; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with a complex origin. Previous studies have reported heritability estimates on RA at about 60%. Only 16% of the genetic background of the disease has been disclosed so far. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide an optimized...

  8. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In search of the origin of mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, T G; Heinemann, B; Waters, D

    2006-12-15

    Particle physics explores the structure of matter by studying the behaviour of its most fundamental constituents. Despite the remarkable success of our theories, there remains much that is fundamental but unexplained. One of our most pressing questions concerns the origin of mass. Our favoured theoretical explanation for the existence of mass also predicts the existence of a particle that has never been seen-the Higgs boson. In this review, we survey our knowledge of the Higgs boson and explain why, if the theory is correct, we should expect to make our first observation of the elusive Higgs in the next few years, when a major new particle physics facility starts operating. This will be the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. Although searching for the Higgs boson will be challenging in this environment, we hope that our experimental results will allow us to finally understand the origin of mass and extend our knowledge of the Universe yet further.

  10. Common origin of visible and dark universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

  11. Original Good, Adaptation Bad”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    reflect that respondents take a more positive stand on the original series, whereas the Anglophone adaptations are viewed more critically in an almost knee-jerk fashion, and I analyse the possible reasons why this may be. However, instead of only arguing that these stark differences in reception...... are caused by the originals’ superior quality insofar as story-telling, acting and aesthetics are concerned – as do the respondents – I investigate the reasons behind why an Anglophone audience such as my Sydney-based respondents may receive the Nordic originals more generously than the American and British......, I also point to a comparable study on the Danish and foreign reception of the Pan-European crime series Mord uden grænser/The Team, which had similar findings (Jacobsen and Jensen 2016)....

  12. Charles Darwin and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretó, Juli; Bada, Jeffrey L; Lazcano, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    When Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species 150 years ago he consciously avoided discussing the origin of life. However, analysis of some other texts written by Darwin, and of the correspondence he exchanged with friends and colleagues demonstrates that he took for granted the possibility of a natural emergence of the first life forms. As shown by notes from the pages he excised from his private notebooks, as early as 1837 Darwin was convinced that "the intimate relation of Life with laws of chemical combination, & the universality of latter render spontaneous generation not improbable". Like many of his contemporaries, Darwin rejected the idea that putrefaction of preexisting organic compounds could lead to the appearance of organisms. Although he favored the possibility that life could appear by natural processes from simple inorganic compounds, his reluctance to discuss the issue resulted from his recognition that at the time it was possible to undertake the experimental study of the emergence of life.

  13. [Herbal textual research on origins of Chonglou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu; Kang, Li-Ping; Liu, Da-Hui; Peng, Hua-Sheng; Xie, Jin; Chen, Min

    2017-09-01

    Based on the field investigation, this paper researched the germplasms and geoherbs habitat of Chonglou in ancient herbal books systematically. The results showed that, Chonglou in ancient herbal books sometimes referred to certain specific germplasm, while sometimes it referred to many species derived from genus Paris except Sect. Paris. The medicinal material Chonglou in Chinese Materia Medica Bencaotujing and Bencaomengquan was verified as P. polyphylla var. chinensis, which could be P. polyphylla in Xinxiubencao, and it should include P. polyphylla or P. polyphylla var. stenophylla in Bencaogangmu. However, it proved to be a variety of species from Paris that can used as Chonglou in Diannanbencao and Zhiwumingshitukao. Moreover, the origins of Chonglou were correspondingly more diverse, with its producing areas changed from North to South. Therefore, with the resources increasing endangered, the botanical origin of Chonglou should be further studied. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. The cosmological origin of time asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, Mario [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lara, Luis [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Lombardi, Olimpia [CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Puan 470, 1406 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-01-21

    In this paper, we address the problem of the arrow of time from a cosmological point of view, rejecting the traditional entropic approach that defines the future direction of time as the direction of the entropy increase: from our perspective, the arrow of time has a global origin and it is an intrinsic, geometrical feature of spacetime. Time orientability and the existence of a cosmic time are necessary conditions for defining an arrow of time, which is manifested globally as the time asymmetry of the universe as a whole, and locally as a time-asymmetric energy flux. We also consider arrows of time of different origins (quantum, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, etc) showing that they can be non-conventionally defined only if the geometrical arrow is previously defined.

  15. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  16. The Recruitment Theory of Language Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steels, Luc

    Tremendous progress has been made recently on the fascinating question of the origins and evolution of language (see e.g. (55), (7), (9), (31)). There is no widely accepted complete theory yet, but several proposals are on the table and observations and experiments are proceeding. This chapter focuses on the recruitment theory of language origins which we have been exploring for almost ten years now. This theory argues that language users recruit and try out different strategies for solving the task of communication and retain those that maximise communicative success and cognitive economy. Each strategy requires specific cognitive neural mechanisms, which in themselves serve a wide range of purposes and therefore may have evolved or could be learned independently of language.

  17. Earth's earliest biosphere: Its origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopf, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the subjects discussed are related to the early biogeologic history, the nature of the earth prior to the oldest known rock record, the early earth and the Archean rock record, the prebiotic organic syntheses and the origin of life, Precambrian organic geochemistry, the biochemical evolution of anaerobic energy conversion, the isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries, Archean stromatolites providing evidence of the earth's earliest benthos, Archean microfossils, the geologic evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth, and the environmental evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth. Other topics examined are concerned with geochemical evidence bearing on the origin of aerobiosis, biological and biochemical effects of the development of an aerobic environment, Early Proterozoic microfossils, the evolution of earth's earliest ecosystems, and geographic and geologic data for processed rock samples. Attention is given to a processing procedure for abiotic samples and calculation of model atmospheric compositions, and procedures of organic geochemical analysis

  18. The Really Real, Authentic, Original Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostihova Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the question of how original/new interpretations help redefine (or reify the original/old perception of Shakespeare and the work its cultural capital performs, demonstrating the inherent impossibility of reconciling an “original” Shakespeare with contemporary performances of his plays through a reading of Twelfth Night, and address some of the ideological implications of trying to conflate the two. It then takes a detour into contemporary marketing and consumer-psychology literature to explore the crucial roles which the concepts of “authenticity” and “originality” have come to play in contemporary consumer culture, circling back to Shakespeare, to ruminate on the implications of the use of his cultural capital as an ultimate positional good in the 21st century.

  19. Origin of the diffuse background gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.; Puget, J.L.

    1974-05-01

    Recent observations have now provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV. There is some evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation were observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of the big-band cosmology and tie in these processes with galaxy formation theory. A crucial test of the theory may lie in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV energy range which may be made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. A discussion of the theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are given. (U.S.)

  20. Origin and pathogenesis of antiphospholipid antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Celli

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are detected in the serum of patients with a variety of conditions, including autoimmune (systemic lupus erythematosus, infectious (syphilis, AIDS and lymphoproliferative disorders (paraproteinemia, myeloma, lymphocytic leukemias. Thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, recurrent fetal loss and other clinical complications are currently associated with a subgroup of aPL designating the antiphospholipid syndrome. In contrast, aPL from patients with infectious disorders are not associated with any clinical manifestation. These findings led to increased interest in the origin and pathogenesis of aPL. Here we present the clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome and review the origin of aPL, the characteristics of experimentally induced aPL and their historical background. Within this context, we discuss the most probable pathogenic mechanisms induced by these antibodies.

  1. The Eastern Origin of English Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Şekerci

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Etymology is a branch of linguistics describing the origin of words, their changeand development. To-day the far reaching advances in linguistics and in ELT and EFLoblige us, teachers of English to know well not only the language itself but about thelanguage as well. So are they for the English vocabulary. This paper explains thereasons for the percentage of borrowings in the English language. Explanations for thisshould be sought in the eventful history of England. If to summarize the origin of theEnglish vocabulary, it can be roughly called Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Scandinavian andFrench. However, the borrowings are not confined only to these languages. There areborrowings from Arabic, Turkish, Indian and many others. Some of the borrowingshave been fully adapted to the phonetic system of the English language, while otherslook and sound as loan words. The English language can be regarded as the mosthospitable language in the world.

  2. Geographical origin: meaningful reference or marketing tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    dimensions of local culture. The French label served as inspiration for the European PDO/PGI-labels, but even if these labels are known in Denmark only five products are PDO-branded The data-collection in Denmark indicated little trust in increased sales through PDO-labelling. This was contrary to data...... of production can be positioned on a map, but there is no precise standard for the rootedness of the product in this place. Origin means to be from a place in the sense that natural factors, cultural practices and historical links contribute to the understanding of the link between food and place...... origin was the result of a crisis in French wine-production in the early 20th century. Labelling was intended to protect the reputation of a product in terms of quality and taste by referring to parcels of land where specific traditions are maintained and the resulting products embedded in collective...

  3. The origin of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doom, C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews the origin of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, with emphasis on the so-called Population I WR stars which are associated with the young and luminous stellar population. A description is given of the observational characteristics i.e. classification, luminosities composition, etc. of WR stars. The origin and evolution of WR stars is described, including the single, binary, subtypes and ratio WR/O. The interaction of the WR stars with their environment is discussed with respect to the energy deposition and composition anomalies. A brief account of the discovery of WR stars in other galaxies is given. Finally, some of the main issues in the research into the structure and evolution of WR stars are outlined. (U.K.)

  4. Cosmic Origins Program Annual Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bruce Thai; Neff, Susan Gale

    2015-01-01

    What is the Cosmic Origins (COR) Program? From ancient times, humans have looked up at the night sky and wondered: Are we alone? How did the universe come to be? How does the universe work? COR focuses on the second question. Scientists investigating this broad theme seek to understand the origin and evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day, determining how the expanding universe grew into a grand cosmic web of dark matter enmeshed with galaxies and pristine gas, forming, merging, and evolving over time. COR also seeks to understand how stars and planets form from clouds in these galaxies to create the heavy elements that are essential to life starting with the first generation of stars to seed the universe, and continuing through the birth and eventual death of all subsequent generations of stars. The COR Programs purview includes the majority of the field known as astronomy, from antiquity to the present.

  5. The origin of the planetesimal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, S G

    1977-04-01

    T. C. Chamberlin suggested in 1897, on the basis of geological and climatological arguments, that the planets were formed by accretion of cold solid partices. With F. R. Moulton he developed convincing arguments against the Laplace nebular hypothesis and published a comprehensive 'planetesimal theory' of the origin of the solar system in 1905. The Chamberlin-Moulton theory has current as well as historical interest.

  6. Agricultural origins on the Anatolian plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, D.; Fairbairn, A.; Jenkins, Emma L.; Martin, L.; Middleton, C.; Pearson, J.; Asouti, E.; Edwards, Y.; Kabukcu, C.; Mustafaoğlu, G.; Russell, N.; Bar-Yosef, O.; Jacobsen, G.; Wu, X.

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores explanations for, and consequences of, the early appearance of food production outside the Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia, where it had originated in the 10th/9th millennium cal BC. We present evidence that cultivation appeared in Central Anatolia through adoption by indigenous foragers in the mid 9th millennium cal BC, but also demonstrate that uptake was not uniform, and that some communities chose to actively disregard cultivation. Adoption of cultivation seems to h...

  7. On the origin of constrained superfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dudas, E. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-06

    In this work we analyze constrained superfields in supersymmetry and supergravity. We propose a constraint that, in combination with the constrained goldstino multiplet, consistently removes any selected component from a generic superfield. We also describe its origin, providing the operators whose equations of motion lead to the decoupling of such components. We illustrate our proposal by means of various examples and show how known constraints can be reproduced by our method.

  8. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, R. Charles; De Cristo-Araujo, Michelly; Coppens D'Eeckenbrugge, Géo; Alves Pereira, Allessandro; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2010-01-01

    Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and guaraná (Paullinia cupana), while hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), inga (Inga edulis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) are being studied. Emerg...

  9. The genetic origins of the Andaman Islanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endicott, Phillip; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Stringer, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial sequences were retrieved from museum specimens of the enigmatic Andaman Islanders to analyze their evolutionary history. D-loop and protein-coding data reveal that phenotypic similarities with African pygmoid groups are convergent. Genetic and epigenetic data are interpreted as favo...... of humans through Asia. The results demonstrate that Victorian anthropological collections can be used to study extinct, or seriously admixed populations, to provide new data about early human origins....

  10. Depression and dementia of cerebrovascular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmorato Paulo Germano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient who presented various psychiatric syndromes at the time of evaluation - partial complex epileptic seizures, personality change, and severe depression, which eventually progressed to dementia - resulting from multiple cerebral infarctions of probable neuro-angiopathic origin, of unknown etiology. Aspects related to depression following cerebrovascular accidents, as well as how cerebrovascular accidents can result in different disorders depending on the variables, are discussed based on the data from current literature.

  11. The Origins of dEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan D.

    With the new discoveries that some dEs are rotationally supported and that dIs may show a large variety in star formation histories, the perceived relationships between these two families of galaxies are changing. There are at least three viable channels for the origin of dwarf elliptical galaxies with strong observational evidence that support their reality. I will discuss the observational evidence for each of these channels and the likely physical processes which determine each channel.

  12. The pion mass: Looking for its origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    After explaining why pions are special excitations in QCD, I discuss how the pion mass reflects directly the dynamical scale of the strong interactions (Λsub(QCD)) and the scale of breaking of the weak interactions (Λsub(F)). To actually calculate the pion mass, however, requires understanding the origin of the quark masses and so I compare and contrast approaches to this latter problem, based on composite models and on superstrings. (orig.)

  13. Mirror neurons: From origin to function

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, R; Bird, G; Catmur, C; Press, C; Heyes, C

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively...

  14. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ostrovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  15. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-07-30

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.  Created: 7/30/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2007.

  16. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  17. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  18. ORIGIN OF DUST AROUND V1309 SCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chunhua; Lü, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    The origin of dust grains in the interstellar medium is still an unanswered problem. Nicholls et al. found the presence of a significant amount of dust around V1309 Sco, which may originate from the merger of a contact binary. We investigate the origin of dust around V1309 Sco and suggest that these dust grains are produced in the binary-merger ejecta. By means of the AGBDUST code, we estimate that ∼5.2 × 10 –4 M ☉ dust grains are produced with a radii of ∼10 –5 cm. These dust grains are mainly composed of silicate and iron grains. Because the mass of the binary merger ejecta is very small, the contribution of dust produced by binary merger ejecta to the overall dust production in the interstellar medium is negligible. However, it is important to note that the discovery of a significant amount of dust around V1309 Sco offers a direct support for the idea that common-envelope ejecta provides an ideal environment for dust formation and growth. Therefore, we confirm that common envelope ejecta can be important source of cosmic dust

  19. An earlier origin for the Acheulian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepre, Christopher J; Roche, Hélène; Kent, Dennis V; Harmand, Sonia; Quinn, Rhonda L; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Lenoble, Arnaud; Feibel, Craig S

    2011-08-31

    The Acheulian is one of the first defined prehistoric techno-complexes and is characterized by shaped bifacial stone tools. It probably originated in Africa, spreading to Europe and Asia perhaps as early as ∼1 million years (Myr) ago. The origin of the Acheulian is thought to have closely coincided with major changes in human brain evolution, allowing for further technological developments. Nonetheless, the emergence of the Acheulian remains unclear because well-dated sites older than 1.4 Myr ago are scarce. Here we report on the lithic assemblage and geological context for the Kokiselei 4 archaeological site from the Nachukui formation (West Turkana, Kenya) that bears characteristic early Acheulian tools and pushes the first appearance datum for this stone-age technology back to 1.76 Myr ago. Moreover, co-occurrence of Oldowan and Acheulian artefacts at the Kokiselei site complex indicates that the two technologies are not mutually exclusive time-successive components of an evolving cultural lineage, and suggests that the Acheulian was either imported from another location yet to be identified or originated from Oldowan hominins at this vicinity. In either case, the Acheulian did not accompany the first human dispersal from Africa despite being available at the time. This may indicate that multiple groups of hominins distinguished by separate stone-tool-making behaviours and dispersal strategies coexisted in Africa at 1.76 Myr ago.

  20. Evolutionary origins and diversification of proteobacterial mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Joel L; Skophammer, Ryan G; Bansal, Nidhanjali; Stajich, Jason E

    2014-01-22

    Mutualistic bacteria infect most eukaryotic species in nearly every biome. Nonetheless, two dilemmas remain unresolved about bacterial-eukaryote mutualisms: how do mutualist phenotypes originate in bacterial lineages and to what degree do mutualists traits drive or hinder bacterial diversification? Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the hyperdiverse phylum Proteobacteria to investigate the origins and evolutionary diversification of mutualistic bacterial phenotypes. Our ancestral state reconstructions (ASRs) inferred a range of 34-39 independent origins of mutualist phenotypes in Proteobacteria, revealing the surprising frequency with which host-beneficial traits have evolved in this phylum. We found proteobacterial mutualists to be more often derived from parasitic than from free-living ancestors, consistent with the untested paradigm that bacterial mutualists most often evolve from pathogens. Strikingly, we inferred that mutualists exhibit a negative net diversification rate (speciation minus extinction), which suggests that mutualism evolves primarily via transitions from other states rather than diversification within mutualist taxa. Moreover, our ASRs infer that proteobacterial mutualist lineages exhibit a paucity of reversals to parasitism or to free-living status. This evolutionary conservatism of mutualism is contrary to long-standing theory, which predicts that selection should often favour mutants in microbial mutualist populations that exploit or abandon more slowly evolving eukaryotic hosts.

  1. Origin of irradiations by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiations by ionizing radiations proceed from two main sources: the natural radiations from the environment and the sources of 'human' origin, i.e. linked with modern technology. In most countries the irradiation by natural sources remains the most important. The irradiations for medical purposes comes in second position and depends on the degree of technological evolution of the country, and in the last position are the irradiations linked with nuclear industry. The inventory of these irradiations is regularly updated by the Scientific Committee of the United Nations for the study of ionizing radiation effects (UNSCEAR). In France the mean individual irradiation due to natural radioactivity is of 2 mSv per year of efficient dose and can vary with a factor 3 from one region to the other. Irradiation of medical diagnosis origin is of about 1 mSv per year. This paper presents successively: the natural irradiation sources (cosmic radiation, cosmic rays and cosmogenic radionuclides, the Earth's radiations, primary radionuclides and radon), the natural sources modified by the technology (extraction industries, fossil fuels and phosphated ores, aerial transports and space activities, consumer products), the irradiation sources of technological origin (nuclear weapons, electric power production, major accidents, occupational irradiations), and the medical irradiations (diagnosis techniques, radiology, nuclear medicine and therapeutic uses). (J.S.)

  2. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  3. Comets and the origin of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsemme, A H

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and evolution of the universe and of the earth are summarized as a background to the discussion of the origin of life on earth as the result of the transport of the necessary materials to earth by comets. Evidence for the origin of the universe in the Big Bang supplied by observations of the expansion of the universe and the cosmic microwave background is discussed, and the condensation of primordial matter into galaxies and stars and the chemical processes in stars converting primordial hydrogen and helium into heavy elements as the stars evolve giving rise to an interstellar medium are considered. Attention is then given to the birth of the solar system from the contraction of a dark interstellar cloud containing gas, dust and interstellar molecules, and in particular to the origin of the terrestrial planets and the cometary contributions to the terrestrial crust, oceans and atmosphere. Finally, the chronology of the universe from the Big Bang to the present and that of the earth from its formation to the present are reviewed.

  4. THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF MONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IAVORSCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of money and the role they hold in the economy can be seen as the keystone of economic life. For a better understanding of the essence of the monetary phenomena it is especially important to turn to history and see how money was born. By turning to their origins, we discover the real fundaments of monetary issues. Only after such a systematic analysis we will be able to suggest the appropriate solutions for the current monetary issues. Therefore, in this study I will research the origin of money and their functionality on the market.The aim of this paper is to analyse the origin of money as a social institution. The appearance and use of money has prehistoric roots. People have turned to the usage of money out of need to facilitate trade. During thousands of years money has known different forms going from money as merchandise, to coins and later to paper money and electronic currency. In this study I have analysed the role of natural money, as well as their production and functionality on the market. The main questionto be answered is whether the production and functionality of paper money nowadays is the consequence of the free market, having the Austrian’s School liberal perspective as a starting point. This methodological approach demonstrates that money is and will remain a social institution and the implication of the authorities in the currency issuing, even from ancient times, has caused distortions in the economic activity.

  5. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  6. 40 CFR 52.1960 - Original Identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original Identification of plan section... Original Identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “State of Oklahoma Air... § 856.1(C) of the Oklahoma statutes to mean “original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or equivalent”. (40...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.11 - Original classification authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original classification authority. 2001.11... Classification § 2001.11 Original classification authority. (a) General. Agencies shall establish a training program for original classifiers in accordance with subpart G of this part. (b) Requests for original...

  8. 7 CFR 800.115 - Who may request original services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may request original services. 800.115 Section 800... Original Services § 800.115 Who may request original services. (a) General. Any interested person may request original inspection and weighing services. The kinds of inspection and weighing services are...

  9. 29 CFR 70.6 - Disclosure of originals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disclosure of originals. 70.6 Section 70.6 Labor Office of... of originals. (a) No original record or file in the custody of the Department of Labor, or of any... or the Inspector General. (b) The individual authorizing the release of the original record or file...

  10. 46 CFR 67.209 - No original instrument requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No original instrument requirement. 67.209 Section 67... original instrument requirement. A copy of the original signed and acknowledged instrument must be presented. The original instrument itself may be presented but is not required. The copy may be delivered to...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1190 - Original Identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original Identification of plan section... Original Identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “Air Implementation Plan... Stipulation for Entry of Consent Order and Final Order, No. 8-1982. The original Consent Order No. 8-1982 was...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2635 - Original identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original identification of plan section... Original identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “Air Implementation Plan... implementation plan (SIP) for Sheridan, Wyoming. In addition to the original August 28 submittal, eight...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2087 - Original identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original identification of plan section... Original identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “Air Implementation Plan.... (B) Original consent agreement between the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management and...

  14. 31 CFR 248.6 - Recovery of original check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery of original check. 248.6... § 248.6 Recovery of original check. (a) If the claimant recovers an original check after he has... or agency concerned regarding the negotiability of such original check. (b) In the event the...

  15. 7 CFR 800.116 - How to request original services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to request original services. 800.116 Section 800... Original Services § 800.116 How to request original services. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided for in § 800.117, requests for original services shall be filed with an agency or field office authorized...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2386 - Original identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original identification of plan section... Original identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “Air Implementation Plan... from the original approval of Regulation 5-231(3)(b) into the Vermont SIP identified at subparagraph (c...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2134 - Original identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original identification of plan section... Original identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “South Carolina Air... Charleston; for these two sources, the plan's original emission limits continue to apply.) (10) Permit...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1837 - Original identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original identification of plan section... Original identification of plan section. (a) This section identifies the original “Air Implementation Plan...) Explanation of why sources could not comply by the original attainment date submitted April 23, 1975, by the...

  19. 15 CFR 762.4 - Original records required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original records required. 762.4... § 762.4 Original records required. The regulated person must maintain the original records in the form....5 of this part relating to reproduction of records. If the original record does not meet the...

  20. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  1. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Origins Space Telescope

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  2. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approx...

  3. The evolutionary sequence: origin and emergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary sequence is being reexamined experimentally from a "Big Bang"origin to the protocell and from the emergence of protocell and variety of species to Darwin's mental power (mind) and society (The Descent of Man). A most fundamentally revisionary consequence of experiments is an emphasis on endogenous ordering. This principle, seen vividly in ordered copolymerization of amino acids, has had new impact on the theory of Darwinian evolution and has been found to apply to the entire sequence. Herein, I will discuss some problems of dealing with teaching controversial subjects.

  4. CLFV and the origin of neutrino masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambye, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The neutrino oscillations constitute the unique absolute guarantee we have at the moment that charged lepton flavor violation (CLFV) processes do exist. Even if the associated rates are in general expected very suppressed, it turns out that this is not always necessarily the case. In the framework of the three basic seesaw models, we review the possibilities of having observable rates. Each seesaw case presenting a quite different CLFV pattern, we show how these observable rates could allow us to distinguish these various possible neutrino mass origins.

  5. Genetic and environmental origins of hypospadias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Hutson, John M

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review and comment on recent original presentations dealing with genetic and environmental factors in the cause of hypospadias. RECENT FINDINGS: The heritability is definitely high and having an affected family member is the highest identified...... of hypospadias with low birth weight, maternal hypertension, and preeclampsia suggests that placental insufficiency is a major risk factor. Maternal exposure to chemical pollutants or endocrine disruptors in high concentrations related to selected occupations or geographic areas may be additional risk factors...

  6. Origin of axial current in scyllac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, K.

    1975-12-01

    The origin of the axial current observed in Scyllac (a high beta stellarator experiment) is discussed. A shaped coil and/or helical winding produce rotational transform which links magnetic lines of force to the plasma column and the axial current is induced electromagnetically. This phenomenon is inherent in a pulsed high-beta stellarator. The rotational transform produced by the induced axial current is much smaller than that associated with the l = 1, 0 equilibrium fields. The effect of the axial current on the equilibrium and stability of the plasma column is thus small. It is also shown that the magnetic field shear near a plasma surface is very strong

  7. Hot origin of the Little Bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkelin, S.V. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions produce a quark-gluon matter which lies in the future light cone originating from given points on the t = z = 0 plane of the Minkowski spacetime manifold. We show that in a weak coupling regime the Minkowski vacuum of massless fields presents itself in the ''Little Bang'' region as a thermal state of low p{sub T} particles, in close analogy to the Unruh effect for uniformly accelerated observers which are causally restricted to a Rindler wedge. It can shed some light on the mechanisms of early time thermalization in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. (orig.)

  8. Enzymatic recognition of DNA replication origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stayton, M.M.; Bertsch, L.; Biswas, S.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the process of recognition of the complementary-strand origin with emphasis on RNA polymerase action in priming M13 DNA replication, the role of primase in G4 DNA replication, and the function of protein n, a priming protein, during primosome assembly. These phage systems do not require several of the bacterial DNA replication enzymes, particularly those involved in the regulation of chromosome copy number of the initiatiion of replication of duplex DNA. 51 references, 13 figures, 1 table

  9. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  10. Thermodynamic inversion origin of living systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kompanichenko, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the theory, general principles, and energy source conditions allowing for the emergence of life in planetary systems. The author examines the material conditions found in natural hydrothermal sites, the appropriate analogs of prebiotic environments on early Earth. He provides an overview of current laboratory experiments in prebiotic materials chemistry and substantiation of a new direction for the experiments in the origin of life field. Describes thermodynamic inversion and how it relates to the living cell; Examines the current direction of experiments on prebiotic materials chemistry; Introduces and substantiates necessary conditions for the emergence of life.

  11. Cerebral Abscess Potentially of Odontogenic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouene Ben Hadj Hassine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic origins are rarely implicated in the formation of brain abscesses. The relative paucity of this kind of infection and the difficulty in matching the causative microorganisms of a brain abscess to an odontogenic source can explain the late management of patients. We herein describe a case of a 46-year-old man with a cerebellar abscess that was probably due to an odontogenic infection. The diagnosis supported by imaging and microscopic identification, mini craniectomy for abscess drainage followed by eradication of all potential dental infectious foci, and an antibiotic regimen based on cephalosporins, metronidazole, and vancomycine contributed to a successful outcome.

  12. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  13. Language and the origin of numerical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Rochel; Gallistel, C R

    2004-10-15

    Reports of research with the Pirahã and Mundurukú Amazonian Indians of Brazil lend themselves to discussions of the role of language in the origin of numerical concepts. The research findings indicate that, whether or not humans have an extensive counting list, they share with nonverbal animals a language-independent representation of number, with limited, scale-invariant precision. What causal role, then, does knowledge of the language of counting serve? We consider the strong Whorfian proposal, that of linguistic determinism; the weak Whorfian hypothesis, that language influences how we think; and that the "language of thought" maps to spoken language or symbol systems.

  14. Origin names of gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap have thousands of years of history and have been called with pure Korean name words. It was only that they were recorded in the form of hanja during the time written Korean was undervalued where people insisted borrowing Chinese characters to write despite written Korean being available. Thus, gocho (苦椒, chimchae (沈菜, and koldonban (滑董飯 are not the origin names. The pure Korean names used even by the people back then are the actual ones: gochyo (고쵸, dimchae (딤, and bubuimbap (부뷤밥.

  15. Mythological and Prehistorical Origins of Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush

    2016-05-01

    Mythology has a cultural appeal, and the description of some neurosurgical procedures in the Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, and Chinese mythology has a bearing to the origins of our professions. The traces to some of our modern-day practices also can be linked back to the ancient prehistoric eras of the Siberian, Persian, and the Andean region. In this historical perspective, we briefly dwell into individual accounts through the prism of different cultures to highlight the development of neurosurgery in mythology and prehistoric era. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The origin of the hidden supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubsky, Vit; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2010-01-01

    The hidden supersymmetry and related tri-supersymmetric structure of the free particle system, the Dirac delta potential problem and the Aharonov-Bohm effect (planar, bound state, and tubule models) are explained by a special nonlocal unitary transformation, which for the usual N=2 supercharges has a nature of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show that in general case, the bosonized supersymmetry of nonlocal, parity even systems emerges in the same construction, and explain the origin of the unusual N=2 supersymmetry of electron in three-dimensional parity even magnetic field. The observation extends to include the hidden superconformal symmetry.

  17. Cosmology and the origin of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, Jayant V.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of explaining the origin of all the chemical elements found in the universe is a central problem in astrophysics. In the 1940s Fred Hoyle suggested that they were cooked inside stars, starting with nucleosynthesis of neutrons and protons. In the same decade George Gamow argued that in a hot big bang universe in the first few minutes, the ambient conditions were suitable for formation of nuclei. This paper will review the progress of both these ideas and show that a reasonable compromise between these ideas can be found today. (authors)

  18. Adventist Education: origin, development and expasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vieira Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to present a brief historical report of the origin, development and consolidation of the Adventist Education Network. Thus, it will be possible to know about its emergence, philosophy of education and the genesis of this confessional network operating in the Brazilian educational scenario for more than a century. The research method includes bibliographical analysis of the main theoreticians of the Brazilian history of education and rescues facts cited by Adventist historians. The research situated the Adventist Education Network in the Brazilian historical context and identified the Seventh-day Adventists as a religious group and as agents in the field of school education.

  19. Origin of magnetostriction in Fe-Ga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudivarthi, Chaitanya; Laver, Mark; Cullen, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the origin of large magnetostriction in Fe-Ga alloys using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and Kerr microscopy. The SANS data for a single-crystal, electron irradiated, and quenched Fe81Ga19 sample under externally applied magnetic and elastic fields revealed...... the existence of magnetostrictive nanoclusters spaced at similar to 15 nm apart that have a different magnetization than the A2 matrix. Combining the SANS results and the magnetization orientation obtained from the magnetic domain images using a Kerr microscope, it appears that the nanoclusters contribute...

  20. The origin of the chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process). (U.K.)

  1. The evolutionary sequence: origin and emergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S W

    1986-03-01

    The evolutionary sequence is being reexamined experimentally from a "Big Bang"origin to the protocell and from the emergence of protocell and variety of species to Darwin's mental power (mind) and society (The Descent of Man). A most fundamentally revisionary consequence of experiments is an emphasis on endogenous ordering. This principle, seen vividly in ordered copolymerization of amino acids, has had new impact on the theory of Darwinian evolution and has been found to apply to the entire sequence. Herein, I will discuss some problems of dealing with teaching controversial subjects.

  2. Origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; Kusenko, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Although the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry remains unknown, continuing advances in theory and improved experimental limits have ruled out some scenarios for baryogenesis, for example, sphaleron baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model. At the same time, the success of cosmological inflation and the prospects for discovering supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider have put some other models in sharper focus. We review the current state of our understanding of baryogenesis with emphasis on those scenarios that we consider most plausible

  3. THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF MONEY

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela IAVORSCHI

    2014-01-01

    The importance of money and the role they hold in the economy can be seen as the keystone of economic life. For a better understanding of the essence of the monetary phenomena it is especially important to turn to history and see how money was born. By turning to their origins, we discover the real fundaments of monetary issues. Only after such a systematic analysis we will be able to suggest the appropriate solutions for the current monetary issues. Therefore, in this study I will research t...

  4. Biometrics and Psychometrics: Origins, Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gower

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the common origins of biometrics and psychometrics at the beginning of the twentieth century, the paper compares and contrasts subsequent developments, informed by the author's 35 years at Rothamsted Experimental Station followed by a period with the data theory group in Leiden and thereafter. Although the methods used by biometricians and psychometricians have much in common, there are important differences arising from the different fields of study. Similar differences arise wherever data are generated and may be regarded as a major driving force in the development of statistical ideas.

  5. CLFV and the origin of neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The neutrino oscillations constitute the unique absolute guarantee we have at the moment that charged lepton flavor violation (CLFV) processes do exist. Even if the associated rates are in general expected very suppressed, it turns out that this is not always necessarily the case. In the framework of the three basic seesaw models, we review the possibilities of having observable rates. Each seesaw case presenting a quite different CLFV pattern, we show how these observable rates could allow us to distinguish these various possible neutrino mass origins

  6. Origin of the earth and moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's interior and its bearing on the Earth's origin are discussed. It seems likely that the terrestrial planets formed by the accretion of solid planetisimals from the nebula of dust and gas left behind during the formation of the Sun. The scenario proposed is simpler than others. New evidence based upon a comparison of siderophile element abundances in the Earth's mantle and in the Moon imply that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had segregated

  7. Transitional fossils and the origin of turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Lyson, Tyler R.; Bever, Gabe S.; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S.; Joyce, Walter G.; Gauthier, Jacques A.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of turtles is one of the most contentious issues in systematics with three currently viable hypotheses: turtles as the extant sister to (i) the crocodile–bird clade, (ii) the lizard–tuatara clade, or (iii) Diapsida (a clade composed of (i) and (ii)). We reanalysed a recent dataset that allied turtles with the lizard–tuatara clade and found that the inclusion of the stem turtle Proganochelys quenstedti and the ‘parareptile’ Eunotosaurus africanus results in a single overriding morph...

  8. Homochirality and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Robert; Leitner, J. J.; Firneis, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Homochirality is generally considered a crucial signature for life on Earth, which uses left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars. A mirror-image life, using right-handed amino acids and left- handed sugars, is perfectly conceivable and might have developed on another planet. Life which would simultaneously use both right- and left-handed forms of the same biological molecules is unlikely for geometrical reasons. Secondary peptide structures are not possible without one-handedness. Various theories try to explain the origin of homochirality. Physicists used as argument the phenomenon of parity violation discovered on 60Co, which does not explain homochirality on prebiotic substances. Astrophysicists suggested that the observed enantiomeric excesses could have been induced by circularly polarized light arising from dust scattering in regions of high mass star formations or even due to super nova remnants or pulsars. An extraterrestrial origin of homochiral substances is discusses as well as catalytic processes on early Earth using different mineral surfaces. Thermodynamics i.e. its 2nd law is considered to explain homochirality as consequence of increasing entropy. There are many questions not yet answered. The author looks forward to discuss some of them with interested scientists.

  9. Phylogenomic reconstruction supports supercontinent origins for Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Kelly M; Schwartz, Rachel S; Cartwright, Reed A; Stone, Anne C

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania, a genus of parasites transmitted to human hosts and mammalian/reptilian reservoirs by an insect vector, is the causative agent of the human disease complex leishmaniasis. The evolutionary relationships within the genus Leishmania and its origins are the source of ongoing debate, reflected in conflicting phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstructions. This study employs a recently described bioinformatics method, SISRS, to identify over 200,000 informative sites across the genome from newly sequenced and publicly available Leishmania data. This dataset is used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of this genus. Additionally, we constructed a large multi-gene dataset, using it to reconstruct the phylogeny and estimate divergence dates for species. We conclude that the genus Leishmania evolved at least 90-100 million years ago, supporting a modified version of the Multiple Origins hypothesis that we call the Supercontinent hypothesis. According to this scenario, separate Leishmania clades emerged prior to, and during, the breakup of Gondwana. Additionally, we confirm that reptile-infecting Leishmania are derived from mammalian forms and that the species that infect porcupines and sloths form a clade long separated from other species. Finally, we firmly place the guinea-pig infecting species, Leishmaniaenriettii, the globally dispersed Leishmaniasiamensis, and the newly identified Australian species from a kangaroo, as sibling species whose distribution arises from the ancient connection between Australia, Antarctica, and South America. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for a recent origin of penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sankar; Beans-Picón, Gabrielle; Swaminathan, Siva K.; Millar, Craig D.; Lambert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are a remarkable group of birds, with the 18 extant species living in diverse climatic zones from the tropics to Antarctica. The timing of the origin of these extant penguins remains controversial. Previous studies based on DNA sequences and fossil records have suggested widely differing times for the origin of the group. This has given rise to widely differing biogeographic narratives about their evolution. To resolve this problem, we sequenced five introns from 11 species representing all genera of living penguins. Using these data and other available DNA sequences, together with the ages of multiple penguin fossils to calibrate the molecular clock, we estimated the age of the most recent common ancestor of extant penguins to be 20.4 Myr (17.0–23.8 Myr). This time is half of the previous estimates based on molecular sequence data. Our results suggest that most of the major groups of extant penguins diverged 11–16 Ma. This overlaps with the sharp decline in Antarctic temperatures that began approximately 12 Ma, suggesting a possible relationship between climate change and penguin evolution. PMID:24227045

  11. Jigsaw model of the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, John F.

    2002-02-01

    It is suggested that life originated in a three-step process referred to as the jigsaw model. RNA, proteins, or similar organic molecules polymerized in a dehydrated carbon-rich environment, on surfaces in a carbon-rich environment, or in another environment where polymerization occurs. These polymers subsequently entered an aqueous environment where they folded into compact structures. It is argued that the folding of randomly generated polymers such as RNA or proteins in water tends to partition the folded polymer into domains with hydrophobic cores and matching shapes to minimize energy. In the aqueous environment hydrolysis or other reactions fragmented the compact structures into two or more matching molecules, occasionally producing simple living systems, also knows as autocatalytic sets of molecules. It is argued that the hydrolysis of folded polymers such as RNA or proteins is not random. The hydrophobic cores of the domains are rarely bisected due to the energy requirements in water. Hydrolysis preferentially fragments the folded polymers into pieces with complementary structures and chemical affinities. Thus the probability of producing a system of matched, interacting molecules in prebiotic chemistry is much higher than usually estimated. Environments where this process may occur are identified. For example, the jigsaw model suggests life may have originated at a seep or carbonaceous fluids beneath the ocean. The polymerization occurred beneath the sea floor. The folding and fragmentation occurred in the ocean. The implications of this hypothesis for seeking life or prebiotic chemistry in the Solar System are explored.

  12. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  13. The origins and evolution of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Johnson, Dominic D P; Van Vugt, Mark

    2009-10-13

    How groups of individuals achieve coordination and collective action is an important topic in the natural sciences, but until recently the role of leadership in this process has been largely overlooked. In contrast, leadership is arguably one of the most important themes in the social sciences, permeating all aspects of human social affairs: the election of Barack Obama, the war in Iraq, and the collapse of the banks are all high-profile events that draw our attention to the fundamental role of leadership and followership. Converging ideas and developments in both the natural and social sciences suggest that leadership and followership share common properties across humans and other animals, pointing to ancient roots and evolutionary origins. Here, we draw upon key insights from the animal and human literature to lay the foundation for a new science of leadership inspired by an evolutionary perspective. Identifying the origins of human leadership and followership, as well as which aspects are shared with other animals and which are unique, offers ways of understanding, predicting, and improving leadership today.

  14. Origin, lineage and function of cerebellar glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, Annalisa; Rossi, Ferdinando

    2013-10-01

    The glial cells of the cerebellum, and particularly astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are characterized by a remarkable phenotypic variety, in which highly peculiar morphological features are associated with specific functional features, unique among the glial cells of the entire CNS. Here, we provide a critical report about the present knowledge of the development of cerebellar glia, including lineage relationships between cerebellar neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, the origins and the genesis of the repertoire of glial types, and the processes underlying their acquisition of mature morphological and functional traits. In parallel, we describe and discuss some fundamental roles played by specific categories of glial cells during cerebellar development. In particular, we propose that Bergmann glia exerts a crucial scaffolding activity that, together with the organizing function of Purkinje cells, is necessary to achieve the normal pattern of foliation and layering of the cerebellar cortex. Moreover, we discuss some of the functional tasks of cerebellar astrocytes and oligodendrocytes that are distinctive of cerebellar glia throughout the CNS. Notably, we report about the regulation of synaptic signalling in the molecular and granular layer mediated by Bergmann glia and parenchymal astrocytes, and the functional interaction between oligodendrocyte precursor cells and neurons. On the whole, this review provides an extensive overview of the available literature and some novel insights about the origin and differentiation of the variety of cerebellar glial cells and their function in the developing and mature cerebellum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probing the evolutionary origins of music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D

    2005-12-01

    Empirical data have recently begun to inform debates on the evolutionary origins of music. In this paper we discuss some of our recent findings and related theoretical issues. We claim that theories of the origins of music will be usefully constrained if we can determine which aspects of music perception are innate, and, of those, which are uniquely human and specific to music. Comparative research in nonhuman animals, particularly nonhuman primates, is thus critical to the debate. In this paper we focus on the preferences that characterize most humans' experience of music, testing whether similar preferences exist in nonhuman primates. Our research suggests that many rudimentary acoustic preferences, such as those for consonant over dissonant intervals, may be unique to humans. If these preferences prove to be innate in humans, they may be candidates for music-specific adaptations. To establish whether such preferences are innate in humans, one important avenue for future research will be the collection of data from different cultures. This may be facilitated by studies conducted over the internet.

  16. Reptile thermogenesis and the origins of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J

    2016-10-01

    Extant endotherms have high rates of metabolism, elevated body temperatures, usually tight control over body temperature, and a reasonable scope for further increases in metabolism through locomotor activity. Vertebrate ectotherms, on the other hand, rely on behavioural thermoregulation and cardiovascular adjustments to facilitate warming, and generally lack specific biochemical and cellular mechanisms for sustained, elevated metabolism. Nevertheless, the ancestral condition to endothermy is thought to resemble that of many extant reptiles, which raises the question of the origins and selection pressures relevant to the transitional state. Numerous hypotheses have emerged to explain the multiple origins of endothermy in vertebrates, including thermoregulatory, locomotory, and reproductive activity as possible drivers for these sustained and elevated metabolic rates. In this article, I discuss recent evidence for facultative endothermy in an extant lepidosaur, the tegu lizard. Since lepidosaurs are a sister group to the archosaurs, understanding how a novel form of endothermy evolved will open up opportunities to test the compatibility or incompatibility of the various endothermy hypotheses, with potential to elucidate and resolve long contentious ideas in evolutionary physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Origins of anti-DNA autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The direction of research in autoimmunity was strongly influenced by three notable discoveries made more than 25 year ago: anti-DNA anti-bodies in lupus serum, the immunofluorescent antinuclar antibody test and the NZB mouse. Now another turning point has been reached for three new reasons: the discovery of the hybridoma technic, advances in cellular immunology and the use of molecular biology to solve immunological problems. These developments have motivated fresh approaches to questions about the origins and pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a conspicuous position in the field of autoimmunity for several reasons. Its diverse manifestations have attracted a correspondingly diverse group of investigators whose interests range from molecular biology to therapeutic trials; superb models of the disease occur spontaneously in animals; and the extensive variety of autoantibodies in SLE provides an abundance of investigative reagents. An explanation of the origins of these autoantibodies is one of the major goals of research in the disease. The autoantibodies that bind to DNA are of central interest. They occur in almost all patients with active SLE, they often fluctuate with its clinical activity, and they participate in forming its lesions

  18. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, V.M., E-mail: vadamyan@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Bondarev, V.N., E-mail: bondvic@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Zavalniuk, V.V., E-mail: vzavalnyuk@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Department of Fundamental Sciences, Odessa Military Academy, 10 Fontanska Road, Odessa 65009 (Ukraine)

    2016-11-11

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  19. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, V.M.; Bondarev, V.N.; Zavalniuk, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  20. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  1. RNA Relics and Origin of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Vial

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of small RNA sequences, located in different non-coding sequences and highly preserved across the tree of life, have been suggested to be molecular fossils, of ancient (and possibly primordial origin. On the other hand, recent years have revealed the existence of ubiquitous roles for small RNA sequences in modern organisms, in functions ranging from cell regulation to antiviral activity. We propose that a single thread can be followed from the beginning of life in RNA structures selected only for stability reasons through the RNA relics and up to the current coevolution of RNA sequences; such an understanding would shed light both on the history and on the present development of the RNA machinery and interactions. After presenting the evidence (by comparing their sequences that points toward a common thread, we discuss a scenario of genome coevolution (with emphasis on viral infectious processes and finally propose a plan for the reevaluation of the stereochemical theory of the genetic code; we claim that it may still be relevant, and not only for understanding the origin of life, but also for a comprehensive picture of regulation in present-day cells.

  2. RNA Relics and Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Glade, Nicolas; Moreira, Andrés; Vial, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    A number of small RNA sequences, located in different non-coding sequences and highly preserved across the tree of life, have been suggested to be molecular fossils, of ancient (and possibly primordial) origin. On the other hand, recent years have revealed the existence of ubiquitous roles for small RNA sequences in modern organisms, in functions ranging from cell regulation to antiviral activity. We propose that a single thread can be followed from the beginning of life in RNA structures selected only for stability reasons through the RNA relics and up to the current coevolution of RNA sequences; such an understanding would shed light both on the history and on the present development of the RNA machinery and interactions. After presenting the evidence (by comparing their sequences) that points toward a common thread, we discuss a scenario of genome coevolution (with emphasis on viral infectious processes) and finally propose a plan for the reevaluation of the stereochemical theory of the genetic code; we claim that it may still be relevant, and not only for understanding the origin of life, but also for a comprehensive picture of regulation in present-day cells. PMID:20111682

  3. Origin and significance of defects in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years significant advances have taken place in the understanding of the origin and nature of weld discontinuities. The furthering of the knowledge of hot cracking, cold cracking, lamellar tearing and porosity formation is due to the development and utilization of sophisticated techniques for microscopy and microanalysis and the concerted efforts of many researchers in the U.S. and abroad. Concurrent with the progress toward better definition of the metallurgical mechanisms for discontinuity formation, the development of the fracture mechanics approach for the assessment of the significance of the discontinuities was brought into focus. It is the marriage of the metallurgical understanding of formation and the mechanics assessment of relevance that permits discontinuities to be treated with a new degree of sophistication. The many types of cracking and porosity formation were the subjects of numerous studies in the intervening years. This presentation will treat the various types of weld discontinuities which have their origin closely related to a metallurgical mechanism. Emphasis will be placed on hot cracking, and porosity formation with information presented on cold cracking, reheat cracking and lamellar tearing. The employment of the newer metallurgical tools will be discussed in terms of their utilization in determining the cause of discontinuity formation

  4. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  5. Evolutionary origin of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bever, Gabe S; Scheyer, Torsten M; Hsiang, Allison Y; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2013-06-17

    The origin of the turtle shell has perplexed biologists for more than two centuries. It was not until Odontochelys semitestacea was discovered, however, that the fossil and developmental data could be synthesized into a model of shell assembly that makes predictions for the as-yet unestablished history of the turtle stem group. We build on this model by integrating novel data for Eunotosaurus africanus-a Late Guadalupian (∼260 mya) Permian reptile inferred to be an early stem turtle. Eunotosaurus expresses a number of relevant characters, including a reduced number of elongate trunk vertebrae (nine), nine pairs of T-shaped ribs, inferred loss of intercostal muscles, reorganization of respiratory muscles to the ventral side of the ribs, (sub)dermal outgrowth of bone from the developing perichondral collar of the ribs, and paired gastralia that lack both lateral and median elements. These features conform to the predicted sequence of character acquisition and provide further support that E. africanus, O. semitestacea, and Proganochelys quenstedti represent successive divergences from the turtle stem lineage. The initial transformations of the model thus occurred by the Middle Permian, which is congruent with molecular-based divergence estimates for the lineage, and remain viable whether turtles originated inside or outside crown Diapsida. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep Mantle Origin for the DUPAL Anomaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, S.; Weis, D.

    2002-12-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of the Dupal Anomaly, its origin remains a geochemical and geophysical enigma. This anomaly is associated with the Southern Hemisphere oceanic mantle and is recognized by basalts with geochemical characteristics such as low 206Pb/204Pb and high 87Sr/86Sr. Both mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) are affected, despite originating from melting at different depths and of different mantle sources. We compile geochemical data for both MORB and OIB from the three major oceans to help constrain the physical distribution and chemical composition of the Dupal Anomaly. There is a clear decrease in 206Pb/204Pb and an increase in 87Sr/86Sr with more southerly latitude for Indian MORB and OIB; these correlations are less obvious in the Atlantic and non-existent in the Pacific. The average* 143Nd/144Nd for Pacific and Atlantic OIB is 0.5129, but is lower for Indian OIB (0.5128). Interestingly, Pacific, Atlantic and Indian OIB all have 176Hf/177Hf averages of 0.2830. Indian MORB also record this phenomenon of low Nd with normal Hf isotopic compositions (Chauvel and Blichert-Toft, EPSL, 2001). Hf isotopes appear, therefore, to be a valid isotopic proxy for measuring the presence and magnitude of the Dupal Anomaly at specific locations. Wen (EPSL, 2001) reported a low-velocity layer at the D'' boundary beneath the Indian Ocean from which the Dupal Anomaly may originate. This hypothesis may be consistent with our compilations demonstrating that the long-lived Dupal Anomaly does not appear to be either mixing efficiently into the upper mantle or spreading to other ocean basins through time. We suggest that the Dupal source could be continually tapped by upwelling Indian Ocean mantle plumes. Plumes would then emplace pockets of Dupal material into the upper mantle and other ascending plumes might further disperse this material into the shallow asthenosphere. This could explain both the presence of the Dupal signature in MORB

  7. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  8. Organic Minerals in the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S.; Biondi, E.; Kim, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Models for the origin of life are plagued by fundamental problems that, due to their difficulty, are called "paradoxes". One of these, known to anyone who has ever worked in a kitchen, is that organics, when given energy and left to itself, does not generate life. Rather, organics devolve to give tarry mixtures that become increasingly complex and increasingly less likely to support life (like asphalt). However, even if those mixtures escape devolution to create something useful for Darwinism, like building blocks for RNA, the water in which they must work is corrosive, leading to their destruction. Even if RNA is created, it is itself easily degraded. One current trend to manage those paradoxes turns to minerals in environments on early Earth. Inorganic minerals containing borate have now been shown to prevent the destruction of ribose (the R in RNA) and other carbohydrates essential for early Earth. Evaporite desert basins supplied with aqueous runoff from tourmaline-containing basalts are ideal environments for forming borate minerals, especially if they are made alkaline by serpentinizing peridotite. In the evaporite environments, drying cycles mitigate the destructive capability of water. Further, we have shown that phosphate is segregated from calcium (avoiding formation of relatively unreacted apatites) if magnesium and borate are present. Further, a common magnesium borophosphate (luneburgite) not only makes phosphate available for prebiotic synthesis, but selectively phosphorylates RNA building blocks as it releases borate to stabilize them against further degradation. Finally, a variety of minerals bind and stabilize RNA itself. Research in this area has also discovered organic minerals that might have been relevant to the origins of life on Earth. Such minerals are scarce on Earth today, since they are easily consumed by microbial communities. However, on a prebiotic Earth, organic minerals could have stored organic species as intermediates towards our

  9. Origins of Life: Open Questions and Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, André

    2017-10-01

    Stanley Miller demonstrated in 1953 that it was possible to form amino acids from methane, ammonia, and hydrogen in water, thus launching the ambitious hope that chemists would be able to shed light on the origins of life by recreating a simple life form in a test tube. However, it must be acknowledged that the dream has not yet been accomplished, despite the great volume of effort and innovation put forward by the scientific community. A minima, primitive life can be defined as an open chemical system, fed with matter and energy, capable of self-reproduction (i.e., making more of itself by itself), and also capable of evolving. The concept of evolution implies that chemical systems would transfer their information fairly faithfully but make some random errors. If we compared the components of primitive life to parts of a chemical automaton, we could conceive that, by chance, some parts self-assembled to generate an automaton capable of assembling other parts to produce a true copy. Sometimes, minor errors in the building generated a more efficient automaton, which then became the dominant species. Quite different scenarios and routes have been followed and tested in the laboratory to explain the origin of life. There are two schools of thought in proposing the prebiotic supply of organics. The proponents of a metabolism-first call for the spontaneous formation of simple molecules from carbon dioxide and water to rapidly generate life. In a second hypothesis, the primeval soup scenario, it is proposed that rather complex organic molecules accumulated in a warm little pond prior to the emergence of life. The proponents of the primeval soup or replication first approach are by far the more active. They succeeded in reconstructing small-scale versions of proteins, membranes, and RNA. Quite different scenarios have been proposed for the inception of life: the RNA world, an origin within droplets, self-organization counteracting entropy, or a stochastic approach merging

  10. Origins of Protein Functions in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Burchard; Pohorille, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis and in vitro evolution of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions yet, important clues have been uncovered. In one example (Keefe and Szostak, 2001), novel ATP binding proteins were identified that appear to be unrelated in both sequence and structure to any known ATP binding proteins. One of these proteins was subsequently redesigned computationally to bind GTP through introducing several mutations that introduce targeted structural changes to the protein, improve its binding to guanine and prevent water from accessing the active center. This study facilitates further investigations of individual evolutionary steps that lead to a change of function in primordial proteins. In a second study (Seelig and Szostak, 2007), novel enzymes were generated that can join two pieces of RNA in a reaction for which no natural enzymes are known

  11. Nahid Sırrı Örik’in Romanlarında Aile

    OpenAIRE

    Sayar, Feyza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, The six novels of Nahid Sırrı Örik Kıskanmak, Yıldız Olmak Kolay mı?, Tersine Giden Yol, Gece Olmadan, Sultan Hamid Düşerken, Kozmopolitler were examined in terms of family approach. In the first section of the study, Nahid Sırrı Örik's life, art and works were mentioned. In the second section, generally novels in Turkish Literature which are on the subject of family were mentioned. In the third section, the plot is studied. In the fourth section family and in the fifth sect...

  12. Vortex Breakdown over Slender Delta Wings (Eclatement tourbillonnaire sur les ailes delta effil es)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    computations have been obtained using the CFD code FlOWer, which was compiled for the NEC-SX5 architecture in sequential mode. The software has been...and tunnel speeds of 3 to 23 m/s. Both still and high speed cinema photography were used to record the flow visualization results. A combination... cinema photography to capture the dynamic processes involved in vortex breakdown. Still photographs from individual frames are documented and

  13. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  14. New phenyl derivatives from endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 derived of mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Yizhu; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Bin; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xianwen; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yonghong

    2014-06-01

    Two new aromatic butyrolactones, flavipesins A (1) and B (2), two new natural products (3 and 4), and a known phenyl dioxolanone (5) were isolated from marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analysis, the absolute configurations were assigned by optical rotation and CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography analysis. 1 demonstrated lower MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus (8.0 μg/mL) and Bacillus subtillis (0.25 μg/mL). 1 also showed the unique antibiofilm activity of penetration through the biofilm matrix and kills live bacteria inside mature S. aureus biofilm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aile Terapilerinin Feminist Teori Açısından İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ULUOCAK, Öğr. Gör. Gonca POLAT; BULUT, Prof. Dr. Işıl

    2011-01-01

    Family is a system that is responsible for many functions in society and is regarded as “healthy” when these functions are fulfilled. Family therapy, which was developed in the beginning of 1900’s, is accepted as an important means of solving the problems in the family. Feminist theory has made a unique contribution to the improvement and practice process of family therapies with its emphasis for questioning of the independence of family therapy from the hegemonic structres in the society. In...

  16. Conception aerodynamique d'un profil d'aile transsonique laminaire adaptable aux conditions de vol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Martin

    This work presents the design and optimization of a morphing airfoil system. It is part of the CRIAQ MDO-505 project. A particular emphasis is put on the achievement of laminar flow through the use of the gamma - R˜ethetat transition prediction model, which is validated by the use of the database obtained during the CRIAQ 7.1 project containing transition measurements on a morphing airfoil. The presence of strict structural constraints on the system enables a realistic evaluation of the potential of such a system. A comparison with unconstrained multi-point optimization results show that constraints on the position and extent of the flexible skin reduce its efficiency in reducing drag. A full aircraft drag estimation program was implemented using empirical relations to estimate the proportion of total drag related to the airfoil. Drag reductions achieved by the airfoil optimization was factored by the proportion and it was found that the morphing wing system is able to improve aircraft drag by up to 1.1%.

  17. The origins of tropical marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brian W; Rocha, Luiz A; Toonen, Robert J; Karl, Stephen A

    2013-06-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies have overturned three paradigms for the origins of marine biodiversity. (i) Physical (allopatric) isolation is not the sole avenue for marine speciation: many species diverge along ecological boundaries. (ii) Peripheral habitats such as oceanic archipelagos are not evolutionary graveyards: these regions can export biodiversity. (iii) Speciation in marine and terrestrial ecosystems follow similar processes but are not the same: opportunities for allopatric isolation are fewer in the oceans, leaving greater opportunity for speciation along ecological boundaries. Biodiversity hotspots such as the Caribbean Sea and the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle produce and export species, but can also accumulate biodiversity produced in peripheral habitats. Both hotspots and peripheral ecosystems benefit from this exchange in a process dubbed biodiversity feedback. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    In politics, ideas matter. They provide the foundation for economic policymaking, which in turn shapes what is possible in domestic and international politics. Yet until now, little attention has been paid to how these ideas are produced and disseminated, and how this process varies between...... countries. The National Origins of Policy Ideas provides the first comparative analysis of how "knowledge regimes" communities of policy research organizations like think tanks, political party foundations, ad hoc commissions, and state research offices, and the institutions that govern them generate ideas...... and communicate them to policymakers. John Campbell and Ove Pedersen examine how knowledge regimes are organized, operate, and have changed over the last thirty years in the United States, France, Germany, and Denmark. They show how there are persistent national differences in how policy ideas are produced. Some...

  19. Dynamic origins of fermionic D -terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jonathan; Schweitzer, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The D -term is defined through matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, similarly to mass and spin, yet this important particle property is experimentally not known any fermion. In this work we show that the D -term of a spin 1/2 fermion is of dynamical origin: it vanishes for a free fermion. This is in pronounced contrast to the bosonic case where already a free spin-0 boson has a non-zero intrinsic D -term. We illustrate in two simple models how interactions generate the D -term of a fermion with an internal structure, the nucleon. All known matter is composed of elementary fermions. This indicates the importance to study this interesting particle property in more detail, which will provide novel insights especially on the structure of the nucleon.

  20. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Sarkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines according to age and health condition of the consumer, and seasonal considerations are presented for each of the traditional health foods of India. In the era of globalization of the population and international food trading, health conscious citizens around the globe will benefit from the wealth of knowledge on traditional Indian and ayurvedic health foods of Indian origin.