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Sample records for undetectable anti-hbs titers

  1. Age-dependent decrease of anti-HBs titers and effect of booster doses using 2 different vaccines in Palestinian children vaccinated in early childhood

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    Qawasmi, Mohammad; Samuh, Monjed; Glebe, Dieter; Gerlich, Wolfram H; Azzeh, Maysa

    2015-01-01

    Immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has proven to be highly effective and led to significant reduction of new infections worldwide. However, protective immunity measured by anti-HBs titers may decrease to critical levels in the years after basal immunization, particularly in case of exposure to HBV variants different from the vaccine strain. We tested 400 Palestinian children between one and 19 years of age for their anti-HBs titer, challenged the immune memory of those with low or absent anti-HBs with 2 types of hepatitis B vaccines and determined thereafter the anti-HBs titer. At the age of one, 92.2% of the children presented with protective anti-HBs titers (≥10 mIU/ml) with the majority having ≥100 mIU/ml. Protective immunity was still high at ages 2 (87.5%) and 4 (95%), declining by age 5 and 6 (from 69.2% to 66.7%) and down to an average of 39.8% between the ages of 7 and 19. 160 children with a nonprotective or low immune response challenged with either the yeast-derived Engerix-B or the mammalian cell-derived preS1-containing Sci-B-Vac vaccine showed an anamnestic immune response. 92.4% and 85.9% of the children challenged with one dose Sci-B-Vac and Engerix-B presented with anti-HBs titers >100 mIU/ml respectively. Our results reveal that vaccine-induced protective anti-HBs titers against HBV decrease rapidly beyond the age of 6 in Palestinian children, but can be strongly enhanced with a single booster vaccine dose, independent of brand and antigen composition. Our data suggest that a booster vaccine dose against HBV during school years may be useful. PMID:25996579

  2. Anti-HBs levels among children and adolescents with complete immunization schedule against hepatitis B virus. A cross-sectional study in Blumenau, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2007-2008 Níveis de anti-HBs entre crianças e adolescentes com o esquema completo de imunização contra o vírus da hepatite B. Um estudo transversal em Blumenau, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2007-2008

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    Andréa do Livramento

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is the main tool for preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV infection; however, following the completion of the vaccination series, the concentrations of anti-HBs can decline over the years and reach levels less than 10mIU/mL. The persistence of protection in these individuals is still unknown. The present study aimed to determine the anti-HBs antibody levels among children and adolescents who had received a complete vaccination course for hepatitis B. METHODS: Antibodies against HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs were tested in 371 individuals aged 10 to 15 years-old. RESULTS: Volunteers who showed undetectable quantities of anti-HBs accounted for 10.2% of the population studied and 39.9% presented antibody titers of less than 10mIU/mL. Anti-HBs > 10mIU/mL were verified in 49.9%. CONCLUSIONS: These results corroborate other studies indicating levels of anti-HBs below 10mIU/mL in vaccinated individuals. Additional studies are required to assess whether this indicates susceptibility to HBV infection and the need and age for booster doses.INTRODUÇÃO: A vacinação é o principal instrumento para prevenir a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B. Todavia, após a conclusão da série de vacinação, as concentrações de anti-HBs podem diminuir ao longo dos anos e atingir níveis inferiores a 10mUI/mL. A persistência da proteção nestes indivíduos ainda é desconhecida. O presente estudo objetivou determinar os níveis do anticorpo anti-HBs em crianças e adolescentes que receberam o esquema completo de vacinação para a hepatite B. MÉTODOS: O anticorpo para o antígeno de superfície do vírus da hepatite B (anti-HBs foi testado em 371 indivíduos com idade entre 10-15 anos. RESULTADOS: Os voluntários que apresentaram quantidades indetectáveis de anti-HBs corresponderam a 10,2% da população estudada, e 39,9% apresentaram títulos do anticorpo inferiores a 10mUI/mL. Anti-HBs > 10mUI/mL foi verificado em 49,9%. CONCLUS

  3. [Requirement of standardizing anti-HBs assay methods in Japan for HBV infection-preventing strategy--discrepancy of anti-HBs measurements among three different kits widely used in Japan].

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    Ogata, Norio

    2006-09-01

    The strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by administrating an HB vaccine is changing worldwide; however, this is not the case in Japan. An important concern about the HBV infection-preventing strategy in Japan may be that the assay methods for the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are not standardized. The minimum protective anti-HBs titer against HBV infection has been established as 10 mIU/ml by World Health Organization (WHO) -standardized assay methods worldwide, but that is still determined as a "positive" test result by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) method in Japan. We compared anti-HBs measurements in given samples among PHA(Mycell II, Institute of Immunology), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse, Fujirebio), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect, Abbott), all of which are currently in wide use in Japan. First, anti-HBs measurements in serum from individuals who received a yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine composed of the major surface protein of either subtype adr or subtype ayw were compared. The results clearly showed that in subtype adr-vaccinees CLIA underestimated the anti-HBs amount compared with CLEIA and PHA, but in ayw-vaccinees, the discordance in the measurements among the three kits was not prominent. Second, anti-HBs measurements in standard or calibration solutions of each assay kit were compared. Surprisingly, CLEIA showed higher measurements in all three kit-associated standard or calibration solutions than CLIA. Thus, the anti-HBs titer of 10 mIU/ml is difficult to introduce in Japan as the minimum protective level against HBV infection. Efforts to standardize anti-HBs assay methods are expected to share international evidence about the HBV infection-preventing strategy.

  4. Anti-HBs in immunized children with cuban hepatitis B vaccine and impact of booster dose after five years

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    Dahifar, H.; Mousavi, F.; Ghorbani, A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection and associated diseases are a major public health problem. This study was planned to find out the persistence of antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in Iranian vaccinated children after five years. Anti-HBs titers in a group of healthy good - responder children who were vaccinated with Cuban hepatitis B vaccine in infancy were measured after five years. Children with antibody titers <100 mlU/ml were revaccinated and retested after four weeks. Mean anti-HBs titers in 68 children (29 females, 39 males) were 482.1 mlU/ml at six months after the third dose of primary vaccination and 153 mlU/ml at five years later. Total mean anti-HBs titers in 36 (52.9%) children out of 68 (17 females, 19 males) were 38.3 mlU/ml and 4(5.8%) of 68 children (two of each sexes) had no detectable antibody after five years. Total mean anti-HBs titers in these hypo- responder and non- responder were 774.3 mlU/ml and 625.5 mlU/ml respectively after booster dose. In a group of children, who were immunized with Cuban hepatitis B vaccine from birth, anti-HBS titers fell at 6.5 years of age and almost half of children became hypo responder or no responder and their anti-HBs titers developed secondary rise after booster vaccination. All children showed immunologic memory to a booster dose. (author)

  5. Vaccine-Induced Anti-HBs Level in 5-6 Year-Old Malnourished Children.

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    Karimi, Mehran; Raee, Ali; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Malnutrition is the most common cause of immune deficiency. It results in reduced secretion of T-cells and B-cell-stimulating factors leading to declining of special immunoglobulins. On the other hand, hepatitis B, as a major world health problem, can be prevented effectively by vaccination. Three doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine induce protective levels of anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) in 95% of healthy children. This level decreases gradually over time. The goal of this study was to assess anti-HBs in malnourished children, who confronted to some degrees of immune deficiency. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during May to August 2010 in therapeutic clinics of Yazd, Iran. Samples were selected simply and consecutively among 5-6 year-old children with a history of three doses of HBV vaccine in infancy. On the basis of World Health Organization's definition on malnutrition, which considers anthropometric measurements, malnourished children entered the study. Totally 83 cases (37 boys and 46 girls) were gathered and classified into three groups of mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition. One milliliter of venous blood was taken and anti-HBs were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Overall, seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-HBs were 60.2% and 15.47 ± 10.92 mIU/mL, respectively. Seroprotection rate was 71.4%, 55.2%, and 72.7% in mild, moderate, and severe malnourished children, respectively. GMT was 30.78 mIU/mL, 12.15 mIU/mL, and 22.95 mIU/mL in these groups, respectively. None of these two indices were significant in these groups (P = 0.471, P = 0.364). Seroprotection rate and GMT were 54.1% and 13.26 ± 11.59 mIU/mL in boys, and 65.2% and 17.5 ± 10.59 mIU/mL in girls, respectively, showing no significant relationship with gender (P = 0.302, P = 0.602). Lowest seroprotection rate was in stunted cases (47.1%) and highest in wasted children (77.8%). This difference also was not significant (P = 0

  6. The association of the vitamin D status with the persistence of anti-HBs antibody at 20years after primary vaccination with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in infancy.

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    Jafarzadeh, A; Keshavarz, J; Bagheri-Jamebozorgi, M; Nemati, M; Frootan, R; Shokri, F

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D has potent immunoregulatory effects due to the expression of its receptor on the majority of immune cells. The aim was to evaluate the association of the vitamin D status with the persistence of anti-HBs antibody and immune response to booster immunization at 20years after primary vaccination with hepatitis B (HB) vaccine. Blood samples were collected from 300 adults 20years after completion of the primary HB vaccination in infancy. The serum levels of vitamin D and anti-HBs antibody were measured by ELISA. A single booster dose of a recombinant HB vaccine was administered to a total of 138 subjects, whose anti-HBs titer wasanti-HBs antibody, 4weeks after booster vaccination. At 20years after primary vaccination, the mean vitamin D concentrations were significantly higher in seroprotective subjects as compared to non-seroprotective individuals (Panti-HBs were significantly increased with advanced concentrations of vitamin D (PD were significantly higher in subjects with an anamnestic response to booster vaccination as compared with subjects without this response (PD status may influence the persistence of anti-HBs antibody and durability of protection after primary vaccination with a recombinant HB vaccine in infancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs among delivering women.

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    Sabău, M; Căpîlnă; Kiss, E

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 2,500 delivering women revealed a 7.6% incidence of past infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (HBsAg or anti-HBs). Only 5.9% of the anti-HBs-positive mothers had a possible history of parenteral exposure to hepatitis B and none of the 55 HBsAg carriers had such a history. The findings suggest that HBV is endemic and that it is probably spread in part by nonparenteral means. The high rates of HBsAg and anti-HBs point to the possible preventive value of routine screenings for this system among pregnant women.

  8. Measurements in international units of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen(anti-HBs) after immunization with a yeast-derived, subtype adr hepatitis B vaccine are considerably different between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA).

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    Ogata, Norio

    2006-04-01

    The worldwide consensus of the minimum protective anti-HBs level against HBV infection is 10 mIU/mL on assays standardized by the World Health Organization (WHO) reference preparations. To investigate whether this value could be applied to recipients of yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine containing the major surface protein of subtype adr (Bimmugen, Astellas Pharmaceutical, Tokyo), we compared anti-HBs measurements between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect Ausab, Abbott Japan, Tokyo) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse Forte, Fujirebio, Tokyo) in given serum samples obtained from the vaccinees. The vaccine and the two assay methods are currently in a wide use in Japan. The study included 300 medical students who completed a standard vaccination course (0, 1 and 6 months). Serum samples obtained 1 month or 13 months after completing the vaccination were simultaneously tested for anti-HBs by CLIA and CLEIA. In 147 samples with quantifiable values on both CLIA and CLEIA (10 to 1000 mIU/mL) the geometric mean titer on CLEIA (225.0 mIU/mL) was significantly higher than that on CLIA (94.5 mIU/mL) (p < 0.0001). Of 26 subjects with CLIA measurements below 10 mIU/mL, 15 samples (57.7%) showed CLEIA measurements more than 10 mIU/mL. Thus, in the subtype adr-vaccinees CLEIA demonstrated considerably high serum anti-HBs measurements compared to CLIA and discordance in determining critical anti-HBs level of 10 mIU/mL was observed in more than half the samples. This suggests that the minimum HBV-protective anti HBs titer of 10 mIU/mL is difficult to be introduced to Japan where subtype adr-HB vaccines or -HBV infection are prevalent, unless characteristics of assay methods are carefully evaluated.

  9. Clinical patterns associated with the concurrent detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA.

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    Anastasiou, Olympia E; Widera, Marek; Korth, Johannes; Kefalakes, Helenie; Katsounas, Antonios; Hilgard, Gudrun; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali; Ciesek, Sandra; Verheyen, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA is a rare serological combination and has been described in acute and chronic HBV infection. To scrutinize viral and clinical patterns associated with concurrent detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA. Simultaneous detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA was observed in 64/1444 (4.4%) patients treated for HBV infection at the University Hospital of Essen from 2006 to 2016 (8 with acute, 20 with reactivated, and 36 chronic HBV infection). Clinical data and laboratory parameters were analyzed. Regions of the small hepatitis B surface antigen (SHB) and the reverse transcriptase (RT) were sequenced using next generation sequencing (NGS). Among the 64 patients with detectable HBV DNA and anti-HBs, 17 were HBsAg negative (HBsAg[-]), and two had acute liver failure. Patients with acute HBV infection had fewer genotype specific amino acid substitutions in the SHB region than patients with reactivated HBV infection (4 [4.5] vs 9 [16.25], P = 0.043). However, we could observe a significantly higher number of mutations in the a-determinant region when comparing chronically infected patients to patients with acute infection (0 [1] vs 1 [1], P = 0.044). The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (Ka/Ks) was on average >1 for the SHB region and 1) in the SHB region indicates that anti-HBs might have exerted selection pressure on the HBsAg. In three cases the diagnosis of acute HBV infection would have been at least delayed by only focusing on HBsAg testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against anti-HBs among the patients with chronic hepatitis B.

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    Kobayashi, K; Suzuki, H; Ueno, Y; Nagatomi, R; Kanno, A; Otsuki, M; Toyota, T

    1990-08-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) against anti-HBs were found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis type B. Anti-idiotypic antibodies were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using horseradish peroxidase conjugated mouse monoclonal anti-HBs. Ten of 72 HBsAg positive sera contained anti-Id (13.9%). The prevalence of anti-Id did not appear to correlate with HBeAg/anti-HBe system. However, HB virus specific DNA polymerase activity was significantly higher in anti-Id positive sera. In the sera obtained from the patients treated with predonisolone before, anti-Id positive rate was higher than that in the patients without a history of predonisolone therapy. These results suggest that anti-Id may be related to the immunoregulatory mechanism of HB virus replication.

  11. Assay of anti-HBs antibodies using a recombinant antigen and latex particle counting: comparison with five commercial tests.

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    Galanti, L M; Cornu, C; Masson, P L; Robert, A R; Becheanu, D; Lamy, M E; Cambiaso, C L

    1991-05-01

    An assay of anti-HBs antibodies based on agglutination of latex particles coated with recombinant HBs-antigen was compared with Abbott radioimmunoassay (Abbott-RIA), which uses a human plasma-derived antigen. The population examined consisted of 76 Abbott-RIA anti-HBs-negative prevaccinated subjects and 1044 serum samples anti-HBs found positive by Abbott-RIA, including 283 samples of subjects vaccinated either with a human plasma-derived vaccine (group A; n = 180) or with a recombinant vaccine (group B; n = 103). Correlation coefficients between the two techniques were respectively r = 0.89 for the whole population (n = 1044), r = 0.98 in group A and r = 0.74 in group B. Anti-HBs titres were higher with latex than with RIA in group B as shown by the regression slopes: latex = 508 + 1.11 RIA in group A and latex = -1138 + 3.97 RIA in group B, suggesting that some vaccinated subjects from group B produced antibodies against epitopes proper to the recombinant antigen. In the prevaccinated population and in group A, the latex results were compared with those of radioimmunoassays (Abbott, Sorin) and enzyme immunoassays (Behring, Roche, Pasteur). Only the Roche-EIA detected anti-HBs in the prevaccinated subjects. The correlation between the various immunoassays was r greater than 0.96 only for values higher than 100 IU/l.

  12. [Comparative Study for Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Titers Based on Two Measurement Methods: Using Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated from Hepatitis B Vaccinated Recipients].

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    Oone, Kumiko; Kani, Satomi; Oohashi, Minoru; Shinkai, Noboru; Inoue, Takako; Wakimoto, Yukio; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-08-01

    As anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) titers vary depending on the measurement methods, we compared two different methods to measure anti-HBs titers in sera and HBs monoclonal antibodies. The sera from 182 HB virus-resolved patients who were negative for HBsAg but positive for antiHB core protein (HBc) and/or anti-HBs were obtained. The measurement of anti-HBs was compared using either Lumipulse G1200 or Architect i2000SR. Six different monoclonal antibody (mAbs) clones isolated from healthy individuals inoculated with hepatitis B vaccine Bimmugen (genotype C) were used. A statistically significant correlation in anti-HBs titers was found between the two methods tested (Y = 0.951X + 100.7, R = 0.813, p Lumipulse and 12 (6.6%) were opposite results. Measuring 2 mAbs with HBV neutralizing activity, the titers of the 116 antibody (1.0 μg/mL) were comparable (689.3 mIU/mL by Lumipulse and 440.7 mIU/mL by Architect), whereas those of the 478 antibody (1.0 μg/mL) were much lower by Architect than by Lumipulse (42.6 vs. 818.6 mIU/mL, respectively). Of four other mAbs without HBV neutralizing activity, equal titers were observed for one; two mAbs had less anti-HB titers by Architect; and one was below the cut-off index (Lumipulse, and the potential ability to detect the 478 antibody with neutralizing activity is low, indicating that Architect might underestimate anti-HBs titers. Future studies should standardize the anti-HBs titer measurement system.

  13. STUDY OF IMMUNISATION STATUS BY ESTIMATION OF ANTI-HBS ANTIBODY IN POST HEPATITIS B VACCINATED INDIVIDUALS

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    Karthik Pichika Lakshmanan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection is a major public health problem in India. Hepatitis B can be prevented by hepatitis B vaccine, which is the first anticancer vaccine, because it can prevent a form of liver cancer. The protective antibodies induced by vaccination wane gradually over period of time. The aim of the study is to- 1. Estimate serum levels of anti-HBs in individuals vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine. 2. Immunisation status of hepatitis B vaccination in individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS A serological study was carried out from March 2015 to the end of September 2016 aimed at estimating the level of HBsantibody. Total of 330 individuals from healthcare workers, staff and children who have received full course of hepatitis B vaccine were selected for study. In a cross-sectional study, anti-HBs antibody was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. RESULTS Three hundred and thirty individuals were enrolled in the study, out of which, 136 were men and 194 were women. Majority were in the age group 20 to 40 years. Anti-HBs antibody titre was more than 100 IU/L in 74% individuals. Titre was between 10 IU/L-100 IU/L in 16% individuals. Anti-HBs titre was less than 10 IU/L in 10% individuals. There was a significant decline in the levels of antibody overtime post vaccination. Antibody titre was low in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Low antibody titre was noted in smokers. CONCLUSION In this study, majority had desirable immune response to the HBV vaccine. Diabetes mellitus, long duration post vaccination and positive smoking history have attributed to low anti-HBs titre in subjects who had inadequate levels in our study. As immunological memory persists for long time even in the absence of significant titre of anti-HBs, booster dose vaccination is routinely not advocated for general population. But, healthcare professionals are advised to receive booster dose vaccination at 5 years if anti-HBs value is

  14. Antioxidative Flavonol Glucuronides and Anti-HBsAg Flavonol from Rotala rotundifolia

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    Li-Jie Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavonol glucuronides, quercetin 3-O-β-d-2″-acetylglucuronide (1 and quercetin 3-O-β-d-2″-acetylglucuronide methyl ester (2, along with four known flavonoids (3-6 were isolated from the whole parts of Rotala rotundifolia. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by application of various spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Biological evaluation showed that all of isolated flavonoid compounds have potent anti-oxidative activities by DPPH and superoxide anion methods, and kaempferol (3 and quercetin (4 exhibited significant anti-HBV activity assayed by anti-HBsAg production. The HPLC fingerprint with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD for quality control of R. rotundifolia partitioned EtOAc layer was also established.

  15. An investigation of clinical features of HBsAg and anti-HBs positive patients with chronic hepatitis B

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    SONG Jinyun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the phenomenon of coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs and its clinical features, as well as related causes. MethodsA total of 2260 persons who underwent physical examination in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University from February 2011 to February 2014 were enrolled, among whom 830 were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B. Chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay was used to screen out 188 patients with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs, and these patients were divided into HBeAg positive group (101 patients and HBeAg negative group (87 patients. Another 200 patients with positive HBsAg and negative anti-HBs were enrolled as controls, among whom 80 were in the HBeAg-positive group and 120 were in the HBeAg-negative group. HBV serological markers, liver function, and viral load were measured and analyzed with reference to clinical manifestations. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThere were five patterns of HBV serological markers in patients with positive HBsAg and anti-HBs, among which positive HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBc and negative anti-HBe were the most common and accounted for 47.9% (90/188. The overall abnormal rate of liver function parameters was 69.1% (130/188, and the positive rate of HBV DNA was 56.9% (107/188. The two groups with positive HBeAg had a high level of HBV DNA replication, and there was no significant difference in the positive rate of HBV DNA between positive HBsAg and anti-HBs group and control group (P>0.05. In the groups with negative HBeAg, there was a significant difference in the proportion of patients with HBV DNA quantitation of >1×10^5 IU/ml between positive HBsAg and anti-HBs group and control group (P<0.05. The sequencing of the S region of HBV showed that among the 80 patients with positive HBsAg and anti-HBs, 27 had variations in this region, and the mutation rate reached 33.7%. The major variation

  16. A Clinical study of HBsAg and Anti-HBs in the serum of patients with various liver diseases

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    Kim, Hak San; Kim, Jong Mann; Kim, Hwa Sook; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Hak Choong; Lee, Chong Suk [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    Serum HBsAg and Anti-HBs obtained by radioimmunoassay were studied in 109 cases of various liver diseases who visited or were admitted to National Medical Center from December, 1980 to July, 1981. The results were as follows; 1) HBsAg was detected in 67.0% of total 109 cases; 71.9% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 71.4% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 65.2% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis and 58.8% of 17 cases with hepatoma. 2) Anti-HBs was detected in 32.1% of total 109 cases; 37.0% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 29.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, 28.6% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 28.1% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis. 3) HBsAg or Anti-HBs, the markers of Hepatitis B virus was detected in 89.0% of total 109 cases; 93.6% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 89.1% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 85.7% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis and 82.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, which strongly suggested that the various liver diseases were associated with hepatitis B virus infection.

  17. Decrease in Anti-HBs Antibodies over Time in Medical Students and Healthcare Workers after Hepatitis B Vaccination

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    H. V. Sahana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B is one of the most important occupational hazards among healthcare workers (HCWs. This study aimed to measure the anti-HBs titres among the medical students and HCWs vaccinated against hepatitis B virus and to determine the association between anti-HBs levels and time since vaccination. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, medical students and healthcare workers who had received all three doses of hepatitis B vaccination and completed at least six months after vaccination since the last dose were included. 3 ml blood was collected from subjects (n=340 and anti-HBs titre was estimated using ELISA. Results. A total of 340/400 subjects were aged between 18 and 60 years; 204 were females and 136 males. The median and interquartile range for time since vaccination were 5 and 5 years, respectively. Duration since vaccination was ≤5 years in 223 (65.5%, 6–10 years in 84 (24.7%, and >10 years in 33 (9.70%; among them, antibody titres were >10 mIU/ml in 94.1%, 79.7%, and 72.7% subjects, respectively. There was significant decline in antibody titres as duration of postvaccination increased. Conclusion. The proportion of subjects who were unprotected after 5 and 10 years after vaccination were 20% and 27%, respectively. The need for a booster dose can be made mandatory at least for healthcare professionals.

  18. Awareness and Practice of Complete Hepatitis B Vaccination and Anti-HBs Testing in Vaccinated Health Care Workers

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    Annapurna G. Sajjan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is a serious and common infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Health Care Workers (HCW are at an increased risk of occupational exposure to HBV and the incidence is 2-4 times higher than in the general population. Despite potential risks, awareness and vaccine compliance is poor among the HCWs. Aim: To assess the awareness of complete Hepatitis B vaccination, anti-HBs testing & protective titres and determine the anti HBs titres amongst vaccinated HCWs. Material & Methods: A total of 500 Health care workers of both sexes in the age group from 20- 60 years vaccinated against Hepatitis B were tested for anti-HBs titres by quantitative ELISA. Results: The rate of complete immunization was 81.4% in doctors, 63.3% in nursing staff and 90% in the technical staff. Amongst the 500 participants, 70.8% had received all the doses and 29.2% incomplete doses of the vaccine. Titres of ≥ 10 mIU/ml were demonstrated in 84.4% of HCWs who received all the doses and in 65.7% those who defaulted. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate lack of awareness about complete HB vaccination and the importance of post vaccination testing in HCWs.

  19. A Clinical study of HBsAg and Anti-HBs in the serum of patients with various liver diseases

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    Kim, Hak San; Kim, Jong Mann; Kim, Hwa Sook; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Hak Choong; Lee, Chong Suk

    1981-01-01

    Serum HBsAg and Anti-HBs obtained by radioimmunoassay were studied in 109 cases of various liver diseases who visited or were admitted to National Medical Center from December, 1980 to July, 1981. The results were as follows; 1) HBsAg was detected in 67.0% of total 109 cases; 71.9% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 71.4% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 65.2% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis and 58.8% of 17 cases with hepatoma. 2) Anti-HBs was detected in 32.1% of total 109 cases; 37.0% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 29.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, 28.6% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis, 28.1% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis. 3) HBsAg or Anti-HBs, the markers of Hepatitis B virus was detected in 89.0% of total 109 cases; 93.6% of 32 cases with acute viral hepatitis, 89.1% of 46 cases with liver cirrhosis, 85.7% of 14 cases with chronic hepatitis and 82.4% of 17 cases with hepatoma, which strongly suggested that the various liver diseases were associated with hepatitis B virus infection.

  20. Durability of immunity by hepatitis B vaccine in Japanese health care workers depends on primary response titers and durations.

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    Nori Yoshioka

    Full Text Available Health care workers (HCWs are frequently exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The efficacy and safety of immunization with the hepatitis B (HB vaccine are well recognized, but the durability of immunity and need for booster doses in those with secondary vaccine response failure remains controversial.This was a retrospective cohort study performed at Osaka University Hospital, Japan. We examined antibodies against HB surface antigen (anti-HBs titers annually after immunization for previously non-immunized HCWs. Primary responders were categorized by their sero-positive durations as short responders (those whose anti-HBs titers declined to negative range within 3 years, and long responders (those who retained positive anti-HBs levels for 3 years and more. We re-immunized short responders with either single or 3-dose boosters, the long responders with a single booster when their titers dropped below protective levels, and examined their sero-protection rates over time thereafter.From 2001 to 2012, data of 264 HCWs with a median age of 25.3 were collected. The rate of anti-HBs positivity after primary vaccination were 93.0% after three doses (n = 229, 54.5% after two doses (n = 11, and 4.2% after a single dose (n = 24. Of 213 primary responders, the anti-HBs levels of 95 participants (44.6% fell below the protective levels, including 46 short responders and 49 long responders. HCWs with higher initial anti-HBs titers after primary vaccination had significantly longer durations of sero-positivity. For short responders, 3-dose booster vaccination induced a longer duration of anti-HBs positivity compared to a single-dose booster, whereas for long responders, a single-dose booster alone could induce prolonged anti-HBs positivity.Our preliminary data suggested that it may be useful to differentiate HB vaccine responders based on their primary response durations to maintain protective levels of anti-HBs efficiently. A randomized, prospective

  1. Hyperimmune anti-HBs plasma as alternative to commercial immunoglobulins for prevention of HBV recurrence after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majno Pietro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B immune globulins (HBIG in combination with nucleos(tide analogues (NA are effectively used for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV recurrence after liver transplantation (LT. However, associated treatment costs for HBIG are exceedingly high. Methods Fresh frozen plasma obtained from blood donors with high anti-HBs levels (hyperimmune plasma, HIP containing at least 4,500 IU anti-HBs was used as alternative treatment for HBV recurrence prophylaxis post-LT. Results Twenty-one HBV-related LT recipients received HIP starting at transplantation, followed by long-term combination treatment with NA. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 years (range 0.5-12.6 and each patient received on average 8.2 HIP per year (range 5.8-11.4. Anti-HBs terminal elimination kinetic after HIP administration was 20.6 days (range 13.8-30.9, which is comparable to values reported for commercial HBIG products. All 21 patients remained free of HBV recurrence during follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted infection or other serious complication was observed. Seven patients developed reversible mild transfusion reactions. The cost for one HIP unit was US$140; average yearly HBIG treatment cost was US$1,148 per patient, as compared to US$25,000-100,000 for treatment with commercial HBIG. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the use of HIP may be a useful and economical approach for the prevention of HBV recurrence post-LT if used in combination with NA. Additional prospective controlled studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these results.

  2. Long-term anti-HBs antibody persistence following infant vaccination against hepatitis B and evaluation of anamnestic response: a 20-year follow-up study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Crasta, Priya Diana; Messier, Marc; Hardt, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been available worldwide since the mid-1980s. This vaccine was evaluated in a clinical trial in Thailand, conducted on subjects born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive and hepatitis B e-antigen positive mothers and vaccinated according to a 4-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 and 12 mo of age and a single dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin concomitantly at birth. All enrolled subjects seroconverted and were followed for 20 y to assess the persistence of antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) (NCT00240539). At year 20, 64% of subjects had anti-HBs antibody concentrations≥10 milli-international units per milli liter (mIU/ml) and 92% of subjects had detectable levels (≥3.3 mIU/ml) of anti-HBs antibodies. At year 20, subjects with anti-HBs antibody titermemory (NCT00657657). Anamnestic response to the challenge dose was observed in 96.6% of subjects with an 82-fold (13.2 to 1082.4 mIU/ml) increase in anti-HBs antibody geometric mean concentrations. This study confirms the long-term immunogenicity of the 4-dose regimen of the HBV vaccine eliciting long-term persistence of antibodies and immune memory against hepatitis B for up to at least 20 y after vaccination.

  3. Acute hepatitis B virus infection with simultaneous high HBsAg and high anti-HBs signals in a previously HBV vaccinated HIV-1 positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Laura; Verbon, Annelies; van Doorn, H Rogier; Goossens, Valère J

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of a clinical manifest hepatitis B virus infection and a potentially misleading HBV serological profile in an HIV-1 positive patient despite previous HBV vaccination. The patient presented with an acute hepatitis B and there was no indication of chronic HBV infection or the presence of a mutation in the 'a' determinant. Remarkably, simultaneously with high HBV surface antigen and HBV viral load, high anti-HBs antibodies were present. If, due to previous HBV vaccination only anti-HBs was tested in this patient, the result of the high anti-HBs antibodies could be very misleading and offering a false sense of security. Our findings contribute to the ongoing discussion on how to assess HBV specific immunological memory and determining the role of HBV booster vaccinations in immunocompromised individuals.

  4. Serum Anti-Hbs-Ag in Stable Hemodialysis Patients and its Relationship with Various Demographic and Biochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar BARADARAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the relationship between various biochemical, nutritional and demographic factors with immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients. Material and Methods: A retro-prospective study was carried out on 68 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis .Patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus with an intramuscular hepatitis B vaccination schedule, 40 micrograms at 0, 1, and 6 months. We also selected 32 age matched normal healthy persons who had vaccinated against hepatitis B previously to compare the antibody production with HD patients. Results: The value of serum antibody level against hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBs in hemodialisis patients and healthy persons were 35±55(median=5.5 and 135±71 (median=175 mIU/ml respectively. There was a significant deference between mean serum antibody level against HBs antigen of hemodialysis patients and normal subjects (p<0.001, there were not any significant differences of antibody production against HBs antigen between males and females or diabetic and non diabetics. There were no correlation between serum antibody level against HBs-Ag and serum albumin and also with body mass index. There were not significant correlation between anti-HBs antibody level and age, amounts of hemodialysis, duration of dialysis, dialysis adequacy, serum ferritin level and serum lipids. There were not also significant correlation between anti-HBs antibody level and serum parathormone, calcium, phosphorus, serum hemoglobin and hematocrit level. Conclusion: In this study, there was not significant correlation between serum antibody level against hepatitis B surface antigen and various nutritional and demographic factors of patients under regular hemodialysis.

  5. The experimental study on the radioimmunotherapy of the hepatoma in nude mice model with intratumoral injection of 131I-human anti-HBsAg Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Rongcheng; Wu Guichen; Han Huanxing; You Changxuan; Ding Xuemei; Li Aimin; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Mingjiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic efficacy of radioimmunotherapy of 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab via different routes of administration. Methods: The human hepatoma bearing nude mice we reinjected with 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab intra-tumor (IT) and intra-peritoneum (IP). Biodistribution was measured on the 5th day. The tumor growth inhibition rate was determined by measurement of tumor volume. Results: In the IT-treated mice, tumor uptake of 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab was four-fold greater than in the IP-treated mice, and normal organ uptake was half of that in the IP-treated mice. At the 3rd week after the infusion, the tumor growth inhibition rate in IT-treated mice was higher than that in the IP-treated mice. Conclusions: Intratumoral administration of 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab makes high level of radioactivity retained in tumor with significantly lower radioactivity retained in normal tissues, and provides a more effective regional therapy

  6. Frequency of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in various Canadian populations as measured by modified solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishai, F R; MacMillan, S; Rhodes, A J [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, Ont.; Dempster, G [University Hospital, Saskatoon, Sask.; Spence, L [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Medicine; Wrobel, D M [Toronto Centre of Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Ont.

    1977-01-01

    A short incubation solid-phase radioimmunoassay test was developed and used for the detection of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in the sera collected from patients recovering from hepatitis B infection, health care personnel, staff and residents of an intstitution for the mentally retarded and in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Ontario.

  7. Frequency of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in various Canadian populations as measured by modified solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishai, F.R.; MacMillan, S.; Rhodes, A.J.; Dempster, G.; Spence, L.; Wrobel, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A short incubation solid-phase radioimmunoassay test was developed and used for the detection of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in the sera collected from patients recovering from hepatitis B infection, health care personnel, staff and residents of an intstitution for the mentally retarded and in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Ontario. (author)

  8. Membranous glomerulonephritis in a child asymptomatic for hepatitis B virus. Concomitant seropositivity for HBsAG and anti-HBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, H Z; Ainsworth, S K; DeBeukelaer, M; Brissie, R M; Hennigar, G R

    1981-04-01

    The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in association with immunoglobulins and complement components within the glomerular basement membranes of adults having chronic active hepatitis has been well documented. In addition, investigators in Poland have demonstrated HBsAg immune complexes in glomeruli of children who did not have clinical evidence of hepatitis. More recently, a single case of childhood membranous glomerulonephritis in an asymptomatic carrier of hepatitis B virus was cited by observers in Canada. Reported here is the deposition of HBsAg immune complexes in the glomerular basement membranes of a 13-year-old black boy who had membranous glomerulopathy but not clinical evidence of hepatitis. This may be the first reported case in the United States of HbsAg-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in a child asymptomatic for hepatitis B virus, and only the second such case in North America. However, unlike previous studies of childhood glomerulopathy in association with hepatitis B virus, this patient is seropositive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs (antibody for hepatitis B surface antigen). Similar "rare" serologic findings were found for the patient's eldest male sib.

  9. HBsAg RIA QUICK and Anti-HBs RIA QUICK. Information of a new technique of radioimmunoassay of hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the corresponding antibody using kits by IMMUNO Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-01

    With regard to the high sensitivity of HBsAg and anti-HBs detection using kits HBsAg RIA QUICK and Anti-HBs RIA QUICK, and with regard to the excellent technical set-up which substantially reduces demands on manual work and eliminates the need to equip the department with a rinser, and also with regard to the lower price as compared with similar kits by Abbott Co., the above mentioned two kits will be imported to Czechoslovakia.

  10. Induction of anti-HBs in HB vaccine nonresponders in vivo by hepatitis B surface antigen-pulsed blood dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazle Akbar, Sk Md; Furukawa, Shinya; Yoshida, Osamu; Hiasa, Yoichi; Horiike, Norio; Onji, Morikazu

    2007-07-01

    Antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) are now used for treatment of patients with cancers, however, the efficacy of these DCs has never been evaluated for prophylactic purposes. The aim of this study was (1) to prepare hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-pulsed human blood DCs, (2) to assess immunogenicity of HBsAg-pulsed DCs in vitro and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of HBsAg-pulsed DCs in hepatitis B (HB) vaccine nonresponders. Human peripheral blood DCs were cultured with HBsAg to prepare HBsAg-pulsed DCs. The expression of immunogenic epitopes of HBsAg on HBsAg-pulsed DCs was assessed in vitro. Finally, HBsAg-pulsed DCs were administered, intradermally to six HB vaccine nonresponders and the levels of antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) in the sera were assessed. HB vaccine nonresponders did not exhibit features of immediate, early or delayed adverse reactions due to administration of HBsAg-pulsed DCs. Anti-HBs were detected in the sera of all HB vaccine nonresponders within 28 days after administration of HBsAg-pulsed DCs. This study opens a new field of application of antigen-pulsed DCs for prophylactic purposes when adequate levels of protective antibody cannot be induced by traditional vaccination approaches.

  11. Characterization of a Hepatitis B virus strain in southwestern Paraná, Brazil, presenting mutations previously associated with anti-HBs Resistance Caracterização de uma cepa de hepatite por vírus B no sudoeste do Paraná, Brasil, apresentando mutações previamente associadas à resistência anti-HBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Armando Bertolini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated if hepatitis B virus (HBV mutants circulate in the southwestern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, by analyzing samples from children who received immunoprophylaxis but were born to HBV carrier mothers. Samples from 25 children were screened for HBV serum markers and for HBV DNA by PCR. Only one sample was positive for HBsAg, anti-HBs and HBV DNA, although the child had been vaccinated. Analysis of the S gene sequence of this sample showed the presence of a proline at position 105, a serine at position 114, three threonines at positions 115, 116 and 140, and a glutamine at position 129. The presence of these amino acids, except for serine at position 114, has been related to monoclonal or polyclonal therapy with anti-HBs after liver transplantation, whereas the presence of threonine at position 116 has been described in immunized children from Singapore. This finding demonstrates the possible circulation of HBV strains resistant to hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis in southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The genotype of the sample was identified as genotype D, which is frequently found in the region studied. Since 36% of the children had received incomplete or no immunoprophylaxis, more extensive follow-up of children born to HBsAg-positive mothers is needed.O presente estudo investigou se mutantes do vírus da hepatite B (HBV circulam na região Sudoeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, analisando amostras de crianças que receberam a imunoprofilaxia por terem nascido de mães portadoras do HBV. Amostras de 25 crianças foram analisadas para os marcadores sorológicos do HBV e para o DNA-HBV por PCR. Somente uma amostra foi positiva para AgHBs, anti-HBs e DNA-HBV, apesar da criança ter sido vacinada. Análises da seqüência do gene S desta amostra mostrou a presença de uma prolina na posição 105, uma serina na posição 114, três treoninas nas posições 115, 116 e 140, e uma glutamina na posição 129. A presen

  12. Antistreptolysin O titer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003522.htm Antistreptolysin O titer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer is a blood test to measure ...

  13. The combination of anti-HBc and anti-HBs levels is a useful predictor of the development of chemotherapy-induced reactivation in lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tokuhiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Shimoda, Akiyoshi; Shimakoshi, Hiromi; Amano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Aya; Takahashi, Kei; Mukai, Kaori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Hayashi, Shiro; Nakajima, Sachiko; Fukui, Koji; Inada, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Fatal chemotherapy-induced hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBV-R) is a well-described serious complication observed in patients with lymphoma and resolved HBV infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the predictive factors of the development of chemotherapy-induced HBV-R. A total of 77 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with lymphoma and resolved HBV infection, who received chemotherapy from 2007 through 2015 were analysed retrospectively. Significant predictive factors associated with HBV-R were identified based on the data from these patients. Ten patients developed HBV-R during and following chemotherapy, and two of these 10 patients developed HBV-associated hepatitis flares. There was a significant negative correlation between anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) titres prior to chemotherapy and time to HBV-R (P=0.016, R=−0.732). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that anti-HBc and anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) titres at baseline were significant predictive factors for HBV-R. In addition, patients with high anti-HBc titres at baseline (above 10 S/CO) were significantly more likely to experience HBV-R than patients with low anti-HBc and high anti-HBs titres (above 28 mIU/ml), who did not experience complete reactivation (PHBV-R than those with high anti-HBs titres (P=0.031). All HBV-R episodes among the patients with high anti-HBc titres occurred within 3 months following the initiation of chemotherapy. The combination of anti-HBc and anti-HBs titres, as opposed to either titre alone, at baseline in patients with lymphoma may serve as a surrogate marker for the occurrence of HBV-R under the influence of chemotherapy. PMID:29151907

  14. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  15. Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoling; Hu, Zhi; Chen, Ruo-Li; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongmei; Wilson, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression have been not well studied. To investigate risk factors for undetected dementia and depression in older communities. Using the method of the 10/66 algorithm, we interviewed a random sample of 7072 participants aged ≥60 years in six provinces of China during 2007-2011. We documented doctor-diagnosed dementia and depression in the interview. Using the validated 10/66 algorithm we diagnosed dementia (n = 359) and depression (n = 328). We found that 93.1% of dementia and 92.5% of depression was undetected. Both undetected dementia and depression were significantly associated with low levels of education and occupation, and living in a rural area. The risk of undetected dementia was also associated with 'help available when needed', and inversely, with a family history of mental illness and having functional impairment. Undetected depression was significantly related to female gender, low income, having more children and inversely with having heart disease. Older adults in China have high levels of undetected dementia and depression. General socioeconomic improvement, associated with mental health education, targeting high-risk populations are likely to increase detection of dementia and depression in older adults, providing a backdrop for culturally acceptable service development.

  16. A robust nonparametric method for quantifying undetected extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Giam, Xingli; Sadanandan, Keren R; Fung, Tak; Rheindt, Frank E

    2016-06-01

    How many species have gone extinct in modern times before being described by science? To answer this question, and thereby get a full assessment of humanity's impact on biodiversity, statistical methods that quantify undetected extinctions are required. Such methods have been developed recently, but they are limited by their reliance on parametric assumptions; specifically, they assume the pools of extant and undetected species decay exponentially, whereas real detection rates vary temporally with survey effort and real extinction rates vary with the waxing and waning of threatening processes. We devised a new, nonparametric method for estimating undetected extinctions. As inputs, the method requires only the first and last date at which each species in an ensemble was recorded. As outputs, the method provides estimates of the proportion of species that have gone extinct, detected, or undetected and, in the special case where the number of undetected extant species in the present day is assumed close to zero, of the absolute number of undetected extinct species. The main assumption of the method is that the per-species extinction rate is independent of whether a species has been detected or not. We applied the method to the resident native bird fauna of Singapore. Of 195 recorded species, 58 (29.7%) have gone extinct in the last 200 years. Our method projected that an additional 9.6 species (95% CI 3.4, 19.8) have gone extinct without first being recorded, implying a true extinction rate of 33.0% (95% CI 31.0%, 36.2%). We provide R code for implementing our method. Because our method does not depend on strong assumptions, we expect it to be broadly useful for quantifying undetected extinctions. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  18. Effects of undetected data quality issues on climatological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hunziker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic data quality issues may occur at various stages of the data generation process. They may affect large fractions of observational datasets and remain largely undetected with standard data quality control. This study investigates the effects of such undetected data quality issues on the results of climatological analyses. For this purpose, we quality controlled daily observations of manned weather stations from the Central Andean area with a standard and an enhanced approach. The climate variables analysed are minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation. About 40 % of the observations are inappropriate for the calculation of monthly temperature means and precipitation sums due to data quality issues. These quality problems undetected with the standard quality control approach strongly affect climatological analyses, since they reduce the correlation coefficients of station pairs, deteriorate the performance of data homogenization methods, increase the spread of individual station trends, and significantly bias regional temperature trends. Our findings indicate that undetected data quality issues are included in important and frequently used observational datasets and hence may affect a high number of climatological studies. It is of utmost importance to apply comprehensive and adequate data quality control approaches on manned weather station records in order to avoid biased results and large uncertainties.

  19. Valence of acetylcholine-receptor-antibody-titers in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitlhofer, J.; Maida, E.M.; Mamoli, B.; Mayr, N.

    1986-01-01

    In a retrospective study in 47 patients with myasthenia gravis acetylcholine-receptor-antibody-titers (AChR-AB) were correlated with the severity of the disease. In 18 patients the course of titers was studied and two groups of patients could be differentiated: patients with relative constant and patients with fluctuating titers. Age, age of begin of myasthenia and sex did not influence the titers. Also the duration of the disease and the severity of symptoms did not influence the level of AChR-AB-titers. In this retrospective study the influence of immunsuppressive therapy on the intra-individual course of AB-titers and their correlation with the clinical symptoms could not be judged. Measurement of AChR-AB is of value for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and important for judging the clinical course and the effect of therapy. (Author)

  20. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male....... Thirteen men with verified spermatogenesis and detectable preirradiation levels of serum inhibin B (median, 55; range, 23-193 pg/mL) were investigated before and after testicular irradiation (14-20 Gy). All patients had undetectable levels of inhibin B 2-12 months (median, 5 months) after radiotherapy (...

  1. Risk reduction modeling of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus titers in non-pasteurized liquid egg obtained from infected but undetected chicken flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has traditionally involved the establishment of disease containment zones, where poultry products are only permitted to move from within a containment area under permit. Non-pasteurized liquid egg (NPLE) is one such commodity for which movements ma...

  2. Indication of prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies complicated by undetectable second-trimester maternal serum estriol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsart, Anne-Frédérique; Van Onderbergen, Anne; Jacques, Francotte; Kurt, Crener; Gillerot, Yves

    2008-07-01

    Undetectable maternal serum unconjugated estriol levels in the second-trimester screening test have been associated with congenital pathology and an adverse pregnancy outcome. We reviewed outcomes of pregnancies with undetectable levels of estriol (threatened fetal abortion, one case of multiple congenital anomalies and one case of isolated adrenocorticotropin hormone deficiency. There were 6 women remaining with unexplained undetectable estriol. Undetectable maternal estriol values may indicate a severe fetal pathology and should lead to further investigations.

  3. T cells recognizing a peptide contaminant undetectable by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brezar, Vedran; Culina, Slobodan; Østerbye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used in immunological research as epitopes to stimulate their cognate T cells. These preparations are never completely pure, but trace contaminants are commonly revealed by mass spectrometry quality controls. In an effort to characterize novel major histocompatibility...... complex (MHC) Class I-restricted ß-cell epitopes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we identified islet-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing a contaminating peptide. The amount of this contaminant was so small to be undetectable by direct mass spectrometry. Only after concentration by liquid...... chromatography, we observed a mass peak corresponding to an immunodominant islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)(206-214) epitope described in the literature. Generation of CD8+ T-cell clones recognizing IGRP(206-214) using a novel method confirmed the identity...

  4. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reham Al Swaff

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... RNA titer and/or serum ALT level in patients with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 4) infection. .... Other liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, non- .... Insulin resistance, obesity, and steatosis are associated with a.

  5. Quantum optical measurements with undetected photons through vacuum field indistinguishability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Kyung; Yoon, Tai Hyun; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-07-26

    Quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons have been demonstrated by measuring one-photon interference between the corresponding entangled signal fields from two spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) crystals. In this Report, we present a new quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing three SPDC crystals in a cascading arrangement; here, neither the detection of the idler photons which interact with materials of interest nor their conjugate signal photons which do not interact with the sample is required. The coherence of signal beams in a single photon W-type path-entangled state is induced and modulated by indistinguishabilities of the idler beams and crucially the quantum vacuum fields. As a result, the optical properties of materials or objects interacting with the idler beam from the first SPDC crystal can be measured by detecting second-order interference between the signal beams generated by the other two SPDC crystals further down the set-up. This gedankenexperiment illustrates the fundamental importance of vacuum fields in generating an optical tripartite entangled state and thus its crucial role in quantum optical measurements.

  6. Teenage motherhood: its relationship to undetected learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch-Elnekave, H

    1994-01-01

    This study describes characteristics of a group of 64 adolescent mothers and their infants who participated in a program for teenage mothers run by a local health department. A majority of the girls for whom California Achievement Test (CAT) scores were available scored one or more years below grade level in reading and in language skills. Relative delays in infant development (language and social domains) were also documented. High levels of self-esteem as well as general social acceptance (by adults and peers) of early out-of-wedlock parenting suggest that early motherhood may represent an alternative avenue to experiencing success for girls who are having academic difficulties. These findings, which suggest the likelihood of a high incidence of undetected learning problems in this population, indicate that these difficulties may have a significant relationship to the high rate of school dropout associated with adolescent motherhood. The findings bring into question the notion of "unintended pregnancies" and the wisdom of current federal policies for preventing adolescent parenthood that rely on the promotion of abstinence.

  7. Idiopathic Acquired Hemophilia A with Undetectable Factor VIII Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B. Abt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We present the case of a 73-year-old female, with no family or personal history of a bleeding disorder, who had a classic presentation for acquired hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was low but detectable and a factor VIII inhibitor was undetectable. Methods. The patient’s plasma was comprehensively studied to determine the cause of the acquired coagulopathy. Using the Nijmegen modification of the Bethesda assay, no factor VIII autoantibody was measureable despite varying the incubation time from 1 to 3 hours. Results. The aPTT was prolonged at 46.8 seconds, which did not correct in the 4 : 1 mix but did with 1 : 1 mix. Using a one stage factor VIII activity assay, the FVIII activity was 16% and chromogenic FVIII activity was also 16%. The patient was treated with recombinant FVII and transfusion, significantly reducing bleeding. Long-term therapy was initiated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone with normalization of FVIII activity. Conclusions. Physicians can be presented with the challenging clinical picture of an acquired factor VIII inhibitor without a detectable inhibitor by the Bethesda assay. Standard therapy for an acquired hemophilia A should be considered.

  8. An improved plating assay for determination of phage titer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    antibiotics to control bacterial infections in swine (Thacker,. 2014). Phage therapy is re-valued by researchers to combat the growing menace of antibiotic-resistant infections (Torres-Barceló and Hochberg, 2016). Determination of phage titer in a sample is a key step in the study of the phage involved. It is very important to.

  9. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG: Group A [H. pylori (− PG (−], Group B [H. pylori (+ PG (−], Group C [H. pylori (+ PG (+], and Group D [H. pylori (− PG (+]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1 high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2 high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3 low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1, every two years in (2, and annually in (3 should be considered.

  10. Fibrinogen titer and glycemic status in women using contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the coagulation and glycemic status in Pakistani women using contraceptives. Design: The study was conducted prospectively on 70 women and compared with 10 age-matched controls. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Karachi. Period of study was 18 month. Subjects and Methods: Eighty women aged between 20-45 years selected from low socioeconomic class and poor family background were categorized in control (n=10) and oral and injectable contraceptive users (n = 70). The contraceptives used were tablet Lofemenal, injection Norigest and Norplant implant. Their blood was tested for fibrinogen titer and random blood glucose. Results: There was no appreciable difference either in fibrinogen titer or plasma glucose levels in injectable users as compared to controls, but increased incidence of high fibrinogen titer and borderline blood glucose was observed in oral contraceptive users 25% and 20 % respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that long-term use of oral contraceptives (> 3 years) might increase the thrombotic tendency and elevate the plasma glucose levels especially in women above 30 years of age. (author)

  11. E.coli and investigation of antibody titer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masoud abdollahi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant ribosome inactivating proteins act as N-glycosidase enzyme and produce by several family of Caryophyllaceae such as Saponaria Officinalis. Different Isoforms of RIPs expressed by Saponaria Officinalis. SO6 isoform depurinate Adenine 4324 in the conserved GAGA loop of 28SrRNA and disrupts protein synthesis. The aim of this study was expression of SO6 isoform in E.coli and investigation of antibody titer in rats. Methods: In this experimental study, SO6 synthetic gene was excised from recombinant pUC57- SO6 plasmid with BamHI and SalI restriction enzymes and subcloned into pET28a (+ expression vector. The expression of recombinant protein was induced by IPTG. Recombinant SO6 was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Western blotting was performed to confirm the recombinant protein. Rats were immunized intraperitoneal with purified protein and IgG serum titer was assayed by ELISA. Results: PCR reaction and enzyme digestion confirmed subcloning of SO6 gene into pET28a (+ expression vector. A 29.5kDa protein band on SDS-PAGE showed a high level of recombinant protein expression. Polyclonal antibodies recognized SO6. ELISA confirmed significant antibody titer after injection of protein in test group compared with the control group. Conclusion: The recombinant purified SO6 antigen can be used for anti-cancer and vaccine candidate research.

  12. Impact of Undetected Comorbidity on Treatment and Outcomes of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Griffiths

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preexisting comorbidity adversely impacts breast cancer treatment and outcomes. We examined the incremental impact of comorbidity undetected until cancer. We followed breast cancer patients in SEER-Medicare from 12 months before to 84 months after diagnosis. Two comorbidity indices were constructed: the National Cancer Institute index, using 12 months of claims before cancer, and a second index for previously undetected conditions, using three months after cancer. Conditions present in the first were excluded from the second. Overall, 6,184 (10.1% had ≥1 undetected comorbidity. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (38% was the most common undetected condition. In multivariable analyses that adjusted for comorbidity detected before cancer, older age, later stage, higher grade, and poor performance status all were associated with higher odds of ≥1 undetected comorbidity. In stage I–III cancer, undetected comorbidity was associated with lower adjusted odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.81, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.73–0.90, P<0.0001; OR=0.38, 95% CI 0.30–0.49, P<0.0001; index score 1 or ≥2, respectively, and with increased mortality (Hazard Ratio (HR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.38–1.53, P<0.0001; HR=2.38, 95% CI 2.18–2.60, P<0.0001; index score 1 or ≥2. Undetected comorbidity is associated with less aggressive treatment and higher mortality in breast cancer.

  13. Minimal variation in anti-A and -B titers among healthy volunteers over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Ulrik; Yazer, Mark; Rasmussen, Mads Hvidkjær

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using potentially out-of-group blood components, like low titer A plasma and O whole blood, in the resuscitation of trauma patients is becoming increasingly popular. However, very little is known whether the donors’ anti-A and/or -B titers change over time and whether repeated titer m...

  14. Becoming "Undetectable": Longitudinal Narratives of Gay Men's Sex Lives After a Recent HIV Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Daniel; Chown, Sarah A; Kwag, Michael; Steinberg, Malcolm; Lim, Elgin; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We explore gay men's sex life narratives following their diagnosis with an acute or recent HIV infection. All participants received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis and completed a series of self-administered questionnaires and in-depth qualitative interviews over a one-year period or longer. Over the course of four qualitative interviews, participants frequently spoke of the role of medications (e.g., decisions to start treatment) and changing viral loads (e.g., discourses of becoming "undetectable") in relation to their sex lives since being diagnosed with HIV. Many men talked about milestones relating to initiating medication and viral load as informing their shifting sexual behaviors and identities as HIV-positive--or "undetectable"--gay men. The narratives of our participants provide insight regarding complex negotiations and processes of decision-making over time related to sex, counseling needs, treatment initiation, viral load, and the significance of undetectability as an emergent identity.

  15. Using titer and titer normalized to confluence are complementary strategies for obtaining Chinese hamster ovary cell lines with high volumetric productivity of etanercept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristovšek, Nuša; Hansen, Henning Gram; Sergeeva, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The selection of clonally-derived Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines with the highest production rate of recombinant glycoproteins remains a big challenge during early stages of cell line development. Different strategies using either product titer or product titer normalized to cell number...

  16. Undetected error probability for data services in a terrestrial DAB single frequency network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Cronie, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) is the European successor of FM radio. Besides audio services, other services such as traffic information can be provided. An important parameter for data services is the probability of non-recognized or undetected errors in the system. To derive this probability, we

  17. Is the cervical spine clear? Undetected cervical fractures diagnosed only at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J F; Rosemurgy, A S; Gill, S; Albrink, M H

    1992-10-01

    Undetected cervical-spine injuries are a nemesis to both trauma surgeons and emergency physicians. Radiographic protocols have been developed to avoid missing cervical-spine fractures but are not fail-safe. Three case reports of occult cervical fractures documented at autopsy in the face of normal cervical-spine radiographs and computerized tomography scans are presented.

  18. Increasing ICA512 autoantibody titers predict development of abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Srinath

    2018-03-01

    Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association of Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody Titer with Duodenal Histological Changes in Children with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hawamdeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is usually diagnosed by demonstrating gluten enteropathy in small bowel biopsy. Celiac specific antibodies are used as an initial screening test. The goal of this study is to test the relationship of the anti-tTG titer and severity of histological changes in Jordanian children with celiac disease. Method. The medical records of 81 children who had elevated anti-tTG titer and had duodenal biopsies available were retrospectively reviewed. Result. Assessing the association of anti-tTG titer with duodenal histopathological changes, 94% of those with high anti-tTG titer (≥180 U/mL had histological evidence of celiac disease. There was statistically significant positive association between high anti-tTG titer and Marsh grading as 82% of patients with Marsh III had high anti-tTG titer (Chi2 18.5; P value 0.00; Odds Ratio 8.5. The fraction of patients with Marsh III who were correctly identified as positive by anti-tTG titer ≥ 180 U/mL was high (sensitivity = 81.6. Moreover, the fraction of patients with anti-tTG titer ≥ 180 U/mL who had Marsh III was also high (positive predictive value = 78.4. Conclusion. Anti-tTG titer ≥ 180 U/mL had significant positive association with Marsh III histopathological changes of celiac disease.

  20. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy; Todd, Stacy; de Bruin, Erwin; Thao, Tran Thi Nhu; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao; Quan, Tran Minh; Vinh, Dao Nguyen; van Beek, Janko; Anh, Pham Hong; Lam, Ha Minh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le; Huy, Huynh Le Anh; Ha, Vo Thi Hong; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Koopmans, Marion; Boni, Maciej F

    2017-07-20

    Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity. In this study, we investigate 20,152 general-population serum samples from southern Vietnam collected between 2009 and 2013 from which we report antibody titers to the influenza virus HA1 protein using a continuous titer measurement from a protein microarray assay. We describe the distributions of antibody titers to subtypes 2009 H1N1 and H3N2. Using a model selection approach to fit mixture distributions, we show that 2009 H1N1 antibody titers fall into four titer subgroups and that H3N2 titers fall into three subgroups. For H1N1, our interpretation is that the two highest-titer subgroups correspond to recent and historical infection, which is consistent with 2009 pandemic attack rates. Similar interpretations are available for H3N2, but right-censoring of titers makes these interpretations difficult to validate.

  1. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  2. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...... patient 2 initiated HCV therapy and remained HCV RNA-negative. Available plasma samples obtained before and after the episode with undetectable HCV RNA were phylogenetically identical, making the possibility of spontaneous clearance and HCV reinfection less likely. The IL-10, TNF-α, and IP-10 levels...

  3. Probability of undetected error after decoding for a concatenated coding scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, D. J., Jr.; Lin, S.

    1984-01-01

    A concatenated coding scheme for error control in data communications is analyzed. In this scheme, the inner code is used for both error correction and detection, however the outer code is used only for error detection. A retransmission is requested if the outer code detects the presence of errors after the inner code decoding. Probability of undetected error is derived and bounded. A particular example, proposed for NASA telecommand system is analyzed.

  4. Poor Government Oversight of Anham and Its Subcontracting Procedures Allowed Questionable Costs To Go Undetected

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-30

    contractor purchasing system review of Anham. Management Comments and Audit Response The Defense Contract Mangement Agency and the U.S. Central... Introduction 1  Background 1  Government Agency Roles and Oversight Responsibilities 4  Objectives 7  Weak Government Oversight Resulted in Significant...Subcontracting Procedures Allowed Questionable Costs To Go Undetected SIGIR 11-022 July 30, 2011 Introduction Since 2003, the United States Government

  5. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Amal Kotby

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  6. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...

  7. A step towards standardization: A method for end-point titer determination by fluorescence index of an automated microscope. End-point titer determination by fluorescence index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Teresa; Gilio, Michele; Padula, Maria Carmela; Tramontano, Giuseppina; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Pafundi, Vito

    2018-05-01

    Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is widely considered the Gold Standard for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) screening. However, the high inter-reader variability remains the major disadvantage associated with ANA testing and the main reason for the increasing demand of the computer-aided immunofluorescence microscope. Previous studies proposed the quantification of the fluorescence intensity as an alternative for the classical end-point titer evaluation. However, the different distribution of bright/dark light linked to the nature of the self-antigen and its location in the cells result in different mean fluorescence intensities. The aim of the present study was to correlate Fluorescence Index (F.I.) with end-point titers for each well-defined ANA pattern. Routine serum samples were screened for ANA testing on HEp-2000 cells using Immuno Concepts Image Navigator System, and positive samples were serially diluted to assign the end-point titer. A comparison between F.I. and end-point titers related to 10 different staining patterns was made. According to our analysis, good technical performance of F.I. (97% sensitivity and 94% specificity) was found. A significant correlation between quantitative reading of F.I. and end-point titer groups was observed using Spearman's test and regression analysis. A conversion scale of F.I. in end-point titers for each recognized ANA-pattern was obtained. The Image Navigator offers the opportunity to improve worldwide harmonization of ANA test results. In particular, digital F.I. allows quantifying ANA titers by using just one sample dilution. It could represent a valuable support for the routine laboratory and an effective tool to reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparison of HHV-6 antibody titers in West Africa and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, F R; Maybank, K A; Jack, N; Pate, E; Mingle, J; Levine, P H; Manns, A

    1995-11-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection seems to be ubiquitous early in life, but antibody responses vary by geographic area. We compared HHV-6 antibody titer in 123 West African and 122 Caribbean serum samples. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using antigens derived from an HSB-2 cell line was used to test for IgG HHV-6 (GS strain) antibodies. The prevalence of HHV-6 antibodies was high (98%) in both sites. African samples had a significantly higher geometric mean titer (GMT: 697) than did Caribbean samples (GMT: 99). There was no difference between males (GMT: 260) and females (GMT: 270) overall. Children up to and including 9 years old had significantly higher titers (GMT: 483) than did all others (GMT: 237), and female children tended to have higher titers than did male children. In both areas there was a trend towards highest titer at younger age, followed by a decrease in titer during adulthood and middle age, and a secondary rise in titer in the oldest age group. Environmental and host factors may explain these geographic differences in antibody responses between two groups of African origin.

  9. Clinically undetected retinal breaks causing retinal detachment: A review of options for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Ching, Jared; Tornambe, Paul E

    2017-08-12

    The successful detection of retinal breaks is a critical step in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery in order to prevent persistent/recurrent retinal detachments. Not all retinal breaks causing retinal detachments are obvious. Retinal breaks may be obscured by opacities that are either anterior segment related, lens related, or posterior segment related. Rules to identify breaks based on subretinal fluid configuration are more difficult to apply in pseudophakic, aphakic, and scleral buckle encircled eyes-and in eyes with repeat detachments and those with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Exudative detachments exhibit characteristic features and must be ruled out. A thorough clinical examination preoperatively is important even if a vitrectomy is planned. We review the incidence and causes of undetected breaks, along with preoperative/clinical issues that may hinder break detection. We review the literature with respect to investigative approaches and techniques that are available to the vitreoretinal surgeon when primary breaks remain clinically undetected during the preoperative examination. We broadly divide the surgical approaches into ones where the surgeon utilizes techniques to pursue actively a search for breaks versus adopting a purely speculative approach. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are appraised. Intuitively one might argue that an encircling scleral buckle combined with vitrectomy would give higher single operation success than pars plana vitrectomy alone because "undetected" retinal breaks would be addressed by a 360° plombage. We could not confirm this concept. Newer techniques, such as pars plana vitrectomy augmented with dye extrusion or endoscopic-assisted pars plana vitrectomy, show encouraging results. Technological advances such as intraoperative optical coherence tomography will also help to broaden the vitreoretinal surgeon's armamentarium. At this time, there is no gold standard in terms of the recommended

  10. Adverse pathology and undetectable ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy: is adjuvant radiation warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Freedland, Stephen J; Aronson, William J; Terris, Martha K; Kane, Christopher J; Amling, Christopher L; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Vidal, Adriana C

    2016-06-01

    To determine if men with adverse pathology but undetectable ultrasensitive (<0.01 ng/mL) PSA are at high-risk for biochemical recurrence (BCR), or if there is a subset of patients at low-risk for whom the benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy might be limited. We evaluated 411 patients treated with RP from 2001 to 2013 without adjuvant radiation who had an undetectable (<0.01 ng/mL) PSA level after RP but with adverse pathology [positive surgical margins (PSMs), extraprostatic extension (EPE), and/or seminal vesicle invasion (SVI)]. Multivariable Cox regression analyses tested the relationship between pathological characteristics and BCR to identify groups of men at highest risk of early BCR. On multivariable analysis, only pathological Gleason 7 (4 + 3), Gleason ≥8, and SVI independently predicted BCR (P = 0.019, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively), although on two-way analysis men with Gleason 7 (4 + 3) did not have significantly higher rates of BCR compared with patients with Gleason ≤6 (log-rank, P = 0.074). Men with either Gleason ≥8 (with PSMs or EPE) or SVI (15% of the cohort) defined a high-risk group vs men without these characteristics (3-year BCR risk of 50.4% vs 11.9%, log-rank, P < 0.001). Among men with adverse pathology but an undetectable (<0.01 ng/mL) PSA level after RP, the benefits of adjuvant radiation are probably limited except for men with Gleason 8-10 (with PSMs or EPE) or SVI who are at high-risk of early BCR. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of undetected gravitational lenses on statistical measures of quasar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Brightness amplifications by undetected gravitational lenses could be responsible in part for the apparent evolution of quasars, particularly for those which appear to be of high luminosity. It is shown that values of Vover-bar/over-barVover-bar/sub M/> or =0.6 and number-magnitude slopes > or =0.9 need not necessarily imply source density evolution if lensing events are common. Quasar samples which are defined by flux limits and minimum luminosities will preferentially include gravitational lens systems. Even if lensing events are quite rare, a large fraction of the lensed quasars will appear more luminous than the most luminous unlensed quasar

  12. Using High-Dimensional Image Models to Perform Highly Undetectable Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevný, Tomáš; Filler, Tomáš; Bas, Patrick

    This paper presents a complete methodology for designing practical and highly-undetectable stegosystems for real digital media. The main design principle is to minimize a suitably-defined distortion by means of efficient coding algorithm. The distortion is defined as a weighted difference of extended state-of-the-art feature vectors already used in steganalysis. This allows us to "preserve" the model used by steganalyst and thus be undetectable even for large payloads. This framework can be efficiently implemented even when the dimensionality of the feature set used by the embedder is larger than 107. The high dimensional model is necessary to avoid known security weaknesses. Although high-dimensional models might be problem in steganalysis, we explain, why they are acceptable in steganography. As an example, we introduce HUGO, a new embedding algorithm for spatial-domain digital images and we contrast its performance with LSB matching. On the BOWS2 image database and in contrast with LSB matching, HUGO allows the embedder to hide 7× longer message with the same level of security level.

  13. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged  60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged  18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged  60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.

  14. Prevalence of undetected cognitive impairment and depression in residents of an elderly care home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawad, M; Rashid, A K; Narayan, K A

    2007-12-01

    The elderly population in Malaysia is growing rapidly. Some of the most vulnerable are in residential care. Research is needed into the characteristics of this population to aid clinicians and policy makers in addressing the needs of this group. This observational, cross-sectional study aims to determine prevalence of undetected cognitive impairment and depression in elderly care home residents in Malaysia. One hundred and sixty-seven people over 60 years of age living in a state run residential home were interviewed. Validated assessment tools were used to measure dependency, cognitive impairment and depression. The prevalence of probable dementia is 36.5%, with increasing prevalence with age and level of dependence. Prevalence of depression is 67.0% (major depression 13.2%), with more depression in males and in the Indian population. None of the identified cases had been previously investigated or treated for dementia or depression.

  15. The cosmic gorilla effect or the problem of undetected non terrestrial intelligent signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. De la Torre, Gabriel; Garcia, Manuel A.

    2018-05-01

    This article points to a long lasting problem in space research and cosmology, the problem of undetected signs of non terrestrial life and civilizations. We intentionally avoid the term extraterrestrial as we consider other possibilities that may arise but not fall strictly within the extraterrestrial scope. We discuss the role of new physics including dark matter and string theory in the search for life and other non terrestrial intelligence. A new classification for non terrestrial civilizations with three types and five dimensions is also provided. We also explain how our own neurophysiology, psychology and consciousness can play a major role in this search of non terrestrial civilizations task and how they have been neglected up to this date. To test this, 137 adults were evaluated using the cognitive reflection test, an attention/awareness questionnaire and a visuospatial searching task with aerial view images to determine the presence of inattentional blindness.

  16. Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay technique for subtyping the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, C T; Nath, N; Berberian, H; Dodd, R Y [American Red Cross, Blood Research Laboratory, Bethesda, MD, USA

    1978-12-01

    A highly sensitive technique for determining the subtype specificity of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) is described. Immunoadsorbent consisting of controlled pore glass coated with subtype specific HBsAg was used to remove homologous antibody from the test samples before testing them for residual antibody by a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 73 anti-HBs-positive samples from asymptomatic blood donors were tested. In nearly 80% of these samples the subtype reactivity could be determined by this technique. Only 67% could be typed by conventional liquid phase absorption RIA and 22% by passive hemagglutination inhibition techniques. Among the samples with low anti-HBs titer, ad and ay subtypes were found with equal frequency; however, with the increase in anti-HBs titer, considerably higher proportion of ad specificity was detected.

  17. A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay technique for subtyping the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, C.T.; Nath, N.; Berberian, H.; Dodd, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    A highly sensitive technique for determining the subtype specificity of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) is described. Immunoadsorbent consisting of controlled pore glass coated with subtype specific HBsAg was used to remove homologous antibody from the test samples before testing them for residual antibody by a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 73 anti-HBs-positive samples from asymptomatic blood donors were tested. In nearly 80% of these samples the subtype reactivity could be determined by this technique. Only 67% could be typed by conventional liquid phase absorption RIA and 22% by passive hemagglutination inhibition techniques. Among the samples with low anti-HBs titer, ad and ay subtypes were found with equal frequency; however, with the increase in anti-HBs titer, considerably higher proportion of ad specificity was detected. (Auth.)

  18. Effects of Motivation: Rewarding Hackers for Undetected Attacks Cause Analysts to Perform Poorly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Makhijani, Nidhi; Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Dutt, Varun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how monetary motivations influence decision making of humans performing as security analysts and hackers in a cybersecurity game. Cyberattacks are increasing at an alarming rate. As cyberattacks often cause damage to existing cyber infrastructures, it is important to understand how monetary rewards may influence decision making of hackers and analysts in the cyber world. Currently, only limited attention has been given to this area. In an experiment, participants were randomly assigned to three between-subjects conditions ( n = 26 for each condition): equal payoff, where the magnitude of monetary rewards for hackers and defenders was the same; rewarding hacker, where the magnitude of monetary reward for hacker's successful attack was 10 times the reward for analyst's successful defense; and rewarding analyst, where the magnitude of monetary reward for analyst's successful defense was 10 times the reward for hacker's successful attack. In all conditions, half of the participants were human hackers playing against Nash analysts and half were human analysts playing against Nash hackers. Results revealed that monetary rewards for human hackers and analysts caused a decrease in attack and defend actions compared with the baseline. Furthermore, rewarding human hackers for undetected attacks made analysts deviate significantly from their optimal behavior. If hackers are rewarded for their undetected attack actions, then this causes analysts to deviate from optimal defend proportions. Thus, analysts need to be trained not become overenthusiastic in defending networks. Applications of our results are to networks where the influence of monetary rewards may cause information theft and system damage.

  19. Utilizing the GentleWave® System for Debridement of Undetected Apical Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael W

    2018-03-01

    Debriding and disinfecting complex anatomies within the root canal system pose a major challenge during root canal therapy. Even with current chemomechanical techniques, debris and bacterial remnants are commonly left behind, which are generally believed to increase the risk of endodontic failure. This case details the use of a new technique to debride complex apical anatomy in a maxillary molar. A 48-year-old female presented to the clinic with a chief complaint of increasing pain in her tooth. Clinical examination of the right first maxillary molar (#3) revealed moderate sensitivity to percussion and mild sensitivity to palpation. A pulpal diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and a periapi-cal diagnosis of symptomatic apical periodontitis were made. Mechanical instrumentation was performed using rotary file size #25/.04 for the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals and size #25/.06 for the palatal canal to create a fluid path and enable obturation of the root canal system following the GentleWave® Procedure. The GentleWave Procedure was completed using Multisonic Ultracleaning™ for complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system. The tooth was obturated using a warm vertical continuous wave obturation technique. Postoperative radiographs revealed complex anatomy within the apical third that was undetected both during pre-operative radiography and mechanical instrumentation. The palatal canal exhibited a complex apical delta with multiple points of exit, and the mesiobuccal canal revealed an undetected lateral canal within the apical third that had a separate and distinct egress. Conclusion and clinical significance: It is important for the clinician to debride and disinfect complex anatomy within the root canal system to reduce the risk of endodontic failure. This case report highlights the clinical significance of utilizing the GentleWave Procedure for detecting complex apical anatomy during endodontic therapy.

  20. The signature of undetected change: an exploratory electrotomographic investigation of gradual change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiat, John E; Dodd, Michael D; Belli, Robert F; Cheadle, Jacob E

    2018-05-01

    Neuroimaging-based investigations of change blindness, a phenomenon in which seemingly obvious changes in visual scenes fail to be detected, have significantly advanced our understanding of visual awareness. The vast majority of prior investigations, however, utilize paradigms involving visual disruptions (e.g., intervening blank screens, saccadic movements, "mudsplashes"), making it difficult to isolate neural responses toward visual changes cleanly. To address this issue in this present study, high-density EEG data (256 channel) were collected from 25 participants using a paradigm in which visual changes were progressively introduced into detailed real-world scenes without the use of visual disruption. Oscillatory activity associated with undetected changes was contrasted with activity linked to their absence using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Although an insufficient number of detections were present to allow for analysis of actual change detection, increased beta-2 activity in the right inferior parietal lobule (rIPL), a region repeatedly associated with change blindness in disruption paradigms, followed by increased theta activity in the right superior temporal gyrus (rSTG) was noted in undetected visual change responses relative to the absence of change. We propose the rIPL beta-2 activity to be associated with orienting attention toward visual changes, with the subsequent rise in rSTG theta activity being potentially linked with updating preconscious perceptual memory representations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study represents the first neuroimaging-based investigation of gradual change blindness, a visual phenomenon that has significant potential to shed light on the processes underlying visual detection and conscious perception. The use of gradual change materials is reflective of real-world visual phenomena and allows for cleaner isolation of signals associated with the neural registration of change relative to the

  1. [EIA-IgG antibody measles prevention level estimated from measles neutralizing, particle agglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Naohide; Saika, Shizuko; Ichinohe, Sadato

    2009-09-01

    Measles hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer, widely used in clinical practice to simply and easily determine the measles immunity level has, in recent years, been increasingly replaced by measles IgG-antibody titer determined by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA). HI antibody titer appears to reflect this protective level, because HI measures the antibody against H protein required for the measles virus to adhere to host cells. EIA-IgG antibody titer does not correlate with the protective level, similar to particle agglutination (PA) titer, because EIA measures different antibodies, including those unrelated to measles protection. After determining HI, PA, neutralizing test (NT) results, and EIA-IgG antibody titer for individual specimens, we compared EIA-IgG antibody titer obtained using an EIA-Kit (Denka Seiken) to HI, PA, and NT titer with the following results: (1) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of > or = 12.0 may be protected against measles: (2) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 4.0 to 8.0 appear to be protected insufficiently requiring a booster dose against measles: (3) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 8.0 to 12.0 may benefit from booster vaccination.

  2. Undetected latent failures of safety-related systems. Preliminary survey of events in nuclear power plants 1980-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from a preliminary survey of events involving undetected, latent failures of safety-related systems. The survey was limited to events where mispositioned equipment (e.g., valves, switches) remained undetected, thus rendering standby equipment or systems unavailable for short or long time periods. Typically, these events were symptoms of underlying latent errors (e.g., design errors, procedure errors, unanalyzed safety conditions) and programmatic errors. The preliminary survey identified well over 300 events. Of these, 95 events are documented in this report. Events involving mispositioned equipment are commonplace. Most events are discovered soon after occurrence, however. But as evidenced by the survey results, some events remained undetected beyond several shift changes. The recommendations developed by the survey emphasize the importance of applying modern root cause analysis techniques to the event analysis to ensure that the causes and implications of occurred events are fully understood

  3. Application of the polymerase chain reaction in determination of recombinant retrovirus titers as fifty percent endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L; Gram, G J; Hansen, J E

    2000-01-01

    -based protocols that would significantly simplify and shorten this procedure. Using PCR and primers specific for the Neoregion of the MLV-derived vector LeGSN, we determined 1. the proviral integration in target cells, and 2. the viral nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) content of the vector stock. Results were compared......, determination of virus titer involves the testing of culture medium from individual packaging cell lines for the ability to transfer drug resistance to susceptible cells - a process that can easily take up to 14 days. It is generally agreed that this method is cumbersome. We sought to develop PCR...... with those using the conventional method. We found that these specific PCR-based procedures were indeed useful for rapid determination of viral titers as well as for quick screening for high-titer vector-producing cell clones and successful transduction of target cells....

  4. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  5. [What EIA assay levels correspond to rubella antibody HI assay titer?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kihei; Inoue, Mika; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Ogita, Satoko; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a Japanese-government-supported research group recommended that women without rubella antibody or with low titers or = 15 IU/mL), 98.1% (positive > or = 10 IU/mL), and 93.4%, using the kit from Dade Behring Co. Between HI titers and EIA-IgG measured with the Denka kit, the coefficient index was 0.715 (p or = 4.0) from Denka, and to 30 IU/mL with the kit from Dade. EIA-IgG levels > or = 10 IU/mL are considered globally as protective antibody titers, meaning that the Japanese recommendation of < or = 1:16 for vaccination is too loose. Japanese EIA kit values for the rubella antibody should also be expressed in IU/mL using the global standard.

  6. Profiles of influenza A/H1N1 vaccine response using hemagglutination-inhibition titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; Grill, Diane E; Oberg, Ann L; Tosh, Pritish K; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    To identify distinct antibody profiles among adults 50-to-74 years old using influenza A/H1N1 HI titers up to 75 days after vaccination. Healthy subjects 50 to 74 years old received the 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. We measured venous samples from Days 0, 28, and 75 for HI and VNA and B-cell ELISPOTs. Of 106 subjects, HI titers demonstrated a ceiling effect for 11 or 10% for those with a pre-vaccination HI titer of 1:640 where no subject post-vaccination had an increase in titer. Of the remaining 95 subjects, only 37 or 35% overall had at least a 4-fold increase by Day 28. Of these 37, 3 waned at least 4-fold, and 13 others 2-fold. Thus 15% of the subjects showed waning antibody titers by Day 75. More than half failed to respond at all. The profiles populated by these subjects as defined by HI did not vary with age or gender. The VNA results mimicked the HI profiles, but the profiles for B-cell ELISPOT did not. HI titers at Days 0, 28, and 75 populate 4 biologically plausible profiles. Limitations include lack of consensus for operationally defining waning as well as for the apparent ceiling. Furthermore, though well accepted as a marker for vaccine response, assigning thresholds with HI has limitations. However, VNA closely matches HI in populating these profiles. Thus, we hold that these profiles, having face- and content-validity, may provide a basis for understanding variation in genomic and transcriptomic response to influenza vaccination in this age group.

  7. TSH-receptor-autoantibody-titers in untreated toxic diffuse goitres - an early indicator of relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1984-01-01

    TSH-receptor-auto antibodies were determined in follow-up of 30 patients with relapse of toxic diffuse goitres, i.e. patients with Graves' disease and toxic disseminated autonomy, and in 13 patients with spontaneous remission after antithyroid drug therapy by use of a commercially available TSH-radioreceptorassay (TRAK-assay). All the patients with very high receptor-autoantibody-titers in untreated thyrotoxicosis (F > 20%) had one or more periods of hyperthyroidism or a very severe course of disease. None of these patients showed a spontaneous remission of disease. They all could be identified as Graves' patients. Patients with TRAK-titers 3% [de

  8. The Association between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Risk of Undetected Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Yili; Ning, Feng; Zhang, Chaoying

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of leisure-time physical activity on undetected prediabetes. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012 were used in our analyses. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prediabetes associated with leisure-time physical activity. Results. A total of 8204 subjects were eligible for our analyses. For all subjects, high level of total leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.94) and low level of vigorous leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.90) were inversely associated with the risk of prediabetes in multivariate-adjusted model. For subjects under 45 years of age, high level of total leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99) and low (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.83) and high (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.00) level of vigorous leisure-time physical activity were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In the 45 to 65 age group, only high level of total leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.95) had protective effect on prediabetes. Conclusions. Leisure-time physical activity may be associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. PMID:28367452

  9. Reliability modeling of digital RPS with consideration of undetected software faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaquzzaman, M.; Lee, Seung Jun; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Cheol [Chung Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper provides overview of different software reliability methodologies and proposes a technic for estimating the reliability of RPS with consideration of undetected software faults. Software reliability analysis of safety critical software has been challenging despite spending a huge effort for developing large number of software reliability models, and no consensus yet to attain on an appropriate modeling methodology. However, it is realized that the combined application of BBN based SDLC fault prediction method and random black-box testing of software would provide better ground for reliability estimation of safety critical software. Digitalizing the reactor protection system of nuclear power plant has been initiated several decades ago and now full digitalization has been adopted in the new generation of NPPs around the world because digital I and C systems have many better technical features like easier configurability and maintainability over analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are also drift-free and incorporation of new features is much easier. Rules and regulation for safe operation of NPPs are established and has been being practiced by the operators as well as regulators of NPPs to ensure safety. The failure mechanism of hardware and analog systems well understood and the risk analysis methods for these components and systems are well established. However, digitalization of I and C system in NPP introduces some crisis and uncertainty in reliability analysis methods of the digital systems/components because software failure mechanisms are still unclear.

  10. Case study on human α1-antitrypsin: Recombinant protein titers obtained by commercial ELISA kits are inaccurate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Min Lee, Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Accurate titer determination of recombinant proteins is crucial for evaluating protein production cell lines and processes. Even though enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used assay for determining protein titer, little is known about the accuracy of commercially available...... ELISA kits. We observed that estimations of recombinant human ø1-antitrypsin (rø1AT) titer by Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE gels did not correspond to previously obtained titers obtained by a commercially available ELISA kit. This prompted us to develop two independent quantification assays based...... on biolayer interferometry and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We compared the rø1AT titer obtained by these assays with three different off-the-shelf ELISA kits and found that the ELISA kits led to inconsistent results. The data presented here show that recombinant protein titers...

  11. Antibody titer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal ... and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  13. Definition and dynamic control of a continuous chromatography process independent of cell culture titer and impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowski, Rebecca A; Mathiasson, Linda; Blom, Hans; Go, Daniel; Ehring, Hanno; Khan, Heera; Li, Hong; Cutler, Collette; Lacki, Karol; Tugcu, Nihal; Roush, David

    2017-12-01

    Advances in cell culture technology have enabled the production of antibody titers upwards of 30g/L. These highly productive cell culture systems can potentially lead to productivity bottlenecks in downstream purification due to lower column loadings, especially in the primary capture chromatography step. Alternative chromatography solutions to help remedy this bottleneck include the utilization of continuous processing systems such as periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC). Recent studies have provided methods to optimize and improve the design of PCC for cell culture titers up to about 3g/L. This paper defines a continuous loading strategy for PCC that is independent of cell culture background and encompasses cell culture titers up to about 31g/L. Initial experimentation showed a challenge with determining a difference in change in UV280nm signal (ie. ΔUV) between cell culture feed and monoclonal antibody (mAb) concentration. Further investigation revealed UV280nm absorbance of the cell culture feedstock without antibody was outside of the linear range of detection for a given cell pathlength. Additional experimentation showed the difference in ΔUV for various cell culture feeds can be either theoretically predicted by Beer's Law given a known absorbance of the media background and impurities or experimentally determined using various UV280nm cell pathlengths. Based on these results, a 0.35mm pathlength at UV280nm was chosen for dynamic control to overcome the background signal. The pore diffusion model showed good agreement with the experimental frontal analysis data, which resulted in definition of a ΔUV setpoint range between 20 and 70% for 3C-PCC experiments. Product quality of the elution pools was acceptable between various cell culture feeds and titers up to about 41g/L. Results indicated the following ΔUV setpoints to achieve robust dynamic control and maintain 3C-PCC yield: ∼20-45% for titers greater than 10g/L depending on UV absorbance of

  14. Undetected human papillomavirus DNA and uterine cervical carcinoma. Association with cancer recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Kae; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Terufumi; Kawana, Kei

    2016-01-01

    The time course of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA clearance was studied in patients with carcinoma of the cervix during follow-up after primary radical radiotherapy (RT). This study investigated the relationship between timing of HPV clearance and RT effectiveness. A total of 71 consecutive patients who were treated for cervical cancer with primary radical radiotherapy and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in the study. Samples for HPV DNA examination were taken before (1) treatment, (2) every brachytherapy, and (3) every follow-up examination. The times when HPV DNA was undetected were analyzed for association with recurrence-free survival. HPV DNA was not detected in 13 patients (18 %) before RT. Of the 58 patients with HPV DNA detected before treatment, HPV DNA was not detected in 34 % during treatment and in 66 % after the treatment. Within 6 months after RT, HPV DNA was detected in 0 % of all patients. The patients were followed up for a median period of 43 months (range 7-70 months). In all, 20 patients were found to develop recurrence. The 3-year cumulative disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 71 ± 5.4 % for all 71 patients. In multivariate analysis, DFS was significantly associated with HPV (detected vs. not detected) with a hazard ratio of 0.07 (95 % confidence interval 0.008-0.6, p = 0.009). In this study, patients in whom HPV was not detected had the worst prognosis. Six months after RT, HPV DNA was detected in 0 % of the patients. Patients in whom HPV DNA could not be detected before treatment need careful follow-up for recurrence and may be considered for additional, or alternative treatment. (orig.) [de

  15. Undetected cognitive impairment and decision-making capacity in patients receiving hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cynthia Z; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Lee, Lana C; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V; Dunn, Laura B; Irwin, Scott A

    2012-04-01

    : Cognitive dysfunction is common in patients with advanced, life-threatening illness and can be attributed to a variety of factors (e.g., advanced age, opiate medication). Such dysfunction likely affects decisional capacity, which is a crucial consideration as the end-of-life approaches and patients face multiple choices regarding treatment, family, and estate planning. This study examined the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its impact on decision-making abilities among hospice patients with neither a chart diagnosis of a cognitive disorder nor clinically apparent cognitive impairment (e.g., delirium, unresponsiveness). : A total of 110 participants receiving hospice services completed a 1-hour neuropsychological battery, a measure of decisional capacity, and accompanying interviews. : In general, participants were mildly impaired on measures of verbal learning, verbal memory, and verbal fluency; 54% of the sample was classified as having significant, previously undetected cognitive impairment. These individuals performed significantly worse than the other participants on all neuropsychological and decisional capacity measures, with effect sizes ranging from medium to very large (0.43-2.70). A number of verbal abilities as well as global cognitive functioning significantly predicted decision-making capacity. : Despite an absence of documented or clinically obvious impairment, more than half of the sample had significant cognitive impairments. Assessment of cognition in hospice patients is warranted, including assessment of verbal abilities that may interfere with understanding or reasoning related to treatment decisions. Identification of patients at risk for impaired cognition and decision making may lead to effective interventions to improve decision making and honor the wishes of patients and families.

  16. Multi-stage high cell continuous fermentation for high productivity and titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Nag-Jong; Kang, Jongwon; Jeong, Chang Moon; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Fei, Qiang; Kim, Byoung Jin; Kwon, Sunhoon; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-05-01

    We carried out the first simulation on multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) to show that the MSC-HCDC can achieve batch/fed-batch product titer with much higher productivity to the fed-batch productivity using published fermentation kinetics of lactic acid, penicillin and ethanol. The system under consideration consists of n-serially connected continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) with either hollow fiber cell recycling or cell immobilization for high cell-density culture. In each CSTR substrate supply and product removal are possible. Penicillin production is severely limited by glucose metabolite repression that requires multi-CSTR glucose feeding. An 8-stage C-HCDC lactic acid fermentation resulted in 212.9 g/L of titer and 10.6 g/L/h of productivity, corresponding to 101 and 429% of the comparable lactic acid fed-batch, respectively. The penicillin production model predicted 149% (0.085 g/L/h) of productivity in 8-stage C-HCDC with 40 g/L of cell density and 289% of productivity (0.165 g/L/h) in 7-stage C-HCDC with 60 g/L of cell density compared with referring batch cultivations. A 2-stage C-HCDC ethanol experimental run showed 107% titer and 257% productivity of the batch system having 88.8 g/L of titer and 3.7 g/L/h of productivity. MSC-HCDC can give much higher productivity than batch/fed-batch system, and yield a several percentage higher titer as well. The productivity ratio of MSC-HCDC over batch/fed-batch system is given as a multiplication of system dilution rate of MSC-HCDC and cycle time of batch/fed-batch system. We suggest MSC-HCDC as a new production platform for various fermentation products including monoclonal antibody.

  17. [Analysis of Correlation between IgG Titer of Pregnant Women and Neonatal Hemolytic Complications of Different Blood Groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hai-Hui; Huang, Hong-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Pi, You-Jun

    2017-10-01

    To study the relationship between IgG titer of pregnant women and hemolytic disease of newborn(HDN) with different blood groups. Four hundred pregnant women, including pregnant women with type O blood, were selected from May 2014 to January 2015 in our hospital for inspection and a couple of different blood groups, the IgG titer of pregnant women were detected in the inspection process. According to neonatal HDN, newborns were divided into 2 groups: HDN group(85 cases) and non-HDN group(315 cases). The incidence of postpartum neonatal hemolytic disease was tracked and the correlation of IgG titers with HDN were systematically analyzed. In the production and inspection process, the IgG titer in pregnant women was divided into groups. the comparison of HDN incidence rate in 4 groups of IgG titer >64 and IgG titer group showed that the prevalence of ABO hemolytic disease of newborn were 96.9%, 79.6%, 63, 7% and 28.8%, there was a certain correlation of pregnant women IgG titers with ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn, that is, with the increase of IgG titer, the incidence of hemolytic disease of newborns increased in certain degree (r=0.8832), the risk in 4 groups of neonatal HDN was higher than that in IgG titer 64 HDN group. There is a certain corelation between prevalence of ABO-HDN and IgG titer of pregnant women. For these pregnant women, the control of the pregnant women IgG titer has a positive clinical significance to reduce the incidence of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  18. Effect of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and natural and specific antibody titers in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Remmelink, G.J.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry

  19. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  20. Combined radioimmunoassay of HBs-antigen and anti-HBs using the Biotest combRIA-Au kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kselikova, M.; Novak, J.; Urbankova, J.

    1979-01-01

    Hepatitis B antigen and antibody were determined simultaneously by radioimmunoassay using the Biotest combRIA-Au kit. The results in determining antigens and antibodies in sera with a known content of these substances by this kit nearly equal those of isolated determinations of antigen by the Abbott AUSRIA II-125 kit, and of antibody by the Abbott AUSAB kit, resp., except for a negligible number of sera with a very low content of either antigen or antibody. (author)

  1. Prevalence of antibody titers to leptospira spp. in Minnesota white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.

  2. A rapid and efficient branched DNA hybridization assay to titer lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ayyappan; Xie, Jinger; Joshi, Sarasijam; Harden, Paul; Davies, Joan; Hermiston, Terry

    2008-11-01

    A robust assay to titer lentiviral vectors is imperative to qualifying their use in drug discovery, target validation and clinical applications. In this study, a novel branched DNA based hybridization assay was developed to titer lentiviral vectors by quantifying viral RNA genome copy numbers from viral lysates without having to purify viral RNA, and this approach was compared with other non-functional (p24 protein ELISA and viral RT-qPCR) and a functional method (reporter gene expression) used commonly. The RT-qPCR method requires purification of viral RNA and the accuracy of titration therefore depends on the efficiency of purification; this requirement is ameliorated in the hybridization assay as RNA is measured directly in viral lysates. The present study indicates that the hybridization based titration assay performed on viral lysates was more accurate and has additional advantages of being rapid, robust and not dependent on transduction efficiency in different cell types.

  3. Severe hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn caused by red blood cell antibodies undetected at first-trimester screening (CME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajak, Slavica; Stefanović, Vedran; Capkun, Vesna

    2011-07-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of anti-D and non-D antibodies undetected at first-trimester screening for infant or fetus. This retrospective cohort study included all pregnant women with red blood cell (RBC) antibodies who were tested between 1993 and 2008. Data were obtained from the forms for tracking immunization at the transfusion department. Each form was analyzed for three data sets: the order of screening at which the antibodies were detected (initial or repeated screening), the order of pregnancy (first pregnancy or higher), and whether the antibodies caused severe hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). In D- women, anti-D was detected in 1.3% of cases. The anti-D was undetected in 72 (37%) cases on the first-trimester screening, of which eight cases were complicated by severe HDFN. In this group, three patients were primigravidae. An overall non-D incidence of 0.2% was observed. In 16 cases, non-D were undetected on the first-trimester screening (10 anti-c, two anti-E, two anti-C, one anti-S, and one case of anti-Rh17). Non-D antibodies undetected on initial screening caused 11 cases of severe HDFN (27% of all severe non-D HDFN). Ten of them were in multiparous women. Seven of 11 cases with severe HDFN that were missed were caused by anti-c. The third-trimester screening may detect RBC antibodies that were not present or detected on the first-trimester screening. Such screening may be especially relevant in D+ multiparous women due to the risk of HDFN. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Low titer of antibody against Toxoplasma gondii may be related to resistant to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sharafi Seyedeh; Salehi Nahid; Mortazavi Nahid; Danesh Pour Shima; Yousefi Morteza; Yousofi Darani Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Context: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a world-wide distribution. However, the majority of infected cases remain symptomless. There are raising scientific evidences indicating that parasitic infections induce antitumor activity against certain types of cancers. The inhibitory effect of T. gondii on cancer growth has also been shown in cell culture and mouse model. Aims: Considering the anti-tumor effect of this parasite, in this study the relationship between low titer of ...

  5. Microwave ablation assisted by a real-time virtual navigation system for hepatocellular carcinoma undetectable by conventional ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fangyi; Yu Xiaoling; Liang Ping; Cheng Zhigang; Han Zhiyu; Dong Baowei; Zhang Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of microwave (MW) ablation assisted by a real-time virtual navigation system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undetectable by conventional ultrasonography. Methods: 18 patients with 18 HCC nodules (undetectable on conventional US but detectable by intravenous contrast-enhanced CT or MRI) were enrolled in this study. Before MW ablation, US images and MRI or CT images were synchronized using the internal markers at the best timing of the inspiration. Thereafter, MW ablation was performed under real-time virtual navigation system guidance. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by the result of contrast-enhanced imagings after the treatment. Results: The target HCC nodules could be detected with fusion images in all patients. The time required for image fusion was 8–30 min (mean, 13.3 ± 5.7 min). 17 nodules were successfully ablated according to the contrast enhanced imagings 1 month after ablation. The technique effectiveness rate was 94.44% (17/18). The follow-up time was 3–12 months (median, 6 months) in our study. No severe complications occurred. No local recurrence was observed in any patients. Conclusions: MW ablation assisted by a real-time virtual navigation system is a feasible and efficient treatment of patients with HCC undetectable by conventional ultrasonography.

  6. Undetected latent failures of safety-related systems. Preliminary survey of events in nuclear power plants 1980-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Vista, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from a preliminary survey of events involving undetected, latent failures of safety-related systems. The survey was limited to events where mispositioned equipment (e.g., valves, switches) remained undetected, thus rendering standby equipment or systems unavailable for short or long time periods. Typically, these events were symptoms of underlying latent errors (e.g., design errors, procedure errors, unanalyzed safety conditions) and programmatic errors. The preliminary survey identified well over 300 events. Of these, 95 events are documented in this report. Events involving mispositioned equipment are commonplace. Most events are discovered soon after occurrence, however. But as evidenced by the survey results, some events remained undetected beyond several shift changes. The recommendations developed by the survey emphasize the importance of applying modern root cause analysis techniques to the event analysis to ensure that the causes and implications of occurred events are fully understood. 7 refs, 4 tabs, 3 figs. Also available at the SKI Home page: //www.ski.se.

  7. Activity, specificity, and titer of naturally occurring canine anti-DEA 7 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Baggiani, Luciana; Canzi, Ilaria; Perego, Roberta

    2016-11-01

    The reported prevalence of naturally occurring anti-dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs is as high as 50%. Characterization of these antibodies may better define their importance in canine transfusion medicine. We determined in vitro activity, specificity, and titer of anti-DEA 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs. Plasma samples from 317 DEA 7-negative dogs were cross-matched with DEA 7-positive red blood cells (RBCs) using gel column technology. Agglutination occurred with DEA 7-positive RBCs but not with DEA 7-negative RBCs in 73 samples (23%), which were hence classified as containing anti-DEA 7 antibodies. These samples were evaluated for hemolytic and agglutinating activity, strength of agglutination, and antibody specificity and titers. All samples showed agglutination but none showed hemolysis. Gel agglutination was graded as 1+ for 20 samples (27%), 2+ for 49 samples (67%), 3+ for 4 samples (6%); no samples were graded 4+. The agglutination titer was DEA 7 antibodies were found in 23% of DEA 7-negative dogs. The presence of naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 antibodies suggests that cross-matching of canine blood recipients is advisable, even at first transfusion, to minimize delayed transfusion reactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Interference of daratumumab with pretransfusion testing, mimicking a high-titer, low avidity like antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hwa Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Daratumumab is a monoclonal immunoglobulin against CD38 and has been approved for treating patients with refractory multiple myeloma. The presence of daratumumab in the sera can interfere with pretransfusion testing due to the weakly expression of CD38 on red cells. The reactivity could be mistaken as autoantibody (if autocontrol is positive or alloantibody (if autocontrol is negative. We present a case that demonstrates daratumumab could mimic a high titer low avidity (HTLA alloantibody. A 34-year-old male patient of refractory myeloma was recruited in phase three clinical trial involving daratumumab. Samples were sent to the blood bank for pretransfusion testing. Without knowledge of patient having used daratumumab, we mistook the reactivity in the patient's sera as an HTLA antibody due to the results of negative autocontrol and high titers of antibody activity. Antibody screen showed a panreactive pattern and the reactivity against screening cells was up to a titer of 1: 1240. The reactivity was weaker against cord cells than adult cells, became weaker against ZZAP-treated cells and became negative against DDT-treated cells. A discussion with attending physician finally revealed the reactivity was due to the interference caused by daratumumab. The case demonstrates good communication is essential in performing pretransfusion testing for patients receiving daratumumab and other new biological regimens that can interfere with compatibility test.

  9. A safe and reliable neutralization assay based on pseudovirus to measure neutralizing antibody titer against poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Song, Dongmei; Bai, Han; Lu, Weiwei; Dai, Xinxian; Hao, Chunsheng; Zhang, Zhongyang; Guo, Huijie; Zhang, Yue; Li, Xiuling

    2017-12-01

    With the promotion of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) and live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the global reported cases of poliomyelitis have reduced sharply from 0.35 million in 1988 to 74 in 2015. The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan published by WHO in 2013 included the strategy of implementation of poliovirus safe handling and containment measures to minimize the risks of facility-associated reintroduction of virus into the polio-free community to prevent the re-import of poliovirus. Toward this strategy, we produced replication-incompetent pseudovirus of poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 attenuated strains by constructing poliovirus capsid expression vectors and poliovirus replicon then transfecting HEK293T cells and developed a pseudovirus-based neutralization assay (pNA) to determine neutralizing antibody titer which is more secure, time-saving and reliable than conventional neutralization assay (cNA). By using anti-poliovirus rat serum, we demonstrated excellent correlation between neutralizing antibody titers measured by cNA and pNA. It was concluded that pNA can be a potential alternative to replace cNA as a safe and time-saving system for titer determination after live poliovirus's safekeeping. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Undetected human papillomavirus DNA and uterine cervical carcinoma. Association with cancer recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, Kae; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Departments of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Terufumi; Kawana, Kei [University of Tokyo Hospital, Departments Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The time course of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA clearance was studied in patients with carcinoma of the cervix during follow-up after primary radical radiotherapy (RT). This study investigated the relationship between timing of HPV clearance and RT effectiveness. A total of 71 consecutive patients who were treated for cervical cancer with primary radical radiotherapy and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in the study. Samples for HPV DNA examination were taken before (1) treatment, (2) every brachytherapy, and (3) every follow-up examination. The times when HPV DNA was undetected were analyzed for association with recurrence-free survival. HPV DNA was not detected in 13 patients (18 %) before RT. Of the 58 patients with HPV DNA detected before treatment, HPV DNA was not detected in 34 % during treatment and in 66 % after the treatment. Within 6 months after RT, HPV DNA was detected in 0 % of all patients. The patients were followed up for a median period of 43 months (range 7-70 months). In all, 20 patients were found to develop recurrence. The 3-year cumulative disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 71 ± 5.4 % for all 71 patients. In multivariate analysis, DFS was significantly associated with HPV (detected vs. not detected) with a hazard ratio of 0.07 (95 % confidence interval 0.008-0.6, p = 0.009). In this study, patients in whom HPV was not detected had the worst prognosis. Six months after RT, HPV DNA was detected in 0 % of the patients. Patients in whom HPV DNA could not be detected before treatment need careful follow-up for recurrence and may be considered for additional, or alternative treatment. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand der Untersuchung war der Zeitverlauf der Eliminierung von humaner Papillomvirus-(HPV-)DNA bei Patienten mit Zervixkarzinomen waehrend der Nachfolgeuntersuchungen nach einer primaeren radikalen Strahlentherapie (RT). Diese Studie untersuchte den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Zeitpunkt der

  11. Design of a titering assay for lentiviral vectors utilizing direct extraction of DNA from transduced cells in microtiter plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele E Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using lentiviral vector products in clinical applications requires an accurate method for measuring transduction titer. For vectors lacking a marker gene, quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to evaluate the number of vector DNA copies in transduced target cells, from which a transduction titer is calculated. Immune Design previously described an integration-deficient lentiviral vector pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis virus envelope for use in cancer immunotherapy (VP02, of the ZVex platform. Standard protocols for titering integration-competent lentiviral vectors employ commercial spin columns to purify vector DNA from transduced cells, but such columns are not optimized for isolation of extrachromosomal (nonintegrated DNA. Here, we describe a 96-well transduction titer assay in which DNA extraction is performed in situ in the transduction plate, yielding quantitative recovery of extrachromosomal DNA. Vector titers measured by this method were higher than when commercial spin columns were used for DNA isolation. Evaluation of the method's specificity, linear range, and precision demonstrate that it is suitable for use as a lot release assay to support clinical trials with VP02. Finally, the method is compatible with titering both integrating and nonintegrating lentiviral vectors, suggesting that it may be used to evaluate the transduction titer for any lentiviral vector.

  12. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats.

  13. JH III production, titers and degradation in relation to reproduction in male and female Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub-Montemayor, Tina E; Min, Kyung-Jin; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Bartlett, Terri; Rankin, Mary Ann

    2005-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is necessary for the production of vitellogenin (Vg) in the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. Occurrence of Vg in this species is typically restricted to reproductively competent females, and is not detected in untreated males. However, the JH analog, methoprene stimulates Vg production in intact males and in the isolated abdomens of both male and female boll weevils (where in each case no Vg is detected without treatment), suggesting that males are competent to produce Vg but are normally not stimulated to do so. Preliminary work indicating that male boll weevil corpora allata (CA) produced little or no JH in vitro suggested that failure of males to produce Vg might be due to very low JH levels compared to females. This study re-examines the question of JH in male boll weevils by determining in vitro production of JH III by male CA during the first 10 days after adult emergence, determining hemolymph JH esterase activity during this same time period and hemolymph JH III titers in adults of both sexes. We also re-examine the ability of isolated male abdomens to produce Vg in response to hormonal stimulation, analyzing the effect of a wide range of methoprene and JH III dosages. Results indicate that male A. grandis have circulating JH titers and JH production similar to females. JH esterase activity is slightly but significantly higher in males than females. Vg production by isolated abdomens of both sexes after stimulation with methoprene or JH III was confirmed. Dose response studies indicated that high levels of methoprene were less effective than intermediate doses in stimulating Vg synthesis in both sexes. We conclude that the sexually dimorphic effect of JH on Vg synthesis is not due to differences in JH production or differences in JH titer between the sexes.

  14. Desensitization protocol in highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high titer kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, J; Machida, Y; Iwai, T; Naganuma, T; Kitamoto, K; Iguchi, T; Maeda, S; Kamada, Y; Kuwabara, N; Kim, T; Nakatani, T

    2010-12-01

    A positive crossmatch indicates the presence of donor-specific alloantibodies and is associated with a graft loss rate of >80%; anti-ABO blood group antibodies develop in response to exposure to foreign blood groups, resulting in immediate graft loss. However, a desensitization protocol for highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high-titer kidney transplantation has not yet been established. We treated 6 patients with high (≥1:512) anti-A/B antibody titers and 2 highly HLA-sensitized patients. Our immunosuppression protocol was initiated 1 month before surgery and included mycophenolate mofetil (1 g/d) and/or low-dose steroid (methylprednisolone 8 mg/d). Two doses of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (150 mg/m(2)) were administered 2 weeks before and on the day of transplantation. We performed antibody removal with 6-12 sessions of plasmapheresis (plasma exchange or double-filtration plasmapheresis) before transplantation. Splenectomy was also performed on the day of transplantation. Postoperative immunosuppression followed the same regimen as ABO-compatible cases, in which calcineurin inhibitors were initiated 3 days before transplantation, combined with 2 doses of basiliximab. Of the 8 patients, 7 subsequently underwent successful living-donor kidney transplantation. Follow-up of our recipients showed that the patient and graft survival rates were 100%. Acute cellular rejection and antibody-mediated rejection episodes occurred in 1 of the 7 recipients. These findings suggest that our immunosuppression regimen consisting of rituximab infusions, splenectomy, plasmapheresis, and pharmacologic immunosuppression may prove to be effective as a desensitization protocol for highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high-titer kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A cohort study to evaluate persistence of hepatitis B immunogenicity after administration of hexavalent vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chionne Paola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, two hexavalent vaccines were licensed in Italy (Hexavac®, Infanrix Hexa®, and since 2002 were extensively used for primary immunization in the first year of life (at 3, 5, 11/12 months of age. In 2005, the market authorization of Hexavac® was precautionary suspended by EMEA, because of doubts on long-term protection against hepatitis B virus. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the persistence of antibodies to anti-HBs, in children in the third year of life, and to investigate the response to a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Methods Participant children were enrolled concomitantly with the offering of anti-polio booster dose, in the third year of life. Anti-HBs titers were determined on capillary blood samples. A booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine was administered to children with anti-HBs titers Results Sera from 113 children previously vaccinated with Hexavac®, and from 124 vaccinated with Infanrix Hexa® were tested for anti-HBs. Titers were ≥ 10 mIU/ml in 69% and 96% (p Post-booster, 93% of children achieved titers ≥ 10 mIU/ml, with no significant difference by vaccine group. Discussion Fifteen months after third dose administration, a significant difference in anti-HBs titers was noted in the two vaccine groups considered. Monovalent hepatitis B vaccine administration in 3-year old children induced a proper booster response, confirming that immunologic memory persists in children with anti-HBs titers

  16. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 μg/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported.

  17. Generation of high-titer viral preparations by concentration using successive rounds of ultracentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Christine V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral vectors provide a method of stably introducing exogenous DNA into cells that are not easily transfectable allowing for the ectopic expression or silencing of genes for therapeutic or experimental purposes. However, some cell types, in particular bone marrow cells, dendritic cells and neurons are difficult to transduce with viral vectors. Successful transduction of such cells requires preparation of highly concentrated viral stocks, which permit a high virus concentration and multiplicity of infection (MOI during transduction. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G envelope protein is common practice for both lentiviral and retroviral vectors. The VSV-G glycoprotein adds physical stability to retroviral particles, allowing concentration of virus by high-speed ultracentrifugation. Here we describe a method report for concentration of virus from large volumes of culture supernatant by means of successive rounds of ultracentrifugation into the same ultracentrifuge tube. Method Stable retrovirus producer cell lines were generated and large volumes of virus-containing supernatant were produced. We then tested the transduction ability of virus following varying rounds of concentration by ultra-centrifugation. In a second series of experiments lentivirus-containing supernatant was produced by transient transfection of 297T/17 cells and again we tested the transduction ability of virus following multiple rounds of ultra-centrifugation. Results We report being able to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus for as many as four rounds of ultracentrifugation while observing an additive increase in viral titer. Even after four rounds of ultracentrifugation we did not reach a plateau in viral titer relative to viral supernatant concentrated to indicate that we had reached the maximum tolerated centrifugation time, implying that it may be possible to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus even further should it be necessary

  18. Microscopic agglutination test on captive rattlesnakes : Data on serovars and titers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic agglutination test (MAT is considered the “golden standard” leptospirosis serodiagnostic test, but there is little information about it as it pertains to snakes. To fill this information gap, we provide data on serovars and titers of fifty-six Crotalus durissus collilineatus sera samples that tested positive by MAT (10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.006 (Rodrigues et al., 2016 [5]. These data are presented in a table, along with a description of the methodology used for sample collection and serologic testing.

  19. Proposed method for agglutinating antibody titer analysis and its use as indicator of acquired immunity in pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available Antibody can be assessed by agglutinating antibody titer which is a quantitative measure of circulating antibodies in serum from fish previously immunized. The antibody evaluation has been performed with different fish species, and is considered a reliable method that can be applied to confirm several hypothesis regarding acquired immunity, even in conjunction with precise methods to describe immune mechanisms. In order to provide appropriate analytical methods for future studies on the specific immune system of native fish, the present study standardized on assay to measure the serum agglutinating antibody titer produced after immunization with inactivated A. hydrophila and levamisole administration in pacu. It was possible to determine the agglutinating antibodies titer in a satisfactorily way in pacu immunized with inactive A. hydrophila, and the highest titers were observed on fish fed with levamisole.

  20. Study of the titers of Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the sera of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Cologne, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus antigens were determined in the sera of 372 atomic bomb survivors to evaluate the effect of the previous radiation exposure on immune competence against the latent infection of the virus. The proportion of persons with high titers (≥ 1:40) of IgG antibodies to the early antigen was significantly elevated in the exposed survivors. Furthermore, the distribution of IgM titers against the viral capsid antigen was significantly affected by radiation dose with an increased occurrence of titers of 1:5 and 1:10 in the exposed persons, although the dose effect was only marginally suggestive when persons with rheumatoid factor were eliminated from the analysis. These results suggest that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the latent stage occurs more frequently in the survivors, even though this might not be affected by the radiation dose. Otherwise, there was neither an increased trend in the prevalence of high titers (≥ 1:640) of IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen among the exposed people nor a correlation between the radiation exposure and distributions of titers of IgA antibodies to the viral capsid antigen or antibodies to the anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. (author)

  1. Study of the titers of Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the sera of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Cologne, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    Antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus antigens were determined in the sera of 372 atomic bomb survivors to evaluate the effect of the previous radiation exposure on immune competence against the latent infection of the virus. The proportion of persons with high titers ({>=} 1:40) of IgG antibodies to the early antigen was significantly elevated in the exposed survivors. Furthermore, the distribution of IgM titers against the viral capsid antigen was significantly affected by radiation dose with an increased occurrence of titers of 1:5 and 1:10 in the exposed persons, although the dose effect was only marginally suggestive when persons with rheumatoid factor were eliminated from the analysis. These results suggest that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the latent stage occurs more frequently in the survivors, even though this might not be affected by the radiation dose. Otherwise, there was neither an increased trend in the prevalence of high titers ({>=} 1:640) of IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen among the exposed people nor a correlation between the radiation exposure and distributions of titers of IgA antibodies to the viral capsid antigen or antibodies to the anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. (author).

  2. High Titer Ethanol and Lignosulfonate Production from SPORL Pretreated Poplar at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Haifeng [Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Zhu, J. Y., E-mail: jzhu@fs.fed.us; Gleisner, Roland [Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, Xueqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Horn, Eric [BioPulping International, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L.) wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH 1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS). An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) of 3.3 was used to scale the sulfite pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L{sup -1} with a yield of 247 L tonne wood{sup -1} was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL)-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH) content, though it was less sulfonated and had a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing. The conversion efficiency achieved through process integration and simplification, demonstrated here, has significant importance to the entire supply chain of biofuel production from woody biomass.

  3. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  4. High titer oncolytic measles virus production process by integration of dielectric spectroscopy as online monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Loewe, Daniel; Dieken, Hauke; Salzig, Denise; Weidner, Tobias; Czermak, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Oncolytic viruses offer new hope to millions of patients with incurable cancer. One promising class of oncolytic viruses is Measles virus, but its broad administration to cancer patients is currently hampered by the inability to produce the large amounts of virus needed for treatment (10 10 -10 12 virus particles per dose). Measles virus is unstable, leading to very low virus titers during production. The time of infection and time of harvest are therefore critical parameters in a Measles virus production process, and their optimization requires an accurate online monitoring system. We integrated a probe based on dielectric spectroscopy (DS) into a stirred tank reactor to characterize the Measles virus production process in adherent growing Vero cells. We found that DS could be used to monitor cell adhesion on the microcarrier and that the optimal virus harvest time correlated with the global maximum permittivity signal. In 16 independent bioreactor runs, the maximum Measles virus titer was achieved approximately 40 hr after the permittivity maximum. Compared to an uncontrolled Measles virus production process, the integration of DS increased the maximum virus concentration by more than three orders of magnitude. This was sufficient to achieve an active Measles virus concentration of > 10 10 TCID 50 ml -1 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

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    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom pharmacopuncture at same concentration. 2. Observing chromatogram of HPLC, removal of the enzyme was successfully rendered on Sweet BV. 3. The anti-serum of Sweet BV showed high titers against melittin and bee venom and relatively low titer against phospholipase A2. 4. After conducting approximately 3,000 cases of Sweet BV administration, not a single case of generalized anaphylatic reaction occurred in clinical observation. 5. Mild compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture, Sweet BV showed some acute hypersensitive reactions of edema, itchiness, and aching locally. 6. Sweet BV was administered on six patients with previous history of suffering from generalized acute hypersensitive reactions with the bee venom. None of the patients showed allergic reactions with Sweet BV, suggesting it can effectively prevent anaphylatic shock which may occur after the bee venom pharmacopuncture procedure. Conclusion : Summarizing above results, Sweet Bee Venom appears to be an effective measurement against allergic reactions from the bee venom pharmacopuncture especially against anaphylatic shock.

  6. More efficient integrated safeguards by applying a reasonable detection probability for maintaining low presence probability of undetected nuclear proliferating activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical foundation is presented for more efficient Integrated Safeguards (IS). • Probability of undetected nuclear proliferation activities should be maintained low. • For nations under IS, the probability to start proliferation activities is very low. • The fact can decrease the detection probability of IS by dozens of percentage points. • The cost of IS per nation can be cut down by reducing inspection frequencies etc. - Abstract: A theoretical foundation is presented for implementing more efficiently the present International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) integrated safeguards (ISs) on the basis of fuzzy evaluation of the probability that the evaluated nation will continue peaceful activities. It is shown that by determining the presence probability of undetected nuclear proliferating activities, nations under IS can be maintained at acceptably low proliferation risk levels even if the detection probability of current IS is decreased by dozens of percentage from the present value. This makes it possible to reduce inspection frequency and the number of collected samples, allowing the IAEA to cut costs per nation. This will contribute to further promotion and application of IS to more nations by the IAEA, and more efficient utilization of IAEA resources from the viewpoint of whole IS framework

  7. SURVEI TITER ANTI BODI ANAK SEKOLAH USIA 6--17 TAHUN DI DAERAH KLB DIFTERI DAN NON KLB DI INDONESIA

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    Noer Endah Pracoyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDiphtheriae  is an  reemerging infectious disease  widespread in the world. Bacterial infection of Corynebacterium diphtheria usually not invasive, but the bacteria can produce toxins that cause pathological effects on the heart muscle and other organs, and a 10-17% death-risk was occurred.  Diphtheriae can be prevented by immunization.  Immunizations are given to infants at the age of 0-11 months and procead to booster for pupils at Elementary School. The imunization program at school is a routinely cunducted. Such program held annualy on certain month that called as “BIAS pupils immunization month” . To examine antibody  titer of diphtheriae, research for sero  survey titer antibody titer of diphtheriae was conducted on pupils between 6 and 17 years old at outbreak areas and non outbreak area.The research started in May 2010 and finished in Desember 2010. The aim of the research was to measure the antibody titer in area of outbreak and non outbreak of school children. Design was case control study. Sera of the respondens were axamined by Elisa for detecting antibody titers against diphtheriae. The study awarded ethical clearence from Research Ethics Committee of the National Institute of Health Research and Developmnent. Number of sample cases were 225 samples and 225 control. Analysis of the data by using the soft ware (SPSS 16.00. The result of this research were respondens who lived in the outbreak area with risk of dipthteriae infection of 2,3 times than respondens who lived in the non outbreak area. The immunization of diphthteriae more important for antibody titers.Keywords: Antibody titer diphtheriae, outbreak areaAbstrakDifteria adalah  penyakit infeksi Reemerging tersebar luas di dunia. Infeksi kuman Corynebacterium diphtheria  biasanya tidak invasif, tetapi kuman dapat memproduksi toksin yang dapat menimbulkan efek patologis pada otot jantung dan organ lain, dan berisiko terjadi kematian (10-17%. Difteri dapat

  8. Immunogenicity of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, C M; DeBouck, P; Wiseman, A

    1997-02-01

    The study evaluated the ability of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccine to produce seroconversion in pups with maternally derived hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers ranging from attenuated and therefore more infective than conventional modified live CPV strains in order to overcome relatively greater levels of maternally derived antibodies, the principal cause of CPV vaccine failures in pups. To assess vaccine performance under field conditions, healthy pups presented at five private veterinary clinics were used as test animals. A single dose of vaccine was given to 59 pups at 12 weeks of age (Group A). To accommodate the protocol of clinics where earlier CPV vaccination was practiced, 87 other pups were vaccinated with two doses, the first at 8-10 weeks of age, and the second at 12 weeks of age (Group B). Geometric mean HI titers were measured for blood samples obtained at the time of vaccination and at 14 weeks of age. Seroconversion was considered to have occurred if pups developed a fourfold or greater increase in HI titer to a level > or = 64. Of the 59 pups in Group A, 100% seroconverted following the single vaccine dose at 12 weeks of age. Of the 87 Group B pups, 82 (94.3%) seroconverted following either of the two vaccine doses. A geometric mean HI titer of 4828 was measured for Group A, and a geometric mean HI titer of 2028 was measured for Group B. An overall seroconversion rate of 96.5% was achieved in pups with maternally derived HI titers < or = 256.

  9. Early low-titer neutralizing antibodies impede HIV-1 replication and select for virus escape.

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    Katharine J Bar

    Full Text Available Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC(50 selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1-V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical

  10. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

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    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  11. High titers of autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase in Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Epitope Analysis and Inhibition of Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampe, Christiane S.; Maitland, Murray E.; Gilliam, Lisa K.; Thi Phan, Thanh-H.; Sweet, Ian R.; Radtke, Jared R.; Bota, Vasile; Ransom, Bruce R.; Hirsch, Irl B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) are found in patients with autoimmune neurological disorders and patients with type 1 diabetes. The correct diagnosis of GAD65Ab-associated neurological disorders is often delayed by the variability of symptoms and a lack of diagnostic markers. We hypothesize that the frequency of neurological disorders with high GAD65Ab titers is significantly higher than currently recognized. Methods We analyzed GAD65Ab titer, inhibition of GAD65 enzyme activity, and pattern of GAD65Ab epitopes in a cohort of type 1 diabetes patients (n=100) and correlated our findings with neurological symptoms and diseases. Results Fourty-three percent (43/100) of the patients had detectable GAD65Ab titers (median=400 U/ml, range: 142–250,000U/ml). The GAD65Ab titers in 10 type 1 diabetes patients exceeded the 90th percentile of the cohort (2,000–250,000 U/ml). Sera of these 10 patients were analyzed for their GAD65Ab epitope specificity and their ability to inhibit GAD65 enzyme activity in vitro. GAD65Ab of five patients inhibited the enzyme activity significantly (by 34–55%). Three of these patients complained of muscle stiffness and pain, which was documented in two of these patients. Conclusions Based on our findings we suggest that neurological disorders with high GAD65Ab titers are more frequent in type 1 diabetes patients than currently recognized. PMID:23512385

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation Assisted by Real-Time Virtual Sonography and CT for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undetectable by Conventional Sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Sahara, Shinya; Takasaka, Isao; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Kimura, Masashi; Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2009-01-01

    Real-time virtual sonography (RVS) is a diagnostic imaging support system, which provides the same cross-sectional multiplanar reconstruction images as ultrasound images on the same monitor screen in real time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiofrequency ablation (RFA) assisted by RVS and CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undetectable with conventional sonography. Subjects were 20 patients with 20 HCC nodules not detected by conventional sonography but detectable by CT or MRI. All patients had hepatitis C-induced liver cirrhosis; there were 13 males and 7 females aged 55-81 years (mean, 69.3 years). RFA was performed in the CT room, and the tumor was punctured with the assistance of RVS. CT was performed immediately after puncture, and ablation was performed after confirming that the needle had been inserted into the tumor precisely. The mean number of punctures and success rates of the first puncture were evaluated. Treatment effects were evaluated with dynamic CT every 3 months after RFA. RFA was technically feasible and local tumor control was achieved in all patients. The mean number of punctures was 1.1, and the success rate of the first puncture was 90.0%. This method enabled safe ablation without complications. The mean follow-up period was 13.5 month (range, 9-18 months). No local recurrence was observed at the follow-up points. In conclusion, RFA assisted by RVS and CT is a safe and efficacious method of treatment for HCC undetectable by conventional sonography.

  13. Undetected rheumatic heart disease revealed using portable echocardiography in a population of school students in Tairawhiti, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Geoffrey; Stonehouse, Mary; Webb, Rachel; Webb, Rachel; Chaffey-Aupouri, Gina; Wilson, Nigel

    2012-10-12

    The aim of this programme was to find undetected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in students from selected schools in the Tairawhiti region (eastern part of the North Island) of New Zealand. Portable echocardiography was used to scan students in 5 urban and rural schools in Tairawhiti where the population is predominantly Maori. The age range of students in the urban schools was 10-13 years and in the rural schools 5-17 years. Those with abnormal echocardiograms were referred for a paediatric consultation, with hospital-based echocardiography if required for the clarification of diagnoses and further management. A total of 685 students, representing over 95% of the schools' students, consented to having echocardiographic scanning. After repeat hospital based echocardiography for 11 students, a total of 52 scans were regarded as abnormal. In this population definite (n=4) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 11 students a prevalence of 1.61% (95%CIs 0.80-2.85). Possible RHD was found in 19 students. Previously undetected confirmed (n=1) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 8 students a prevalence of 1.17% (95%CIs 0.51-2.29). Congenital heart defects (CHD) were found in 22 students a prevalence of 3.21% (95%CIs 2.02-4.83). Echocardiography was a popular modality and detected a significant burden of previously unknown RHD in this young Maori population who are now receiving penicillin. However, echocardiography detected a greater prevalence of possible RHD for which optimum management is at present uncertain. Echocardiography also detected students with a range of severity of CHD. Screening with echocardiography for RHD would involve a significant use of public health, paediatric and cardiac resources with 7.6% of students and their families requiring clinical consultations and ongoing management of the abnormal echocardiographic results.

  14. Related factors to atazanavir plasma levels in a cohort of HIV positive individuals with undetectable viral load

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    Ana Júlia Luz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with plasma concentrations of atazanavir (ATV in a cohort of well-controlled HIV infected subjects (undetectable viremia. Design: Cross-sectional study where 69 subjects were consecutively enrolled between April and November, 2011. METHODS: Patients had to be on atazanavir for at least six months, undetectable viral load for a period equal to or longer than 12 months, T CD4+ lymphocyte count higher than 200 cells/mm³, and aged between 18 years and 70 years old. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, any neurologic disease, active opportunistic disease, hepatitis or cancer. Atazanavir plasma levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, 54 patients (mean age of 47 years and 50% women were included in the analysis. Those without ritonavir (unboosted atazanavir had statistically lower plasma concentrations than those with ritonavir boosted atazanavir (p = 0.001 and total and indirect bilirubin were statistically associated with plasma concentration of atazanavir (r = 0.32 and r = 0.33 respectively; p < 0.05 in both cases. no statistical association was found among gender, ethnicity, age, weight, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile, and the plasma concentration of atazanavir. CONCLUSION: in summary, as expected, concomitant ritonavir use was the only factor associated with atazanavir plasma levels. prospective studies with a larger sample size might help to observe an association of atazanavir concentrations to other characteristics such as body weight, since the p-value showed to be close to significance (p = 0.068.

  15. Development of a high-titer retrovirus producer cell line capable of gene transfer into rhesus monkey hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodine, D.M.; McDonagh, K.T.; Brandt, S.J.; Ney, P.A.; Agricola, B.; Byrne, E.; Nienhuis, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells has been difficult to achieve in large-animal models. The authors have developed an amphotropic producer clone that generates >10 10 recombinant retroviral particles (colony-forming units) per ml of culture medium. Autologous rhesus monkey bone marrow cells were cocultured with either high or low titer producer clones for 4-6 days and reinfused into sublethally irradiated animals. The proviral genome was detected in blood and bone-marrow cells from all three animals reconstituted with cells cocultured with the high-titer producer cells. In contrast, three animals reconstituted with bone marrow cocultured with the low-titer producer clone exhibited no evidence of gene transfer

  16. Maternal IgG Anti-A and Anti-B Titer Levels Screening in Predicting ABO Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Pang, Li-Hong; Liang, Hai-Feng; Chen, Hong-Yan; Fan, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Maternal IgG anti-A/B titers have been considered as a susceptible factor to the risk of ABO hemolytic disease in newborn (ABO-HDN). However, the results remain controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the association between maternal IgG anti-A/B titers and the risk of ABO-HDN. Trials on the relationship between maternal IgG anti-A/B titers and the risk of ABO-HDN were collected by searching Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) electronic databases. The inclusion criteria were maternal IgG anti-A/B titers screening and the evaluation of clinical outcomes in relation to ABO-HDN. Stata 12.0 was used to analyze the data. A total of 23 trials were eligible for inclusion, of which four trials with 5,246 participants were suitable for this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results suggested that maternal IgG anti-A/B titers were significantly associated with the risk of ABO-HDN [OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 2.50-3.28; OR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.92-5.55; OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.36-1.91 in titers (128 to 256) vs. titers (64 or lower), titers (512 or higher) vs. titers (64 or lower), and titers (512 or higher) vs. titers (128-256), respectively]. Our meta-analysis suggests that maternal IgG anti-A/B titers are significantly associated with the risk of ABO-HDN. They contribute to the prediction of risk of ABO-HDN, in addition to the need for invasive treatment for antibody titers ≥512.

  17. Contribution from Belgium - Belgian contribution to the PWG1 Generic Study on Undetected Failures of Safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincke, Marc

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of its participation to the PWG 1 generic study on 'Undetected Failures of Safety Systems', AVN performed a search of such cases among the Belgian plants, using the proposed criterion: to find significant events where equipment remained inoperable, or would have been unable to fulfil correctly its safety function for an extended period of time until their condition was discovered. An extended period of time means one cycle duration or several test interval periods at least; if unknown, it has to be estimated w.r.t. plant lifetime. Note that non safety systems preventing safety systems to perform their function are to be included. As a first information source, a screening of AVN's DIANE (Domestic Information about Nuclear Events) database, for undetected failures of safety systems was performed. This database is used to store and retrieve information on a selection of events which have occurred in the Belgian NPPs since 1985. The sources of information are the incident reports which AVN receives from the utilities, completed with the reports of our inspectors on site. The coding system used within this database is based on the IRS Coding Manual. This coding system does not always allow for an easy retrieval of events related to a specific subject. In addition the DIANE-coding system does not allow for direct retrieval of undetected failures. In a first step, the following systems were scanned: reactor coolant system, reactor heat removal system, emergency core cooling system, chemical and volume control, containment spray, main and auxiliary feedwater, component cooling water, control rod drives. For each system, records were selected by examining their title. Careful reading of the 64 reports selected this way finally led to two cases compatible with the criteria. The decennial revision studies formed a second set of information sources. An inquiry to AVN's engineers responsible for the decennial revision projects allowed to

  18. Towards Statistically Undetectable Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    payload size. Middle, payload proportional to y/N. Right, proportional to N. LSB replacement steganography in never-compressed cover images , detected... Images for Applications in Steganography ," IEEE Trans, on Info. Forensics and Security, vol. 3(2), pp. 247-258, 2008. Conference papers. (1) T. Filler...SPLE, Electronic Imaging , Security, Forensics, Steganography , and Watermarking of Mul- timedia Contents X, San Jose, CA, January 26-31, pp. 11-1-11-13

  19. Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village

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    Ricard Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects. Methods 133 HIV-2 infected and 158 HIV-uninfected subjects from a rural area in North-west Guinea-Bissau, West Africa were enrolled into a prospective cohort study in 1991 and followed-up to mid-2009. Data were collected on four occasions during that period on HIV antibodies, CD4% and HIV-2 plasma viral load. Results Median age (interquartile range [IQR] of HIV-2 infected subjects at time of enrollment was 47 (36, 60 years, similar to that of HIV-uninfected control subjects, 49 (38, 62 (p = 0.4. Median (IQR plasma viral load and CD4 percentage were 347 (50, 4,300 copies/ml and 29 (22, 35 respectively. Overall loss to follow-up to assess vital status was small, at 6.7% and 6.3% for HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively. An additional 17 (12.8% and 16 (10.1% of HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively were censored during follow-up due to infection with HIV-1. The mortality rate per 100 person-years (95% CI was 4.5 (3.6, 5.8 among HIV-2 infected subjects compared to 2.1 (1.6, 2.9 among HIV-uninfected (age-sex adjusted rate ratio 1.9 (1.3, 2.8, p Viral load measurements were available for 98%, 78%, 77% and 61% HIV-2 infected subjects who were alive and had not become super-infected with HIV-1, in 1991, 1996, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Median plasma viral load (RNA copies per ml (IQR did not change significantly over time, being 150 (50, 1,554; n = 77 in 1996, 203 (50, 2,837; n = 47 in 2003 and 171 (50, 497; n = 31 in 2006. Thirty seven percent of HIV-2 subjects had undetectable viraemia ( Conclusions A substantial proportion of HIV-2 infected subjects in this cohort have stable plasma viral load, and those with an undetectable viral load (37% at study entry had a normal survival rate. However, the sequential laboratory findings need to be interpreted with caution given

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and aerobic fermentation of high titer cellulosic citric acid by filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most efficient operation in biorefining conversion, but aerobic SSF under high solids loading significantly faces the serious oxygen transfer limitation. This study took the first insight into an aerobic SSF by high oxygen demanding filamentous fungi in highly viscous lignocellulose hydrolysate. The results show that oxygen requirement in the aerobic SSF by Aspergillus niger was well satisfied for production of cellulosic citric acid. The record high citric acid titer of 136.3 g/L and the overall conversion yield of 74.9% of cellulose were obtained by the aerobic SSF. The advantage of SSF to the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) on citric acid fermentation was compared based on the rigorous Aspen Plus modeling. The techno-economic analysis indicates that the minimum citric acid selling price (MCSP) of $0.603 per kilogram by SSF was highly competitive with the commercial citric acid from starch feedstock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Titer on chip: new analytical tool for influenza vaccine potency determination.

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    Laura R Kuck

    Full Text Available Titer on Chip (Flu-ToC is a new technique for quantification of influenza hemagglutinin (HA concentration. In order to evaluate the potential of this new technique, a comparison of Flu-ToC to more conventional methods was conducted using recombinant HA produced in a baculovirus expression system as a test case. Samples from current vaccine strains were collected from four different steps in the manufacturing process. A total of 19 samples were analysed by Flu-ToC (blinded, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the purity adjusted bicinchoninic acid assay (paBCA. The results indicated reasonable linear correlation between Flu-ToC and SRID, ELISA, and paBCA, with regression slopes of log-log plots being 0.91, 1.03, and 0.91, respectively. The average ratio for HA content measured by Flu-ToC relative to SRID, ELISA, and paBCA was 83%, 147%, and 81%, respectively; indicating nearly equivalent potency determination for Flu-ToC relative to SRID and paBCA. These results, combined with demonstrated multiplexed analysis of all components within a quadrivalent formulation and robust response to HA strains over a wide time period, support the conclusion that Flu-ToC can be used as a reliable and time-saving alternative potency assay for influenza vaccines.

  2. Infection of neuroblastoma cells by rabies virus is modulated by the virus titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Natalia Langenfeld; Dos Ramos Silva, Sandriana; Fernandes, Elaine Raniero; Luiz, Fernanda Guedes; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Katz, Iana Suly Santos

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I). In addition, group I strains showed higher viral growth and enhanced internalization efficiency in neuroblastoma cells than group II strains. However, we observed that the dominant virus subpopulation in group II promoted efficient viral infection in the central nervous system in the new host, providing a selective advantage to the virus. Our data indicate that rabies infection in animal models depends on not only the virus strain but also the amount of virus. This study may serve as a basis for understanding the biologic proprieties of Rabies lyssavirus strains with respect to the effects on viral replication and the impact on pathogenesis, improving virus yields for use in vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. H9N2 avian influenza virus antibody titers in human population in fars province, Iran

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    MM Hadipour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the avian influenza A virus subtypes, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses have the potential to cause an influenza pandemic because they are widely prevalent in avian species in Asia and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans. This study was carried out to determined the seroprevalence of H9N2 avian influenza virus in different human populations in Fars province, which is situated in the south of Iran. Antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus were measured using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test in sera from 300 individuals in five different population in Fars province, including poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, veterinarians, patients with clinical signs of respiratory disease, and clinically normal individuals, who were not or rarely in contact with poultry. Mean antibody titers of 7.3, 6.8, 6.1, 4.5, and 2.9 and seroprevalences of 87%, 76.2%, 72.5%, 35.6%, and 23% were determined in those groups, respectively. Higher prevalences were detected in poultry-farm workers, slaughter-house workers, and veterinarians, possibly due to their close and frequent contact with poultry.

  4. Family poverty is associated with cytomegalovirus antibody titers in U.S. children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Jennifer B; Palermo, Tia M; Aiello, Allison E

    2012-01-01

    Early life environmental and psychological influences are thought to play an important role in the development of the immune system. Antibody response to latent herpesviruses has been used as an indirect measure of cell-mediated immune function but has seldom been applied to younger age groups. We used data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to test for an association between family poverty and continuous antibody response to cytomegalovirus in U.S. children aged 6-16 (N = 2,226) using ordinary least squares regression. Poverty was significantly associated with increased antibody levels among seropositive individuals. The association between income and antibody levels exhibited a threshold effect, with additional income beyond the poverty line not associated with increased antibody titers. This relationship was more robust among older compared with younger children. Early life social factors such as family poverty could have detrimental impacts on the developing immune system, with potentially important consequences for later life health outcomes. Exposure to socioeconomic stressors for longer periods during childhood may further enhance alterations in immune response to cytomegalovirus.

  5. The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Simonds, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine® is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens. PMID:26466796

  6. The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

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    Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF alone (pollen-1 and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2. Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine® is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.

  7. STREPTOKINASE EFFICACY IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION MANAGEMENT: IS IT RELATED TO SERUM ANTISTREPTOKINASE ANTIBODY TITER

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    H SHEMIRANI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antistreptokinase antibodies in sera of individuals with previous streptococcal infection might theoretically influence the thrombolytic activity of streptokinase. Streptokinase as the only thrombolytic drug is used in MI management in Iran. Since, the prevalence of streptococcal infections are higher in Iranian population, it seems that high level of antibodies in sera of patients would decrease the thrombolytic effect of Streptokinase. Methods. Antistreptokinase antibodies were measured by Home Made EL/SA method before streptokinase administration in 126 patients with MI who were admitted to Noor hospital (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. The effect of drug with regard to ECG changes in following days were studied and compared. Results. In seventy patients of 126 (13.5 percent, the drug was ineffective and the antibody level was high. While in 25 patients with effective response to drug (no appearing of Q wave, 3 patients have a high level of antibody against streptokinase. Discussion. It seems that high level of serum antistreptokinase antibody titer has no significant interaction with thrombolytic activity of streptokinase in management of MI. However, most accurate study is required to test this hypothesis.

  8. Assessment of pathogenesis of infective endocarditis by plasma IgG antibody titer test against periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoshima, Daichi; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Matsunaga, Kazuyuki; Shinobe, Michitaka; Nakanishi, Nagako; Nakanishi, Izumi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2017-10-01

    Oral bacteria cause infective endocarditis (IE), so severe periodontitis is thought to be high risk for IE. We suggest the identification of high-risk patients by an IgG antibody titer test against periodontal bacteria might become common screening test.

  9. Antiphospholipid Antibody Titers and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriage and Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Prospective Study

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    Yu Song

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Anti-β2-GP1 IgM was the predominant form of antibody in patients with RM and APS. The decreases in antiphospholipid antibody titers correlated with better pregnancy outcomes. The shorter treatment regimen was effective and economical.

  10. Predictors of undetectable plasma viral load in HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Southern Brazil

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    Marysabel Pinto Telis Silveira

    Full Text Available Factors associated with undetectable viral load ( or = 95% of adherence (CI 95% 1,80-13,28; CI 95% 1,73-9,53, compared with less than 60% adherence; it was greater for less than 6 months in treatment (OR = 3.37; CI 95% 1.09-10.46; and smaller for viral load previous to adherence measurement > or = 5.2 log10 (OR = 0.19; CI95% 0.06-0.58, adjusted for these variables and sex, age, clinical status, current immune status, group of drugs and interval between the two measurements of viral load. The crude odds were lower for age 16-24 years and use of Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors only, but these effects were not significant in the multivariate model. There was no evidence of effect of sex, clinical status, current immune status, and changes in treatment regimen. Treatment adherence gave the largest effect. Motivational interventions directed at adherence may improve treatment effectiveness.

  11. Utility of clinical assessment, imaging, and cryptococcal antigen titer to predict AIDS-related complicated forms of cryptococcal meningitis

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    Kandel Sean

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of AIDS-related complicated cryptococcal meningitis. The outcome was complicated cryptococcal meningitis: prolonged (≥ 14 days altered mental status, persistent (≥ 14 days focal neurologic findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shunt placement or death. Predictor variable operating characteristics were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis. Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of the outcome. Results From 1990-2009, 82 patients with first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were identified. Of these, 14 (17% met criteria for complicated forms of cryptococcal meningitis (prolonged altered mental status 6, persistent focal neurologic findings 7, CSF surgical shunt placement 8, and death 5. Patients with complicated cryptococcal meningitis had higher frequency of baseline focal neurological findings, head computed tomography (CT abnormalities, mean CSF opening pressure, and cryptococcal antigen (CRAG titers in serum and CSF. ROC area of log2 serum and CSF CRAG titers to predict complicated forms of cryptococcal meningitis were comparable, 0.78 (95%CI: 0.66 to 0.90 vs. 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67 to 0.89, respectively (χ2, p = 0.95. The ROC areas to predict the outcomes were similar for CSF pressure and CSF CRAG titers. In a multiple logistic regression model, the following were significant predictors of the outcome: baseline focal neurologic findings, head CT abnormalities and log2 CSF CRAG titer. Conclusions During initial clinical evaluation, a focal neurologic exam, abnormal head CT and large cryptococcal burden measured by CRAG titer are associated with the outcome of complicated cryptococcal meningitis following 2 weeks from antifungal therapy initiation.

  12. Usefulness of radioiodine scanning in patients with moderate/high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma in whom thyroglobulin after thyroxin withdrawal is undetectable after initial treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley S.; Cardoso, Ludmilla David; Fagundes, Tales Alvarenga; Reis, Janice Sepulveda; Maia, Frederico F. Ribeiro; Purisch, Saulo

    2004-01-01

    We selected 92 patients without anti thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), in whom thyroglobulin (Tg) after L-thyroxin withdrawal was undetectable ( 1.5 cm; and lymph nodes metastases in 43 (46.7%), local invasion in 26 (28.2%) or distant metastases in 23 (25%). Control whole-body scanning was negative in 78.2% of the cases and showed cervical uptake in the others. Cases presenting thyroid bed uptake in the absence of tumor recurrence did not receive radioiodine and Tg remained undetectable one year after the initial evaluation in all. Cervical uptake was not observed in 4/13 cases on repeated scan. In contrast, even in the absence of uptake and with undetectable Tg, 7 patients with recurrence confirmed by ultrasound (US) received surgical treatment. US showed 92.8% sensitivity for the detection of local-regional disease. The present study suggests that even moderate/high-risk patients without TgAb and with undetectable T g levels (off T 4 ) do not require radioiodine scanning after initial treatment and can be evaluated by cervical US. (author)

  13. Titer plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors for high throughput applications: fabrication and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Chen, Pin-Chuan; You, Byoung Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Soper, Steven A; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E; Murphy, Michael C; Datta, Proyag; Desta, Yohannes

    2010-01-01

    A high throughput, multi-well (96) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform, based on a continuous flow (CF) mode of operation, was developed. Each CFPCR device was confined to a footprint of 8 × 8 mm 2 , matching the footprint of a well on a standard micro-titer plate. While several CFPCR devices have been demonstrated, this is the first example of a high-throughput multi-well continuous flow thermal reactor configuration. Verification of the feasibility of the multi-well CFPCR device was carried out at each stage of development from manufacturing to demonstrating sample amplification. The multi-well CFPCR devices were fabricated by micro-replication in polymers, polycarbonate to accommodate the peak temperatures during thermal cycling in this case, using double-sided hot embossing. One side of the substrate contained the thermal reactors and the opposite side was patterned with structures to enhance thermal isolation of the closely packed constant temperature zones. A 99 bp target from a λ-DNA template was successfully amplified in a prototype multi-well CFPCR device with a total reaction time as low as ∼5 min at a flow velocity of 3 mm s −1 (15.3 s cycle −1 ) and a relatively low amplification efficiency compared to a bench-top thermal cycler for a 20-cycle device; reducing the flow velocity to 1 mm s −1 (46.2 s cycle −1 ) gave a seven-fold improvement in amplification efficiency. Amplification efficiencies increased at all flow velocities for 25-cycle devices with the same configuration.

  14. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in the Netherlands, 2003-2007: Children of Chinese mothers are at increased risk of breakthrough infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahné, Susan; van den Hoek, Anneke; Baayen, Dorothé; van der Sande, Marianne; de Melker, Hester; Boot, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, different hepatitis B vaccination schedules have been used for children born to HBV-infected mothers. All schedules included a birth dose of hepatitis B immunoglobuline (HBIg). We assessed determinants of perinatal HBV transmission and determinants of anti-HBs titers

  15. Antiretroviral-treated HIV-1 patients can harbour resistant viruses in CSF despite an undetectable viral load in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulie, Cathia; Grudé, Maxime; Descamps, Diane; Amiel, Corinne; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Raymond, Stéphanie; Pallier, Coralie; Bellecave, Pantxika; Reigadas, Sandrine; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Delaugerre, Constance; Montes, Brigitte; Barin, Francis; Ferré, Virginie; Jeulin, Hélène; Alloui, Chakib; Yerly, Sabine; Signori-Schmuck, Anne; Guigon, Aurélie; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Haïm-Boukobza, Stéphanie; Mirand, Audrey; Maillard, Anne; Vallet, Sophie; Roussel, Catherine; Assoumou, Lambert; Calvez, Vincent; Flandre, Philippe; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-08-01

    HIV therapy reduces the CSF HIV RNA viral load (VL) and prevents disorders related to HIV encephalitis. However, these brain disorders may persist in some cases. A large population of antiretroviral-treated patients who had a VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF with detectable or undetectable VL in plasma associated with cognitive impairment was studied, in order to characterize discriminatory factors of these two patient populations. Blood and CSF samples were collected at the time of neurological disorders for 227 patients in 22 centres in France and 1 centre in Switzerland. Genotypic HIV resistance tests were performed on CSF. The genotypic susceptibility score was calculated according to the last Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites virales Action Coordonnée 11 (ANRS AC11) genotype interpretation algorithm. Among the 227 studied patients with VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF, 195 had VL detectable in plasma [median (IQR) HIV RNA was 3.7 (2.7-4.7) log 10 copies/mL] and 32 had discordant VL in plasma (VL plasma compared with patients with plasma VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL. Resistance to antiretrovirals was observed in CSF for the two groups of patients. Fourteen percent of this population of patients with cognitive impairment and detectable VL in CSF had well controlled VL in plasma. Thus, it is important to explore CSF HIV (VL and genotype) even if the HIV VL is controlled in plasma because HIV resistance may be observed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Viral protein Nef is detected in plasma of half of HIV-infected adults with undetectable plasma HIV RNA.

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    Jana Ferdin

    Full Text Available To address the role of translationally active HIV reservoir in chronic inflammation and non-AIDS related disorders, we first need a simple and accurate assay to evaluate viral protein expression in virally suppressed subjects.We optimized an HIV Nef enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and used it to quantify plasma Nef levels as an indicator of the leaky HIV reservoir in an HIV-infected cohort.This study accessed 134 plasma samples from a well-characterized cohort study of HIV-infected and uninfected adults in San Francisco (the SCOPE cohort. We optimized an ELISA for detection of plasma Nef in HIV-negative subjects and HIV-infected non-controllers, and evaluated its utility to quantify plasma Nef levels in a cross-sectional study of ART-suppressed and elite controller HIV-infected subjects.Here, we describe the performance of an optimized HIV Nef ELISA. When we applied this assay to the study cohort we found that plasma Nef levels were correlated with plasma HIV RNA levels in untreated disease. However, we were able to detect Nef in plasma of approximately half of subjects on ART or with elite control, despite the lack of detectable plasma HIV RNA levels using standard assays. Plasma Nef levels were not consistently associated with CD4+ T-cell count, CD8+ T-cell count, self-reported nadir CD4+ T-cell count or the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio in HIV-infected subjects.Since plasma HIV RNA levels are undetectable in virally suppressed subjects, it is reasonable to assume that viral protein expression in leaky reservoir, and not plasma virions, is the source of Nef accumulating in plasma. To examine this further, improvements of the assay sensitivity, by lowering the background through improvements in the quality of Nef antibodies, and detailed characterization of the HIV reservoirs are needed.

  17. Non-real-time computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for heapocellular carcinoma undetectable by ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Ohkawara, Tohru; Minami, Masahito; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Morinaga, Osamu; Kohli, Yoshihiro; Ohkawara, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-real-time CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 37 lesions) untreatable by ultrasonography-guided (US)-PEIT. The HCC lesion was localized on the lipiodol CT image with a graduated grid system. We advanced a 21 G or 22 G needle in a stepwise fashion with intermittent localization scans using a tandem method to position the tip of the needle in the lesion. Ethanol containing contrast medium was injected with monitoring scans obtained after incremental volumes of injection, until perfusion of the lesion was judged to be complete. A total of 44 CT-PEIT procedures were performed. The average number of needle passes from the skin to the liver in each CT-PEIT procedure was 2.3, the average amount of ethanol injected was 14.4 ml, and the average time required was 49.3 minutes. Complete perfusion of the lesion by ethanol on monitoring CT images was achieved in all lesions with only a single or double CT-PEIT procedure without severe complication. Local recurrence was detected only in 5 lesions. At present, it is more time-consuming to perform CT-PEIT than US-PEIT because conventional CT guidance is not real-time imaging. However, it is expected that this limitation of CT-PEIT will be overcome in the near future with the introduction of CT fluoroscopy. In conclusion, CT-PEIT should prove to be a feasible, acceptable treatment for challenging cases of HCC undetectable by US. (author)

  18. Screening of coeliac disease in undetected adults and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S

    2016-07-01

    The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD) among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College) were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs) and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs) and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20-39-years) and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40-59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.

  19. Identification and distribution of three serologically undetected alleles of HLA-DR by oligonucleotide x DNA typing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiercy, J.M.; Gorski, J.; Jeannet, M.; Mach, B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the molecular biology of human major histocompatibility complex class II genes (HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR) have shown that the genetic complexity and allelic polymorphism are greater than expected. In the case of HLA-DR, three DR β-chain loci have been identified and linked, two of which (DR βI and DR βIII, now assigned names HLA-DR1B and HLA-DR3B) are functional. The authors have shown that the HLA micropolymorphism detected at the DNA sequence level can easily be analyzed by hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides (HLA oligotyping). In the case of the HLA DRw52 supertypic specificity, which includes the DR3, DR5, DRw6, and DRw8 haplotypes, three alleles, referred to as DRw52a, DRw52b, and DRw52c, have recently been identified at the HLA-DR3B locus by DNA sequencing. Hybridization with locus- and allele-specific oligonucleotide probes (designated 52a, 52b, and 52c) has been performed on DNA from normal individuals forming a panel of 82 haplotypes to establish the distribution of these three alleles. Individuals of the DR3 haplotype had either the DRw52a or DRw52b allele, and individuals of extended haplotype HLA-A1,B8,DR3 had only the DRw52a allele. DR5 individuals all had the DRw52b allele, while individuals of DRw6 haplotype had the DRw52a, -52b, or -52c allele. None of these three alleles are found in DRw8 individuals. Analysis of this micropolymorphism, undetectable by common typing procedures, is therefore now operational for more accurate HLA matching for transplantation and for improving correlations between HLA and disease susceptibility

  20. Screening of coeliac disease in undetected adults and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman S. Al-Ajlan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20–39-years and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40–59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.

  1. High antibody titer against apical membrane antigen-1 is required to protect against malaria in the Aotus model.

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    Sheetij Dutta

    Full Text Available A Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1 vaccine, formulated with AS02(A adjuvant, slowed parasite growth in a recent Phase 1/2a trial, however sterile protection was not observed. We tested this AS02(A, and a Montanide ISA720 (ISA formulation of 3D7 AMA1 in Aotus monkeys. The 3D7 parasite does not invade Aotus erythrocytes, hence two heterologous strains, FCH/4 and FVO, were used for challenge, FCH/4 AMA1 being more homologous to 3D7 than FVO AMA1. Following three vaccinations, the monkeys were challenged with 50,000 FCH/4 or 10,000 FVO parasites. Three of the six animals in the AMA+ISA group were protected against FCH/4 challenge. One monkey did not become parasitemic, another showed only a short period of low level parasitemia that self-cured, and a third animal showed a delay before exhibiting its parasitemic phase. This is the first protection shown in primates with a recombinant P. falciparum AMA1 without formulation in Freund's complete adjuvant. No animals in the AMA+AS02(A group were protected, but this group exhibited a trend towards reduced growth rate. A second group of monkeys vaccinated with AMA+ISA vaccine was not protected against FVO challenge, suggesting strain-specificity of AMA1-based protection. Protection against FCH/4 strain correlated with the quantity of induced antibodies, as the protected animals were the only ones to have in vitro parasite growth inhibitory activity of >70% at 1:10 serum dilution; immuno-fluorescence titers >8,000; ELISA titers against full-length AMA1 >300,000 and ELISA titer against AMA1 domains1+2 >100,000. A negative correlation between log ELISA titer and day 11 cumulative parasitemia (Spearman rank r = -0.780, p value = 0.0001, further confirmed the relationship between antibody titer and protection. High titers of cross-strain inhibitory antibodies against AMA1 are therefore critical to confer solid protection, and the Aotus model can be used to down-select future AMA1

  2. Hepatitis B virus vaccination booster does not provide additional protection in adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Chieh; Wang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Jun-Song; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-09-23

    Current consensus does not support the use of a universal booster of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine because there is an anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant HBV vaccination. We aimed to provide a booster strategy among adolescents as a result of their changes in lifestyle and sexual activity. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in four age groups between 2004 and 2012. The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its reciprocal antibody (anti-HBs) for each age group were collected. There were two parts to this study; age-specific HBV seroepidemiology and subgroup analysis, including effects of different vaccine types, booster response for immunogenicity at 15 years of age, and longitudinal follow-up to identify possible additional protection by HBV booster. Within the study period, data on serum anti-HBs and HBsAg in a total of 6950 students from four age groups were collected. The overall anti-HBs and HBsAg seropositivity rates were 44.3% and 1.2%, respectively. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate in the plasma-derived subgroup was significantly higher in both 15- and 18-year age groups. Overall response rate in the double-seronegative recipients at 15 years of age was 92.5% at 6 weeks following one recombinant HBV booster dose. Among the 24 recipients showing anti-HBs seroconversion at 6 weeks after booster, seven subjects (29.2%) had lost their anti-HBs seropositivity again within 3 years. Increased seropositivity rates and titers of anti-HBs did not provide additional protective effects among subjects comprehensively vaccinated against HBV in infancy. HBV booster strategy at 15 years of age was the main contributor to the unique age-related phenomenon of anti-HBs seropositivity rate and titer. No increase in HBsAg seropositivity rates within different age groups was observed. Vaccination with plasma-derived HBV vaccines in infancy provided higher

  3. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 antibody titers in injection drug users compared to sexually infected individuals

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    Bongertz Vera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sera from infected injection drug users (IDU have shown to have antibodies against synthetic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 envelope peptides more frequently. In this study, reactivity of 48 IDU plasma were compared to 60 plasmas obtained from sexually infected individuals (S. The overall reactivity of plasma from IDU compared to S was higher, and the reactivity titers were much higher for IDU plasma than S. IDU plasma also showed a broader antibody response. The higher reactivity titers were observed mainly for the gp41 immunodominant epitope and V3 peptides corresponding to the consensus sequences of HIV-1 subtypes/variants prevalent in Brazil (B, F, C indicating the specificity in the higher immune response of IDU.

  4. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 antibody titers in injection drug users compared to sexually infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongertz, Vera; Ouverney, Elaine Priscilla; Teixeira, Sylvia L M; Silva-de-Jesus, Carlos; Hacker, Mariana A; Morgado, Mariza G; Bastos, Francisco I

    2003-03-01

    Sera from infected injection drug users (IDU) have shown to have antibodies against synthetic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope peptides more frequently. In this study, reactivity of 48 IDU plasma were compared to 60 plasmas obtained from sexually infected individuals (S). The overall reactivity of plasma from IDU compared to S was higher, and the reactivity titers were much higher for IDU plasma than S. IDU plasma also showed a broader antibody response. The higher reactivity titers were observed mainly for the gp41 immunodominant epitope and V3 peptides corresponding to the consensus sequences of HIV-1 subtypes/variants prevalent in Brazil (B, F, C) indicating the specificity in the higher immune response of IDU.

  5. Delta inulin-derived adjuvants that elicit Th1 phenotype following vaccination reduces respiratory syncytial virus lung titers without a reduction in lung immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terianne M; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Bissel, Stephanie J; Wiley, Clayton A; Ross, Ted M

    2016-08-02

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of lower respiratory tract infections resulting in bronchiolitis and even mortality in the elderly and young children/infants. Despite the impact of this virus on human health, no licensed vaccine exists. Unlike many other viral infections, RSV infection or vaccination does not induce durable protective antibodies in humans. In order to elicit high titer, neutralizing antibodies against RSV, we investigated the use of the adjuvant Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles, to enhance antibody titers following vaccination. BALB/c mice were vaccinated intramuscularly with live RSV as a vaccine antigen in combination with one of two formulations of Advax™. Advax-1 was comprised of the standard delta inulin adjuvant and Advax-2 was formulated delta inulin plus CpG oligodendronucleotides (ODNs). An additional group of mice were either mock vaccinated, immunized with vaccine only, or administered vaccine plus Imject Alum. Following 3 vaccinations, mice had neutralizing antibody titers that correlated with reduction in viral titers in the lungs. Advax-1 significantly enhanced serum RSV-specific IgG1 levels at week 6 indicative of a Th2 response, similar to titers in mice administered vaccine plus Imject Alum. In contrast, mice vaccinated with vaccine plus Advax-2 had predominately IgG2a titers indicative of a Th1 response that was maintained during the entire study. Interestingly, regardless of which Advax TM adjuvant was used, the neutralizing titers were similar between groups, but the viral lung titers were significantly lower (∼10E+3pfu/g) in mice administered vaccine with either Advax TM adjuvant compared to mice administered adjuvants only. The lung pathology in vaccinated mice with Advax TM was similar to Imject Alum. Overall, RSV vaccine formulated with Advax TM had high neutralizing antibody titers with low lung viral titers, but exacerbated lung pathology compared

  6. Association between antinuclear antibody titers and connective tissue diseases in a Rheumatology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menor Almagro, Raúl; Rodríguez Gutiérrez, Juan Francisco; Martín-Martínez, María Auxiliadora; Rodríguez Valls, María José; Aranda Valera, Concepción; de la Iglesia Salgado, José Luís

    To determine the dilution titles at antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence observed in cell substrate HEp-2 and its association with the diagnosis of systemic connective tissue disease in ANA test requested by a Rheumatology Unit. Samples of patients attended for the first time in the rheumatology unit, without prior ANA test, between January 2010 and December 2012 were selected. The dilution titers, immunofluorescence patterns and antigen specificity were recorded. In January 2015 the diagnosis of the patients were evaluated and classified in systemic disease connective tissue (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, undifferentiated connective, antiphospholipid syndrome, mixed connective tissue and inflammatory myophaty) or not systemic disease connective tissue. A total of 1282 ANA tests requested by the Rheumatology Unit in subjects without previous study, 293 were positive, predominance of women (81.9%). Patients with systemic connective tissue disease were recorded 105, and 188 without systemic connective tissue disease. For 1/640 dilutions the positive predictive value in the connective was 73.3% compared to 26.6% of non-connective, and for values ≥1/1,280 85% versus 15% respectively. When performing the multivariate analysis we observed a positive association between 1/320 dilution OR 3.069 (95% CI: 1.237-7.614; P=.016), 1/640 OR 12.570 (95% CI: 3.659-43.187; P=.000) and ≥1/1,280 OR 42.136 (95% CI: 8.604-206.345; P=.000). These results show association titles dilution ≥1/320 in ANA's first test requested by a Rheumatology Unit with patients with systemic connective tissue disease. The VPP in these patients was higher than previous studies requested by other medical specialties. This may indicate the importance of application of the test in a targeted way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies to generate high-titer, high-potency recombinant AAV3 serotype vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 3 (AAV3 vectors were largely ignored previously, owing to their poor transduction efficiency in most cells and tissues examined, our initial observation of the selective tropism of AAV3 serotype vectors for human liver cancer cell lines and primary human hepatocytes has led to renewed interest in this serotype. AAV3 vectors and their variants have recently proven to be extremely efficient in targeting human and nonhuman primate hepatocytes in vitro as well as in vivo. In the present studies, we wished to evaluate the relative contributions of the cis-acting inverted terminal repeats (ITRs from AAV3 (ITR3, as well as the trans-acting Rep proteins from AAV3 (Rep3 in the AAV3 vector production and transduction. To this end, we utilized two helper plasmids: pAAVr2c3, which carries rep2 and cap3 genes, and pAAVr3c3, which carries rep3 and cap3 genes. The combined use of AAV3 ITRs, AAV3 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids led to the production of recombinant vectors, AAV3-Rep3/ITR3, with up to approximately two to fourfold higher titers than AAV3-Rep2/ITR2 vectors produced using AAV2 ITRs, AAV2 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids. We also observed that the transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors was approximately fourfold higher than that of Rep2/ITR2 AAV3 vectors in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 vectors was increased by ∼10-fold, when AAV3 capsids containing mutations in two surface-exposed residues (serine 663 and threonine 492 were used to generate a S663V+T492V double-mutant AAV3 vector. The Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors also transduced human liver tumors in vivo approximately twofold more efficiently than those generated with Rep2/ITR2. Our data suggest that the transduction efficiency of AAV3 vectors can be significantly improved both using homologous Rep proteins and ITRs as well as by capsid optimization. Thus, the combined use of

  8. Reduction of Influenza Virus Titer and Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Infant Mice Fed Lactobacillus casei Shirota

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetsuji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered L. casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota group) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in infant mice administered saline (control group) (102.48 ± 100.31...

  9. Prevalence of protective antibody titers for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Elizabeth S; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Edinboro, Charlotte H; Dubovi, Edward J; Caligiuri, Randy

    2010-06-15

    To determine the proportion of dogs entering an animal shelter with protective antibody titers (PATs) for canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and identify factors associated with having a PAT. Cross-sectional study. 431 dogs admitted to an open-admission municipal animal shelter in north central Florida with a history of infectious disease outbreaks. Blood was collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were measured by virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. Age, sex, neuter status, address of origin, source (stray or previously owned), health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, euthanasia, or reclaimed by owner) data were also collected. Overall, 64.5% (278/431) of dogs had insufficient titers for antibodies against CDV, CPV, or both. A total of 153 (35.5%) dogs had PATs for both CDV and CPV, 33 (7.7%) had PATs for CDV but not CPV, 136 (31.5%) had PATs for CPV but not CDV, and 109 (25.3%) did not have PATs for either virus. Older dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV and CPV. Neutered dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV. Factors not associated with having a PAT included source, health status, and type of community from which the dog originated. Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.

  10. Australian Aboriginal Children with Otitis Media Have Reduced Antibody Titers to Specific Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Vaccine Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.; Corscadden, Karli J.; Wiertsema, Selma P.; Fuery, Angela; Jones, B. Jan; Coates, Harvey L.; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Zhang, Guicheng; Keil, Anthony; Richmond, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Indigenous populations experience high rates of otitis media (OM), with increased chronicity and severity, compared to those experienced by their nonindigenous counterparts. Data on immune responses to otopathogenic bacteria in these high-risk populations are lacking. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the predominant otopathogen in Australia. No vaccines are currently licensed to target NTHi; however, protein D (PD) from NTHi is included as a carrier protein in the 10-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PHiD10-CV), and other promising protein vaccine candidates exist, including outer membrane protein 4 (P4) and protein 6 (P6). We measured the levels of serum and salivary IgA and IgG against PD, P4, and P6 in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children with chronic OM who were undergoing surgery and compared the levels with those in healthy non-Aboriginal children (controls). We found that Aboriginal cases had lower serum IgG titers to all NTHi proteins assessed, particularly PD. In contrast, serum IgA and salivary IgA and IgG titers to each of these 3 proteins were equivalent to or higher than those in both non-Aboriginal cases and healthy controls. While serum antibody levels increased with age in healthy controls, no changes in titers were observed with age in non-Aboriginal cases, and a trend toward decreasing titers with age was observed in Aboriginal cases. This suggests that decreased serum IgG responses to NTHi outer membrane proteins may contribute to the development of chronic and severe OM in Australian Aboriginal children and other indigenous populations. These data are important for understanding the potential benefits of PHiD10-CV implementation and the development of NTHi protein-based vaccines for indigenous populations. PMID:28151410

  11. Effects of irradiation of Bombyx mori larvae on the evolution of ecdysteroid titer in haemolymph and ecdysone metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Madeleine; Feyereisen, Rene

    1977-01-01

    Second and third instar larvae of B. mori show a peak of ecdysteroids in the haemolymph towards the end of each instar. Second instar larvae which are X-ray treated at 0 h die at the third ecdysis. In these larvae, titer and metabolism of ecdysone is disturbed. Larvae X-ray treated at 24h in the second instar mostly become permanent larvae of the third instar, having a very low level of circulating ecdysteroids, which hardly metabolize injected ecdysone [fr

  12. Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFA in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Fesharki R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to evaluate antibody positive titer in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle using schizont infected myeloid cells as an antigen. The result was compared with indirect fluorescent antibody level in the same animals. For this study 116 milking cows, 95 vaccinated and 21 non-vaccinated, were bleeded in order to prepare sera. They were tested with both ELISA and IFA tests. 94 sera had positive antibody titer and 22 sera were negative through ELISA test but, with IFA test, only 89 sera showed positive antibody titer and 27 were negative. Thereby, it was concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test in comparison with IFA test was 95.5 % and 66.6 % respectively. This study generally indicated that ELISA could be an effective test for seroepidemiological investigations of bovine tropical theileriosis, and it is considered to be valid as an additional test to distinguish the vaccinated from the non vaccinated cattle in order to schedule vaccination programs.

  13. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  14. A systematic review of anti-rotavirus serum IgA antibody titer as a potential correlate of rotavirus vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Glass, Roger I; Jiang, Baoming; Santosham, Mathuram; Lopman, Ben; Parashar, Umesh

    2013-07-15

    Identifying an immunological correlate of protection for rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix [RV1] and RotaTeq [RV5]) would substantially facilitate testing of interventions for improving efficacy in developing countries and evaluating additional candidate rotavirus vaccines. We accessed PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify immunogenicity and efficacy trials for RV1 and RV5 to correlate anti-rotavirus serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titers vs efficacy in regions stratified by all-cause under-5 mortality rates (u5MR). We established a cutoff point for IgA geometric mean concentration or titer (GMC) that predicted lower efficacy and calculated pooled vaccine efficacy among countries with high vs low IgA titers. We observed an inverse correlation between u5MR and IgA titers for RV1 (r(2) = 0.72; P efficacy and IgA titers for both vaccines (r(2) = 0.56; P = .005). Postimmunization anti-rotavirus IgA GMC vaccine efficacy. Efficacy during first 2 years of life was significantly lower among countries with IgA GMC 90 (85%; 95% CI, 82-88). We observed a significant correlation between IgA titers and rotavirus vaccine efficacy and hypothesize that a critical level of IgA antibody titer is associated with a sufficient level of sustained protection after rotavirus vaccination.

  15. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  16. Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Mejia, Renan

    High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this

  17. Solitary recurrence of castration-resistant prostate cancer with low or undetectable levels of prostate specific antigen salvaged with local ablative radiation therapy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiachien Jake; Ying, James; Kapur, Payal; Wohlfeld, Bryan; Roehrborn, Claus; Kim, Dong W Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer recurrences are usually first detected by increased levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), and systemic therapy is often initiated if distant metastasis is confirmed. However, low or nearly undetectable levels of PSA in the modern era of ultrasensitive PSA assay may be difficult to interpret in patients with a history of prostate cancer. Deciding whether to initiate additional systemic therapy in limited indolent metastatic disease while balancing the quality of life of the patient and ensuring the oncologic control of the disease may be challenging. In the present study, the case of a biopsy-confirmed solitary spine recurrence of prostate cancer with nearly undetectable but persistent levels of PSA (0.05 ng/ml) is reported. Treatment of the recurrence with local ablative radiotherapy improved the pain experienced by the patient, and reduced his levels of PSA to undetectable limits (<0.05 ng/ml). Repeated imaging analysis, PSA assay and clinical assessment demonstrated durable control of the disease without the requirement for additional systemic treatments. The present case highlighted the importance of initiating appropriate work-up according to the clinical scenario. Local treatment for solitary or oligometastatic recurrence of prostate cancer may enhance the effectiveness of current therapeutic strategies and benefit certain patients.

  18. HIV RNA and proviral HIV DNA can be detected in semen after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy although HIV RNA is undetectable in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peiwei; Liu, An; Jiao, Yanmei; Liu, Cuie; Jiang, Taiyi; Zhu, Weijun; Zhu, Yunxia; Wu, Hao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-03-01

    The risk of sexual transmission of HIV is strongly correlated with amounts of genital HIV RNA. Few studies have reported amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen in HIV-infected Chinese patients undergoing antiviral treatment (ART). In this observational study, the amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen were assessed after six months of ART in HIV-infected Chinese individuals, when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood . This study included 19 HIV-infected Chinese men undergoing ART for six months. Amounts of HIV in paired semen and blood samples were assessed using real-time PCR. The C2-V5 region of the HIV envelope (env) genes was cloned and sequenced and genotype and co-receptor usage predicted based on the sequence. It was found that HIV RNA was undetectable in the plasma of most patients (17/19), whereas HIV RNA could be detected in the semen of most patients (16/19). HIV DNA could be detected in both semen and blood. Genetic diversity of HIV between the seminal and blood compartments was identified. Thus, amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA remain high in semen of HIV-infected Chinese patients after six months of ART treatment, even when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Health-related quality of life is not impaired in children with undetected as well as diagnosed celiac disease: a large population based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with celiac disease remains limited and inconclusive. We investigated the HRQoL of three groups of 12-year-olds with: i) undetected celiac disease ii) clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and iii) without celiac disease. Methods A school-based cross-sectional multicenter screening study invited 18 325 children, whereof 68% consented to participate. Participants provided a blood sample, which was later analyzed for anti-tissue-tranglutaminase antibodies, and alongside filled in a questionnaire. When anti-tissue-tranglutaminase antibodies were elevated, a small intestinal biopsy verified the screening-detected celiac disease diagnosis. Self-reported HRQoL was measured using Kidscreen, a generic 52 items instrument with proven reliability and validity. Scores were linearly transformed into a 0–100 scale with higher values indicating better HRQoL. Mean values with standard deviations (mean ± SD) were compared, and uni- and multivariate logistic regression models tested the odds of a low HRQoL among children with undetected or diagnosed celiac disease, respectively. Results Children with undetected celiac disease (n = 238) reported similar HRQoL as children without celiac disease (n = 12 037) (83.0 ± 11.0 vs. 82.5 ± 11.3, P = 0.51), and also similar HRQoL (82.2 ± 12.2, P = 0.28) to that of children with diagnosed celiac disease (n = 90), of whom 92% were adherent to treatment. Having undetected celiac disease did not increase the odds of low overall HRQoL, independent of sex, area of residence, study year and occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.10). Comparable results were seen for diagnosed celiac disease cases (adjusted odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.85). Conclusion Children with undetected celiac disease reported comparable HRQoL as their peers with diagnosed celiac disease, and those without celiac disease

  20. Prevalence of serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer L; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Paul, April L

    2017-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) with serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). DESIGN Prospective observational study. ANIMALS 80 dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs hospitalized in an ICU for > 12 hours between February 1 and June 1, 2015, that had at least 0.25 mL of serum left over from diagnostic testing were eligible for study inclusion. Dogs with serum antibody titers > 1:32 (as determined by serum neutralization) and > 1:80 (as determined by hemagglutination inhibition) were considered seropositive for CDV and CPV, respectively. The date of last vaccination was obtained from the medical record of each dog. RESULTS Of the 80 dogs, 40 (50%) and 65 (81%) dogs were seropositive for CDV and CPV, respectively. Of the 40 dogs that were seronegative for CDV, 27 had been vaccinated against CDV within 3 years prior to testing. Of the 15 dogs that were seronegative for CPV, 3 had been vaccinated against CPV within 3 years prior to testing. Ten dogs were seronegative for both CDV and CPV. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated the prevalence of dogs hospitalized in an ICU that were seropositive for CDV and CPV was lower than expected given the high vaccination rate reported for dogs. Although the antibody titer necessary to prevent disease caused by CDV or CPV in critically ill dogs is unknown, adherence to infectious disease control guidelines is warranted when CDV- or CPV-infected dogs are treated in an ICU.

  1. Antibody titers against EBNA1 and EBNA2 in relation to Hodgkin lymphoma and history of infectious mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nancy E.; Lennette, Evelyne T.; Dupnik, Kathryn; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    A role for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) pathogenesis is supported by the detection of EBV genome in about one-third of HL cases, but is not well defined. We previously reported that an elevated pre-diagnosis antibody titer against EBV nuclear antigens (EBNA) was the strongest serologic predictor of subsequent HL. For the present analysis, we measured antibody levels against EBNA components EBNA1 and EBNA2 and computed their titer ratio (anti-EBNA1:2) in serum samples from HL cases and healthy siblings. We undertook this analysis to examine whether titer patterns atypical of well-resolved EBV infection, such as an anti-EBNA1:2 ratio ≤1.0, simply reflect history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), an HL risk factor, or independently predict HL risk. Participants were selected from a previous population-based case-control study according to their history of IM. We identified 55 EBV-seropositive persons with a history of IM (IM+; 33 HL cases, 22 siblings) and frequency-matched a comparison series of 173 IM history-negative, EBV-seropositive subjects on HL status, gender, age, and year of blood draw (IM−; 105 cases, 58 siblings). In multivariate logistic regression models, an anti-EBNA1:2 ratio ≤1.0 was significantly more prevalent in HL cases than siblings (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=2.43, 1.05–5.65); similar associations were apparent within the IM+ and IM− groups. EBNA antibodies were not significantly associated with IM history in HL cases or siblings. These associations suggest that chronic or more severe EBV infection is a risk factor for HL, independent of IM history. PMID:21805472

  2. Antiphospholipid Antibody Titers and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriage and Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Qiao, Jie; Liu, Ping; Chi, Hong-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The management of patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) includes prolonged treatment with heparin and aspirin, starting from the confirmation of pregnancy and continuing until 6 weeks after birth. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between changes in antiphospholipid antibody titers and clinical outcomes. The effect of a shortened treatment regimen was also evaluated. Methods: A prospective study of 123 patients with RM and APS between March 2012 and May 2014 was conducted. Patients were pretreated with a low dose of prednisone plus aspirin before pregnancy, and heparin was added after conception. The levels of antiphospholipid antibodies and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated. Results: All patients were positive for anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 (anti-β2-GP1) IgM. After prepregnancy treatment with low-dose prednisone plus aspirin, 99 of 123 patients became pregnant, and 87 of those pregnancies resulted in successful live births, while 12 resulted in miscarriage, showing a success rate of 87.9%. In the live birth group, levels of anti-β2-GP1 were 56.8 ± 49.0 RU/ml before the pretreatment regimen, 32.1 ± 26.0 RU/ml after 2 months of pretreatment, and 24.1 ± 23.1 RU/ml during early pregnancy (P antiphospholipid antibody titers were 52.8 ± 30.7 RU/ml before pretreatment, 38.5 ± 34.2 RU/ml after pretreatment, and 33.9 ± 24.7 RU/ml during early pregnancy; the decrease in antiphospholipid antibodies was lower in the miscarriage group than in the live birth group (P antiphospholipid antibody titers correlated with better pregnancy outcomes. The shorter treatment regimen was effective and economical. PMID:28139508

  3. Developmental ecdysteroid titers and DNA puffs in larvae of two sciarid species, Rhynchosciara americana and Rhynchosciara milleri (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M A M; Hartfelder, K; Tesserolli de Souza, J M; Stocker, A J

    2015-10-01

    Ecdysteroid titers, developmental landmarks and the presence of prominent amplifying regions (DNA puffs) have been compared during late larval to pupal development in four groups of Rhynchosciara americana larvae and in R. americana and Rhynchosciara milleri. Three prominent DNA puffs (B2, C3 and C8) expand and regress sequentially on the rising phase of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titer in R. americana as a firm, cellular cocoon is being constructed. A sharp rise in 20E coincides with the regression of these puffs. The shape of the 20E curve is similar in R. milleri, a species that does not construct a massive cocoon, but the behavior of certain DNA puffs and their temporal relationship to the curve differs. Regions corresponding to B2 and C3 can be identified in R. milleri by banding pattern similarity with R. americana chromosomes and, in the case of B2, by hybridization to an R. americana probe. A B2 puff appears in R. milleri as the 20E titer rises but remains small in all gland regions. A puff similar to the R. americana C3 puff occurs in posterior gland cells of R. milleri (C3(Rm)) after the B2 puff, but this site did not hybridize to R. americana C3 probes. C3(Rm) incorporated (3)H-thymidine above background, but showed less post-puff DNA accumulation than C3 of R. americana. R. americana C8 probes hybridized to a more distal region of the R. milleri C chromosome that did not appear to amplify or form a large puff. These differences can be related to developmental differences, in particular differences in cocoon construction between the two species.

  4. Comparison of antibody titer against the infectious bursal disease virus following the disease with that obtained from live intermediate vaccines using indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Feizi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibody titer obtained from the outbreak of the infection bursal disease (IBD was compared with the titer obtained from live intermediate vaccines by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test in broiler chicks. A total of 450 one day old Cobb chicks were divided into 3 groups each containing 150 chicks and were kept for 42 days in the same rearing conditions. Chicks in groups 1 and 2 received Bursin-2 and D-78 vaccines respectively via drinking water n days 14 and 21. The rest of the chicks were kept as the controls (group 4 and did not receive any vaccine against the IBD. Serum samples were collected from all birds 2 weeks after the second IBD vaccination. Additional 150 serum samples were also collected from 3 broiler flocks that were affected by IBD and had a history of vaccination by the previously mentioned method, two weeks after the last clinical sings were observed (group 3. Antibody titer of the samples against the IBD virus were determined by the IHA test and the results were evaluated using ANOVA and SPSS software. The mean antibody titer obtained from Bursin-2 and D-78 vaccines were 3.19 and 3.21 respectively which is less than the titer of 6 needed for protection against the disease. The antibody titer in affected flocks was 7.19. comparison of the mean titer of the two vaccines did not show any significant difference but there was significant difference between the titer obtained from each vaccine and that of the effected flock (p

  5. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light ( 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers.

  6. Development of in vitro and in vivo rabies virus neutralization assays based on a high-titer pseudovirus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jianhui; Wu, Xiaohong; Ma, Jian; Cao, Shouchun; Huang, Weijin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Xuguang; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Youchun

    2017-01-01

    Pseudoviruses are useful virological tools because of their safety and versatility; however the low titer of these viruses substantially limits their wider applications. We developed a highly efficient pseudovirus production system capable of yielding 100 times more rabies pseudovirus than the traditional method. Employing the high-titer pseudoviruses, we have developed robust in vitro and in vivo neutralization assays for the evaluation of rabies vaccine, which traditionally relies on live-virus based assays. Compared with current rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), our in vitro pseudovirus-based neutralization assay (PBNA) is much less labor-intensive while demonstrating better reproducibility. Moreover, the in vivo PBNA assay was also found to be superior to the live virus based assay. Following intravenous administration, the pseudovirus effectively infected the mice, with dynamic viral distributions being sequentially observed in spleen, liver and brain. Furthermore, data from in vivo PBNA showed great agreement with those generated from the live virus model but with the experimental time significantly reduced from 2 weeks to 3 days. Taken together, the effective pseudovirus production system facilitated the development of novel PBNA assays which could replace live virus-based traditional assays due to its safety, rapidity, reproducibility and high throughput capacity. PMID:28218278

  7. Acute guttate psoriasis patients have positive streptococcus hemolyticus throat cultures and elevated antistreptococcal M6 protein titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Feng, Xiaoling; Na, Aihua; Yongqiang, Jiang; Cai, Qing; Kong, Jian; Ma, Huijun

    2005-02-01

    To further study the role of Streptococci hemolyticus infection and streptococcal M6 protein in the pathogenesis of acute guttate psoriasis, streptococcal cultures were taken from the throats of 68 patients with acute guttate psoriasis. PCR technique was applied to detect M6 protein encoding DNA from those cultured streptococci. Pure M6 protein was obtained by Sephacry/S-200HR and Mono-Q chromatography from proliferated Streptococcus hemolyticus. Antistreptococcal M6 protein titers were measured in the serum of patients with acute guttate psoriasis, plaque psoriasis and healthy controls by ELISA. A high incidence of Streptococcus hemolyticus culture was observed in the guttate psoriatic group compared with the plaque psoriasis and control groups. Fourteen strains of Streptococcus hemolyticus were cultured from the throats of 68 acute guttate psoriasis patients. Of these, 5 strains contain DNA encoding the M6 protein gene as confirmed by PCR technique. More than 85% purification of M6 protein was obtained from Streptococcus pyogenes. Applying our pure M6 protein with the ELISA methods, we found that the titer of antistreptococcal M6 protein was significantly higher in the serum of guttate psoriasis patients than in the control or plaque psoriasis groups (P M6 protein in their sera.

  8. Effect of Apheresis for ABO and HLA Desensitization on Anti-Measles Antibody Titers in Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Schönermarck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desensitization strategies for ABO-incompatible renal transplants with plasma exchange (PE or specific immunoadsorption (IA decrease immunoglobulin levels. After recent measles outbreak and decreasing vaccination rates, we studied the impact of apheresis on anti-measles antibodies. Anti-measles antibodies were measured before desensitization, before transplantation and during followup in 12 patients with ABO incompatibility (2x PE only, 8x IA only, and 2x IA and PE and 3 patients with donor-specific HLA antibodies (all PE. Patients received rituximab, IVIG, and standard immunosuppressive therapy. All patients had detectable anti-measles antibodies before desensitization (mean 3238 mU/l, range 560–8100. After 3–6 PE sessions, titers decreased significantly to 1710 mU/l (<0.05, in one patient to nondetectable values, while IA only maintained protective titers. After a median followup of 64 days, anti-measles antibodies returned to baseline in all patients. Immunity against measles was temporarily reduced by apheresis but remained detectable in most patients at time of transplantation. Desensitization maintains long-term protective immunity against measles.

  9. Are children's vitamin D levels and BMI associated with antibody titers produced in response to 2014-2015 influenza vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Martin, Judith M; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Zimmerman, Richard K; Susick, Michael; Moehling, Krissy K; Levine, Min Z; Spencer, Sarah; Flannery, Brendan; Nowalk, Mary Patricia

    2017-07-03

    Vitamin D is an immunomodulating hormone, which has been associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. Serum vitamin D levels in 135 children ages 3-17 y were measured at baseline and hemagglutinin influenza antibody titers were measured pre- and 21 d post influenza vaccination with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Height and weight were derived from the electronic medical record and were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Thirty-nine percent of children were ages 3-8 years; 75% were black, 34% were obese (BMI ≥ 95 th percentile); vitamin D levels were >20 ng/ml in 55%. In linear regression analyses, post vaccination antibody titers for LAIV B lineages (B Brisbane and B Massachusetts) were significantly higher among those with lower vitamin D levels and among younger participants (P D levels and responses to LAIV A strains (A/H1N1 and A/H3N2) or to any IIV strains or lineages were found. Low vitamin D levels were associated with higher response to LAIV B lineages in the 2014-2015 LAIV, but not related to LAIV A or any IIV strains.

  10. Decreased vaccine antibody titers following exposure to multiple metals and metalloids in e-waste-exposed preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinjiang; Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Long; Zeng, Zhijun; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    We explored acquired immunity resulting from vaccination in 3 to 7-year-old children, chronically exposed to multiple heavy metals and metalloids, in an e-waste recycling area (Guiyu, China). Child blood levels of ten heavy metals and metalloids, including lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and seven vaccine antibodies (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, polio, measles) were measured. The exposed group had higher levels of blood Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr compared to the reference group (P 10 μg/dL) and high blood Cu and Zn (upper median value of each group) to be inversely associated with seven antibody titers. Antibody titers increased with age, BMI, high blood Mn (>15 μg/L), and high blood Cd and Ni (upper median value of each group). Results suggest multiple heavy metal and metalloid exposure, especially to Pb, Zn and Cu, may be a risk factor inhibiting the development of child immunity, resulting in decreased child antibody levels against vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral immunization with rotavirus VP7 expressed in transgenic potatoes induced high titers of mucosal neutralizing IgA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuzhang; Li Jintao; Mou Zhirong; Fei Lei; Ni Bing; Geng Miao; Jia Zhengcai; Zhou Wei; Zou Liyun; Tang Yan

    2003-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are a common cause of severe diarrhea in young children, resulting in nearly one million deaths worldwide annually. Rotavirus VP7 was the rotavirus neutralizing protein. Previous study reported that VP7 DNA vaccine can induce high levels of IgG in mice but cannot protect mice against challenge (Choi, A.H., Basu, M., Rae, M.N., McNeal, M.M., Ward, R.L., 1998. Virology 250, 230-240). We found that rotavirus VP7 could maintain its neutralizing immunity when it was transformed into the potato genome. Mice immunized with the transformed tubers successfully elicited serum IgG and mucosal IgA specific for VP7. The mucosal IgA titer was as high as 1000, while serum IgG titer was only 600. Neutralizing assays indicated that IgA could neutralize rotavirus. These results indicate the potential usefulness of plants for production and delivery of edible rotavirus vaccines

  12. Prognostic value of serum Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and undetectable pretreatment Epstein-Barr virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ji-Jin; Lin, Li; Jin, Ya-Nan; Wang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Wang-Jian; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Cheng, Zhi-Bin; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Serum IgA antibodies against early antigen (EA-IgA) and viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) are the most commonly used to screen for NPC in endemic areas. However, the prognostic value of serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA in patients with NPC is less clear. We hypothesize that serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA levels have prognostic impact for survival outcomes in NPC patients with undetectable pretreatment EBV (pEBV) DNA. In this series, 334 patients with non-metastatic NPC and undetectable pEBV DNA were included. Serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA were determined by ELISA. After analysis, serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA loads correlated positively with T, N, and overall stage (all P 1:120 had significantly inferior 5-year progression-free survival (80.4% vs 89.6%, P = 0.025), distant metastasis-free survival (88.4% vs 94.8%, P = 0.050), and locoregional relapse-free survival (88.4% vs 95.6%, P = 0.023; log-rank test). Multivariable analyses revealed that N stage was the only independent prognostic factor (all P < 0.05), but the VCA-IgA became insignificant. Further analyses revealed that serum VCA-IgA was not an independent prognostic factor in early N (N0-1) or advanced N (N2-3) stage NPC. In summary, although both EA-IgA and VCA-IgA correlate strongly with TNM stage, our analyses do not suggest that these antibodies are prognostic biomarkers in patients with NPC and undetectable pEBV DNA. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. In vivo activity of a mixture of two human monoclonal antibodies (anti-HBs) in a chronic hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heijtink; W. Paulij; P.A.C. van Bergen (Patrick); M.H. van Roosmalen (Mark); D. Rohm; B. Eichentopf (Bertram); E. Muchmore; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A. de Man (Robert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractA 35-year-old female hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee was infused with one dose of a mixture of human monoclonal antibodies 9H9 and 4-7B (antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen; HBsAg). Blood samples were taken before and up to 3 weeks

  14. Acute hepatitis B virus infection with simultaneous high HBsAg and high anti-HBs signals in a previously HBV vaccinated HIV-1 positive patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommelen, Laura; Verbon, Annelies; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Goossens, Valère J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a clinical manifest hepatitis B virus infection and a potentially misleading HBV serological profile in an HIV-1 positive patient despite previous HBV vaccination. The patient presented with an acute hepatitis B and there was no indication of chronic HBV infection or the

  15. Prevalence of elevated serum anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody titers in patients presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms: a comparative follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshihito; Shimazaki, Haruo; Shiota, Katsutoshi; Tetsuka, Syuichi; Nakao, Koichi; Shimada, Tatsuhiro; Kurata, Kazumi; Kuroda, Jinichi; Yamashita, Akihiro; Sato, Hayato; Sato, Mamoru; Eto, Shinkichi; Onishi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Keiko; Kato, Satoshi

    2016-07-08

    Increasing numbers of patients with elevated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody titers presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms have been reported. The aim of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of elevated serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers in patients with new-onset or acute exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms. In addition, the present study aimed to investigate the association between elevated anti-NMDA receptor titers and psychiatric symptoms. The present collaborative study included 59 inpatients (23 male, 36 female) presenting with new-onset or exacerbations of schizophrenia-like symptoms at involved institutions from June 2012 to March 2014. Patient information was collected using questionnaires. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers were measured using NMDAR NR1 and NR2B co-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as an antigen (cell-based assay). Statistical analyses were performed for each questionnaire item. The mean age of participants was 42.0 ± 13.7 years. Six cases had elevated serum anti-NMDA antibody titers (10.2 %), four cases were first onset, and two cases with disease duration >10 years presented with third and fifth recurrences. No statistically significant difference in vital signs or major symptoms was observed between antibody-positive and antibody-negative groups. However, a trend toward an increased frequency of schizophrenia-like symptoms was observed in the antibody-positive group. Serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers may be associated with psychiatric conditions. However, an association with specific psychiatric symptoms was not observed in the present study. Further studies are required to validate the utility of serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titer measurements at the time of symptom onset.

  16. Improving titer while maintaining quality of final formulated drug substance via optimization of CHO cell culture conditions in low-iron chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianlin; Rehmann, Matthew S; Xu, Xuankuo; Huang, Chao; Tian, Jun; Qian, Nan-Xin; Li, Zheng Jian

    2018-04-01

    During biopharmaceutical process development, it is important to improve titer to reduce drug manufacturing costs and to deliver comparable quality attributes of therapeutic proteins, which helps to ensure patient safety and efficacy. We previously reported that relative high-iron concentrations in media increased titer, but caused unacceptable coloration of a fusion protein during early-phase process development. Ultimately, the fusion protein with acceptable color was manufactured using low-iron media, but the titer decreased significantly in the low-iron process. Here, long-term passaging in low-iron media is shown to significantly improve titer while maintaining acceptable coloration during late-phase process development. However, the long-term passaging also caused a change in the protein charge variant profile by significantly increasing basic variants. Thus, we systematically studied the effect of media components, seed culture conditions, and downstream processing on productivity and quality attributes. We found that removing β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) from basal media reduced basic variants without affecting titer. Our goals for late-phase process development, improving titer and matching quality attributes to the early-phase process, were thus achieved by prolonging seed culture age and removing BGP. This process was also successfully scaled up in 500-L bioreactors. In addition, we demonstrated that higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species were present in the high-iron Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures compared to that in the low-iron cultures, suggesting a possible mechanism for the drug substance coloration caused by high-iron media. Finally, hypotheses for the mechanisms of titer improvement by both high-iron and long-term culture are discussed.

  17. The safety lie. Severe faults remain undetected for years, known deficiencies have no consequences - and the NPPs are in operation; Die Sicherheits-Luege. Gravierende Fehler bleiben jahrzehntelang unentdeckt, bekannte Defizite ohne Folgen - und die AKW am Netz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-15

    The contribution deals with deficiencies of German nuclear power plants with respect to design, old safety standards - as in the case of resistance against aircraft crashes, not implemented safety requirements and undetected failures.

  18. Reduction of influenza virus titer and protection against influenza virus infection in infant mice fed Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetsuji

    2004-07-01

    We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered L. casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota group) was significantly (P survival rate of the L. casei Shirota group was significantly (P L. casei Shirota group were significantly greater than those of mice in the control group. These findings suggest that oral administration of L. casei Shirota activates the immature immune system of neonatal and infant mice and protects against IFV infection. Therefore, oral administration of L. casei Shirota may accelerate the innate immune response of the respiratory tract and protect against various respiratory infections in neonates, infants, and children, a high risk group for viral and bacterial infections.

  19. Vaxfectin enhances antigen specific antibody titers and maintains Th1 type immune responses to plasmid DNA immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, L; Hartikka, J; Bozoukova, V; Sukhu, L; Nishioka, W; Singh, G; Ferrari, M; Enas, J; Wheeler, C J; Manthorpe, M; Wloch, M K

    2001-06-14

    Antigen specific immune responses were characterized after intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with 5 antigen encoding plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) complexed with Vaxfectin, a cationic lipid formulation. Vaxfectin increased IgG titers for all of the antigens with no effect on the CTL responses to the 2 antigens for which CTL assays were performed. Both antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2a were increased, although IgG2a remained greater than IgG1. Furthermore, Vaxfectin had no effect on IFN-gamma or IL-4 production by splenocytes re-stimulated with antigen, suggesting that the Th1 type responses typical of intramuscular pDNA immunization were not altered. Studies with IL-6 -/- mice suggest that the antibody enhancement is IL-6 dependent and results in a correlative increase in antigen specific antibody secreting cells.

  20. Simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch using commercial glucoamylase and the subsequent bioconversion to high titer sorbitol and gluconic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kehong; Hu, Fengxian; Bao, Jie

    2013-12-01

    A new bioprocess for production of sorbitol and gluconic acid from two low-cost feedstocks, inulin and cassava starch, using a commercially available enzyme was proposed in this study. The commercial glucoamylase GA-L NEW from Genencor was found to demonstrate a high inulinase activity for hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose. The glucoamylase was used to replace the expensive and not commercially available inulinase enzyme for simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch into high titer glucose and fructose hydrolysate. The glucose and fructose in the hydrolysate were converted into sorbitol and gluconic acid using immobilized whole cells of the recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain. The high gluconic acid concentration of 193 g/L and sorbitol concentration of 180 g/L with the overall yield of 97.3 % were obtained in the batch operations. The present study provided a practical production method of sorbitol and gluconic acid from low cost feedstocks and enzymes.

  1. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qiaozhen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased susceptibility to measles in young infants in China. Measles IgG in 24 measles infants ≤ 9 months of age and their vaccinated mothers was quantitatively measured. The mean measles neutralizing titer in the vaccinated mothers and in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles were compared. Results All the mothers were confirmed to be vaccinated successfully by the presence of measles IgG. Six vaccinated mothers were positive for measles IgM and had high concentrations of measles IgG and the neutralizing antibody, indicating underwent natural boosting. The mean measles neutralizing titer in 18 vaccinated mothers without natural boosting were significantly lower than that in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles (1:37 vs 1:182, P Conclusions Our results suggest that infants born to mothers who acquired immunity to measles by vaccination may get a relatively small amount of measles antibody, resulting in loss of the immunity to measles before the vaccination age. Measures to improve the immunity in young infants not eligible for measles vaccination would be critical to interrupt the measles transmission in China.

  2. Viral excretion and antibody titers in children infected with hepatitis A virus from an orphanage in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundekar, Supriya; Thorat, Neeta; Gurav, Yogesh; Lole, Kavita

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis A is endemic in India and mainly causes sporadic infections. However, children in childcare centers, schools and orphanages are vulnerable to common-source outbreaks as they have naive hosts. To investigate hepatitis A outbreak in an orphanage from Pune, India. Monitoring of virus excretion and anti-HAV antibody levels in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infected children. The orphanage housed 93 children of the age 1 month-6.5 years. Analysis of the collected serum (n=78) and stool samples (n=63) revealed 20 children to be either positive for anti-HAV IgM antibodies or excreting HAV, 14 being symptomatic and 6 asymptomatic, while 32 were already anti-HAV IgG positive either due to past HAV exposure (n=7, mean log antibody titers: 2.96) or maternal antibodies (n=25, mean log antibody titers: 1.13). Serum samples, taken 4 weeks apart, did not show any significant difference in the IgM and IgG antibody levels either. However, virus excretion decreased significantly after 15 days in symptomatic children (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 1.03+0.30), while asymptomatic children continued to excrete higher viral loads, at constant levels (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 2.33+0.33), for up to 90 days. Though virus excretion continued up to 90 days in all HAV infected children, asymptomatic children excreted higher viral loads for longer period and hence can contribute significantly in person-to-person virus transmission. All children should be vaccinated in such set ups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPOOK reduces ecdysteroid titers and causes precocious metamorphosis in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Ryohei; Tanaka, Seiji; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

    2017-09-01

    The Halloween gene SPOOK (SPO) is involved in the production of the active metabolite of ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in insects. A previous study showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPO in Schistocerca gregaria last instar nymphs markedly reduced the hemolymph 20E titer, but did not affect metamorphosis. In the present study, the effects of SPO interference on development were re-examined in this locust. Injections of SPO double-stranded RNA (dsSPO) into nymphs at mid and late instars significantly delayed nymphal development and interfered with molting. The 20E levels of dsSPO-treated nymphs were generally low, with a delayed, small peak, suggesting that disturbance of the 20E levels caused the above developmental abnormalities. A small proportion of the dsSPO-injected nymphs metamorphosed precociously, producing adults and adultoids. Precocious adults were characterized by small body size, short wings with abbreviated venation, and normal reproductive activity. Fourth instar nymphs that precociously metamorphosed at the following instar exhibited temporal expression patterns of ecdysone-induced protein 93F and the juvenile hormone (JH) early-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 similar to those observed at the last instar in normal nymphs. Adultoids displayed mating behavior and adultoid females developed eggs, but never laid eggs. JH injection around the expected time of the 20E peak in the dsSPO-injected nymphs completely inhibited the appearance of adultoids, suggesting that appearance of adultoids might be due to a reduced titer of JH rather than of 20E. These results suggest that SPO plays an important role in controlling morphogenesis, metamorphosis, and reproduction in S. gregaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression and juvenile hormone titers in the life cycle of a highly eusocial stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos Antônio Mendes; Silva, Renato Pereira; Borges, Naiara Araújo; de Carvalho, Washington João; Walter, S Leal; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile; Ueira Vieira, Carlos; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers. We confirmed that mfe is exclusively expressed in the corpora allata. The JH titer is high in the second larval instar, drops in the third, and rises again as the larvae enter metamorphosis. During the pupal stage, mfe expression is initialy elevated, but then gradually drops to low levels before adult emergence. No variation was, however, seen in the JH titer. In adult virgin queens, mfe expression and the JH titer are significantly elevated, possibly associated with their reproductive potential. For workers we found that JH titers are lower in foragers than in nurse bees, while mfe expression did not differ. Stingless bees are, thus, distinct from honey bee workers, suggesting that they have maintained the ancestral gonadotropic function for JH. Hence, the physiological circuitries underlying a highly eusocial life style may be variable, even within a monophyletic clade such as the corbiculate bees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a nasal adenovirus-based vaccine: Effect of concentration and formulation on adenovirus stability and infectious titer during actuation from two delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Sandra S; Clemens, Courtney C; Croyle, Maria A

    2010-02-25

    A nasal adenovirus-based vaccine is under development. To determine if aggregation occurs during vaccination, infectious titer (limiting dilution) and capsid integrity (dynamic light scattering) were assessed after extrusion of a model vector from two intranasal delivery devices. Preparations of 2.5x10(12) and 1.25x10(11) virus particles (vp)/ml were studied. Virus aggregated ( approximately 10%) in the multi-dose vessel. Virus titer dropped by one log. Virus in the unit-dose device aggregated ( approximately 1%). Titer remained unchanged. Aggregation was concentration dependent. Formulations prevented aggregation during actuation, freeze-thaw and long-term storage. The device, formulation and dose may significantly influence aggregation and potency of any nasal adenovirus 5-based vaccine. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HIV DNA Is Frequently Present within Pathologic Tissues Evaluated at Autopsy from Combined Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Patients with Undetectable Viral Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Rose, Rebecca; Maidji, Ekaterina; Agsalda-Garcia, Melissa; Nolan, David J; Fogel, Gary B; Salemi, Marco; Garcia, Debra L; Bracci, Paige; Yong, William; Commins, Deborah; Said, Jonathan; Khanlou, Negar; Hinkin, Charles H; Sueiras, Miguel Valdes; Mathisen, Glenn; Donovan, Suzanne; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stoddart, Cheryl A; McGrath, Michael S; Singer, Elyse J

    2016-10-15

    HIV infection treatment strategies have historically defined effectiveness through measuring patient plasma HIV RNA. While combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can reduce plasma viral load (pVL) to undetectable levels, the degree that HIV is eliminated from other anatomical sites remains unclear. We investigated the HIV DNA levels in 229 varied autopsy tissues from 20 HIV-positive (HIV(+)) cART-treated study participants with low or undetectable plasma VL and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VL prior to death who were enrolled in the National Neurological AIDS Bank (NNAB) longitudinal study and autopsy cohort. Extensive medical histories were obtained for each participant. Autopsy specimens, including at least six brain and nonbrain tissues per participant, were reviewed by study pathologists. HIV DNA, measured in tissues by quantitative and droplet digital PCR, was identified in 48/87 brain tissues and 82/142 nonbrain tissues at levels >200 HIV copies/million cell equivalents. No participant was found to be completely free of tissue HIV. Parallel sequencing studies from some tissues recovered intact HIV DNA and RNA. Abnormal histological findings were identified in all participants, especially in brain, spleen, lung, lymph node, liver, aorta, and kidney. All brain tissues demonstrated some degree of pathology. Ninety-five percent of participants had some degree of atherosclerosis, and 75% of participants died with cancer. This study assists in characterizing the anatomical locations of HIV, in particular, macrophage-rich tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS) and testis. Additional studies are needed to determine if the HIV recovered from tissues promotes the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, cancer, and atherosclerosis. It is well-known that combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can reduce plasma HIV to undetectable levels; however, cART cannot completely clear HIV infection. An ongoing question is

  7. Positive resection margin and/or pathologic T3 adenocarcinoma of prostate with undetectable postoperative prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy: to irradiate or not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Hruby, George; Hong, Julie; Hong, Eugene; DeBoer, Gerrit; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard; Klotz, Laurence; Bhak, Edward; Flavin, Aileen

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for positive resection margin and/or pathologic T3 (pT3) adenocarcinoma of the prostate with undetectable postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods and materials: We retrospectively analyzed 125 patients with a positive resection margin and/or pT3 adenocarcinoma of the prostate who had undetectable postoperative serum PSA levels after radical prostatectomy. Seventy-three patients received postoperative adjuvant RT and 52 did not. Follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 12.0 years (median 4.2 for the irradiated group and 4.9 for the nonirradiated group). PSA outcome was available for all patients. Freedom from failure was defined as the maintenance of a serum PSA level of ≤0.2 ng/mL, as well as the absence of clinical local recurrence and distant metastasis. Results: No difference was found in the 5-year actuarial overall survival between the irradiated and nonirradiated group (94% vs. 95%). However, patients receiving adjuvant RT had a statistically superior 5-year actuarial relapse-free rate, including freedom from PSA failure, compared with those treated with surgery alone (88% vs. 65%, p=0.0013). In the irradiated group, 8 patients had relapse with PSA failure alone. None had local or distant recurrence. In the nonirradiated group, 15, 1, and 2 had PSA failure, local recurrence, and distant metastasis, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, pre-radical prostatectomy PSA level and adjuvant RT were statistically significant predictive factors for relapse, and Gleason score, extracapsular invasion, and resection margin status were not. There was a suggestion that seminal vesicle invasion was associated with an increased risk of relapse. The morbidity of postoperative adjuvant RT was acceptable, with only 2 patients developing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 genitourinary complications. Adjuvant RT had a minimal adverse effect on urinary continence and did not cause

  8. In-Cell Western Assays to Evaluate Hantaan Virus Replication as a Novel Approach to Screen Antiviral Molecules and Detect Neutralizing Antibody Titers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses encompass rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality rates in humans. Detection of infectious virus titer lays a solid foundation for virology and immunology researches. Canonical methods to assess viral titers rely on visible cytopathic effects (CPE, but Hantaan virus (HTNV, the prototype hantavirus maintains a relatively sluggish life cycle and does not produce CPE in cell culture. Here, an in-cell Western (ICW assay was utilized to rapidly measure the expression of viral proteins in infected cells and to establish a novel approach to detect viral titers. Compared with classical approaches, the ICW assay is accurate and time- and cost-effective. Furthermore, the ICW assay provided a high-throughput platform to screen and identify antiviral molecules. Potential antiviral roles of several DExD/H box helicase family members were investigated using the ICW assay, and the results indicated that DDX21 and DDX60 reinforced IFN responses and exerted anti-hantaviral effects, whereas DDX50 probably promoted HTNV replication. Additionally, the ICW assay was also applied to assess NAb titers in patients and vaccine recipients. Patients with prompt production of NAbs tended to have favorable disease outcomes. Modest NAb titers were found in vaccinees, indicating that current vaccines still require improvements as they cannot prime host humoral immunity with high efficiency. Taken together, our results indicate that the use of the ICW assay to evaluate non-CPE Hantaan virus titer demonstrates a significant improvement over current infectivity approaches and a novel technique to screen antiviral molecules and detect NAb efficacies.

  9. Detection of antibody responses by using haemagglutination inhibiton test and the protection titer of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Study on the detection of antibody responses using haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and the protection titer to Avian influenza (AI virus H5N1 subtype local isolate has been conducted at the Research Institute for Veterinary Science (RIVS. A total number of 50 village chicken (10 chicken served as un-injected controls and 30 quail were injected intramuscularly with inactivated virus of AI H5N1 subtype local isolate. Serum samples were collected 3 weeks after injection and were tested using haemagglutination inhibition tests. The correlation between antibody titer and its protection to AI virus H5N1 local isolate were measured by challenging the birds with AI virus H5N1 local isolate The HI test was then used to determine field serum samples. A total number of 48 village chicken from three (3 Districts (Bekasi, Tangerang and Bogor and 96 quails from two (2 farms in District of Sukabumi which were all vaccinated with commercial AI adjuvant vaccine were sampled. The study revealed that village chicken and quails showed antibody responses after 3 weeks vaccination and that titer of ≥ 3 log 2 was able to protect chicken and quails when they were challenged with local isolate virus. Based on this result, village chicken field samples from Districts of Tangerang, Bekasi and Bogor showed antibody titer which will protect 50, 100 and 85% of the flocks respectively. While quail field samples from Farm I and Farm II in District of Sukabumi showed antibody titer which will protect 60-100% and 0-80% of the flocks respectively. It is concluded that the study has successfully measured antibody titer to AI virus H5N1 subtype which protect village chicken and quails from local isolate virus challenge so that the results will be used to analyze field serum samples after vaccination program to eradicate AI from Indonesia.

  10. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-01-01

    Titer and cloud point Distilled Oleic Acid’s higher than standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH) or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design 3 independent variables 3 X 2 X 3, twice repeating’s applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. On the optimum C16 feed composition at 5.20 % was produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside it...

  11. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Titer and cloud point of Distilled Oleic Acid is higher than is the standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design with 3 independent variables, 3 X 2 X 3, repeated twice as much, is applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. In the optimum C16, feed composition at 5.20 % produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside its specification.

  12. Prevalence of job-related distress and satisfaction in a nationwide cardiology setting: The IANUS - itAliaN cardiologists' Undetected distress Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majani, Giuseppina; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Giardini, Anna; De Maria, Renata; Russo, Giulia; Maestri, Roberto; Marini, Marco; Milli, Massimo; Aspromonte, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Cardiologists' work distress has been seldom studied. The ItAliaN cardiologists' Undetected distress Study survey was designed to assess prevalence of work distress and satisfaction, and to gain insight into associations among these constructs and socio-demographics and job description. We invited members of our national cardiological society (Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri) to participate in an anonymous, self-report, exclusively web-based survey, posted on the Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri website. ItAliaN cardiologists' Undetected distress Study included socio-demographics, job description and a 15-item questionnaire on job-related distress and work satisfaction. Of 7393 invited cardiologists, 1064 completed the survey. Organizational problems and worries about medico-legal controversies were reported by 71% and 49% of participants, respectively; over one-third reported loss of enthusiasm, helplessness, work-life imbalance and lack of control over work. Conversely, 86% felt competent at work, 67% rewarded by the moral/human meaning of their work and 52% satisfied with their professional fulfilment. Factor analysis revealed a meaningful underlying structure including four factors: job strain, positive meaning, emotional fatigue and relational difficulties. Relational difficulties were more frequent in cardiologists working in primary-level than in secondary and tertiary care hospitals (P = 0.017 and P = 0.013, respectively). Interventional cardiologists reported higher positive meaning than those in the clinical inpatients area and outpatient diagnostic settings (P = 0.007 and P = 0.025, respectively) and lower emotional fatigue than subjects in the clinical inpatients area (P = 0.0005). Cardiologists' work distress should be interpreted integrating job-related negative aspects with a reappraisal of protective personal and relational resources, which should be fostered to promote physicians

  13. ASO: Antistreptolysin O titer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phosphatase (ALP) Allergy Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/PR3 Antibodies Androstenedione Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme ( ...

  14. High titer ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and combined fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T Q; Gleisner, Roland; Zhu, J Y; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole wood chips were pretreated by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) at 25% solids loading and 180 °C for 20 min with sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite charges of 2.2 and 8 wt/wt% on an oven-dry wood basis, respectively. The pretreated wood chips were disk-milled with pretreatment spent liquor and water, and the solid fraction was separated from the liquor stream. The liquor was neutralized and concentrated through vacuum evaporation. Quasi-simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of the cellulosic solids and combined fermentation with the concentrated liquor was conducted at up to 20% total solids loading. Fed-batching of the solids facilitated liquefaction and saccharification, as well as managing instantaneous inhibitor concentrations. At a commercial cellulase (CTec2) loading of only 9 FPU or 0.06 mL/g untreated wood, a maximum ethanol titer of 47.4 g/L was achieved, resulting in a calculated yield of 285 L/tonne of wood using Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH400 at 35 °C and pH 5.5. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Asymmetries in Chickens from Lines Selected and Relaxed for High or Low Antibody Titers to Sheep Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Tu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wattle length, width, and area were measured to classify bilateral asymmetries in four lines of chickens. The lines were the S26 generation of White Leghorns selected for high (HAS or low (LAS response to sheep red blood cells and sublines in which selection had been relaxed for three generations (high antibody relaxed [HAR] and low antibody relaxed [LAR]. Antibody titers (AB were greater for HAS than for HAR with both greater than for LAS and LAR which while different for males did not differ for females. The low antibody lines were heavier and reached sexual maturity at younger age than the high antibody lines. In general, wattle length, width, and area were greater in the low than high antibody lines. In 24 comparisons for bilaterality 18 exhibited fluctuating asymmetry and 6 exhibited directional asymmetry with 5 of the 6 being for wattle length. There was not a clear pattern for changes in degree of asymmetry when selection was relaxed for 3 generations. For females, the relative asymmetry (RA of wattle area was larger (p≤0.05 for HAR than for LAR and not different from the selected lines and relaxed lines. There were no differences among lines for RA of wattle length and width of females and wattle length, width, and area of males.

  16. [Dynamics of change of ureaplasma laboratory strain titers and quantity of their DNA in transport medium at varying temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamova, N A; Ivanova, T A

    2013-01-01

    Study of preservation dynamics of ureaplasma laboratory strain live cultures and their DNA in transport medium at varying temperature. The study was carried out in laboratory strains Ureaplasma urealyticum serotype 8 and Ureaplasma parvum serotype 1. The quantity of live ureaplasmas was determined by method of tenfold dilutions in liquid medium. The growth of ureaplasmas was registered by changes in the color of the cultivation medium due to its alkalization by metabolism products and expressed in CCU/ml. DNA quantity in samples was determined by real time PCR performed by using Florocenosis-micoplasmas-FL test system produced by ILS. Live ureaplasmas wer shown to be preserved in transport medium at 4 degrees C for 12 - 29 days, at 18 - 22 degrees C--for 9 - 20 days and at 37 degrees C--for only 2 days. In samples incubated at 37 degrees C the quantity of live ureaplasmas increased and then sharply decreased to 0, at lower temperature titers of the cells decreased smoothly. The quantity of ureaplasma DNA in the process of their incubation did not change significantly. Fundamental differences in the duration of survival of U. urealyticum strain and U. parvum strain in transport medium at varying temperature were not detected. Based on the studies performed a practical conclusion can be drawn that in cases of emergency when clinical material transportation is necessary its storage in transport medium for several days is acceptable.

  17. The importance of tumor marker titers for the indication of immunoscintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies anti-CEA and anti-CA 19.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, J.F.; Charrie, A.; Fleury-Goyon, M.C.; Chauvot, P. et; Lahneche, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    In 18 patients operated for malignant tumors 20 immunoscintigraphies were done with a monoclonal antibody cocktail (anti-CEA F(ab') 2 and anti-CA 19.9 F(ab') 2 ). Immediately before scintigraphy tumor marker titers in plasma were determined in all cases. Tumor marker levels corresponding to positive or doubtful scintigraphies are analysed. (Author)

  18. Quantification of antibody (IgY) titers in hen eggs following immunization and their use in detecting cell surface molecules on nitrocellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guang-Ping; Ma, Li; Meng, Xiao-Jing; Meng, Min-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lin, Ying; Wu, Zheng-Qiang; He, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ju-Fang; Zhu, Yong

    2007-01-01

    HLA-A*0201 alpha chain and beta2m were expressed from a prokaryotic system, and after refolding and purification, the alpha chain and beta2m were used to immunize eight laying hens. The titer of egg yolk antibody against alpha chain increased from 10(2) to 10(5.3) The titer of egg yolk antibody against beta2m increased from 10(1) to 10(4.7). The extent of titer increase is similar between the two antigens. An average of 135 mg purified polyclonal antibody (IgY) can be easily obtained from one egg yolk. The use of egg collection rather than serum collection is compatible with modern animal protection regulations. An average of 28 eggs were obtained from a laying hen every month, with a total amount of 3780 mg immunoglobulin extracted from one immunized hen every month, which would be equivalent to 630 mL of serum or 1260 mL of blood per month. Chickens are an optimal host for the production of polyclonal antibodies with high titer and high yield. Purified IgY was labeled with horseradish peroxidase and reacted with PBMC on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that the antibody can bind to the native conformation of class I HLA molecule on PBMC.

  19. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  20. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: A pilot-scale evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Feng Gu; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs; Johnway Gao; Dwight Anderson

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid–liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the...

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers among children and adolescents in the south brazilian region: metropolitan area of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Royer Voigt

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health, about 15% of population is infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV and less than 1% by hepatitis C virus (HCV. Nevertheless, the age-specific prevalence of HBV and HCV markers remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection and immunity in children and adolescents between 10 to 16 years old who live in the metropolitan area of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Three hundred and eighty four individuals were enrolled in this study. Serological markers for HBV and HCV (HBsAg, total anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBs and anti-HCV were determined through Microparticle Enzyme Immunosorbant Assay (MEIA - AxSYM System® - by using commercial diagnostic kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA. All 384 adolescents (100% were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM. Only two (0.52% were positive for total anti-HBc. Among the studied individuals, 226 (58.85% presented titers of anti-HBs > 10.0mIU/mL, 121 (31.51% presented anti HBs < 10.0mIU/mL, and 37 (9.64% did not present titers of anti-HBs. Regarding to anti-HCV, all 384 adolescents (100% presented negative results for this marker. In conclusion, this study showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV infections. In addition, it was verified a great number of children and adolescents (89.84% who were positive for the immunity marker anti-HBs, implying that the National Immunization Program Protocol for hepatitis B has been effective in the studied region.

  2. Free Thyroxine, Anti-Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Titers, and Absence of Goiter Were Associated with Responsiveness to Methimazole in Patients with New Onset Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon Sung Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAnti-thyroid drug therapy is considered a treatment of choice for Graves' disease; however, treatment response varies among individuals. Although several studies have reported risk factors for relapse after initial treatment, few have assessed responsiveness during the early treatment period. Our study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics for responsiveness to methimazole.MethodsWe included 99 patients diagnosed with Graves' disease for the first time. Drug responsiveness was defined as the correlation coefficients between decreasing rates of free thyroxine level per month and methimazole exposure dose. According to their responsiveness to treatment, the patients were classified into rapid or slow responder groups, and age, sex, free thyroxine level, and thyrotropin binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII titers were compared between groups.ResultsThe mean patient age was 44.0±13.5 years and 40 patients were male (40%. The mean TBII titer was 36.6±74.4 IU/L, and the mean free thyroxine concentration was 48.9±21.9 pmol/L. The rapid responder group showed higher TBII titer and free thyroxine level at diagnosis, while age, sex, smoking, and presence of goiter did not differ between the two groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that high level of serum thyroxine, high titer of TBII, and absence of goiter were significantly associated with a rapid response, while age, sex, and smoking were not significant factors for the prediction of responsiveness.ConclusionIn patients with new onset Graves' disease, high level of free thyroxine, high titer of TBII, and absence of goiter were associated with rapid responsiveness to methimazole treatment.

  3. Classical imaging with undetected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A. C.; Berruezo, L. P.; Ávila, D. F.; Lemos, G. B.; Pimenta, W. M.; Monken, C. H.; Saldanha, P. L.; Pádua, S.

    2018-03-01

    We obtained the phase and intensity images of an object by detecting classical light which never interacted with it. With a double passage of a pump and a signal laser beams through a nonlinear crystal, we observe interference between the two idler beams produced by stimulated parametric down conversion. The object is placed in the amplified signal beam after its first passage through the crystal and the image is observed in the interference of the generated idler beams. High contrast images can be obtained even for objects with small transmittance coefficient due to the geometry of the interferometer and to the stimulated parametric emission. Like its quantum counterpart, this three-color imaging concept can be useful when the object must be probed with light at a wavelength for which detectors are not available.

  4. Quantum imaging with undetected photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Borish, Victoria; Cole, Garrett D; Ramelow, Sven; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Zeilinger, Anton

    2014-08-28

    Information is central to quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum interference occurs only if there exists no information to distinguish between the superposed states. The mere possibility of obtaining information that could distinguish between overlapping states inhibits quantum interference. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a quantum imaging concept based on induced coherence without induced emission. Our experiment uses two separate down-conversion nonlinear crystals (numbered NL1 and NL2), each illuminated by the same pump laser, creating one pair of photons (denoted idler and signal). If the photon pair is created in NL1, one photon (the idler) passes through the object to be imaged and is overlapped with the idler amplitude created in NL2, its source thus being undefined. Interference of the signal amplitudes coming from the two crystals then reveals the image of the object. The photons that pass through the imaged object (idler photons from NL1) are never detected, while we obtain images exclusively with the signal photons (from NL1 and NL2), which do not interact with the object. Our experiment is fundamentally different from previous quantum imaging techniques, such as interaction-free imaging or ghost imaging, because now the photons used to illuminate the object do not have to be detected at all and no coincidence detection is necessary. This enables the probe wavelength to be chosen in a range for which suitable detectors are not available. To illustrate this, we show images of objects that are either opaque or invisible to the detected photons. Our experiment is a prototype in quantum information--knowledge can be extracted by, and about, a photon that is never detected.

  5. Intracellular response to process optimization and impact on productivity and product aggregates for a high-titer CHO cell process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlogten, Michael W; Lee-O'Brien, Allison; Roy, Gargi; Levitskaya, Sophia V; Venkat, Raghavan; Singh, Shailendra; Ahuja, Sanjeev

    2018-01-01

    A key goal in process development for antibodies is to increase productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. During process development of an antibody, titers were increased from 4 to 10 g/L while simultaneously decreasing aggregates. Process development involved optimization of media and feed formulations, feed strategy, and process parameters including pH and temperature. To better understand how CHO cells respond to process changes, the changes were implemented in a stepwise manner. The first change was an optimization of the feed formulation, the second was an optimization of the medium, and the third was an optimization of process parameters. Multiple process outputs were evaluated including cell growth, osmolality, lactate production, ammonium concentration, antibody production, and aggregate levels. Additionally, detailed assessment of oxygen uptake, nutrient and amino acid consumption, extracellular and intracellular redox environment, oxidative stress, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) expression, and heavy and light chain mRNA expression provided an in-depth understanding of the cellular response to process changes. The results demonstrate that mRNA expression and UPR activation were unaffected by process changes, and that increased PDI expression and optimized nutrient supplementation are required for higher productivity processes. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate the role of extra- and intracellular redox environment on productivity and antibody aggregation. Processes using the optimized medium, with increased concentrations of redox modifying agents, had the highest overall specific productivity, reduced aggregate levels, and helped cells better withstand the high levels of oxidative stress associated with increased productivity. Specific productivities of different processes positively correlated to average intracellular values of total glutathione. Additionally

  6. Absence of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn despite maternal high-titer IgG anti-Ku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaiya, R M; Whaley, A; Howard-Menk, C; Rami, J; Papari, M; Campbell-Lee, S; Malecki, Z

    2010-01-01

    Anti-Ku seen in K(o) (Kell-null) individuals has previously been shown to cause severe hemolytic transfusion reactions. Maternal anti-Ku can cause none or moderate to severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). In two of four previously described HDFN cases, intrauterine transfusions were required because of severe anemia. We report a case in which maternal anti-Ku did not cause HDFN. Standard serologic methods were used for RBC antibody screening and identification, adsorption and elution of RBC antibodies, and antigen typing. A gravida 3, para 3 (G3P3) woman was first evaluated in 2006 and was found to have an IgG RBC antibody that reacted against all panel RBCs in the anti-human globulin phase. A panel of RBCs treated with DTT did not react with the antibody. The antibody failed to react with one example of K(o) RBCs. The patient’s RBCs typed negative for the following Kell blood group antigens: KEL1, KEL2, KEL3, KEL4, KEL6, KEL7, KEL11, KEL13, and KEL18. These results established the presence of anti-Ku in maternal serum. The newborn was group A, D+ and required phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia, but did not require transfusion. The woman was seen again in January 2010 during the third trimester (G4P3). At this time, anti-Ku titer was 256. She delivered a healthy group O, D+ baby boy at 37 weeks' gestation. Cord RBCs were 4+ for IgG by DAT. An eluate reacted with all RBCs tested, but did not react when tested against a panel of DTT-treated RBCs. K(o) phenotype is rare to begin with, and the maternal anti-Ku formation may require more than one pregnancy. Therefore, cases that can be evaluated for anti-Ku–related HDFN are rare. Our case contributes to serologic and clinical aspects of such rare cases.

  7. Mimotopes selected by biopanning with high-titer HIV-neutralizing antibodies in plasma from Chinese slow progressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One approach to identifying HIV-1 vaccine candidates is to dissect the natural antiviral immune response in treatment-naïve individuals infected for over ten years, considered slow progressor patients (SPs. It is suspected that SP plasma has strongly neutralizing antibodies (NAb targeting specific HIV viral epitopes. METHODS: NAbs levels of 11 HIV-1-infected SPs were detected by PBMC-based neutralization assays. To investigate SP NAb epitope, this study used a biopanning approach to obtain mimotopes of HIV-1 that were recognized by SP plasma NAbs. IgG was purified from hightiter NAb SP plasma, and used as the ligand for three rounds of biopanning to select HIV-specific mimotopes from a phage-displayed random peptide library. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA, competitive inhibition assays, and peptide sequence analysis were used to evaluate the characteristics of phage-borne mimotopes. RESULTS: SPs had significantly more plasma neutralizing activity than typical progressors (TPs (p = 0.04. P2 and P9 plasma, which have highest-titer HIV-NAb, were selected as ligands for biopanning. After three rounds of biopanning, 48 phage clones were obtained, of which 22 clones were consistent with requirement, binding with HIV-1 positive plasma and unbinding with HIV-1 negative plasma. Compared with linear HIV-1 protein sequence and HIV-1 protein structure files, only 12 clones were possible linear mimotopes of NAbs. In addition, the C40 clone located in gp41 CHR was found to be a neutralizing epitope, which could inhibit pooled HIV-1 positive plasma reaction. CONCLUSION: Biopanning of serum IgG can yield mimotopes of HIV-1-related antigen epitopes. This methodology provides a basis for exploration into HIV-1-related antigen-antibody interactions and furthers NAb immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  8. The best time for surgery on a patient with recurrent pneumothorax and undetectable culprit lesions is at the exact time air leakage is discovered: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yousuke; Hata, Yoshinobu; Makino, Takashi; Koezuka, Satoshi; Otsuka, Hajime; Sugino, Keishi; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Homma, Sakae; Iyoda, Akira

    2016-08-02

    One cause of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax includes overlooking bullae during a previous surgery for pneumothorax; and the identification of the culprit lesions is necessary for prevention of recurrence. A 28-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of spontaneous right-sided pneumothorax. He underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, which did not reveal air leakage. The patient was subsequently seen at our hospital for 2 additional episodes of recurrent right-sided pneumothorax. At the third admission we observed intermittent air leakage while the patient was in the sitting position after chest drainage, and we performed surgery. An intraoperative submersion test showed air leakage dorsally from the pleural surface of S(6) and a minute culprit lesion, which were not seen at the first operation and confirmed the leakage site. The area was ligated and coated with regenerated oxidized cellulose mesh and autologous blood. In cases of pneumothorax with repeated recurrence, the best time to perform surgery on the patient with undetectable culprit lesion is the exact time that air leakage is observed.

  9. Circular viral DNA detection and junction sequence analysis from PBMC of SHIV-infected cynomolgus monkeys with undetectable virus plasma RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Andrea; Maggiorella, Maria Teresa; Bona, Roberta; Sernicola, Leonardo; Baroncelli, Silvia; Negri, Donatella R.M.; Leone, Pasqualina; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heeney, Jonathan; Titti, Fausto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Extrachromosomal forms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 can be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from HIV-infected patients in the absence of detectable viral replication and are thought to be a sign of active but cryptic virus replication. No information, however, are available on whether these forms are also present in animal models for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and on their relation with other methods of detection of virus replication. To this aim, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect and analyze unintegrated circular 2-LTR-containing forms in PBMC of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P infected cynomolgus monkeys with RNA levels ranging between 1.8x10 6 and less than 50 copies/ml of plasma. 2-LTR forms were detected in 96.5% of monkeys' samples above 50 copies/ml of plasma, whereas they were present in 75.8% of monkeys' samples below 50 copies/ml of plasma. Persistence of unintegrated viral DNA in monkeys with undetectable plasma RNA could indicate either stability in non-dividing cells or ongoing low levels of viral replication in dividing cells

  10. Absolute determination of single-stranded and self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector genome titers by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio R; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wilson, James M

    2014-04-01

    Accurate titration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector genome copies is critical for ensuring correct and reproducible dosing in both preclinical and clinical settings. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the current method of choice for titrating AAV genomes because of the simplicity, accuracy, and robustness of the assay. However, issues with qPCR-based determination of self-complementary AAV vector genome titers, due to primer-probe exclusion through genome self-annealing or through packaging of prematurely terminated defective interfering (DI) genomes, have been reported. Alternative qPCR, gel-based, or Southern blotting titering methods have been designed to overcome these issues but may represent a backward step from standard qPCR methods in terms of simplicity, robustness, and precision. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a new PCR technique that directly quantifies DNA copies with an unparalleled degree of precision and without the need for a standard curve or for a high degree of amplification efficiency; all properties that lend themselves to the accurate quantification of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. Here we compare a ddPCR-based AAV genome titer assay with a standard and an optimized qPCR assay for the titration of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. We demonstrate absolute quantification of single-stranded AAV vector genomes by ddPCR with up to 4-fold increases in titer over a standard qPCR titration but with equivalent readout to an optimized qPCR assay. In the case of self-complementary vectors, ddPCR titers were on average 5-, 1.9-, and 2.3-fold higher than those determined by standard qPCR, optimized qPCR, and agarose gel assays, respectively. Droplet digital PCR-based genome titering was superior to qPCR in terms of both intra- and interassay precision and is more resistant to PCR inhibitors, a desirable feature for in-process monitoring of early-stage vector production and for vector genome biodistribution

  11. [Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierszcz, Jolanta; Dubiel, Jacek S; Krzysiek, Józef; Sztefko, Krystyna; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Roman, Pfitzner; Podolec, Piotr; Wodniecki, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course. 60 AVS patients who did not agree for operational treatment were divided into group A (30 patients with high IgG titer) group B (30 patients with low IgG titer), group C (22 patients with high IgA titer) group D (38 patients with low IgA titer), group E (7 patients with high IgM titer), group F (53 patients with low IgA titer) Antibodies titers and echocardiographic scans were carried out every 12 months. There were more (p AVS deterioration in group A compared to group B. Group A patients had lower left ventricle posteriori wall systolic diameter compared to group B. There were no differences in echocardiographic parameters between group C and D. Mean ejection fraction was lower and mean right atrium diameter was higher in group E compared to group F. The results may suggest link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and deterioration of AVS.

  12. Hepatitis B seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years after completion of basic hepatitis B immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Homenta Rampengan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of hepatitis B viral (HBV infection in Indonesia is high. The most effective way to control HBV infection is by hepatitis B (HB immunization. Many studies reported that hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs seroprotection declines in children > 10 years of age. In addition many factors can influence anti-HBs titer. Objective To measure anti-HBs titer and evaluate possible factors associated with anti-HBs titer. Methods This cross sectional  study was conducted in children 10-15 years of age from ten schools at Tuminting District, Manado, North Sulawesi, from October to November 2014. All subjects had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme. By stratified random sampling, 105 children were selected as subjects. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 22. Results. From 48 schools, we selected 10 schools from which to draw a total of 105 children, but only 23 (21.9% children had detectable anti-HBs . Of all subjects, 76 (72.4%  were female, 78 (74.3%  had good nutritional status, and 98 (93.3%  had birth weight ≥2,500 grams. Data from immunization record books showed that 26 (24.8% subjects received the HB-1 vaccination at ≤7 days of age and 45 (42.9% subjects had a ≥2 month interval between the HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations. Multivariate analysis showed that administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age  and a ≥2 month interval between HB-2 and HB-3  had significant associations with anti-HB seroprotection in children. Conclusion A low proportion of subjects who had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme had detectable anti-HBs titer (21.9%. Administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age and a ≥2-month interval between HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations are important factors in anti-HB seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years.

  13. Effect of oral administration of Propionibacterium acnes on growth performance, DTH response and anti-OVA titers in goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Ferrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunostimulants are susbstances that stimuli the response of effector cells to activate the immune response such as antigen uptake, cytokine release or antibody response. These substances can increase resistence to infection by different types of microorganisms, reducing dependence of antibiotics used in livestock animals. Recent reports have demonstrated the positive effect of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes to control animal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the non-specific immunostimulant P. acnes on immunological functions and growth performance in goat kids. Twenty five goat kids served as control group (A and another 25 animals received P. acnes being the experimental group (B. Kids were challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to assess humoral immunity. To assess in vivo cell immunity, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH test with phytohemagglutinin (PHA was used, clinical signs and body weight were recorded each week until 9 weeks of age when the experiment ended. Blood samples were obtained to analyze serum proteins fractions and anti-OVA specific antibodies. No clinical signs of disease and no differences (p>0.05 on body weight between groups were recorded (7.32±0.81 kg in group A, 7.13±0.65 kg in group B. Goat kids from group B had more total protein (59.8±5g/l and albumin levels (32.8±3.3g/l than goat kids from group A (56.6±5.7 g/l, 29.6±3.9 g/l respectively (p<0.05. DTH response in goat kids from group B on day 42 was higher (p<0.05 than group A. At day 63, goat kids from group receiving P. acnes had higher percentage (85.4 of anti-OVA IgM titers (p<0.05 than control group (57.7. In conclusion, the results showed that oral administration of P. acnes to goat kids improved some aspects of the immune system of the animals and it could be used to control goat diseases.

  14. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  15. The effects of wet cupping on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and heat shock protein 27 antibody titers in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Seyed Kazem; Gang, Li Zhi; Saghebi, Seyed Ahmad; Mohammadi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Mohammadi, Ghazaleh; Ferns, Gordan A; Ghanbarzadeh, Majid; Razmgah, Gholamreza Ghayour; Ramazani, Zahra; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Esmaily, Habibollah; Bahrami Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Azizi, Hoda

    2014-08-01

    It has previously been reported that increased level of serum heat shock proteins (Hsps) antibody in patients with metabolic syndrome. It is possible that the expression of Hsp and inflammatory markers can be affected by cupping and traditional Chinese medicine. There is a little data investigating the effects of cupping on markers of inflammation and Hsp proteins, hence, the objective of this study was evaluation of the effects of wet cupping on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Hsp27 antibody titers in patients with metabolic syndrome. Serum Hs-CRP and Hsp27 antibody titers were assessed in samples from 126 patients with metabolic syndrome (18-65 years of age) at baseline, and after 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. One hundred and twenty-six patients were randomly divided into the experimental group treated with wet cupping combined with dietary advice, and the control group treated with dietary advice alone using a random number table. Eight patients in case group and five subjects in control groups were excluded from the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and a repeated measure ANCOVA. Serum hs-CRP titers did not change significantly between groups (p>0.05) and times (p=0.27). The same result was found for Hsp27 titers (p>0.05). Wet-cupping on the interscapular region has no effect on serum hs-CRP and Hsp27 patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H S; Wu, F; Aghai, Z

    2010-01-01

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown t...... to arrest development of male bovine embryos efficiently. We consequently questioned the role of H-Y antibodies in women with SRM....

  17. HIV-1 specific antibody titers and neutralization among chronically infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available The majority of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 have been isolated from untreated patients with acute or chronic infection. To assess the extent of HIV-1 specific antibody response and neutralization after many years of virologic suppression from potent combination ART, we examined antibody binding titers and neutralization of 51 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection on suppressive ART for at least three years. In this cross-sectional analysis, we found high antibody titers against gp120, gp41, and the membrane proximal external region (MPER in 59%, 43%, and 27% of patients, respectively. We observed significantly higher endpoint binding titers for gp120 and gp41 for patients with >10 compared to ≤ 10 years of detectable HIV RNA. Additionally, we observed higher median gp120 and gp41 antibody titers in patients with HIV RNA 10 years of detectable HIV RNA (8/20 [40.0%] versus 3/31 [9.7%] for ≤ 10 years, p = 0.02 and a trend toward greater neutralization in patients with ≤ 5 years of HIV RNA 5 years, p = 0.08. All patients with neutralizing activity mediated successful phagocytosis of VLPs by THP-1 cells after antibody opsonization. Our findings of highly specific antibodies to several structural epitopes of HIV-1 with antibody effector functions and neutralizing activity after long-term suppressive ART, suggest continuous antigenic stimulation and evolution of HIV-specific antibody response occurs before and after suppression with ART. These patients, particularly those with slower HIV progression and more time with detectable viremia prior to initiation of suppressive ART, are a promising population to identify and further study functional antibodies against HIV-1.

  18. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sonobe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test. In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001. Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r² = 0.95, P < 0.0001 and for diphtheria (r² = 0.93, P < 0.0001 between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.

  19. A multi-institutional analysis comparing adjuvant and salvage radiation therapy for high-risk prostate cancer patients with undetectable PSA after prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiharto, Tom; Perneel, Christiaan; Haustermans, Karin; Junius, Sara; Tombal, Bertrand; Scalliet, Pierre; Renard, Laurette; Lerut, Evelyne; Vekemans, Kris; Joniau, Steven; Poppel, Hendrik Van

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: In men with adverse pathology at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP), the most appropriate timing to administer radiotherapy (RT) remains a subject for debate. To determine whether salvage radiotherapy (SRT) upon early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse is equivalent to immediate adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) post RP. Material and methods: 130 patients receiving ART and 89 receiving SRT were identified. All had an undetectable PSA after RP. Homogeneous subgroups were built based on the status (±) of lymphatic invasion (LVI) and surgical margins (SM), to allow a comparison of ART and SRT. Biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was calculated from the date of surgery and from the end of RT. The multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox Proportional hazard model. Results: In the SM-/LVI- and SM+/LVI- groups, SRT was a significant predictor of a decreased bDFS from the date of surgery, while in the SM+/LVI+ group, there was a trend towards significance. From the end of RT, SRT was also a significant predictor of a decreased bDFS in three patient groups: SM-/LVI-, SM+/LVI- and SM+/LVI+. Gleason score >7 showed to be another factor on multivariate analysis associated with decreased bDFS in the SM-/LVI- group, from the date of surgery and end of RT. Preoperative PSA was a significant predictor in the SM-/LVI- group from the date of RP only. Conclusions: Immediate ART post RP for patients with high risk features in the prostatectomy specimen significantly reduces bDFS after RP compared with early SRT upon PSA relapse.

  20. Trospium chloride has no effect on memory testing and is assay undetectable in the central nervous system of older patients with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskin, D; Kay, G; Tannenbaum, C; Goldman, H B; Bhashi, K; Ling, J; Oefelein, M G

    2010-08-01

    Muscarinic receptors in the brain play an important role in cognitive function, especially memory, and there is growing awareness that specific antimuscarinic drugs for overactive bladder (OAB) may have adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects. Selection of an antimuscarinic OAB drug with reduced potential for CNS effects could be especially beneficial in the elderly people, in whom even the modest cognitive impairment may negatively affect independence. The purpose of the study is to determine if trospium chloride is assay detectable in the CNS of older adults with OAB and to assess whether deterioration of memory occurs in these individuals. Twelve cognitively intact older adults (>or=65-75 years old) with OAB were given extended-release trospium chloride 60 mg once daily over a 10-day period to achieve plasma steady-state levels. Standardised memory testing (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised) was performed predose and postdose. Cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were drawn on day 10 and assayed for trospium chloride. Predose (day 0) and postdose (day 10) results on the memory tests were compared using a reliable change index to assess a meaningful change in learning or memory. Trospium chloride levels in all the CSF samples (n = 72) of all participants were assay undetectable (memory testing revealed no significant net drug effect on learning or recall. This is the first study to investigate for the presence of an OAB antimuscarinic in the human brain, performed by assaying for concentrations of trospium chloride and correlating with simultaneous clinical cognitive safety measures. The results of both pharmacological and neuropsychological testing support the hypothesis of a lack of detectable CNS penetration for the quaternary amine trospium chloride.

  1. Partner Disclosure of PrEP Use and Undetectable Viral Load on Geosocial Networking Apps: Frequency of Disclosure and Decisions About Condomless Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mongrella, Melissa C; Weis, Benjamin; McMillen, Samuel J; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in biomedical prevention strategies, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and achieving an undetectable viral load (UVL) among HIV-infected persons, show promise in curbing the rising incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate the frequency with which MSM encounter potential sex partners on geosocial networking apps who disclose biomedical prevention use, and how MSM make decisions about condom use after these disclosures. Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on a large geosocial networking app for MSM. A total of 668 and 727 participants, respectively, responded to questionnaires assessing partner disclosure of PrEP use and UVL. Each questionnaire included an open-ended item assessing reasons for condomless anal sex (CAS) with partners using biomedical prevention. Across both surveys, most respondents encountered potential sex partners who disclosed PrEP use or UVL, and the majority of those who met up with these partners engaged in CAS at least once. Qualitative analyses found that most participants who reported CAS did so after making a calculated risk about HIV transmission. We also describe a novel risk reduction strategy, "biomed-matching," or having CAS only when both individuals use PrEP or have UVL. We report serostatus differences in both quantitative and qualitative findings. Disclosure of PrEP use and UVL is not uncommon among MSM. Many MSM make accurate appraisals of the risks of CAS with biomedical prevention, and mobile apps may aid with disclosing biomedical prevention use.

  2. Central memory CD4 T cells are associated with incomplete restoration of the CD4 T cell pool after treatment-induced long-term undetectable HIV viraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallón, Norma; Sempere-Ortells, José M; Soriano, Vincent; Benito, José M

    2013-11-01

    It is unclear to what extent T cell reconstitution may be possible in HIV-1-infected individuals on continuous successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herein, we analysed distinct phenotypic markers of immune recovery in patients with undetectable viraemia for 8 years, taking as reference untreated patients and healthy controls. Seventy-two subjects were examined: 28 HIV-1+ patients on successful long-term HAART, 24 HIV-1+ untreated viraemic patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Analysis of naive and memory CD4 and CD8 T cells was combined with measurements of activation status (expression of CD38) and with thymic function (expression of CD31). Statistical significance was determined by non-parametric tests. After long-term HAART, the majority of parameters were normalized compared with age-matched control values, including T cell activation and thymic function. However, absolute counts of naive and central memory CD4 T cells remained below normal levels. The only parameters significantly associated with CD4 counts at the end of follow-up were the pre-HAART CD4 count ( β ± SD = 0.54 ± 0.16, P = 0.003) and the level of CD4 central memory cells at the end of follow-up (β ± SD = 1.18 ± 0.23, P 350 cells/mm(3) reached a complete normalization of CD4 counts. Even after long-term successful HAART, complete CD4 restoration may be attainable only in patients starting therapy with moderately high CD4 counts, prompting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Incomplete CD4 restoration may be associated with a defective restoration of central memory CD4 T cells, a cell subset with a pivotal role in T cell homeostasis.

  3. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander J V; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David; Ayres, Anna; Jackson, Kathy; Littlejohn, Margaret; Slavin, John; Bowden, Scott; Gane, Edward J; Abbott, William; Lau, George K K; Lewin, Sharon R; Visvanathan, Kumar; Desmond, Paul V; Locarnini, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Although threshold levels for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) titers have recently been proposed to guide therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), their relationship to circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and intrahepatic HBV replicative intermediates, and the significance of emerging viral variants, remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HBsAg and HBeAg titers may vary independently of viral replication in vivo. In all, 149 treatment-naïve CHB patients were recruited (HBeAg-positive, n = 71; HBeAg-negative, n = 78). Quantification of HBeAg and HBsAg was performed by enzyme immunoassay. Virological characterization included serum HBV DNA load, HBV genotype, basal core promoter (BCP)/precore (PC) sequence, and, in a subset (n = 44), measurement of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA, as well as quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for HBsAg. In HBeAg-positive CHB, HBsAg was positively correlated with serum HBV DNA and intrahepatic cccDNA and total HBV DNA (r = 0.69, 0.71, 0.76, P < 0.01). HBeAg correlated with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), although emerging BCP/PC variants reduced HBeAg titer independent of viral replication. In HBeAg-negative CHB, HBsAg correlated poorly with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.28, P = 0.01) and did not correlate with intrahepatic cccDNA nor total HBV DNA. Quantitative IHC for hepatocyte HBsAg confirmed a relationship with viral replication only in HBeAg-positive patients. The correlation between quantitative HBsAg titer and serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication differs between patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB. HBeAg titers may fall independent of viral replication as HBeAg-defective variants emerge prior to HBeAg seroconversion. These findings provide new insights into viral pathogenesis and have practical implications for the use of quantitative serology as a clinical biomarker.

  4. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Antibodies in Health-Care Workers in Yasuj Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sarkari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Hepatitis B is a common infection in the world and one of the main health problems in our country. Over 350 million people are infected with Hepatitis B virus in the world and are chronic carriers of this infection. Health care workers are at risk of infection with blood born viruses including hepatitis B (HBV. This study was conducted to find out the rate of anti-HBs antibodies among the health-care workers (HCW in Yasuj hospitals, Southwest of Iran. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study in which 212 staff was randomly selected from different wards of the hospitals in Yasuj. Blood samples were taken from each individual and tested for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs by ELISA. Those who had anti-HBs titer > 10 IU/ml were considered as positive. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive data analysis and chi-square test. Results: 61.3% of the subjects were female and 38.7% were male. 93.9% of the subjects had a history of one to three doses of hepatitis B vaccination. Results of this study showed that 185 (87.3% of the staff have anti hepatitis B antibodies (Anti-HBs. Among the staff that was negative for anti-HBs antibody, 12 had a history of hepatitis B vaccination (at least one dose. Female employees were more positive than males (93% vs. 78% and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the titer of antibody and sex where females had a higher titer of antibody in comparison with males (p<0.05. No correlation was found between the workplace of HCW and positive anti-HBS. Conclusion: Result of this study indicates that more than 85 percent of the health-care workers in Yasuj have reasonable immunity against hepatitis B infection. A small proportion of HCWs had no immunity against HBV. The second course of hepatitis B vaccine should be delivered to those who had no immunity against hepatitis B

  5. Seroprotection for hepatitis B in children with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantan, Mukta; Pandharikar, Nagaraj; Yadav, Sangeeta; Chakravarti, Anita; Sethi, Gulshan Rai

    2013-11-01

    Children with nephrotic syndrome have been shown to have lower seroconversion to various vaccines due to immune dysregulation, prolonged immunosuppressive treatment and recurrent prolonged proteinuria.The primary aim of this study was to determine hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titers in children with nephrotic syndrome who had been previously vaccinated against hepatitis B. The secondary aim was to study the association of anti-HBs titers with type of disease, schedule and dose of vaccination, and type of immunosuppressive therapy. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital between January 2011 and January 2012). All children (aged 1-18 years) with nephrotic syndrome who tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and who had previously been vaccinated against hepatitis B, with the last dose being at least 1 month prior to being included in the study. A form consisting of history and clinical details was filled in, and the schedule and dose of vaccination(s) received was noted. A blood sample was taken from all patients for biochemical assessment and determination of anti-HBs titer. The patient cohort comprised 75 children (51 males; 24 females) of whom 42 (56%) had steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and 33 (44%) had steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Most patients enrolled in the study (96%) were in remission at the time of the biochemical and serological assessment. Twenty-one (28%) patients had received only steroids, while 72 % also received other immunosuppressants. Forty-six (61.3%) patients had received a double dose of vaccine. Of the 75 children enrolled, 36 (48%) and 39 (52%) had an anti-HBs titer of ≥10 mIU/mL (seroprotected) and children with SRNS are less likely to seroconvert with vaccination. A higher dose (double) of hepatitis B vaccine should be used for vaccinating such patients. Anti-HBs titers should be monitored in SRNS patients post-vaccination, and a

  6. A Raman-spectroscopy-based approach for detection and discrimination of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus phages at low titer in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyarcan, Emine Kübra; Acar Soykut, Esra; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-11

    In this study, a method combining Raman spectroscopy with chemometric analysis was developed for detection of phage presence in raw milk and discrimination of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus phages which are among the main phages causing problems in dairy industry. For this purpose, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus phages were added into raw milk separately, and then some pretreatments such as fat separation, removal of casein, and filtration were applied to the raw milk samples. Raman spectra of the samples were collected and then analyzed using principal component analysis in order to discriminate these phages in raw milk. In the next step, dilutions of S. thermophilus phages in pretreated raw milk were prepared, and Raman spectra were collected. These spectra were analyzed by using partial least squares method to quantify phages in low titer. Consequently, it has been demonstrated that S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus phages, which have titers sufficient to fail the fermentation (~ 10 7  pfu/mL) and have lower titers (10 2 -10 3  pfu/mL), could be discriminated from antibiotic and each other. Additionally, low concentrations of S. thermophilus phages (10 2  pfu/mL) could be detected through Raman spectroscopy with a short analysis time (60 min) and high coefficient of determination (R 2 ) values for both calibration (0.985) and validation (0.906) with a root mean square error of calibration of 70.54 and root mean square error of prediction of 165.47. However, a lower success was achieved with L. bulgaricus phages and the obtained coefficient of determination values were not sufficiently high (0.649).

  7. Cancer development based on chronic active gastritis and resulting gastric atrophy as assessed by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Oka, Masashi; Watanabe, Mika; Enomoto, Shotaro; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-03-15

    Our study investigated the relationship between gastric cancer development and activity of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis or the resulting chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A cohort of 4,655 healthy asymptomatic subjects, in whom serum pepsinogen (PG) and H. pylori antibody titer had been measured to assess the activity and stage of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, was followed for up to 16 years, and cancer development was investigated. In subjects with a serologically diagnosed healthy stomach (H. pylori-negative/CAG-negative), cancer incidence rate was low, at 16/100,000 person-years. With the establishment of H. pylori infection and progression of chronic gastritis, significant stepwise cancer risk elevations were seen from CAG-free subjects (H. pylori-positive/CAG-negative) [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-54.7] to subjects with CAG (H. pylori-positive/CAG-positive) (HR = 17.7, 95% CI = 5.4-108.6) and finally to subjects with metaplastic gastritis (H. pylori-negative/CAG-positive) (HR = 69.7, 95% CI = 13.6-502.9). In H. pylori-infected CAG-free subjects, significantly elevated cancer risk was observed in the subgroup with active inflammation-based high PG II level or potent immune response-based high H. pylori antibody titer; the former was associated with a particularly high risk of diffuse-type cancer, and both subgroups showed high cancer incidence rates of around 250/100,000 person-years, comparable to that in subjects with CAG. No such risk elevation was observed in H. pylori-infected subjects with CAG. These results clearly indicate that gastric cancer develops mainly from the gastritis-atrophy-metaplasia-cancer sequence and partly from active inflammation-based direct carcinogenesis, and that serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody titer provide indices of cancer development in H. pylori-infected subjects. © 2013 UICC.

  8. High titer of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody is a risk factor for severe carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Sugioka, Yuko; Sugioka, Kenichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Shinji; Tada, Masahiro; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We researched the morbidity and severity of existing carotid atherosclerosis plaque and associated risk factors in patients with RA. This study included 413 participants, including 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Carotid ultrasound, clinical data collection and assessment of cardiovascular risk factors were performed. Atherosclerotic plaque was defined as an intima-media thickness ≥ 1.1 mm. Severity of plaque was assessed by plaque score, defined as the sum of the maximal thickness of all plaques in bilateral carotid arteries. Data were analyzed from 200 patients with RA and 202 controls. Carotid plaque was observed more frequently in patients with RA than controls (47.0 vs. 36.1%, P = 0.027). Moreover, plaque score was significantly higher in RA patients (P = 0.032). In logistic regression analysis, RA represented an independent risk factor for the presence of plaque (adjusted odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.74). Comparing RA patients with and without plaque, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies titer was significantly higher in patients with plaque (315.8 ± 454.1 U/mL) than in patients without (165.7 ± 281.1 U/mL; P = 0.005). Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis clarified that anti-CCP antibody titer was associated with plaque score in patients with RA. High prevalence of any carotid plaques and severe carotid plaques were more frequent in patients with RA. High titer of anti-CCP antibodies represented a risk factor for severe carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Detection of chicken anemia virus in the gonads and in the progeny of broiler breeder hens with high neutralizing antibody titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentano, L; Lazzarin, S; Bassi, S S; Klein, T A P; Schat, K A

    2005-01-05

    Previous evidence for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in the gonads of immune specific-pathogen-free chickens raised the question whether this occurs also in commercial breeders. The presence of CAV was investigated by nested PCR in the gonads and spleens of hens from two 55- and 59-week-old, CAV-vaccinated (flocks 2 and 3), and two 48- and 31-week-old non-vaccinated broiler breeder flocks (flocks 1 and 4). In addition, lymphoid tissues of 20-day-old embryos from these hens were also investigated for the presence of CAV. CAV was detected in the gonads and of 5/6 and 11/22 of the vaccinated hens and in some hens also in the spleen alone. Embryos from 7/8 and 5/18 of these hens were positive. In the non-vaccinated flocks, CAV was detected in the gonads of 11/34 and 10/10 hens in flocks 1 and 4, respectively. In addition, 11 birds in flock 1 had positive spleens. CAV DNA was detected in 3/11 and 2/10 of their embryos. CAV-positive gonads and embryos were detected in samples from hens with moderate as well as high VN antibody titers. Vaccinated chickens positive for CAV in the gonads and in their embryos had VN titers ranging from >1:512 to gonads of hens in commercial broiler breeder flocks even in the presence of high neutralizing antibody titers that have been associated with protection against CAV vertical transmission. It also suggests that transmission to the progeny may occur irrespectively of the level of the humoral immune response in the hens.

  10. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

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    Mahmoodi Bardzardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  11. ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.

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    James E Norton

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1 to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1, on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1. We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV, rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3 focus forming units (ffu/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a

  12. Adaptive mutations enhance assembly and cell-to-cell transmission of a high-titer hepatitis C virus genotype 5a Core-NS2 JFH1-based recombinant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Christian K; Prentoe, Jannick; Meredith, Luke W

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Recombinant hepatitis C virus (HCV) clones propagated in human hepatoma cell cultures yield relatively low infectivity titers. Here, we adapted the JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinant SA13/JFH1C3405G,A3696G (termed SA13/JFH1orig), of the poorly characterized genotype 5a, to Huh7.5 cells......-titer production of diverse HCV strains would be advantageous. Our study offers important functional data on how cell culture-adaptive mutations identified in genotype 5a JFH1-based HCVcc permit high-titer culture by affecting HCV genesis through increasing virus assembly and HCV fitness by enhancing the virus...... specific infectivity and cell-to-cell transmission ability, without influencing the biophysical particle properties. High-titer HCVcc like the one described in this study may be pivotal in future vaccine-related studies where large quantities of infectious HCV particles are necessary....

  13. High titer L-lactic acid production from corn stover with minimum wastewater generation and techno-economic evaluation based on Aspen plus modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiaoe; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Yi; Bao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Technological potentials of l-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock were investigated by experimental and techno-economic studies. An optimal performance with 104.5 g/L in l-lactic acid titer and 71.5% in overall yield from cellulose in corn stover to l-lactic acid using an engineered Pediococcus acidilactici strain were obtained by overcoming several technical barriers. A rigorous Aspen plus model for l-lactic acid production starting from dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was developed. The techno-economic analysis shows that the minimum l-lactic acid selling price (MLSP) was $0.523 per kg, which was close to that of the commercial l-lactic acid produced from starch feedstock, and 24% less expensive than that of ethanol from corn stover, even though the xylose utilization was not considered. The study provided a prototype of industrial application and an evaluation model for high titer l-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

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    Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients

  15. Immunization Status Against Hepatitis B Among Iranian Junior Medical, Nursing, and Obstetrics Students With Different Vaccination Patterns

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    Allami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the protection time by hepatitis B (HB vaccination is unclear, the strategy of immunization of junior students who previously received hepatitis vaccine is controversial. Objectives This study aimed to determine the status of immunity to hepatitis B in junior medical, nursing and obstetrics students with different hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination patterns. Patients and Methods In an analytical cross-sectional study, 255 junior medical sciences students were tested for quantitative antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs. The proportion of protective immunity was compared in different vaccination patterns. Results Vaccination coverage rates were 74.1%. About half the participants didn’t show serological evidence of protective immunity; 68.9% had their last shot more than 10 years ago and 30.4% had a vaccination history of five years or less (P < 0.001. Geometric mean level of anti-HBs titer among students, who had received a primary series vaccine at birth, was significantly lower than students who had started vaccination at an older age (P < 0.001. Also, analysis of variance for geometric mean of anti-HBs titer showed significant differences between groups based on injection time from the last shot (P < 0.001 (post hoc comparisons resulted in a P value of < 0.001 for birth versus < 5 year group, and P < 0.001 for the 5 to 10 year group. The lowest rate of non-protective level belonged to participants with complete three doses and a booster additional shot (27.1%. The final model for independent predictors of anti-HBs positive status was made by a binary logistic regression analysis. The model included presence of a booster dose, injection time from last shot, and discipline of study. Conclusions This study shows lower anti-HBs among students who were vaccinated at infancy compared to those vaccinated at older childhood or adolescence. Also, subsequent measurement of anti-HBs level at the time of entrance to

  16. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  17. TITERS OF ANTIBODIES TO Β1-ADRENOCEPTOR AND M2 CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS IN PATIENTS WITH VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS WITHOUT AN ORGANIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND THEIR POSSIBLE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rogova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify the most promising epitopes that simulate various sites β1-adrenergic and M2-cholinergic receptors, and to evaluate their possible contribution to the development and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia. Material and methods. Patients with ventricular arrhythmias without organic cardiovascular disease (the study group; n=70 were included in the study. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. Evaluation of levels of antibodies to antigenic determinants, modeling various sites β1-adrenergic and M2-cholinergic performed in all patients. Causal treatment with clarithromycin and valacyclovir performed in part of patients. Results. Antibodies to different peptide sequences of β1-adrenergic and M2-cholinergic receptors have been identified in 25% of main group patients. A direct correlation between the frequency of episodes of ventricular tachycardia and IgG levels to MRI-MRIV (p=0.02 revealed. Increase in titre of antibodies to β1-adrenoceptors, to a peptide sequence β8 (p=0.02, and lower titers of antibodies to the M2 acetylcholine receptor — chimera MRI-MRIV IgM (p=0.06 and ARI-MRIV IgM (p=0.07 were observed when assessing the efficacy of the therapy in the causal dynamics in the group of "untreated" patients. IgG titer reduction of ARI-MRIV (p=0.02, which is 4 times out of 10 with reduction of ventricular ectopic activity , recorded after valacyclovir therapy. Clarithromycin therapy on the level of antibodies exerted no significant effect. Conclusion. Possible involvement of antibodies to β1-adrenoceptor and M2-cholinergic receptors in the development of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias demonstrated. The relationship between the frequency of episodes of ventricular tachycardia and levels of antibody titers to M2-cholinergic receptors found. Attempt of causal treatment, depending on the possible mechanisms of the autoimmune process is executed. Further studies to

  18. Features of Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Children with Arthritis, which Have Increased Antibody Titers to Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide and Modified Citrullinated Vimentin

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    I.S. Lebets

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 77 children with inflammatory lesions of the joints have been examined in the study. The characteristics of clinical signs and laboratory parameters in patients with arthritis, who have increased antibody titers to cyclic citrullinated peptide (a-CCP and modified citrullinated vimentin (a-MCV are presented. The patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis which a-CCP positive were adolescents, they had polyarticular lesions, a significant number of active joints, and the trend to more rapid development of radiologic stage III by Steinbrocker. Positivity for a-MCV was often detected from an early age, but not only in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. These patients were seronegative for rheumatoid factor, high frequency of involvement of the knee joints with their swelling. Radiological changes in joints of these patients seldom exceeded II stage by Steinbrocker.

  19. Effects of gastrointestinal parasites on parasite burden, rectal temperature, and antibody titer responses to vaccination and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, J S; Carroll, J A; Gasbarre, L C; Shelton, T A; Nordstrom, S T; Hutcheson, J P; Van Campen, H; Engle, T E

    2012-06-01

    Thirty-three colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves (initial BW of 131 ± 4 kg) were used to determine the effect of timing of anthelmintic administration relative to vaccination on antibody titer response to vaccine component antigens. When calves were at least 3 mo of age, they were sorted randomly into individual pens and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, treatments consisted of 1) dewormed 2 wk before vaccination (DPV), 2) dewormed at the time of vaccination (DV), or 3) control, vaccinated but not dewormed (CONT). All calves were inoculated with infective larvae of brown stomach worms (Ostertagia ostertagi) and intestinal worms (Cooperia spp.) on d 1, 7, 10, 14, and 18 for a total dose of 235,710 infective larvae per calf. Calves (DPV and DV) were dewormed on d 21 or 35 with a 10% fenbendazole suspension at 5 mg/kg of BW. On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (parainfluenza-3), and BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus). During the 103-d experiment, weekly fecal egg counts, blood, and rectal temperatures were collected and health status was recorded daily. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 and cytokine levels for IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-gamma). There was a tendency (P parasite burden and decreased rectal temperature increase after an IBRV challenge. Deworming strategy had no effect on antibody response to vaccination or IBRV challenge.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer as a stress biomarker and its association with social capital in rural Fujian communities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Cai, Guoxi; Tu, Raoping; Huang, Meng; He, Fei; Chen, Jie; Yamamoto, Taro; Watanabe, Chiho

    2018-05-11

    There has been little research on the association between social capital and psychological stress measured by a biomarker, particularly in developing countries. Our objective was to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titer, an indicator of cellular immune function previously shown to be associated with psychological stress, and social capital among rural community dwellers in Fujian Province, China. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in seven rural communities in Fujian in 2015. We used questionnaire data and dried blood spot samples for the measurement of biomarkers collected from 734 local residents for the analysis. We conducted a mixed effects regression analysis to investigate the association between EBV antibody titer and four social capital variables, which included cognitive and structural social capital assessed both at individual and community levels. Community-level structural social capital was inversely associated with psychological stress (coefficient = -0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.91, -0.01) while individual-level structural social capital was positively associated with it (coefficient = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.36). Neither individual- nor community-level cognitive social capital was associated with psychological stress status. In rural Fujian, China, social capital seemed to be an important determinant of psychological health. While living in a community with active social interaction may benefit the residents psychologically, social interaction in the form of strongly bonded relationships may be a source of psychological stress at the individual level due to the potential demands and obligations that may be associated with such connections. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Antibody titers in animal bite victims after post exposure vaccination with intradermally administered purified vero cell rabies vaccine using modified thai red cross regimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, S.; Tahir, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroconversion following rabies vaccination by intradermal route in cases of animal bite attending Anti rabies center, Lahore for post exposure prophylaxis. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration: Antirabies center, Birdwood road Lahore, Microbiology laboratory, office of Bacteriologist, Government of Punjab, Lahore. Patients and Methods: Victims of all ages and both sexes having exposure with suspected rabid animal within 24 - 72 hours were included, fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria, over 3 months period from February to April 20. Patients of Category II and III wounds were included. Purified vero cell vaccine (PVR V) with antigenic content> 2.5 ml was used for intradermal vaccination according to modified Thai Red Cross regimen (2-2-2-0-2). Each victim received 0.1 ml intradermal dose on each deltoid on day 0, 3, 7 and 28th day of bite. Blood samples from victims were taken on day 0, 14 and 35. Antibody titers were estimated by ELISA kit. Results: Fifty cases were studied including 20 children. Male female ratio was 4:1. Optimum serocon version (> 0.5 IU/ml) was achieved in all cases by day 14. Antibody levels increased further (> 4 IV/ml) in 92% cases on day 35. Geometric mean titers were 3.2 IU/ml and 6.2 IU/ml on day 14 and 35 respectively. Conclusion: Intradermal route for cell culture rabies vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis in animal bite victims was efficacious and safe. The smaller dosage of vaccine was economically affordable by patients in referral centers. (author)

  2. Balancing the carbon flux distributions between the TCA cycle and glyoxylate shunt to produce glycolate at high yield and titer in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Kangjia; Mao, Yin; Wei, Xuetuan; Zhao, Yunying

    2018-03-01

    The glyoxylate shunt is a branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle which directly determines the synthesis of glycolate, and the balance between the glyoxylate shunt and TCA cycle is very important for the growth of Escherichia coli. In order to accumulate glycolate at high yield and titer, strategies for over-expressing glycolate pathway enzymes including isocitrate lyase (AceA), isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (AceK) and glyoxylate reductase (YcdW) were analyzed. The genes encoding these three enzymes were transcribed under the control of promoter pTrc on pTrc99A, to form pJNU-3, which was harbored by strain Mgly1, resulting in strain Mgly13. Strain Mgly13 produced glycolate with 0.385 g/g-glucose yield (45.2% of the theoretical yield). Citrate synthase (GltA) converted excess acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to citrate and was over-expressed by pJNU-4 (pCDFDuet-1 backbone). Thus, the resulting strain Mgly134 produced glycolate with a 0.504 g/g-glucose yield (59.3% of the theoretical yield). We then eliminated the pathways involved in the degradation of glycolate, resulting in strain Mgly434, which produced glycolate with 92.9% of the theoretical yield. Following optimization of fermentation, the maximum glycolate titer from strain Mgly434 was 65.5 g/L. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody production in patients with chronic Chagas disease: Correlation between antibody titers and development of cardiac disease severity.

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    Ingebourg Georg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the most important endemic infections in Latin America affecting around 6-7 million people. About 30-50% of patients develop the cardiac form of the disease, which can lead to severe cardiac dysfunction and death. In this scenario, the identification of immunological markers of disease progression would be a valuable tool for early treatment and reduction of death rates. In this observational study, the production of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies through a retrospective longitudinal follow-up in chronic Chagas disease patients´ cohort and its correlation with disease progression and heart commitment was evaluated. Strong inverse correlation (ρ = -0.6375, p = 0.0005 between anti-T. cruzi IgG1 titers and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC patients were observed after disease progression. Elevated levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG3 titers were detected in all T. cruzi-infected patients, indicating a lack of correlation of this IgG isotype with disease progression. Furthermore, low levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG2, IgG4, and IgA were detected in all patients through the follow-up. Although without statistical significance anti-T. cruzi IgE tends to be more reactive in patients with the indeterminate form (IND of the disease (p = 0.0637. As this study was conducted in patients with many years of chronic disease no anti-T. cruzi IgM was detected. Taken together, these results indicate that the levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG1 could be considered to seek for promising biomarkers to predict the severity of chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.

  4. The evaluation of Recombinant Immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA test results in patients with low titer Anti-HCV positivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA or chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA techniques. However, a consensus related to the problem of low titer (Serum/Cut-off; S/C= 1.0 anti-HCV antibodies is still lacking. The study attempts to evaluate the clinical status of the patients with low titer anti-HCV antibodies detected by third generation anti-HCV tests during February 2013- May 2014 retrospectively. Methods: Serum samples were studied by Advia Centaur XP autoanalyser (Bayer-Siemens, Germany for anti-HCV, and line immunoassay (Inno-LIATM HCV Score, İnnogenetics, Belgium for anti-HCV confirmatory test, Cobas AmpliPre/Cobas AMPLICOR HCV Test (Roche diagnostics, Switzerland for HCV RNA. Results: A total of 55.631 serum samples were studied, and 55 of them were anti-HCV positive of which with low antibody levels (sample/cutoff [S/CO]. S/CO values ranged from 1.15 to 6.15. Seventeen (31% of patients who have low antibody levels were defined as positive and 2 (4% patients were intermittent and 36 (65% patients were negative with line immunoassay. HCV-RNA was not detected in any of the samples. Conclusions: It is thought that antibody positivity must be verified in cases of recurrent reactivity when considering the cost-effectiveness of molecular tests. In the study was concluded that the use of molecular tests would be appropriate diagnosis, and the effectiveness of treatment if necessary after evaluation of patients with biochemical analysis. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 553-556

  5. Preoperative selective desensitization of live donor liver transplant recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease score, and graft liver volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Geun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Suk-won; Yoo, Tae; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Choi, YoungRok; Lee, Kyungbun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Park, Myoung Hee; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that a positive lymphocyte cross-matching (XM) is associated with low graft survival rates and a high prevalence of acute rejection after adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) using a small-for-size graft. However, there is still no consensus on preoperative desensitization. We adopted the desensitization protocol from ABO-incompatible LDLT. We performed desensitization for the selected patients according to the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and graft liver volume. We retrospectively evaluated 230 consecutive ALDLT recipients for 5 yr. Eleven recipients (4.8%) showed a positive XM. Among them, five patients with the high titer (> 1:16) by antihuman globulin-augmented method (T-AHG) and one with a low titer but a high MELD score of 36 were selected for desensitization: rituximab injection and plasmapheresis before the transplantation. There were no major side effects of desensitization. Four of the patients showed successful depletion of the T-AHG titer. There was no mortality and hyperacute rejection in lymphocyte XM-positive patients, showing no significant difference in survival outcome between two groups (P=1.000). In conclusion, this desensitization protocol for the selected recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, MELD score, and graft liver volume is feasible and safe.

  6. Antibodies against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Virus in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Han Wool; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has changed over the last two decades, indicating a declining incidence of HAV and HBV infections. Therefore, vaccinations against HAV and HBV are recommended for unimmunized people before traveling to an endemic area. Unfortunately, primary antibody deficiency (PAD) patients can only obtain humoral immunity through intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) replacement and not from vaccination because of a defect in antibody production. However, few studies have analyzed the titers of antibodies against HAV or HBV in IVIG products. In this study, the titers of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies were measured in nineteen lots of IVIG products from five manufacturers from three countries (A, B from Korea; C, D from Japan; and E from the USA), and trough titers in plasma were estimated. Concentrations of anti-HAV antibody ranged from 1,888-8,927 mIU/mL and estimated trough titers exceeded the minimal protective value in all evaluated IVIG products. Concentrations of anti-HBs antibody ranged from 438-965 mIU/mL in products A and B and were 157, 123, and 1,945 mIU/mL in products C, D, and E, respectively. Estimated trough titers in products A, B, and E exceeded the minimal protective value but those in products C and D did not reach this threshold. These data demonstrated that available IVIG products generally provide sufficient antibodies against HAV and HBV to protect patients with PAD, although the trough concentrations of anti-HBs antibody in two IVIG products did not reach the minimum protective value.

  7. Hepatitis B surface antigen titer is a good indicator of durable viral response after entecavir off-treatment for chronic hepatitis B

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    Han Ah Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Clear indicators for stopping antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients are not yet available. Since the level of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is correlated with covalently closed circular DNA, the HBsAg titer might be a good indicator of the off-treatment response. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the HBsAg titer and the entecavir (ETV off-treatment response. Methods This study analyzed 44 consecutive CHB patients (age, 44.6±11.4 years, mean±SD; men, 63.6%; positive hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg at baseline, 56.8%; HBV DNA level, 6.8±1.3 log10 IU/mL treated with ETV for a sufficient duration and in whom treatment was discontinued after HBsAg levels were measured. A virological relapse was defined as an increase in serum HBV DNA level of >2000 IU/mL, and a clinical relapse was defined as a virological relapse with a biochemical flare, defined as an increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase level of >2 × upper limit of normal. Results After stopping ETV, virological relapse and clinical relapse were observed in 32 and 24 patients, respectively, during 20.8±19.9 months of follow-up. The cumulative incidence rates of virological relapse were 36.2% and 66.2%, respectively, at 6 and 12 months, and those of clinical relapse were 14.3% and 42.3%. The off-treatment HBsAg level was an independent factor associated with clinical relapse (hazard ratio, 2.251; 95% confidence interval, 1.076–4.706; P=0.031. When patients were grouped according to off-treatment HBsAg levels, clinical relapse did not occur in patients with an off-treatment HBsAg level of ≤2 log10 IU/mL (n=5, while the incidence rates of clinical relapse at 12 months after off-treatment were 28.4% and 55.7% in patients with off-treatment HBsAg levels of >2 and ≤3 log10 IU/mL (n=11 and >3 log10 IU/mL (n=28, respectively. Conclusion The off-treatment HBsAg level is closely related to clinical relapse after treatment

  8. High-titer preparation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV displaying recombinant protein in silkworm larvae by size exclusion chromatography and its characterization

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    Tanaka Shigeyasu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Budded baculoviruses are utilized for vaccine, the production of antibody and functional analysis of transmembrane proteins. In this study, we tried to produce and purify the recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (rBmNPV-hPRR that displayed human (prorenin receptor (hPRR connected with FLAG peptide sequence on its own surface. These particles were used for further binding analysis of hPRR to human prorenin. The rBmNPV-hPRR was produced in silkworm larvae and purified from its hemolymph using size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Results A rapid method of BmNPV titer determination in hemolymph was performed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. A correlation coefficient of BmNPV determination between end-point dilution and Q-PCR methods was found to be 0.99. rBmNPV-hPRR bacmid-injected silkworm larvae produced recombinant baculovirus of 1.31 × 108 plaque forming unit (pfu in hemolymph, which was 2.8 × 104 times higher than transfection solution in Bm5 cells. Its purification yield by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography was 264 fold from larval hemolymph at 4 days post-injection (p.i., but 35 or 39 fold at 4.5 or 5 days p.i., respectively. Protein patterns of rBmNPV-hPRR purified at 4 and 5 days were the same and ratio of envelope proteins (76, 45 and 35 kDa to VP39, one of nucleocapsid proteins, increased at 5 days p.i. hPRR was detected in only purified rBmNPV-hPRR at 5 days p.i.. Conclusion The successful purification of rBmNPV-hPRR indicates that baculovirus production using silkworm larvae and its purification from hemolymph by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography can provide an economical approach in obtaining the purified BmNPV stocks with high titer for large-scale production of hPRR. Also, it can be utilized for further binding analysis and screening of inhibitors of hPRR.

  9. Factors associated with post-seasonal serological titer and risk factors for infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in the French general population.

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    Nathanael Lapidus

    Full Text Available The CoPanFlu-France cohort of households was set up in 2009 to study the risk factors for infection by the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm in the French general population. The authors developed an integrative data-driven approach to identify individual, collective and environmental factors associated with the post-seasonal serological H1N1pdm geometric mean titer, and derived a nested case-control analysis to identify risk factors for infection during the first season. This analysis included 1377 subjects (601 households. The GMT for the general population was 47.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 45.1, 49.2. According to a multivariable analysis, pandemic vaccination, seasonal vaccination in 2009, recent history of influenza-like illness, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, social contacts at school and use of public transports by the local population were associated with a higher GMT, whereas history of smoking was associated with a lower GMT. Additionally, young age at inclusion and risk perception of exposure to the virus at work were identified as possible risk factors, whereas presence of an air humidifier in the living room was a possible protective factor. These findings will be interpreted in light of the longitudinal analyses of this ongoing cohort.

  10. Various levels and forms of dietary α-lipoic acid in broiler chickens: Impact on blood biochemistry, stress response, liver enzymes, and antibody titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D W; Mushtaq, M M H; Parvin, R; Kang, H K; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J D; Yang, C B; Park, B J; Choi, H C

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of various levels and forms of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on blood biochemistry, immune and stress response, and antibody titers in broiler chickens. The four levels (7.5, 15, 75, and 150 ppm) and 2 sources (powder, P-ALA and encapsulated, E-ALA) of ALA along with negative (C-) and positive control (C+; contains antibiotics) diets consisted of 10 dietary treatments, and these treatments were allocated to 1,200 1-d-old chicks and were replicated 12 times with 10 birds per replicate. Among the blood biochemistry parameters, creatinine levels were almost 3 times lower in E-ALA-supplemented diets compared to the C- diet (0.09 vs. 0.25 mg/dL; PBirds did not respond to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination at any observed stage (P>0.05). The concentration of cortisol was reduced in chickens fed ALA-supplemented diets as compared to the C- diet (Pbiochemistry profiles and immune responses and reduced stress in broiler chickens. The encapsulated form of ALA was more effective than the powder form. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Batch and multi-step fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse at high solid loadings for high sugar and ethanol titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Dong, Lei; Chen, Liang; Liu, Dehua

    2013-05-01

    Formiline pretreatment pertains to a biomass fractionation process. In the present work, Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed with cellulases by batch and multi-step fed-batch processes at 20% solid loading. For wet pulp, after 144 h incubation with cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g dry solid, fed-batch process obtained ~150 g/L glucose and ~80% glucan conversion, while batch process obtained ~130 g/L glucose with corresponding ~70% glucan conversion. Solid loading could be further increased to 30% for the acetone-dried pulp. By fed-batch hydrolysis of the dried pulp in pH 4.8 buffer solution, glucose concentration could be 247.3±1.6 g/L with corresponding 86.1±0.6% glucan conversion. The enzymatic hydrolyzates could be well converted to ethanol by a subsequent fermentation using Saccharomices cerevisiae with ethanol titer of 60-70 g/L. Batch and fed-batch SSF indicated that Formiline-pretreated substrate showed excellent fermentability. The final ethanol concentration was 80 g/L with corresponding 82.7% of theoretical yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review for the generalist: The antinuclear antibody test in children - When to use it and what to do with a positive titer

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    Sailer-Hoeck Michaela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The antinuclear antibody test (ANA is a much overused test in pediatrics. The ANA does have a role in serologic testing but it should be a very limited one. It is often ordered as a screening test for rheumatic illnesses in a primary care setting. However, since it has low specificity and sensitivity for most rheumatic and musculoskeletal illnesses in children, it should not be ordered as a screening test for non-specific complaints such as musculoskeletal pain. It should only be used as a diagnostic test for children with probable Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, (MCTD and other possible overlap-like illnesses. Such children should have developed definite signs and symptoms of a disease before the ANA is ordered. This review presents data supporting these conclusions and a review of the ANA literature in adults and children. By limiting ANA testing, primary care providers can avoid needless venipuncture pain, unnecessary referrals, extra medical expenses, and most importantly, significant parental anxieties. It is best not to do the ANA test in most children but if it ordered and is positive in a low titer (

  13. The breadth and titer of maternal HIV-1-specific heterologous neutralizing antibodies are not associated with a lower rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Wack, Thierry; Braibant, Martine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Warszawski, Josiane; Barin, Francis

    2012-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) should have broad specificity to be effective in protection against diverse HIV-1 variants. The mother-to-child transmission model of HIV-1 provides the opportunity to examine whether the breadth of maternal NAbs is associated with protection of infants from infection. Samples were obtained at delivery from 57 transmitting mothers (T) matched with 57 nontransmitting mothers (NT) enrolled in the multicenter French perinatal cohort (ANRS EPF CO1) between 1990 and 1996. Sixty-eight (59.6%) and 46 (40.4%) women were infected by B and non-B viruses, respectively. Neutralization assays were carried out with TZM-bl cells, using a panel of 10 primary isolates of 6 clades (A, B, C, F, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG), selected for their moderate or low sensitivity to neutralization. Neutralization breadths were not statistically different between T and NT mothers. However, a few statistically significant differences were observed, with higher frequencies or titers of NAbs toward several individual strains for NT mothers when the clade B-infected or non-clade B-infected mothers were analyzed separately. Our study confirms that the breadth of maternal NAbs is not associated with protection of infants from infection.

  14. Production and characterization of high-titer serum-free cell culture grown hepatitis C virus particles of genotype 1-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Christian K; Jensen, Tanja B; Prentoe, Jannick

    2014-01-01

    Recently, cell culture systems producing hepatitis C virus particles (HCVcc) were developed. Establishment of serum-free culture conditions is expected to facilitate development of a whole-virus inactivated HCV vaccine. We describe generation of genotype 1-6 serum-free HCVcc (sf-HCVcc) from Huh7.......5 hepatoma cells cultured in adenovirus expression medium. Compared to HCVcc, sf-HCVcc showed 0.6-2.1 log10 higher infectivity titers (4.7-6.2 log10 Focus Forming Units/mL), possibly due to increased release and specific infectivity of sf-HCVcc. In contrast to HCVcc, sf-HCVcc had a homogeneous single......-peak density profile. Entry of sf-HCVcc depended on HCV co-receptors CD81, LDLr, and SR-BI, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. HCVcc and sf-HCVcc were neutralized similarly by chronic-phase patient sera and by human monoclonal antibodies targeting conformational epitopes. Thus, we developed serum-free culture...

  15. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  16. Prevalence of non-responsiveness to an indigenous recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: A study among South Indian health care workers in a tertiary hospital

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    R J Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Health care workers (HCW are at higher risk of contracting HBV infection. Non-response to HBV vaccine is one of the major impediments to prevent healthcare associated HBV infection (HAHI. We estimated the prevalence of non-responsiveness to initial 3-dose regimen of an indigenous recombinant HBV vaccine (GeneVac-B among South Indian HCWs and typed the HLA in non-responders. Study Design and Method: Of the 778 subjects screened over 1 year, 454 completed all three doses of the hepatitis B vaccination. Anti-HBs titers were estimated by microparticle enzyme immunoassay AxSYM AUSAB, (Abbott, Germany. HLA typing was done using SSP-PCR assay AllSet+™ Gold SSP (Invitrogen, USA. Results: The overall seroconversion rate (anti-HBs > 10 mIU/mL was 98.89% wherein 90.8% had titers >1000mIU/mL, 7.6% had titers 100-1000mIU/mL, 0.43% had titers < 100 mIU/mL and 1.1% were non-responsive (<10 mIU/mL to the initial 3-dose regimen. Antibody titers <1000 mIU/mL were significantly associated with the highest quartile of body mass index (BMI (P < 0.001. We found no significant difference in seroprotection rate between gender (P = 0.088. There was no difference in seroprotection rates among various ethnic groups (P = 0.62. Subjects who were non-responsive in our study had at least one HLA allele earlier known to be associated with non-responsiveness to the vaccine. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that non-response to HBV vaccine is not a major impediment to prevent HAHI. Robust seroprotection rates can be achieved using this indigenous HBV vaccine. However, gender and BMI might influence the level of anti-HBs titers. We recommend the use of this cost effective HBV vaccine as well as postvaccination anti-HBs testing to prevent HAHI among HCWs.

  17. Simultaneous passive and active immunization against hepatitis B: noninterference of hepatitis B immune globulin with the anti-HBs response to reduced doses of heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelie, P. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Grijm, R.; de Jong-van Manen, S. T.; Reerink-Brongers, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous administration of hepatitis B immune globulin on the antibody response to a low dose of heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine was investigated in 175 health care workers. Subjects were divided into four groups: Groups I and II received 3 monthly injections of a reduced dose

  18. High Seroprotection Rate Induced by Intradermal Administration of a Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Healthy Adults: Comparison with Standard Intramuscular Vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghabouli, Mohammad J.; Sabouri, Amir Hossein; Shoeibi, Naser; Naghibzadeh Bajestan, Sepideh; Baradaran, H.

    2004-01-01

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination has been proposed as a cost-saving alternative for administration of Hepatitis B (HB) vaccine to implement of mass vaccination of high-risk groups, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the effectiveness of ID vaccination needs to be evaluated and verified in different ethnic backgrounds. The present study is a randomized trail using a recombinant vaccine (Heberbiovac) to compare immunogenecity and safety of an intradermal low-dose (4 μg) with standard dose (20 μg) of intramuscular (IM) vaccination in healthy Iranian population. Participants were 143 healthy Iranian medical and nursing students randomly allocated to ID or IM vaccination group. The vaccine was inoculated at 0, 1 and 6 months intervals. Serum samples were collected 1 month after the last vaccination and the anti-HBs response was determined using ELISA. The overall seroprotection rate (anti-HBs level ≥ 10IU/L) was 97.3% for ID vaccination group, which was not different from that of IM vaccination group (98.55%)(p= 0.99). Similarly, geometric mean titers (GMT) of anti-HBs were not significantly different between ID (1164.1IU/L) and IM (1071.8IU/L) vaccination groups (p= 0.4). There was no significant difference in seroprotection rate and GMT of anti-HBs between sexes. Although induration and hyperpigmentation at the site of injection were more frequently observed in ID vaccination group, no other clinically adverse effects were observed in both vaccination groups. We conclude that the ID route, which would require one-fifth of the standard dose, would be suitable for use in certain groups such as high-risk adults when the cost of vaccine is the inhibiting factor for mass vaccination

  19. Títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes induzidos por vacinas comerciais contra leptospirose bovina Agglutinating antibody titers induced by commercial vaccines against bovine leptospirosis

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    Gabriela de Godoy Cravo Arduino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, 100 fêmeas bovinas foram divididas em cinco grupos de 20 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam quatro diferentes vacinas comerciais (B, C, D e E, e um grupo permaneceu como controle. Amostras foram colhidas no dia da aplicação da primeira dose e nos dias 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 e 180 pós-vacinação (PV. A triagem dos animais foi feita pela análise sorológica com 6 antígenos de leptospiras, escolhendo-se os animais não reagentes. Os títulos de anticorpos foram monitorados pela soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM com os sorovares Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona e Wolffi. Todas as vacinas induziram, aos 3 dias PV, títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes para os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi, que persistiram até o 150º dia PV. Os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi induziram os maiores títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes. A vacina D, apesar de não possuir o sorovar Wolffi em sua composição foi capaz de induzir anticorpos aglutinantes contra este sorovar. Somente foram detectados anticorpos contra o sorovar Canicola nos animais vacinados com a bacterina D. A vacina que induziu os maiores títulos médios de anticorpos, considerando todos os sorovares testados foi a D.In the investigation 100 heifers were used, divided into 5 groups of 20 animals each. The four experimental groups were vaccinated using distinct commercial polyvalent bacterines: B, C, D and E, and A group was the control. Samples were collected at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 and 180 from the first injection of the vaccine. The selection of the animals for the experimental groups was done based on a serological screening with 6 antigens of Leptospira sp. constituted by non-reagent animals. The vaccine titers were monitored using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Wolffi

  20. Replicating rather than nonreplicating adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus recombinant vaccines are better at eliciting potent cellular immunity and priming high-titer antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C; Kalyanaraman, V S; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J; Murthy, Krishna K; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-08-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants and boosting with an HIV envelope subunit protein, oligomeric HIV(SF162) gp140deltaV2. The immunogenicities of replicating and nonreplicating Ad/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants were compared. Replicating Ad/HIV recombinants were better at eliciting HIV-specific cellular immune responses and better at priming humoral immunity against HIV than nonreplicating Ad-HIV recombinants carrying the same gene insert. Enhanced cellular immunity was manifested by a greater frequency of HIV envelope-specific gamma interferon-secreting peripheral blood lymphocytes and better priming of T-cell proliferative responses. Enhanced humoral immunity was seen in higher anti-envelope binding and neutralizing antibody titers and better induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. More animals primed with replicating Ad recombinants mounted neutralizing antibodies against heterologous R5 viruses after one or two booster immunizations with the mismatched oligomeric HIV-1(SF162) gp140deltaV2 protein. These results support continued development of the replicating Ad-HIV recombinant vaccine approach and suggest that the use of replicating vectors for other vaccines may prove fruitful.

  1. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential.

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    Philipp Kolb

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF, and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC. Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc derived capsid-like particles (CLPs to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission.

  2. High-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus production utilizing a recombinant herpes simplex virus type I vector expressing AAV-2 Rep and Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, J E; Rhys, C M; Zolotukhin, I; Zolotukhin, S; Muzyczka, N; Hayward, G S; Byrne, B J

    1999-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV) vectors have recently been used to achieve long-term, high level transduction in vivo. Further development of rAAV vectors for clinical use requires significant technological improvements in large-scale vector production. In order to facilitate the production of rAAV vectors, a recombinant herpes simplex virus type I vector (rHSV-1) which does not produce ICP27, has been engineered to express the AAV-2 rep and cap genes. The optimal dose of this vector, d27.1-rc, for AAV production has been determined and results in a yield of 380 expression units (EU) of AAV-GFP produced from 293 cells following transfection with AAV-GFP plasmid DNA. In addition, d27.1-rc was also efficient at producing rAAV from cell lines that have an integrated AAV-GFP provirus. Up to 480 EU/cell of AAV-GFP could be produced from the cell line GFP-92, a proviral, 293 derived cell line. Effective amplification of rAAV vectors introduced into 293 cells by infection was also demonstrated. Passage of rAAV with d27. 1-rc results in up to 200-fold amplification of AAV-GFP with each passage after coinfection of the vectors. Efficient, large-scale production (>109 cells) of AAV-GFP from a proviral cell line was also achieved and these stocks were free of replication-competent AAV. The described rHSV-1 vector provides a novel, simple and flexible way to introduce the AAV-2 rep and cap genes and helper virus functions required to produce high-titer rAAV preparations from any rAAV proviral construct. The efficiency and potential for scalable delivery of d27.1-rc to producer cell cultures should facilitate the production of sufficient quantities of rAAV vectors for clinical application.

  3. Hemagglutinin-based polyanhydride nanovaccines against H5N1 influenza elicit protective virus neutralizing titers and cell-mediated immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross KA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen A Ross,1 Hyelee Loyd,2 Wuwei Wu,2 Lucas Huntimer,3 Shaheen Ahmed,4 Anthony Sambol,5 Scott Broderick,6 Zachary Flickinger,2 Krishna Rajan,6 Tatiana Bronich,4 Surya Mallapragada,1 Michael J Wannemuehler,3 Susan Carpenter,2 Balaji Narasimhan1 1Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 2Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 3Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 4Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 5Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 6Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: H5N1 avian influenza is a significant global concern with the potential to become the next pandemic threat. Recombinant subunit vaccines are an attractive alternative for pandemic vaccines compared to traditional vaccine technologies. In particular, polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating subunit proteins have been shown to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity and provide protection upon lethal challenge. In this work, a recombinant H5 hemagglutinin trimer (H53 was produced and encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles. The studies performed indicated that the recombinant H53 antigen was a robust immunogen. Immunizing mice with H53 encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles induced high neutralizing antibody titers and enhanced CD4+ T cell recall responses in mice. Finally, the H53-based polyanhydride nanovaccine induced protective immunity against a low-pathogenic H5N1 viral challenge. Informatics analyses indicated that mice receiving the nanovaccine formulations and subsequently challenged with virus were similar to naïve mice that were not challenged. The current studies provide a basis to further exploit the advantages of polyanhydride nanovaccines in pandemic scenarios. Keywords: polymer, nanoparticle, vaccine, subunit

  4. Clinical input of anti-D quantitation by continuous-flow analysis on autoanalyzer in the management of high-titer anti-D maternal alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly-Ndour, Cécile; Mourtada, Haifa; Huguet-Jacquot, Stéphanie; Maisonneuve, Emeline; Friszer, Stéphanie; Pernot, Françoise; Thomas, Pauline; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Carbonne, Bruno; Cortey, Anne; Mailloux, Agnès

    2018-02-01

    In addition to titration by indirect antiglobulin test most widely used, anti-D quantitation by continuous-flow analysis (CFA) may be performed to assess severity of maternal immunization. Only five studies have reported its added value in the management of pregnancies complicated by anti-D immunization. A retrospective study of 74 severe anti-D-immunized pregnancies was conducted from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, in the Trousseau Hospital in Paris (France). Concentration of maternal anti-D was measured by titration and by CFA two-stages method (2SM; total amount of anti-D) and one-stage method (1SM; high-affinity IgG1 anti-D). These biologic data were analyzed according to the severity of the hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The value of 5 IU anti-D/mL in maternal serum is validated as a threshold to trigger ultrasonographic and Doppler fetal close follow-up. A high 1SM/2SM ratio was associated with a higher risk of intrauterine transfusion (IUT). For pregnancies requiring IUT and without increasing titer, maternal 1SM anti-D concentration tends to correlate with the precocity of fetal anemia. In the "without-IUT" group 1SM and 2SM anti-D concentrations correlate significantly with cord bilirubin levels of the newborn at birth. Altogether our results underline the importance of anti-D quantitation by CFA to optimize the management of anti-D-alloimmunized pregnancies. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Effects of vaccination against coccidiosis, with and without a specific herbal essential oil blend, on performance, oocyst excretion and serum IBD titers of broilers reared on litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çınar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of oral administration of a live attenuated vaccine (VAC and an essential oil blend (EOB, either alone or in combination, as a novel anticoccidial strategy for broiler chickens with a mixed Eimeria spp. infection. A total of 624 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of six treatments. Two of the groups, only one of which was challenged with coccidiosis, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The other two groups, also infected, were given a basal diet supplemented with monensin sodium (MON, 100 mg/kg or the EOB (75 mg/kg. Of the remaining two groups, which were infected with coccidiosis, one was vaccinated against coccidiosis (VAC and the other was both vaccinated and fed a diet with an EOB (VAC+EOB. Birds treated with VAC and VAC+EOB had comparable live performance to MON-fed birds challenged with coccidiosis. Conversely, EOB diet supplementation had negative effects on growth, feed intake and feed conversion ratio throughout the growth period. None of the coccidial control strategies affected the overall performance of uninfected birds. There was no significant difference in mortality among treatments. All of the anticoccidial procedures kept serum infectious bursal disease titers at high levels after coccidial infection and reduced fecal oocyst excretion, with the exception of the MON-based procedure. The results indicate that vaccination against coccidiosis, with or without EOB, demonstrated the same efficacy in promoting recovery from coccidial infection and in reducing oocyst shedding as MON.

  6. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Philipp; Wallich, Reinhard; Nassal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF), and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC). Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) derived capsid-like particles (CLPs) to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission. PMID:26352137

  7. Recovery of Nicotiana benthamiana plants from a necrotic response induced by a nepovirus is associated with RNA silencing but not with reduced virus titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Juan; Walker, Melanie; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2007-11-01

    Recovery of plants from virus-induced symptoms is often described as a consequence of RNA silencing, an antiviral defense mechanism. For example, recovery of Nicotiana clevelandii from a nepovirus (tomato black ring virus) is associated with a decreased viral RNA concentration and sequence-specific resistance to further virus infection. In this study, we have characterized the interaction of another nepovirus, tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), with host defense responses during symptom induction and subsequent recovery. Early in infection, ToRSV induced a necrotic phenotype in Nicotiana benthamiana that showed characteristics typical of a hypersensitive response. RNA silencing was also activated during ToRSV infection, as evidenced by the presence of ToRSV-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that could direct degradation of ToRSV sequences introduced into sensor constructs. Surprisingly, disappearance of symptoms was not accompanied by a commensurate reduction in viral RNA levels. The stability of ToRSV RNA after recovery was also observed in N. clevelandii and Cucumis sativus and in N. benthamiana plants carrying a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 ortholog from Medicago truncatula. In experiments with a reporter transgene (green fluorescent protein), ToRSV did not suppress the initiation or maintenance of transgene silencing, although the movement of the silencing signal was partially hindered. Our results demonstrate that although RNA silencing is active during recovery, reduction of virus titer is not required for the initiation of this phenotype. This scenario adds an unforeseen layer of complexity to the interaction of nepoviruses with the host RNA silencing machinery. The possibility that viral proteins, viral RNAs, and/or virus-derived siRNAs inactivate host defense responses is discussed.

  8. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) based real-time measurement of titer dependent cytotoxicity induced by adenoviral vectors in an IPI-2I cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jakob; Thirion, Christian; Pfaffl, Michael W

    2011-01-15

    Recombinant viral vectors are widespread tools for transfer of genetic material in various modern biotechnological applications like for example RNA interference (RNAi). However, an accurate and reproducible titer assignment represents the basic step for most downstream applications regarding a precise multiplicity of infection (MOI) adjustment. As necessary scaffold for the studies described in this work we introduce a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based approach for viral particle measurement. Still an implicated problem concerning physiological effects is that the appliance of viral vectors is often attended by toxic effects on the individual target. To determine the critical viral dose leading to cell death we developed an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) based assay. With ECIS technology the impedance change of a current flow through the cell culture medium in an array plate is measured in a non-invasive manner, visualizing effects like cell attachment, cell-cell contacts or proliferation. Here we describe the potential of this online measurement technique in an in vitro model using the porcine ileal epithelial cell line IPI-2I in combination with an adenoviral transfection vector (Ad5-derivate). This approach shows a clear dose-depending toxic effect, as the amount of applied virus highly correlates (p<0.001) with the level of cell death. Thus this assay offers the possibility to discriminate the minimal non-toxic dose of the individual transfection method. In addition this work suggests that the ECIS-device bears the feasibility to transfer this assay to multiple other cytotoxicological questions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined hepatitis B virus-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine comprising a synthetic antigen in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Betancourt, Arístides; González-Delgado, Carlos Alberto; Cinza-Estévez, Z; Martínez-Cabrera, Jesus; Véliz-Ríos, Gloria; Alemán-Zaldívar, Regis; Alonso-Martínez, M I; Lago-Baños, M; Puble-Alvarez, N; Delahanty-Fernandez, A; Juvier-Madrazo, A I; Ortega-León, D; Olivera-Ruano, L; Correa-Fernández, A; Abreu-Reyes, D; Soto-Mestre, E; Pérez-Pérez, M V; Figueroa-Baile, N; Pérez, L Hernandez; Rodríguez-Silva, A; Martínez-Díaz, E; Guillén-Nieto, G E; Muzio-González, Verena L

    2008-01-01

    The combined HB-Hib vaccine candidate Hebervac HB-Hib (CIGB, La Habana), comprising recombinant HBsAg and tetanus toxoid conjugate synthetic PRP antigens has shown to be highly immunogenic in animal models. A phase I open, controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out to assess the safety and immunogenicity profile of this bivalent vaccine in 25 healthy adults who were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). The trial was performed according to Good Clinical Practices and Guidelines. Volunteers were randomly allocated to receive the combined vaccine or simultaneous administration of HB vaccine Heberbiovac-HB and Hib vaccine QuimiHib (CIGB, La Habana). All individuals were intramuscularly immunized with a unique dose of 10 microg HBsAg plus 10 microg conjugated synthetic PRP. Adverse events were actively recorded after vaccine administration. Total anti-HBs and IgG anti-PRP antibody titers were evaluated using commercial ELISA kits at baseline and 30 days post-vaccination. The combined vaccine candidate was safe and well tolerated. The most common adverse reactions were local pain, febricula, fever and local erythema. These reactions were all mild in intensity and resolved without medical treatment. Adverse events were mostly reported during the first 6-72 hours post-vaccination. There were no serious adverse events during the study. No severe or unexpected events were either recorded during the trial. The combined vaccine elicited an anti-HBs and anti-PRP booster response in 100% of subjects at day 30 of the immunization schedule. Anti-HBs and anti-PRP antibody levels had at least a two-fold increase compared to baseline sera. Even more, anti-HBs antibody titer showed a four-fold increase in 100% of volunteers in the study group. The results indicate that the combined HB-Hib vaccine produces increased antibody levels in healthy adults who have previously been exposed to these two antigens. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of safety and

  10. Undetectable quantum transfer through a continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Jing; Ye, Yin [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Luting [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Xin-Qi, E-mail: xqli@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yan, YiJing [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Gurvitz, Shmuel [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that a quantum particle, initially prepared in a quantum well, can propagate through a reservoir with a continuous spectrum and reappear in a distant well without being registered in the reservoir. It is shown that such a passage through the reservoir takes place even if the latter is continuously monitored. We discuss a possible experimental realization of such a teleportation phenomenon in mesoscopic systems.

  11. Homegrown violent extremists: A seemingly undetectable threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Justin

    2017-04-01

    With today’s unlimited and instantaneous communication, it is easy for a United States citizen to easily connect with anyone in the world. There are many positives to this; however, the unintended consequences include vulnerable people being influenced by radical ideologies. This is evident with the increase in homegrown violent extremists (HVE).The challenge for law enforcement is how to work with constitutional constraints that require a criminal predicate to be present in order to allow intelligence teams to continue collecting information in a permanent file.

  12. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I infection, antibody titers and cause-specific mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisawa, Kokichi; Soda, Midori; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Lab.; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Nakashima, Eiji; Tomonaga, Masao; Saito, Hiroshi

    1998-08-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies on the long-term health effects of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection. The authors performed a cohort study of HTLV-I infection and cause-specific mortality in 3,090 atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, Japan, who were followed from 1985-1987 to 1995. The prevalence of HTLV-I seropositivity in men and women was 99/1,196 (8.3%) and 171/1,894 (9.0%), respectively. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 448 deaths occurred. There was one nonfatal case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (incidence rate=0.46 cases/1,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-2.6). After adjustment for sex, age and other potential confounders, significantly increased risk among HTLV-I carriers was observed for deaths from all causes (rate ratio (RR)=1.41), all cancers (RR=1.64), liver cancer (RR=3.04), and heart diseases (RR=2.22). The association of anti-HTLV-I seropositivity with mortality from all non-neoplastic diseases (RR=1.40) and chronic liver diseases (RR=5.03) was of borderline significance. Possible confounding by blood transfusions and hepatitis C/B (HCV/HBV) viral infections could not be precluded in this study. However, even after liver cancer and chronic liver diseases were excluded, mortality rate was still increased among HTLV-I carriers (RR=1.32, 95% CI 0.99-1.78), especially among those with high antibody titers (RR=1.56, 95% CI 0.99-2.46, P for trend=0.04). These findings may support the idea that HTLV-I infection exerts adverse effects on mortality from causes other than adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Further studies on confounding by HCV/HBV infections and the interaction between HCV/HBV and HTLV-I may be required to analyze the increased mortality from liver cancer and chronic liver diseases. (author)

  13. Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue 2 envelope forms virus-like particles without pre-membrane protein and induces high titer neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Mani

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease with a global prevalence. It is caused by four closely-related dengue viruses (DENVs 1-4. A dengue vaccine that can protect against all four viruses is an unmet public health need. Live attenuated vaccine development efforts have encountered unexpected interactions between the vaccine viruses, raising safety concerns. This has emphasized the need to explore non-replicating dengue vaccine options. Virus-like particles (VLPs which can elicit robust immunity in the absence of infection offer potential promise for the development of non-replicating dengue vaccine alternatives. We have used the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris to develop DENV envelope (E protein-based VLPs. We designed a synthetic codon-optimized gene, encoding the N-terminal 395 amino acid residues of the DENV-2 E protein. It also included 5' pre-membrane-derived signal peptide-encoding sequences to ensure proper translational processing, and 3' 6× His tag-encoding sequences to facilitate purification of the expressed protein. This gene was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris host and expressed under the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter by methanol induction. Recombinant DENV-2 protein, which was present in the insoluble membrane fraction, was extracted and purified using Ni(2+-affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. Amino terminal sequencing and detection of glycosylation indicated that DENV-2 E had undergone proper post-translational processing. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of discrete VLPs in the purified protein preparation after dialysis. The E protein present in these VLPs was recognized by two different conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Low doses of DENV-2 E VLPs formulated in alum were immunogenic in inbred and outbred mice eliciting virus neutralizing titers >1,1200 in flow cytometry based assays and protected AG129 mice against lethal challenge (p<0.05. The formation of immunogenic DENV-2 E

  14. Immune responses to epstein-barr virus in atomic bomb survivors: Study of precursor frequency of cytotoxic lymphocytes and titer levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Saito, Mayumi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hirai, Yuko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Fukuda, Yasuko; Huang, Hua

    1994-01-01

    Precursor frequencies of cytotoxic lymphocytes to autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies were measured in 68 atomic bomb survivors to clarify the immune mechanism controlling Epstein-Barr virus infection. The precursor frequency was negatively correlated with the titer of anti-early antigen lgG, which is probably produced at the stage of viral reactivation. A positive correlation between the precursor frequency and titer of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen antibody was also observed, indicating that the precursor frequency reflects the degree of in vivo destruction by T cells of the virus-infected cells. These results suggest that T-cell memory specific to Epstein-Barr virus keeps the virus under control and that the precursor frequency assay is useful for the evaluation of immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus. However, no significant effect of atomic bomb radiation on the precursor frequency was observed in the present study, probably due to the limited number of participants. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Immune responses to epstein-barr virus in atomic bomb survivors: Study of precursor frequency of cytotoxic lymphocytes and titer levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Saito, Mayumi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hirai, Yuko; Akiyama, Mitoshi (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Fukuda, Yasuko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) Children' s Hospital Medical Center of Northern California, Oakland, CA (United States)); Huang, Hua (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Precursor frequencies of cytotoxic lymphocytes to autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies were measured in 68 atomic bomb survivors to clarify the immune mechanism controlling Epstein-Barr virus infection. The precursor frequency was negatively correlated with the titer of anti-early antigen lgG, which is probably produced at the stage of viral reactivation. A positive correlation between the precursor frequency and titer of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen antibody was also observed, indicating that the precursor frequency reflects the degree of in vivo destruction by T cells of the virus-infected cells. These results suggest that T-cell memory specific to Epstein-Barr virus keeps the virus under control and that the precursor frequency assay is useful for the evaluation of immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus. However, no significant effect of atomic bomb radiation on the precursor frequency was observed in the present study, probably due to the limited number of participants. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of a modified process hepatitis B vaccine in healthy neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Gianmaria; McCarson, Barbara J; Reisinger, Keith S; Martin, Jason C; Stek, Jon E; Atkins, Barbara M; Nadig, Karin B; Liska, Vladimir; Schödel, Florian P; Bhuyan, Prakash K

    2012-02-14

    A manufacturing process using a modified adjuvant was developed to optimize the consistency and immunogenicity for recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (control: RECOMBIVAX-HB™). This modified process hepatitis B vaccine (mpHBV), which was previously shown to have an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in young adults, has now been studied in newborn infants. Healthy 1-10-day-old neonates (N=566) received 3 intramuscular doses (5μg hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] per dose) of either mpHBV or control at Day 1, and Months 1 and 6. Serum antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) was assayed at Month 7 (1 month Postdose 3). Anti-HBs geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroprotection rates (SPRs) (% of subjects with an anti-HBs titer ≥10mIU/mL) were compared at Month 7. After each dose, injection-site adverse experiences (AEs) and axillary temperatures were recorded for 5 days; systemic AEs were recorded for Days 1-14. Month 7 SPR was 97.9% for the mpHBV group and 98.9% for the control. The GMT was 843.7mIU/mL for the mpHBV group and 670.1mIU/mL for the control. The GMT ratio (mpHBV/control) was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 1.69), meeting the prespecified non-inferiority criteria. The percentages of subjects reporting any AE, injection-site AEs, or systemic AEs were similar across the 2 vaccination groups. There were no serious AEs. The safety profile of mpHBV was comparable to that of the control vaccine. The geometric mean antibody titer for mpHBV was higher than control vaccine in this infant population, but the difference did not meet the predefined statistical criterion for superiority. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-utility analysis of immune tolerance induction therapy versus on-demand treatment with recombinant factor VII for hemophilia A with high titer inhibitors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasekh HR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Rasekh1, Ali Imani1, Mehran Karimi2, Mina Golestani11Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Management and Pharmacoeconomics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran, 2University of Shiraz Medical Sciences, Hematology Research Center, Shiraz, IranBackground: In developing countries, the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors is presently the most challenging and serious issue in hemophilia management, direct costs of clotting factor concentrates accounting for >98% of the highest economic burden absorbed for the health care of patients in this setting. In the setting of chronic diseases, cost-utility analysis, which takes into account the beneficial effects of a given treatment/health care intervention in terms of health-related quality of life, is likely to be the most appropriate approach.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of immune tolerance induction (ITI therapy with plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates versus on-demand treatment with recombinant-activated FVIIa (rFVIIa in hemophilia A with high titer inhibitors from an Iranian Ministry of Health perspective.Methods: This study was based on the study of Knight et al, which evaluated the cost-effectiveness ratios of different treatments for hemophilia A with high-responding inhibitors. To adapt Knight et al's results to the Iranian context, a few clinical parameters were varied, and cost data were replaced with the corresponding Iranian estimates of resource use. The time horizon of the analysis was 10 years. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed, varying the cost of the clotting factor, the drug dose, and the administration frequency, to test the robustness of the analysis.Results: Comparison of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the three ITI protocols and the on-demand regimen with rFVIIa shows that all three ITI protocols dominate the on-demand regimen with r

  18. Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Böhm, J

    2012-04-01

    Although acute mycotoxicoses are rare in poultry production, chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins is responsible for reduced productivity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate immune function, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of DON on the vaccinal immune response. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, an experiment with 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) was carried out to examine the effects of feeding DON-contaminated low-protein grower diets on performance, serum biochemical parameters, lymphoid organ weight, and antibody titers to infectious bronchitis vaccination in serum and to evaluate the effects of Mycofix select dietary supplementation in either the presence or absence of DON in broilers. In total, thirty-two 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets supplemented with Mycofix select; and 4) control diet supplemented with Mycofix select. Feeding of contaminated diets decreased (P = 0.000) the feed intake, BW (P = 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.044), and feed efficiency during the grower phase. Deoxynivalenol affected the blood biochemistry, whereas plasma total protein and uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were decreased compared with those of the controls. Moreover, in birds fed contaminated feeds, there was a tendency to reduce triglycerides in the plasma (P = 0.090), suggesting that DON in the diets affected protein and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. The feeding of contaminated diets altered the immune response in broilers by reducing the total lymphocyte count. Similarly, the antibody response against infectious bronchitis vaccination

  19. Usefulness of radioiodine scanning in patients with moderate/high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma in whom thyroglobulin after thyroxin withdrawal is undetectable after initial treatment; Valor da varredura com radioiodo em pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado de tireoide de moderado/alto risco com tireoglobulina (sem tiroxina) indetectavel apos o tratamento inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley S.; Cardoso, Ludmilla David; Fagundes, Tales Alvarenga; Reis, Janice Sepulveda; Maia, Frederico F. Ribeiro; Purisch, Saulo [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tireoide. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia]. E-mail: cepcem.bhz@terra.com.br

    2004-06-01

    We selected 92 patients without anti thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), in whom thyroglobulin (Tg) after L-thyroxin withdrawal was undetectable (<1 ng/ml) 6-12 months after initial therapy and who were considered to be at moderate / high risk for recurrence by this criteria: age {>=}45 years; tumor size >1.5 cm; and lymph nodes metastases in 43 (46.7%), local invasion in 26 (28.2%) or distant metastases in 23 (25%). Control whole-body scanning was negative in 78.2% of the cases and showed cervical uptake in the others. Cases presenting thyroid bed uptake in the absence of tumor recurrence did not receive radioiodine and Tg remained undetectable one year after the initial evaluation in all. Cervical uptake was not observed in 4/13 cases on repeated scan. In contrast, even in the absence of uptake and with undetectable Tg, 7 patients with recurrence confirmed by ultrasound (US) received surgical treatment. US showed 92.8% sensitivity for the detection of local-regional disease. The present study suggests that even moderate/high-risk patients without TgAb and with undetectable T g levels (off T{sub 4}) do not require radioiodine scanning after initial treatment and can be evaluated by cervical US. (author)

  20. Comparison between Roche and Xpert in HIV-1 RNA quantitation: A high concordance between the two techniques except for a CRF02_AG subtype variant with high viral load titters detected by Roche but undetected by Xpert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor, Boaz; Matus, Natalia; Girshengorn, Shirley; Achsanov, Svetlana; Gielman, Simona; Zeldis, Irene; Schweitzer, Inbal; Adler, Amos; Turner, Dan

    2017-08-01

    HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is important to predict viral progression and to monitor the response to antiretroviral therapy. New HIV-1 VL tests are continuously introduced to the market. Their performance is usually compared to Abbott and/or Roche HIV-1 VL assays, as reference. The Xpert HIV-1 VL test was recently introduced, but its performance compared to Roche has not been sufficiently studied. To compare the Xpert assay with Roche and to assess its use in the HIV clinical laboratory. A total of 383 plasma samples of HIV-1 infected patients previously tested by Roche, were retrospectively tested by Xpert to determine concordance between the two assays. Samples included a diversity of HIV-1 subtypes and a wide range of VLs. There was a high concordance between the two assays, except for a CRF02_AG subtype variant with high VL titters, that was detected by Roche but undetected by Xpert. The 5' long terminal repeat gene region of this virus, targeted by the Xpert assay, was amplified and sequenced. A 25 nucleotide insert was identified, but was unmatched to any known sequences of HIV-1. This particular insert, however could not explain the false-negativity by the Xpert assay. This study underlines the challenge to routine VL testing due to the high genetic diversity of HIV-1. Clinicians should, therefore be advised that a negative VL in cases where the clinical picture does not match the laboratory report, might in fact be, a false-negative result of the VL assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of high-titer lactic acid fermentation from NaOH- and NH3-H2O2-pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenting; Xie, Yuejiao; He, Xiaolan; Li, Xinli; Hu, Jinlong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is one of the most abundant renewable feedstocks that has attracted considerable attention as a substrate for biofuel and biochemical production. One such biochemical product, lactic acid, is an important fermentation product because of its great potential for the production of biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid. High-titer lactic acid production from lignocellulosic materials has been achieved recently; however, it requires biodetoxification or results in large amounts of waste washing water. In this study, we employed two alkaline pretreatment methods and compared their effects on lactic acid fermentation of pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile conditions. The lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 16% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated and washed corncob were 122.99 g/L, 0.77 g/g corncob, and 1.37 g/L/h, respectively, and from 16% NH3-H2O2-pretreated and washed corncob were 118.60 g/L, 0.74 g/g corncob, and 1.32 g/L/h, respectively. Importantly, the lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 18.4% NH3-H2O2-pretreated and unwashed corncob by using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reached 79.47 g/L, 0.43 g/g corncob, and 1.10 g/L/h, respectively, demonstrating that this method is possible for industrial applications and saves washing water. PMID:27853308

  2. Comparison of high-titer lactic acid fermentation from NaOH- and NH3-H2O2-pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenting; Xie, Yuejiao; He, Xiaolan; Li, Xinli; Hu, Jinlong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-11-17

    Lignocellulose is one of the most abundant renewable feedstocks that has attracted considerable attention as a substrate for biofuel and biochemical production. One such biochemical product, lactic acid, is an important fermentation product because of its great potential for the production of biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid. High-titer lactic acid production from lignocellulosic materials has been achieved recently; however, it requires biodetoxification or results in large amounts of waste washing water. In this study, we employed two alkaline pretreatment methods and compared their effects on lactic acid fermentation of pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile conditions. The lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 16% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated and washed corncob were 122.99 g/L, 0.77 g/g corncob, and 1.37 g/L/h, respectively, and from 16% NH 3 -H 2 O 2 -pretreated and washed corncob were 118.60 g/L, 0.74 g/g corncob, and 1.32 g/L/h, respectively. Importantly, the lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 18.4% NH 3 -H 2 O 2 -pretreated and unwashed corncob by using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reached 79.47 g/L, 0.43 g/g corncob, and 1.10 g/L/h, respectively, demonstrating that this method is possible for industrial applications and saves washing water.

  3. Production of high titer attenuated poliovirus strains on the serum-free PER.C6(®) cell culture platform for the generation of safe and affordable next generation IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; Oakes, Isabel de los Rios; van Hoek, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Marissen, Wilfred; Minor, Philip D; Wimmer, Eckard; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Custers, Jerome H H V; Macadam, Andrew; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2015-11-27

    As poliovirus eradication draws closer, alternative Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines (IPV) are needed to overcome the risks associated with continued use of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and of neurovirulent strains used during manufacture of conventional (c) IPV. We have previously demonstrated the susceptibility of the PER.C6(®) cell line to cIPV strains; here we investigated the suspension cell culture platform for growth of attenuated poliovirus strains. We examined attenuated Sabin strain productivity on the PER.C6(®) cell platform compared to the conventional Vero cell platform. The suitability of the suspension cell platform for propagation of rationally-attenuated poliovirus strains (stabilized Sabin type 3 S19 derivatives and genetically attenuated and stabilized MonoCre(X) strains), was also assessed. Yields were quantified by infectious titer determination and D-antigen ELISA using either serotype-specific polyclonal rabbit sera for Sabin strains or monoclonal cIPV-strain-specific antibodies for cIPV, S19 and MonoCre(X) strains. PER.C6(®) cells supported the replication of Sabin strains to yields of infectious titers that were in the range of cIPV strains at 32.5°C. Sabin strains achieved 30-fold higher yields (pSabin strain productivity on the PER.C6(®) cell platform was maintained at 10l scale. Yields of infectious titers of S19 and MonoCre(X) strains were 0.5-1 log10 lower than seen for cIPV strains, whereas D-antigen yield and productivities in doses/ml using rationally-attenuated strains were in line with yields reported for cIPV strains. Sabin and rationally-attenuated polioviruses can be grown to high infectious titers and D-antigen yields. Sabin strain infection shows increased productivity on the PER.C6(®) cell platform as compared to the conventional Vero cell platform. Novel cell platforms with the potential for higher yields could contribute to increased affordability of a next generation of IPV vaccines needed for achieving and

  4. Reaction titration: a convenient method for titering reactive hydride agents (Red-Al, LiAlH4, DIBALH, L-Selectride, NaH, and KH) by No-D NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Thomas R; Aspaas, Andrew W; Eklov, Brian M; Ryba, Troy D

    2005-05-26

    The concentration of reactive metal hydride (Met-H) reducing agents can be determined (in < or = 20 min) using No-D NMR spectroscopy. The method involves (i) reacting Met-H with an excess of p-methoxybenzaldehyde, (ii) quenching with excess acetic acid, (iii) recording the No-D NMR spectrum of this homogeneous mixture, and (iv) deducing the concentration of Met-H from the % conversion (as measured by integration). By a conceptually related method, the titer of the basic alkali metal hydrides KH and NaH can also be determined.

  5. A case of high-titer anti-D hemolytic disease of the newborn in which late onset and mild course is associated with the D variant, RHD-CE(9)-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne A; Nielsen, Christian; Sprogøe, Ulrik

    2014-10-01

    The RhD antigen is very immunogenic and is a significant cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The RHD-CE(8-9)-D hybrid allele is commonly associated with a D- phenotype. Here, we report a case of high-titer maternal anti-D and late onset of HDN in a newborn carrying a RHD-CE(9)-D variant supposedly encoding the same partial D antigen as the RHD-CE(8-9)-D allele, but with significant expression of D antigen. To elucidate the blood group antigen background of the case, we carried out serologic, flow cytometric, and genetics studies of the newborn and his father. Individuals carrying the RHD-CE(9)-D allele do express D antigen, but do so at significantly lower levels than those carrying the more common D+ phenotypes (e.g., DCe/dce). It may mitigate and delay otherwise severe HDN in pregnancies complicated by high-titer anti-D. © 2014 AABB.

  6. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying the application of gamma radiation in removing fungal contamination of poultry grain and the effect of this radiation on changing the immunity titer related to vaccinate SPF chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhoseini, Gh. R.

    1998-01-01

    Considering the existing problems in discarding or reducing the fungal contamination of poultry grain, due to the conventional methods being inadequate, for example remainder of fungal toxins (using chemical substance) or grain's dampness (using autoclave) etc, make us using nuclear techniques to remove these problems. First specification and determination of contamination types and also determination types and also determination of different kinds of fungal contamination and their amount in the poultry grain was done. The most fungal contamination were Aspergillus in the starter grain. Then biochemical analysis in poultry grain and determination of existence and the amount of Aflatoxin was done. Then gamma radiation of Co-60 from 1 to 6 kilo grays doses were applied in order to reduce or remove the contamination and finally 6 kilo gray dose was chosen. Rechecking the irradiated grains 4-5 months after application of gamma radiation in different moisture and temperatures (in cellophane packaging) revealed 6 kilo gray dose not only has constant effect in removal of fungal contamination and Aflatoxin (in the two cases) but also has no negative effect on the grain's compounds. In the continuation of this research two types of grain: non-irradiated and irradiated were fed to identical groups of SPF chickens in three different time periods. The follow up experiments showed the immune titers in the chickens fed on the irradiated grain were lower than the immune titers in the chickens fed on the non-irradiated grain. (author)

  8. Hepatitis B core antigen antibody as an indicator of a low grade carrier state for hepatitis B virus in a Saudi Arabian blood donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernvil, S S; Andrews, V; Kuhns, M C; McNamara, A L

    1997-03-01

    Blood donor screening for anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was introduced as a surrogate marker of non-A, non-B hepatitis prior to the availability of a specific test for hepatitis C. In areas endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV), such as Saudi Arabia, earlier studies indicated that up to 30% of blood donors might disqualify if screened for anti-HBc. The issue was readdressed in a study of 6035 consecutive first-time Saudi national blood donors in an attempt to identify a subgroup of anti-HBc positive donors who might be at high risk of being low grade carriers of HBV. An isolated anti-HBc of high titer in a donor with a low or absent anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) was taken as an indicator of increased risk of a low grade carrier state. Using this algorithm, an additional 125 (2%) donors would disqualify. HBsAg immune complex assays and polymerase chain reaction of donor samples with an isolated anti-HBc identified two donors with immune complexes and two donors with HBV DNA. All four donor samples expressed over 90% neutralization in the anti-HBc supplementary testing, indicating high titer anti-HBc. These findings seem to support the suggested policy of donor exclusion based on the anti-HBc and anti-HBsAg serology as a means to eliminate low grade carriers of HBV in endemic areas without jeopardizing the blood supply.

  9. [Immunomodulation by herbal agents. A double-blind study in a medical university hospital involving a hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, H C; Bödeker, R H; Dames, W; Henneicke-von Zepelin, H H; Siegers, C P; Stammwitz, U

    2002-12-05

    Using the hepatitis B vaccination as a model, to investigate the extent to which the herbal immunomodulator, Esberitox N, supports seroconversion. 346 medical students participated in the placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind study. They took 3 x 2 tablets of the test substances daily, beginning 3 days prior to the injection and ending two weeks after it. The target outcomes were seroconversion and the level of the anti-HBs titer. The data of 157 volunteers treated with the test substance, and 161 treated with placebo were analysed. After the first injection, the seroconversion rate was 22% in both test substance and placebo groups, and showed no advantage for the volunteers receiving the test substance. After the second injection, 89% of all members of each group revealed seroconversion. After the first injection, anti-HBs titers were appreciably higher in the test substance group (n = 34) than in the placebo group (n = 36; PWilcoxon = 0.003). The respective median values were 37.0 IU/L (95% CI: 18-68) and 15.5 IU/L (95% CI: 8-30). The immunomodulator tested has negligible influence on seroconversion, but does enhance the immune response of subjects experiencing seroconversion.

  10. A case of high-titer anti-D hemolytic disease of the newborn in which late onset and mild course is associated with the D variant, RHD-CE(9)-D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne A; Nielsen, Christian; Sprogøe, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The RhD antigen is very immunogenic and is a significant cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The RHD-CE(8-9)-D hybrid allele is commonly associated with a D- phenotype. Here, we report a case of high-titer maternal anti-D and late onset of HDN in a newborn carrying a RHD......-CE(9)-D variant supposedly encoding the same partial D antigen as the RHD-CE(8-9)-D allele, but with significant expression of D antigen. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To elucidate the blood group antigen background of the case, we carried out serologic, flow cytometric, and genetics studies of the newborn...

  11. Effect of adding crushed Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris mixture to antibiotics-free rations of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers on growth performance, antibody titer and haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Z. Athamneh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of crushed Pimpinella anisum (PA, Nigella sativa (NS seeds and Thymus vulgaris (TV mixture as a feed additive on growth performance and mortality rate (MR, selected antibodies titer (Ab’s and blood hematological profile of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Lohman male broiler chicks fed free-antibiotics ration. A total of 400 one-day old chicks were distributed into 16 groups (4 treatment x 4 replicates x 25chicks. The experiment lasted from one to 42 days of age. The statistical findings of this experiment prove that the use of medicinal plants mixture improves live body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and MR of vaccinated male broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. antibodies titer against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease of non-vaccinated and vaccinated male broilers were significantly improved at 21 and 42 days as a result of the addition of medicinal plant mixture to the basal ration. Concerning Newcastle disease, the use of PA, NS and TV mixture did not reflect in any additional improvement of Ab's than vaccines did. The addition of medicinal plants mixture increases WBC's, RBC's, thrombocytes count and Hb concentration of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers at 21 days of age. Meanwhile, heterophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of vaccinated male broilers (VMB were significantly improved by adding medicinal plant mixture to their basal diet. Moreover, at 42 days of age the use of PA, NS seeds and TV mixture indicate significant increase in total WBC’s, lymphocytes and monocytes and monocytes count of VMB and non-vaccinated male broiler (NVMB. No significant differences were noticed in RBC’s and Hct as a result of feeding crushed medicinal plants mixture.

  12. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Njie-Jobe, Jainaba; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. TÍTULO DE ANTIESTREPTOLISINA O Y FRECUENCIA DE ESTREPTOCOCOS BETAHEMOLÍTICOS EN ESTUDIANTES DE 10 A 15 AÑOS DEL MUNICIPIO FRANCISCO LINARES ALCÁNTARA, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA I ASTO TITERS AND BETAHEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI FREQUENCY IN 10 TO 15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS FROM MUNICIPALITY FRANCISCO LINARES ALCANTARA, ARAGUA STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Nancy Gutierrez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups A (EBHGA, Streptococcus pyogenes, C (EBHGC and G (EBHGG induces the production of anti-streptolysin O antibodies (ASTO in infected individuals. In Venezuela, the most common tests used to measure these antibodies are bacterial toxins neutralizing and indirect (passive agglutination with latex particles. Individuals colonized by the aforementioned bacteria can remain as asymptomatic carriers. The purpose of this study was to determine ASO titers and frequency of beta-hemolytic streptococci in 203 students 10-15 years old from the municipality Francisco Linares Alcantara. The ASO titers were determined by neutralization and indirect (passive agglutination tests; EBH frequency was determined through the throat swab culture, which was performed on blood agar at 5%. It was found that 88.6% (180/203 and 53.2% (108/203 of the individuals had normal titers by the method of neutralization and agglutination, respectively. The most frequently isolated EBH belonged to G group (42%, followed by B (26%, A (11% and C (5% groups. There was a large discrepancy between the results from culture and serology. The Fisher exact test found no significant difference between the proportions of high titers for groups of healthy patients and asymptomatic carriers. These results indicate that the behavior of the ASTO titers is similar in both groups.

  14. No response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants born to HBsAg(+) mothers is associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Yingli; Jin, Dongfang; Liu, Jinfeng; Zheng, Jie; Yuan, Ningxia; Bai, Yun; Yan, Taotao; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Shulin; Zhao, Yingren; Chen, Tianyan

    2017-08-01

    No or low hepatitis B (HB) vaccine response is more frequent in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers than those from HBsAg(-). Our previous study found temporary positivity of HBsAg in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers. In this study, we hypothesized that HBsAg in infant blunt immune response to standard hepatitis B vaccination. A total of 328 consecutive HBsAg(+) mothers and their offspring were enrolled. Blood samples were taken from mothers and their infants and quantified for HBsAg, anti-HBs titer and HBV DNA load concentration; Placenta samples were collected to stain for HBsAg. First, 6.7% infants (22/328) showed anti-HBs titer lower than 10 mIU/mL after HB vaccination (non-response to HB vaccine). HBsAg(+) newborns showed higher risk of non-response than HBsAg(-) infants (13.0% versus 5.0%, p = 0.016). Infants from high HBsAg titer mothers displayed higher risk of HBsAg positivity at birth than those from low titer mothers (45.3% versus 2.8%, p < 0.001). HBsAg titer in mothers of HBsAg(+) newborns was much higher than mothers of HBsAg(-) newborns (p < 0.001). All those data supported HBsAg can be transferred through placenta. Our hypothesis was further reinforced by immunostaining with specific antibody against HBsAg, a substantial higher prevalence (87.5% versus 30.8%, p = 0.024) and stronger immunostaining (p = 0.008) was demonstrated in HBsAg(+) group comparing with placenta of the HBsAg(-) group. No response to HB vaccine in infants of HBsAg(+) mothers was associated to the transplacental transfer of HBsAg.

  15. Potential risk of HBV reactivation in patients with resolved HBV infection undergoing direct-acting antiviral treatment for HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Takeo; Ura, Kazuya

    2018-01-01

    Despite a known risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-HBV coinfection, it remains unclear whether patients with past HBV infection are at risk for reactivation. This study evaluated the risk of HBV reactivation during treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens, focusing on patients with resolved HBV infection. This study analyzes the data of 183 consecutive patients treated with SOF-based regimens. From these patients, 63 with resolved HBV infection (negative for hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] and undetectable HBV DNA but positive for hepatitis B core antibody) were eligible for this study. HBV reactivation was defined as a quantifiable HBV DNA level >20 IU/mL. Among the patients antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) positive (10-500 mIU/mL) (n = 30), the titre of anti-HBs was significantly decreased with time, as shown by the results of repeated-measures analysis of variance (P = .0029). Overall, four patients (6.3%) with resolved HBV infection came to have detectable HBV DNA during treatment, including one who had HBV reactivation at week 4 (HBV DNA 80 IU/mL). However, none developed hepatic failure. Among four patients who had detectable HBV DNA during treatment, all were negative or had very low-titre (HBV infection and negative or very low-titre anti-HBs at baseline are at risk for having detectable HBV DNA transiently during treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of a booster-dose of rabies vaccine on the duration of virus neutralizing antibody titers in bovines Efeito de uma dose de reforço da vacina anti-rábica sobre a duração de títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes do vírus, em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Albas

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Humoral immune response using inactivated rabies vaccine was studied in 35 nelore cross-bred bovines of western region of São Paulo state. Ninety days after vaccination, 13 (92.8% animals presented titers 30.5IU/ml, through mouse neutralization test. After 180 days, 9 (64.3% sera showed titers 30.5IU/ml, after 270 days, only one (7.1% showed a titer of 0.51IU/ml, and after 360 days, all animals showed titers 0.5IU/ml. At 180 days, 17 (80.9% sera presented titers > 0.5IU/ml; at 270 days, 15 (71.4%, with titers 30.5IU/ml and at 360 days, 4 (19.0%, with titers 30.5IU/ml. Booster-dose ensured high levels of neutralizing antibodies for at least three months, and 240 days after revaccination, 71.4% of animals were found with titers 30.5IU/ml.A resposta humoral com vacina anti-rábica inativada foi estudada em 35 bovinos mestiços de raça nelore, na região oeste do estado de São Paulo. Noventa dias após a primo-vacinação, 13 (92,8% animais apresentaram títulos 30,5UI/ml, através da prova de soroneutralização em camundongos. Após 180 dias, 9 (64,3% soros evidenciaram títulos 30,5UI/ml; após 270 dias, apenas 1 (7,1% soro demonstrou título = 0,51 UI/ml. O grupo que recebeu dose de reforço 30 dias após primo-vacinação apresentou, dois meses depois, 21 animais com títulos > 0,5UI/ml. Aos 180 dias, 17 (80,9% soros apresentaram títulos > 0,5UI/ml; aos 270 dias, 15 (71,4% soros com títulos 30,5UI/ml; aos 360 dias, 4 (19,0% com títulos 30,5UI/ml. O reforço proporcionou nível elevado de anticorpos, por um período de três meses ou mais e, 240 dias após a revacinação, 71,4% dos animais apresentou títulos 30,5UI/ml.

  17. Assessment of the HBV vaccine response in a group of HIV-infected children in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haban, Houda; Benchekroun, Soumia; Sadeq, Mina; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Amzazi, Said; Oumzil, Hicham; Elharti, Elmir

    2017-09-29

    Since its development in the early 1980s, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been proven to be highly protective. However, its immunogenicity may be ineffective among HIV-infected children. In Morocco, HBV vaccine was introduced in 1999, and since then all infants, including vertically HIV-infected infants, have been following the vaccination schedule, implemented by the Moroccan ministry of health. An assessment of the immunization of these children is important to optimize efforts aimed at tackling Hepatitis B coinfection, within the country. Forty-nine HIV-infected children (HIV group) and 112 HIV uninfected children (control group) were enrolled in this study. Samples were tested by Elisa (Monolisa Anti-HBs, Biorad) to quantify the anti-HBs antibodies. The % of lymphocyte subsets i.e. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK, was determined by flow cytometry, using CellQuest Pro software (Becton-Dickinson), and for HIV group, HIV viral load was measured by real time PCR assay (Abbott). All variables were statistically compared in the two groups. The median age was 51 ± 35 months for the HIV group and 50 ± 36 months (p > 0.05) for the control group. Female represented 63% and 41% (p = 0.01), among the HIV group and the control group, respectively. Among HIV-infected children, 71.4% (35/49) were under HAART therapy at the enrollment in the study. Seroprotection titer i.e. anti-HBs ≥10mUI/ml among control group was 76% (85/112), and only 29% (14/49) among the perinatally HIV-infected children (p Morocco, in order to revaccinate non-immunized children.

  18. Improved survival in rhesus macaques immunized with modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope correlates with reduction in memory CD4+ T-cell loss and higher titers of neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourmanov, Ilnour; Kuwata, Takeo; Goeken, Robert; Goldstein, Simoy; Iyengar, Ranjani; Buckler-White, Alicia; Lafont, Bernard; Hirsch, Vanessa M

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that immunization of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol and Env recombinants of the attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) provided protection from high viremia and AIDS following challenge with a pathogenic strain of SIV. Although all animals became infected, plasma viremia was significantly reduced in animals that received the MVA-SIV recombinant vaccines compared with animals that received nonrecombinant MVA. Most importantly, the reduction in viremia resulted in a significant increase in median and cumulative survival. Continued analysis of these animals over the subsequent 9 years has shown that they maintain a survival advantage, although all but two of the macaques have progressed to AIDS. Importantly, improved survival correlated with preservation of memory CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood. The greatest survival advantage was observed in macaques immunized with regimens containing SIV Env, and the titer of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge virus prior to or shortly following challenge correlated with preservation of CD4(+) T cells. These data are consistent with a role for neutralizing antibodies in nonsterilizing protection from high viremia and associated memory CD4(+) T-cell loss.

  19. Novel Epstein-Barr virus-like particles incorporating gH/gL-EBNA1 or gB-LMP2 induce high neutralizing antibody titers and EBV-specific T-cell responses in immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elizabeth M; Foley, Joslyn; Tison, Timelia; Silva, Rute; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2017-03-21

    Previous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) prophylactic vaccines based on the major surface glycoprotein gp350/220 as an immunogen have failed to block viral infection in humans, suggesting a need to target other viral envelope glycoproteins. In this study, we reasoned that incorporating gH/gL or gB, critical glycoproteins for viral fusion and entry, on the surface of a virus-like particle (VLP) would be more immunogenic than gp350/220 for generating effective neutralizing antibodies to prevent viral infection of both epithelial and B cell lines. To boost the humoral response and trigger cell-mediated immunity, EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), intracellular latency proteins expressed in all EBV-infected cells, were also included as critical components of the polyvalent EBV VLP. gH/gL-EBNA1 and gB-LMP2 VLPs were efficiently produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, an FDA-approved vehicle for mass-production of biologics. Immunization with gH/gL-EBNA1 and gB-LMP2 VLPs without adjuvant generated both high neutralizing antibody titers in vitro and EBV-specific T-cell responses in BALB/c mice. These data demonstrate that will be invaluable not only in preventing EBV infection, but importantly, in preventing and treating the 200,000 cases of EBV-associated cancers that occur globally every year.

  20. Efficacy of a parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5-based H7N9 vaccine in mice and guinea pigs: antibody titer towards HA was not a good indicator for protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Li

    Full Text Available H7N9 has caused fatal infections in humans. A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale outbreaks in the human population. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5, an avirulent paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector. In this work, we generated a recombinant PIV5 expressing the HA gene of H7N9 (PIV5-H7 and tested its efficacy against infection with influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9 in mice and guinea pigs. PIV5-H7 protected the mice against lethal H7N9 challenge. Interestingly, the protection did not require antibody since PIV5-H7 protected JhD mice that do not produce antibody against lethal H7N9 challenge. Furthermore, transfer of anti-H7 serum did not protect mice against H7N9 challenge. PIV5-H7 generated high HAI titers in guinea pigs, however it did not protect against H7N9 infection or transmission. Intriguingly, immunization of guinea pigs with PIV5-H7 and PIV5 expressing NP of influenza A virus H5N1 (PIV5-NP conferred protection against H7N9 infection and transmission. Thus, we have obtained a H7N9 vaccine that protected both mice and guinea pigs against lethal H7N9 challenge and infection respectively.

  1. and B type In of hepatitis A viral The frequency viruses as the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 43% of the White patients and 50% of the Black patients in the study. ... defined and bears the non-committal name of non-A, n~n-B hepatitis. .... TABLE 11. PREVALENCE OF ANTI-HBs IN PATIENTS WITH. SUSPECTED HEPATITIS. Whites. Blacks. Anti-HBs-. Anti-HBs-. Age group reactive reactive. (yrs). No_ tested. No_.

  2. Infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B em hemofílicos em Goiás: soroprevalência, fatores de risco associados e resposta vacinal Seroprevalence, vaccination response and risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection in hemophiliacs in Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato S. Tavares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando determinar a prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B (HBV em hemofílicos em Goiás, analisar os fatores de risco associados e avaliar a resposta vacinal contra hepatite B, 102 pacientes foram entrevistados e amostras sangüíneas coletadas para detecção dos seguintes marcadores sorológicos: HBsAg, anti-HBs e anti-HBc. Uma prevalência global de 43,7% (IC 95%: 33,5-54,2 para infecção pelo HBV foi encontrada. A análise multivariada dos fatores de risco mostrou que o número de episódios transfusionais e sorologia positiva para o vírus da hepatite C estiveram significantemente associados à positividade ao HBV. Foram identificados 49 (48,1% hemofílicos susceptíveis a esta infecção, sendo imunizados 30 pacientes com a vacina recombinante Euvax-B. Destes, 28 (93,3% indivíduos apresentaram títulos de anti-HBs maiores que 10 UI/L, o que mostra uma boa resposta à vacina. Os achados deste estudo ressaltam a importância das medidas de controle e prevenção da hepatite B nesta população.In order to study the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B in hemophiliacs in Goiás, 102 patients were interviewed and blood samples collected and screened for the following serological markers: HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. An overall prevalence of 43.7% (95% IC: 33.5-54.2 was found to hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that the number of transfusions and positive serology for hepatitis C virus were significantly associated with HBV positivity. There were 48 (48.1% susceptible patients for this infection, of whom 30 were immunized with the Euvax-B vaccine. Among them, 28 (93.3% individuals developed anti-HBs titers higher than 10 IU/L. Thus, a good response was observed in the studied population. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of strategies of control and prevention of hepatitis B in this population.

  3. Comparison of four recombinant hepatitis B vaccines applied on an accelerated schedule in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Aguilar-Betancourt, Arístides; Aljovin, Virginia; Arias, Gloria; Valenzuela, Carmen; de Alejo, Karen Pérez; Hernández, Karina; Oquendo, Orcilia; Figueredo, Niurka; Figueroa, Nelvis; Musacchio, Alexis; Véliz, Gloria; García, Elizeth; Mollineda, Alina D; Juvier, Ana Isabel; Trujillo, Janette; Delahanty, Aurora; Ortega, D; Cinza, Z; González, Verena L Muzio

    2011-10-01

    A post-marketing, double blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety profiles of four commercially available recombinant hepatitis B vaccines was performed. The vaccines included in this study were Heberbiovac-HB (®) (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba), Euvax-B (®) (LG Chemical Ltd., Seoul, Korea), Hepavax-Gene (®)   (Greencross Vaccine Corp., Seoul, Korea), and Engerix-B (®) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium). Vaccines were administered intramuscularly to healthy adults in three 20mg doses at monthly intervals (0 - 1 -  2 months). Four hundred volunteers aged 18 to 45 years (average age, 35 years) non-reactive for serological markers of hepatitis B virus infection were vaccinated. Volunteers were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1:1:1) to one of the four treatment groups. The antibody response (anti-HBs) was assessed at days 60, 90 and 365 post-vaccination using a commercial kit. The four vaccines showed to be safe and highly immunogenic. Similar seroprotection rates (anti-HBs ≥10 IU/L) about one month after application of the second and third dose were obtained for Engerix-B (®) , Hepavax-Gene (®) , Euvax-B (®) , and Heberbiovac-HB (®) vaccines 96.7%, 96.6%, 100%, 100% and 98.8%, 89.5%, 100%, 100%, respectively.. Heberbiovac-HB (®) vaccine achieved significantly higher geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) and rate of good and  hyper-responders at all time-points post-vaccination. The GMT on day 365 after full vaccination was significantly reduced in all groups compared to day 90, although Heberbiovac-HB (®) showed the highest anti-HBs GMT and good-responders rate. The four vaccines were well tolerated and poorly reactogenic. No serious adverse events were observed. This study confirms an overall good immune response and rapid priming for the  four vaccines in the course of an accelerated schedule, with higher anti-HBs geometric mean concentrations and better responses for Heberbiovac-HB (®) . [WHO

  4. Soroprevalência da hepatite B e avaliação da resposta imunológica à vacinação contra a hepatite B por via intramuscular e intradérmica em profissionais de um laboratório de saúde pública Hepatitis B seroprevalence and evaluation of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination using intramuscular and intradermal routes in public health laboratory employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Moreira

    2007-10-01

    using commercial kits (Abbott® Laboratories. Employees were submitted to the conventional three-dose vaccination by intramuscular route. To those employees who did not respond to intramuscular vaccination, 5 µg doses of Engerix® B were then administered by intradermal route up to nine doses. RESULTS: Four hundred and four healthcare workers were enrolled in this study. Initially, two (0.5% and 42 (10.4% were HBsAg and anti-HBs reagent, respectively. Among the 360 negative volunteers, 316 (87.8% received three vaccine doses and in 259 of them, serum samples were collected to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Among them, 242 (93.4% showed antibodies titer higher than 10 UI/l. Intradermal vaccination was carried out in five volunteers and all of them responded to this vaccine administration route. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hepatitis B was not higher than in general population. Intradermal vaccine administration could be a good alternative in people that did not respond to previous intramuscular route.

  5. MF59- and Al(OH3-adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus (4C-Staph vaccines induce sustained protective humoral and cellular immune responses, with a critical role for effector CD4 T cells at low antibody titers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMonaci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen that may cause invasive life-threatening infections like sepsis and pneumonia. Due to increasing antibiotic-resistance, the development of an effective vaccine against S. aureus is needed. Although a correlate of protection against staphylococcal diseases is not yet established, several findings suggest that both antibodies and CD4 T cells might contribute to optimal immunity. In this study, we show that adjuvanting a multivalent vaccine (4C-Staph with MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion licensed in human vaccines, further potentiated antigen-specific IgG titers and CD4 T cell responses compared to alum and conferred protection in the peritonitis model of S. aureus infection. Moreover, we showed that MF59- and alum-adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines induced persistent antigen-specific humoral and T cell responses, and protected mice from infection up to 4 months after immunization. Furthermore, 4C-Staph formulated with MF59 was used to investigate which immune compartment is involved in vaccine-induced protection. Using CD4 T cell-depleted mice or B cell deficient mice, we demonstrated that both T and B cell responses contributed to 4C-Staph vaccine-mediated protective immunity. However, the role of CD4 T cells seemed more evident in the presence of low antibody responses. This study provides preclinical data further supporting the use of the adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines against S. aureus diseases, and provides critical insights on the correlates of protective immunity necessary to combat this pathogen.

  6. Vaccine induced Hepatitis A and B protection in children at risk for cystic fibrosis associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Esther, Charles R; Leigh, Margaret W; Dellon, Elisabeth P

    2013-01-30

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) infections can cause serious morbidity in patients with liver disease, including cystic fibrosis associated liver disease (CFALD). HAV and HBV vaccinations are recommended in CFALD, and maintenance of detectable antibody levels is also recommended with chronic liver disease. A better understanding of factors predicting low HAV and HBV antibodies may help physicians improve protection from these viruses in CFALD patients. We examined HAV and HBV vaccine protection in children at risk for CFALD. Clinical and vaccine histories were reviewed, and HAV and HBV antibody titers measured. Those with no vaccination history or low HAV or HBV titers received primary or booster vaccinations, and responses were measured. Thirty-four of 308 children were at risk for CFALD per project criteria. Ten had previous HAV vaccination, of which 90% had positive anti-HAV antibodies. Thirty-three of 34 had previously received primary HBV vaccination (most in infancy), but only 12 (35%) had adequate anti-HBs levels (≥10mIU/mL). Children with adequate anti-HBs levels were older at first HBV vaccine (median 2.3 vs. 0.1 years, p<0.01), and at final HBV vaccine (median 4.0 vs. 0.8 years, p=0.01). Fourteen of 19 (74%) responded to HBV boosters. Z-scores for BMI at HBV booster were significantly lower in booster non-responders (p=0.04). Children at increased risk of CFALD have inadequate HAV and HBV antibody levels, and HBV antibody protection can be enhanced through vaccine boosters. HBV antibody titers should be assessed in CFALD patients with a history of vaccination, particularly in those who received HBV vaccines in infancy or who are malnourished. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Hepatitis B Vaccination in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, N; Niazi, T. K.; Qureshi, M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of hepatitis B vaccination on the antibody titer in patients with chronic hepatitis C and to compare it with response in normal healthy subjects. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January 2007 to January 2012. Methodology: Hepatitis vaccination (Heberbiovac-HB 20) was given intramuscularly to the patients of chronic hepatitis C (HCV group) and normal healthy subjects (control group) at 0, 1 and 6 months intervals. Anti-HBs titer was determined after second and third injection to assess the antibody response. Results: There were 46 patients in the HCV group and 45 patients in the control group. Mean age was 40.9 A +- 9.8 years in the HCV group and 33.18 A +- 8.35 years in the control group. Weight was 67.04 A +- 13.5 kg in the HCV group and 71.78 A +- 14.63 kg in the control group. Height was 162.45 A +- 9.06 cm in the HCV group and 167.03 A +- 7.83 cm in the control group. Anti-HBs antibody levels after the second injection were 253.89 A +- 76.76 mlU/mL in the HCV group and 245.81 A +- 72.65 mlU/mL in the control group (p=0.172). After third injection, the antibody levels were slightly higher in both groups. Conclusion: In patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal healthy subjects, Heberbiovac HB in standard dosage gave sero-protective levels in both groups and antibody titers were not significantly different in control and HCV group. (author)

  8. Occult microscopic endometriosis: undetectable by laparoscopy in normal peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Fujishita, Akira; Kitajima, Michio; Hiraki, Koichi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Is there any occurrence of hidden (occult) endometriotic lesions in normal peritoneum of women with and without visible endometriosis? We detected a slightly higher occurrence of occult microscopic endometriosis (OME) in normal peritoneum of women with visible endometriosis than in control women. Based on a small number of cases, the concept of invisible microscopic endometriosis in visually normal peritoneum has been reported for more than a decade but there is controversy regarding their tissue activity and clinical significance. This case-controlled research study was conducted with prospectively collected normal peritoneal samples from 151 women with and 62 women without visible endometriosis. Normal peritoneal biopsy specimens from different pelvic sites of were collected during laparoscopy. A histological search of all peritoneal biopsy specimens for the detection of invisible endometriosis was done by immunoreaction to Ber-EP4 (epithelial cell marker), CD10 (stromal cell marker) and Calretinin (mesothelial cell marker). Tissue expression of estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was performed by immunohistochemistry to identify tissue activity. Three different patterns of OME were detected based on (I) the presence of typical gland/stroma, (II) reactive hyperplastic change of endometrioid epithelial cells with surrounding stroma and (III) single-layered epithelium-lined cystic lesions with surrounding stroma. A higher tendency toward the occurrence of OME was found in women with visible endometriosis (15.2%, 23/151) compared with control women (6.4%, 4/62) (P = 0.06, χ(2) test). The epithelial cells and/or stromal cells of OME lesions were immunoreactive to Ber-EP4 and CD10 but not reactive to Calretinin. ER and PR expression was observed in all patterns of OME lesions. Ki-67 index was significantly higher in pattern I/II OME lesions than in pattern III OME lesions (Pendometriosis due to the presence of adhesions in the pelvis. We re-confirmed a decade long old concept of invisible (occult) endometriosis in visually normal peritoneum of women with visible endometriosis. The existence of a variable amount of tissue activity in these occult lesions may contribute to the recurrence/occurrence of endometriosis or persistence/recurrence of pain manifestation in women even after successful ablation or excision of visible lesions by laparoscopy. This work was supported in part by Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. There is no conflict of interest related to this study. Not applicable.

  9. Finding undetected protein associations in cell signaling by belief propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly-Bechet, M; Borgs, C; Braunstein, A; Chayes, J; Dagkessamanskaia, A; François, J-M; Zecchina, R

    2011-01-11

    External information propagates in the cell mainly through signaling cascades and transcriptional activation, allowing it to react to a wide spectrum of environmental changes. High-throughput experiments identify numerous molecular components of such cascades that may, however, interact through unknown partners. Some of them may be detected using data coming from the integration of a protein-protein interaction network and mRNA expression profiles. This inference problem can be mapped onto the problem of finding appropriate optimal connected subgraphs of a network defined by these datasets. The optimization procedure turns out to be computationally intractable in general. Here we present a new distributed algorithm for this task, inspired from statistical physics, and apply this scheme to alpha factor and drug perturbations data in yeast. We identify the role of the COS8 protein, a member of a gene family of previously unknown function, and validate the results by genetic experiments. The algorithm we present is specially suited for very large datasets, can run in parallel, and can be adapted to other problems in systems biology. On renowned benchmarks it outperforms other algorithms in the field.

  10. Oesophageal intubation can be undetected by auscultation of the chest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K H; Schultz-Lebahn, T

    1994-01-01

    Prompt detection of oesophageal intubation is a primary concern in anaesthetic practice. This blind, randomised study evaluates three widely used tests of intubation. Forty patients had both their trachea and oesophagus intubated, each patient was studied twice. Auscultation of the epigastrium......, right and left axilla is more reliable than auscultation of the chest, and the anaesthetist's feeling when he squeezes the bag. P = 0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively. The tests were carried out after gastric distension with gas had occurred. We conclude that auscultation of epigastrium, right and left...

  11. LSB steganography with improved embedding efficiency and undetectability

    OpenAIRE

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin Yowell Yousif

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of non-adapt ive LSB steganography in still images to improve the embedding efficiency from 2 to 8/3 rand om bits per one embedding change even for the embedding rate of 1 bit per pixel. The method t akes 2-bits of the secret message at a time and compares them to the LSBs of the two chosen pix el values for embedding, it always assumes a single mismatch between the two and uses the seco nd LSB o...

  12. A Steganographic Embedding Undetectable by JPEG Compatibility Steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    itd.nrl.navy.mil Abstract. Steganography and steganalysis of digital images is a cat- and-mouse game. In recent work, Fridrich, Goljan and Du introduced a method...proposed embedding method. 1 Introduction Steganography and steganalysis of digital images is a cat-and-mouse game. Ever since Kurak and McHugh’s seminal...paper on LSB embeddings in images [10], various researchers have published work on either increasing the payload, im- proving the resistance to

  13. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Undetected by Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. T.; Williams, A. J.; Brown, J. R.; Newton, S. M.; Šimšová, Marcela; Nicol, M. P.; Šebo, Peter; Levin, M.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2006), s. 1038-1042 ISSN 1073-449X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase * diagnostic tests and procedures * mycobacterium tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.091, year: 2006

  14. Temporal lobe deficits in murderers: EEG findings undetected by PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, L M; Raine, A; Buchsbaum, M; LaCasse, L

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the same subjects. Fourteen murderers were assessed by using both PET (while they were performing the continuous performance task) and EEG during a resting state. EEG revealed significant increases in slow-wave activity in the temporal, but not frontal, lobe in murderers, in contrast to prior PET findings that showed reduced prefrontal, but not temporal, glucose metabolism. Results suggest that resting EEG shows empirical utility distinct from PET activation findings.

  15. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in Laos - 'the unsought will go undetected'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaphet Rattanavong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos, probably because people have neglected to look.We conducted a retrospective (2006-2012, and subsequent prospective study (2012-2013, at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis.We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than "conventional" endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for Bartonella endocarditis and the importance of vectors and vector control.

  16. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Stefania Falvella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T, fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C, conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer.

  17. Effect on HBs antigen clearance of addition of pegylated interferon alfa-2a to nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy versus nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy alone in patients with HBe antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B and sustained undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus DNA: a randomised, controlled, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlière, Marc; Rabiega, Pascaline; Ganne-Carrie, Nathalie; Serfaty, Lawrence; Marcellin, Patrick; Barthe, Yoann; Thabut, Dominique; Guyader, Dominique; Hezode, Christophe; Picon, Magali; Causse, Xavier; Leroy, Vincent; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Carrieri, Patrizia; Riachi, Ghassan; Rosa, Isabelle; Attali, Pierre; Molina, Jean Michel; Bacq, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Grangé, Jean Didier; Zoulim, Fabien; Fontaine, Hélène; Alric, Laurent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Carrat, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest that addition of pegylated interferon in patients with HBe antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues with undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA might increase HBs antigen (HBsAg) clearance. We aimed to assess this strategy. In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we enrolled patients aged 18-75 years with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and documented negative HBV DNA while on stable nucleos(t)ide analogue regimens for at least 1 year from 30 hepatology tertiary care wards in France. Patients had to have an alanine aminotransferase concentration of less than or equal to five times the upper normal range, no hepatocellular carcinoma, and a serum α fetoprotein concentration of less than 50 ng/mL, normal dilated fundus oculi examination, and a negative pregnancy test in women. Patients with contraindications to pegylated interferon were not eligible. A centralised randomisation used computer-generated lists of random permuted blocks of four with stratification by HBsAg titres (sida et les hépatites virales (France Recherche Nord&sud Sida-vih Hepatites). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV and combined hepatitis A and B vaccine when co-administered or administered one month apart to 9-10 year-old girls according to 0-6 month schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Vladimir; Sauvageau, Chantal; Boulianne, Nicole; De Serres, Gaston; Couillard, Michel; Krajden, Mel; Ouakki, Manale; Murphy, Donald; Trevisan, Andrea; Dionne, Marc

    2014-01-01

    No immunogenicity data has been reported after a single dose of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV-Gardasil®) and no data are available on co-administration of this vaccine with the HAV/HBV vaccine (Twinrix-Junior®). Two pre-licensure studies reported similar anti-HPV but lower anti-HBs titers when co-administering HPV and HBV vaccines. To assess the immunogenicity of the qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccine when co-administered (Group-Co-adm) or given one month apart (Group-Sep) and to measure the persistence of HPV antibodies three years post-second dose of qHPV vaccine in both study groups. 416 9-10 year-old girls were enrolled. Vaccination schedule was 0-6 months. Anti-HAV and anti-HBs were measured in all subjects 6 months post-first dose and 1 month post-second dose. Anti-HPV were measured 6 months post-first dose in Group-Co-adm and in all subjects 1 and 36 months post-second dose. Six months post-first dose: 100% of subjects had detectable anti-HAV and 56% and 73% had detectable anti-HBs in Group-Co-Adm and Group-Sep, respectively. In Group-Co-adm 94, 100, 99 and 96% had detectable antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18, respectively. One month post-second dose of qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccine, in both study groups 99.5-100% of subjects had an anti-HAV titer ≥ 20IU/L, 97.5-97.6% an anti-HBs level ≥ 10IU/L, and 100% had an anti-HPV titer ≥ 3LU. Thirty-six months post-second dose of qHPV all but four subjects (99%) had antibodies to HPV18 and 100% had antibodies to HPV6, 11 and 16. The great majority (97-100%) had an anti-HPV titer ≥ 3 LU. Post-second dose administration of qHPV and HAV/HBV, no meaningful difference was observed in the immune response in the two study groups to any component of vaccines. The results indicate that qHPV and HAV/HBV can be given during the same vaccination session. Two doses of of qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccines induce a strong immune response. Three years post-second dose of qHPV, the great majority of subjects had antibodies to HPV types

  19. Immune response and anamnestic immune response in children after a 3-dose primary hepatitis b vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.F.; Sultan, M.A.; Saleemi, A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Diseases caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a worldwide distribution. Pakistan adopted the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) for routine universal infant vaccination against hepatitis B in 2002, currently being administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in a combination vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the immune response and anamnestic immune response in children, 9 months-10 years of age, after a 3-dose primary Hepatitis B vaccination. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June, 2014. A total of 200 children of either sex between the ages of 9 months to 10 years, docu mented to have received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccines according to Expanded Program of Immunization (6,10,14 weeks) schedule in infancy, were recruited by consecutive sampling. The level of serum anti-HBsAb by ELIZA was measured. Children with anti-HBs titers =10 mIU/mL were considered to be immune. Those with anti-HBsAb levels <10 mIU/mL were offered a booster dose of infant recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The second serum sample was obtained 21-28 days following the administration of the booster dose and the anamnestic immune response was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 to determine the relation between time interval since last vaccination and antibody titer. Chi square test was applied. Results: Of the 200 children, protective antibody response was found in 58 percent. Median serological response was 18.60 (range 2.82-65.15). Antibody levels were found to have a statistically significant (p-value 0.019) negative correlation with the time since last administration of vaccine. A booster dose of Hepatitis B vaccine was administered to all non-responders, with each registering a statistically significant (p-value 0.00) anamnestic response. Conclusion: The vaccination schedule with short dosage interval was unable to provide

  20. High titers of both rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies at baseline in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are associated with increased circulating baseline TNF level, low drug levels, and reduced clinical responses: a post hoc analysis of the RISING study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Inui, Takashi; Yano, Toshiro; Yoshinari, Toru; Abe, Tohru; Koike, Takao

    2017-09-02

    Although both rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) are useful for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the impact of these autoantibodies on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors has been controversial. The aim of this post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind study (the RISING study) was to investigate the influences of RF and anti-CCP on the clinical response to infliximab in patients with RA. Methotrexate-refractory patients with RA received 3 mg/kg of infliximab from weeks 0 to 6 and then 3, 6, or 10 mg/kg every 8 weeks from weeks 14 to 46. In this post hoc analysis, patients were stratified into three classes on the basis of baseline RF/anti-CCP titers: "low/low-C" (RF < 55 IU/ml, anti-CCP < 42 U/ml), "high/high-C" (RF ≥ 160 IU/ml, anti-CCP ≥ 100 U/ml), and "middle-C" (neither low/low-C nor high/high-C). Baseline plasma TNF level, serum infliximab level, and disease activity were compared between the three classes. Baseline RF and anti-CCP titers showed significant correlations with baseline TNF and infliximab levels in weeks 2-14. Comparison of the three classes showed that baseline TNF level was lowest in the low/low-C group and highest in the high/high-C group (median 0.73 versus 1.15 pg/ml), that infliximab levels at week 14 were highest in the low/low-C group and lowest in the high/high-C group (median 1.0 versus 0.1 μg/ml), and that Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on C-reactive protein at week 14 was lowest in the low/low-C group and highest in the high/high-C group (median 3.17 versus 3.82). A similar correlation was observed at week 54 in the 3 mg/kg dosing group, but not in the 6 or 10 mg/kg group. Significant decreases in both RF and anti-CCP were observed during infliximab treatment. RF/anti-CCP titers correlated with TNF level. This might explain the association of RF/anti-CCP with infliximab level and clinical response in patients with RA

  1. Persistence of hepatitis B immune memory until 9-10 years of age following hepatitis B vaccination at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; B'Chir, Siham; Da Costa, Xavier; Vidor, Emmanuel

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies and the response to a HB challenge re-vaccination in children who had received a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T (Hexaxim™) or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T (Infanrix hexa™). Two cohorts of participants who had previously received HB vaccine at birth followed by either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T co-administered with PCV7 at 2, 4, 6 months of age in a randomized, Phase III, observer-blind study in Thailand, were followed up for anti-HBs antibodies (geometric mean concentrations [GMCs] and seroprotection [SP] rate [% of participants with a titer ≥10 mIU/mL]) at 12-18 months of age and 9-10 years of age. A monovalent HB challenge re-vaccination was administered at 9-10 years of age and the anamnestic response was evaluated. Anti-HBs GMCs and SP rates in the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T and DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T groups were high and similar post-primary vaccination series (2477 mIU/mL and 99.5% and 2442 mIU/mL and 99.5%, respectively) and declined to a similar extent in each group at 12-18 months (154.5 mIU/mL and 90.8% and 162.3 mIU/mL and 96.5%, respectively). Antibody levels further declined at 9-10 years of age (13.3 mIU/mL and 49.3% and 8.0 mIU/mL and 42.9%) and a strong anamnestic response occurred in each group post-HB challenge re-vaccination (92.8% and 98.7%, respectively). The kinetics of long-term anti-HBs antibody persistence were similar following a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T. The response to a subsequent HB challenge re-vaccination was strong and similar in each group, demonstrating persisting immune memory.

  2. Analysis of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using high-sensitivity HBsAg assays in hepatitis B virus carriers in whom HBsAg seroclearance was confirmed by conventional assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Itaru; Nakajima, Tomoaki; Suii, Hirokazu; Tatsumi, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Masakatsu; Kimura, Mutsuumi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Kuwata, Yasuaki; Ohmura, Takumi; Hige, Shuhei; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Toyota, Joji

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) assays compared with conventional HBsAg assays. Using serum samples from 114 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers in whom HBsAg seroclearance was confirmed by conventional HBsAg assays (cut-off value, 0.05 IU/mL), the amount of HBsAg was re-examined by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays (cut-off value, 0.005 IU/mL). Cases negative for HBsAg in both assays were defined as consistent cases, and cases positive for HBsAg in the high-sensitivity HBsAg assay only were defined as discrepant cases. There were 55 (48.2%) discrepant cases, and the range of HBsAg titers determined by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays was 0.005-0.056 IU/mL. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy, liver cirrhosis, and negative anti-HBs contributed to the discrepancies between the two assays. Cumulative anti-HBs positivity rates among discrepant cases were 12.7%, 17.2%, 38.8%, and 43.9% at baseline, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively, whereas the corresponding rates among consistent cases were 50.8%, 56.0%, 61.7%, and 68.0%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus DNA negativity rates were 56.4% and 81.4% at baseline, 51.3% and 83.3% at 1 year, and 36.8% and 95.7% at 3 years, among discrepant and consistent cases, respectively. Hepatitis B surface antigen reversion was observed only in discrepant cases. Re-examination by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays revealed that HBsAg was positive in approximately 50% of cases. Cumulative anti-HBs seroconversion rates and HBV-DNA seroclearance rates were lower in these cases, suggesting a population at risk for HBsAg reversion. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  3. A cross-sectional sero-survey on preoperative HBV vaccination policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Korzen, Marcin; Jurewicz, Alina; Szych, Zbigniew

    2017-07-25

    A two-dose preoperative vaccination schedule against HBV has been the widely accepted policy in Poland. However, its effectiveness has not yet been assessed. To evaluate a two-dose preoperative HBV vaccination policy by an assessment of the proportion of patients who don't present a protective level of anti-HBs (HBV with a two-dose regimen, were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Serum samples were assayed for anti-HBs with the use of third-generation testing methods. To compare sensitivity versus specificity across a range of values for the ability to predict a dichotomous outcome (a protection against HBV infection) a Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined. There were 193 patients, 58.5% women, median age 52 years. Almost a half (46.0%) of the patients were operated on within 0-60 days of taking the second vaccine dose, 16.2% - 61-180 days after, 37.8% >180 days after. Anti-HBs titer was below a protective level in 49.2% of participants (0.0 mIU/ml in 17.8%, 0.1-9.9 mIU/ml in 31.4%); none of them were aware of this fact. Age ≤ 52 years (OR = 1.89) and having surgery more than 37.5 days after HBV vaccination (OR = 2.70) were associated with greater odds of being protected against HBV infection through vaccination. For the time frame between the second dose implementation and surgery 23 days, a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 22% for obtaining protection against HBV infection was found, for the time frame >37.5 days - sensitivity remained high (80%), while specificity increased (41%); there was an apparent peek on the ROC curve between 38 and 60 day. In the group vaccinated 0-37.5 days before surgery, less patients had the protective level of anti-HBs titer than in vaccinated 38-60 days before surgery (32.3% vs 60.0%; p = 0.03). The success rate in achieving adequate immune protection with two dose HBV vaccination schedule in preoperatively vaccinated patients is relatively low, especially among those

  4. [Serologic response to a DNA recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B in natives of the Peruvian Amazonian jungle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colichón, A; Vildósola, H; Sjogren, M; Cantella, R; Rojas, C

    1990-01-01

    Large areas of the Amazon basin in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and in the nonoriental region of the peruvian jungle have been found to be hyperendemic to Hepatitis B with high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers (11 to 25%) and, in more selected areas, Hepatitis Delta has been also reported. In the present report, we have studied 108 volunteers from six different Jivaroes communities living in a hyperendemic Hepatitis B area. They received 2 doses of DNA recombinant yeast derivated HBV vaccine. All the selected persons were HBsAb negatives, but many (80%) had antibodies to HBc. Following immunization schedule, 80% responded with the formation of HBsAb; a better seroconversion was achieved in those negatives to anticore IgG compared with those having HBcAb. We obtained 90% of seroconversion in spite of the fact that our vaccination schedule was prolonged up to 10 months from the one recommended by the manufacturer. The vaccination schedule 0,4, 14 months, and the schedule 0,4 months, had 76 and 29% of seroconversion, respectively. We want to point out three observations: 1) It is quite possible that many of the Anti-core positives, that did not respond to vaccination were carriers of HBsAg undetectable by the conventional EIA test carried out; 2) The seroconversion rate in these natives was low (up to six months after the vaccination schedule); and 3) Many of the HBcAb were false positives and many of them were recently infected. We conclude: A) It is highly important to assess the anti-HBs hyperendemic areas before attempting vaccinations; B) All persons negative to anti-HBs should be vaccinated in spite to anticore antibodies; C) Areas with difficult access could be vaccinated even until 10 months without affecting good results, and D) DNA recombinant vaccine (ENGERIX B) was well tolerated. No side effects were observed.

  5. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B virus in an urban population of northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lyra,L. G.; Damasceno,A. P.; Cotrim,P.; Mota,E.; Silva,L.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 1,288 inhabitants of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were submitted to the determination of anti-HBs using radioimmunoassay procedure, and analysed according to age, sex and income. Overall prevalence of anti-HBs was 11,8%. ranging from 6,7% among children aged less than three years old to 26,1% among those aged 30 years and older. Males presented prevalence of anti-HBs similar to female individuals, and those with a higher income showed frequencies of anti-HBs greater than those with a ...

  6. Transplacentally acquired maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in infants and its influence on the response to hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passively acquired maternal antibodies in infants may inhibit active immune responses to vaccines. Whether maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs in infants may influence the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Totally 338 pairs of mothers and children were enrolled. All infants were routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B based on 0-, 1- and 6-month schedule. We characterized the transplacental transfer of maternal anti-HBs, and compared anti-HBs response in children of mothers with or without anti-HBs. In a prospective observation, all 63 anti-HBs positive mothers transferred anti-HBs to their infants; 84.1% of the infants had higher anti-HBs concentrations than their mothers. One and half years after vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine, the positive rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC of anti-HBs in 32 infants with maternal anti-HBs were comparable with those in 32 infants without maternal antibody (90.6% vs 87.5%, P = 0.688, and 74.5 vs 73.5 mIU/ml, P = 0.742, respectively. In a retrospective analysis, five and half years after vaccination with three doses vaccine, the positive rates of anti-HBs in 88 children of mothers with anti-HBs ≥1000 mIU/ml, 94 children of mothers with anti-HBs 10-999 mIU/ml, and 61 children of mothers with anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml were 72.7%, 69.2%, and 63.9% (P = 0.521, respectively; anti-HBs GMC in these three groups were 38.9, 43.9, and 31.7 mIU/ml (P = 0.726, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate that maternal anti-HBs in infants, even at high concentrations, does not inhibit the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine. Thus, current hepatitis B vaccination schedule for infants will be still effective in the future when most infants are positive for maternal anti-HBs due to the massive vaccination against hepatitis B.

  7. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eduardo Levi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  8. An improved plating assay for determination of phage titer | Yang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an improved plating assay was developed for detection of the number of recombinant phage Cap-T7 present in a test solution at a certain dilution point by counting the plaque forming units. The data demonstrated that the improved plating assay is fast, useful, and convenient for the determination of the phage ...

  9. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast, an insignificant correlation was found between ALT level and grade of necroinflammation. In conclusion neither ALT level nor HCV viremia can reflect the histological liver change accurately. As a result, liver biopsy or other noninvasive procedures that measure liver stiffness (i.e., Fibroscan) remain essential for ...

  10. Onderzoek naar invloed van lichtschema op titers bij vleeskuikens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van J.H.; Harn, van J.; Voorst, van S.

    1998-01-01

    Het is bekend dat het toepassen van een lichtschema van invloed is op de uitval als gevolg van infectieziektes. Dit was aanleiding voor het PP om onderzoek te doen naar de antilichaamtiters tegen NCD, IB en Gumboro bij vleeskuikens die bij verschillende lichtschema's gehouden werden.

  11. A system for improved production titers in fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides a genetically modified micro-organism for intracellular biosynthesis of a cellular metabolite, comprising a synthetic error correction system having a penalty gene, whose expression leads to arrested growth or cell death (e.g. a toxin gene) in combination with a survival ge...

  12. Serum Titers of Acute Phase Proteins and Immunoglobulin Classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant correlation between duration of smoking, nicotine inhaled, and tar inhaled with any of the humoral factors. Conclusion: This study detected abnormalities in certain aspects of humoral immune responses in Nigerian smokers and this could lead to development of auto-antibodies and cardiovascular ...

  13. Respuesta inmune para la vacuna heberbiovac-hb y factores de riesgo Consolación del Sur, año 2004 Immnune response to the Heberbiovac-HB and risk factors, Consolación del Sur 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rosa Rieumont

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los pilares fundamentales para el control, eliminación de la hepatitis tipo B es la utilización de la vacunas que se aplica en Cuba, desde el año 1992. (Heberbiovac -HB. La inmunogenicidad, indicador que se obtiene mediante la cuantificación de Títulos de Anticuerpos (Anti-HBs contra el antígeno de superficie (HBsAg post vacunación permite conocer la eficacia y calidad de la vacuna. En este estudio se utilizó el método inmunoenzimático (ELISA tipo sandwich, llevado a cabo por el Departamento de Hepatitis B. del Laboratorio de Inmunología del Centro Nacional de Genética Médica, Ciudad Habana, considerándose protegidos los individuos cuyos resultados estaban entre ³10 UI/L y One of the mainstays to control and eliminate hepatitis-B is the use of the vaccines (Herberbiovac-HB applied in Cuba since 1992. The immunogenicity, an indicator obtained through the quantification of the Antibodies Titers (Anti-HBs against the surface antigens (HbsAg post-vaccination, allowing knowing the effectiveness and quality of the vaccine. The immunoenzymatic method was used in this study kind of sandwich (ELISA, carried out by the Department for the study of Hepatitis B of the Immunology Laboratory in the National Center of Medical Genetics, Havana City. The individuals which results were between =10 UI/L and < 100 UI/L, Hyperresponsers = 100 UI/L are considered protected and sero-unprotected when the titers were < 10 UI/L; in 498 children of 10 years old that were vaccinated in the early childhood having the schedule (0-16 months of negative mothers for HBsAg, belonging to Consolacion del Sur in Pinar del Rio province. Results showed that male sex, Hypersensibilities Type I and the boys and girls maintaining treatments with immunosupresor drugs were the risk factors that provided the association with the serum-unprotection; as for in the individuals having Titers of Ac < 10 UI/L; a buster of the vaccine was applied and after 15 days the 100% of

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers in adolescents in Southern Brazil Soroprevalência de marcadores de hepatite B e hepatite C em adolescentes no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Gazzoni Scaraveli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV markers among adolescents aged between 10 and 16 years old, who are elementary school students in the city of Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The study involved a cross-sectional survey that included 418 volunteers, from March to July, 2008. Serology comprised HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV. Tests were performed using automated Microparticle Enzyme Immunosorbant Assay (Abbott, AxSYM System, Wiesbaden, Germany. The prevalence of HBsAg was found to be 0.2% (95%CI: 0.0-1.3, and the prevalence of anti-HBc was found to be 1.4% (95%CI: 0.5-3.1. Regarding anti-HBs, 48.6% had titers greater than 10UI/L. None of the volunteers presented reactive results for anti-HCV. This study showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection and a great number of volunteers immunized against HBV. Finally this study shows the importance of proper health campaigns and policies in reducing those prevalences.Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de marcadores do vírus da hepatite B (HBV e do vírus da hepatite C (HCV entre adolescentes com idade entre 10 e 16 anos, alunos do Ensino Fundamental da cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo transversal incluindo 418 voluntários, realizado entre março e julho de 2008. As análises sorológicas incluíram: HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs e anti-HCV. Os testes foram realizados em Ensaio Enzimático de Micropartículas (Abbott, AxSYM System, Wiesbaden, Alemanha. A prevalência de HBsAg foi de 0,2% (IC95%: 0,0-1,3, e a prevalência de anti-HBc foi de 1,4% (IC95%: 0,5-3,1. Quanto ao anti-HBs, 48,6% dos voluntários apresentaram títulos maiores que 10UI/L. Nenhum dos voluntários apresentou resultados reativos para anti-HCV. Este estudo demonstrou uma baixa prevalência de marcadores de infecção HBV e HCV e um grande número de voluntários imunizados contra

  15. Association of chitosan and aluminium as a new adjuvant strategy for improved vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, F; Bento, D; Ribeiro, J; Colaço, M; Borchard, G; de Lima, M C Pedroso; Borges, O

    2017-07-15

    The use of particulate adjuvants offers an interesting possibility to enhance and modulate the immune responses elicited by vaccines. Aluminium salts have been extensively used as vaccine adjuvants, but they lack the capacity to induce a strong cellular and mucosal immune response. Taking this into consideration, in this study we designed a new antigen delivery system combining aluminium salts with chitosan. Chitosan-aluminium nanoparticles (CH-Al NPs) exhibited a mean diameter of 280nm and a positive surface charge. The newly developed CH-Al NPs are more stable at physiological environment than classical CH NPs, showing no cytotoxic effects and revealing potential as a delivery system for a wide range of model antigens. In vivo studies showed that mice immunized with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-containing CH NPs display high anti-HBsAg IgG titers in the serum, as well as the highest antigen-specific IgG on vaginal washes. Furthermore, in contrast to mice receiving antigen alone, mice immunized with the particulate adjuvant were able to elicit IgG2c antibody titers and exhibited higher antigen-specific IFN-γ levels in splenocytes. In conclusion, we established that CH-Al NPs, combining two immunostimulants to enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses, are a safe and promising system for antigen delivery. Our findings point towards their potential in future vaccination approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Response of booster dose of cuban recombinant hepatitis-B vaccine in nonresponder and hyporesponder children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahifar, H.; Mousavi, F.; Ghorbani, A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute hepatitis B infection can debilitate a patient for weeks and occasionally has a fatal outcome, while chronic infection is a major threat to the individual. To assess response of nonresponder and hyporesponder children to booster dose of Cuban recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. An interventional, descriptive study has been conducted on children who had been immunized with Cuban recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine and their antibody titers were <10mIU/ml (nonresponder) and 10-100mIU/ml (hyporesponder) administered booster dose of the same vaccine in their Deltoid muscles. The response of 141 children with the mean age of 1.9 years to booster dose of vaccine were 94.3% and 100% vaccines with the first and second booster dose of vaccination respectively. The anti-HBs titer in nonresponders and hyporesponders were 468+-346 and 783+-346mIU/ml respectively with significant differences between two groups (P=0.001). This study demonstrate moderately increase antibody production in the majority of vaccines with single supplementary vaccine. (author)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative setting for breast cancer patients with undetected additional disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barco, Israel [Breast Unit, Department of Gynecology, University Hospital of Mútua Terrassa, Research Foundation Mútua Terrassa, University of Barcelona (Spain); Chabrera, Carolina [Department of Nursing, School of Health Science TecnoCampus Mataró-Maresme (Spain); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Preoperative MRI displays additional disease in 10.4% of cases in patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma. • In cases with a complex intraductal-associated component, MRI is helpful in managing the surgical approach, and can potentially reduce reoperation rates. • Preoperative MRI showed a 91.9% agreement with the final histology, but core-needle biopsy cannot be rejected, so as to limit unnecessary surgery. • When MRI shows additional disease, there is often a change in the initial surgical plan. • Evolving surgery techniques, such as oncoplastic procedures, can be safely performed as an alternative to mastectomy in some patients. - Abstract: Objective: The last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the preoperative use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for staging purposes in breast cancer (BC) patients. Many studies have confirmed the improvement that MRI can provide in terms of diagnostic assessment, especially with regard to additional disease foci. In the present study, we address the advantages and disadvantages of MRI in the preoperative setting for BC patients. Patients and methods: There were 1513 consecutive breast MRI studies performed in patients with either primary or recurrent BC, who were scheduled for surgery. Results: Beyond the primary lesion, 10.4% of our cases had additional disease at the final histological assessment. MRI overall sensitivity, when considering tumour size and additional foci together, was 74.3%, and 80.3% when considering additional foci exclusively. MRI specificity for additional disease was 95.3%, positive predictive value was 77.4%, and negative predictive value was 94.6%. Nevertheless, 5% of cases had additional tumours that were missed by MRI or, conversely, had additional foci on MRI that were not confirmed by histology. Age (p = 0.020) and lobular carcinomas (p = 0.030) showed significance in the multivariate analysis by logistic regression, using the presence of additional foci diagnosed by MRI as a dependent variable. Conclusion: Preoperative MRI seems to have a role in preoperative tumour staging for breast cancer patients, as it discloses additional disease foci in some patients, including contralateral involvement. However, given the lack of absolute accuracy, core-needle biopsy cannot be neglected in the diagnosis of such additional malignant foci, which could result in a change in surgical treatment.

  18. EDTA sample contamination is common and often undetected, putting patients at unnecessary risk of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharratt, C L; Gilbert, C J; Cornes, M C; Ford, C; Gama, R

    2009-08-01

    Potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a sample tube anticoagulant used for many laboratory analyses. Gross potassium EDTA contamination of blood samples is easily recognised by marked hyperkalaemia and hypocalcaemia. However, subtle contamination is a relatively common, often unrecognised erroneous cause of spurious hyperkalaemia. Potassium EDTA contamination may also cause hypomagnesaemia and hypozincaemia. There are, however, no data on the prevalence of EDTA contamination as a cause of hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hypozincaemia. Following a recent service evaluation, we measure EDTA in serum samples from patients with unexplained hyperkalaemia (serum potassium > 6.0 mmol/l). In addition, over a 1-month period EDTA concentrations were measured in hypocalcaemic (serum adjusted calcium samples. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid contamination was detected in 31 samples, nine of which were detected by our routine screening programme. The remaining 22 samples represented 14.3% (19/133) of hypocalcaemic samples, 4.8% (5/104) of hypomagnesaemic samples and 1.4% (2/139) of hypozincaemic samples. A total of 25/31 (80.6%) of patients were re-bled, of which 23/25 (92%) results normalised. Factitious hyperkalaemia, hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia caused by potassium EDTA contamination in our studies are relatively common, and if unrecognised may adversely affect patient care and waste scarce healthcare resources. Correct order of draw of blood samples, improved education and routine laboratory screening of EDTA are necessary to prevent and identify EDTA contamination.

  19. On an experimental curiosity that if undetected may lead to erroneous far-reaching conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noninski, V.C.; Ciottone, J.L.; White, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This letter gives a brief discussion of the possibilities of inducing nuclear effects by carrying out only chemical reactions. Undoubtedly, this interest is a result of the still unresolved problem of 'cold fusion,' and some colleagues tend to see a clear connection, and even an extension of the studies, between cold fusion and the alleged chemical transmutation of elements. While we have already published thorough reports (negative so far) of our studies with regard to the claimed increase of gamma-ray emission and beta decay after burning of a mixture of chemicals, this letter informs the Fusion Technology readership of an experimental curiosity that is encountered during similar studies that initially led us to an erroneous conclusion. As in previous studies, we compared certain radiochemical properties of a mixture of chemicals before and after a chemical reaction (burning). Under discussion here is a peak that we observed in the range of 412 keV in the gamma spectrum in one of the burned samples after neutron activating it for 3 min at 1 kW. This peak was ostensibly not present in the same sample unburned. 4 refs., 2 figs

  20. Natural controlled HIV infection: Preserved HIV-specific immunity despite undetectable replication competent virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterboer, Nico; Groeneveld, Paul H.P.; Jansen, Christine A.; Vorst, Teun J.K. van der; Koning, Fransje; Winkel, Carel N.; Duits, Ashley J.; Miedema, Frank; Baarle, Debbie van; Rij, Ronald P. van; Brinkman, Kees; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2005-01-01

    Long-term non-progressive HIV infection, characterized by low but detectable viral load and stable CD4 counts in the absence of antiviral therapy, is observed in about 5% of HIV-infected patients. Here we identified four therapy naive individuals who are strongly seropositive for HIV-1 but who lack evidence of detectable HIV p24 antigen, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA in routine diagnostic testing. With an ultrasensitive PCR, we established that frequencies of pol proviral DNA sequences were as low as 0.2-0.5 copies/10 6 PBMC. HIV could not be isolated using up to 30 x 10 6 patient PBMC. One individual was heterozygous for CCR5 Δ32, but CCR5 expression on CD4 + T cells was normal to high in all four individuals. In vitro R5 and X4 HIV-1 susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of all study subjects was significantly lower than the susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of healthy blood donors. All individuals expressed protective HLA-B*58s alleles and showed evidence of HIV-specific cellular immunity either by staining with HLA-B*57 tetramers folded with an HIV RT or gag peptide or after stimulation with HIV-1 p24 gag, RT, or nef peptides in ELIspot analysis. HIV-specific CD4 + T helper cells were demonstrated by proliferation of CD4 + T cells and intracellular staining for IL-2 and IFNγ after stimulation with an HIV-gag peptide pool. Sera of all individuals showed antibody-mediated neutralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants. These data implicate that very low-level antigen exposure is sufficient for sustained HIV-specific immunity and suggest the possibility of a multi-factorial control of HIV infection

  1. Cognitive impairment is undetected in medical inpatients: a study of mortality and recognition amongst healthcare professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torisson Gustav

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting cognitive impairment in medical inpatients is important due to its association with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to study recognition of cognitive impairment and its association with mortality. Methods 200 inpatients aged over 60 years were recruited at the Department of General Internal Medicine at University Hospital MAS in Malmö, Sweden. The MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination and the CDT (Clock-Drawing Test were performed and related to recognition rates by patients, staff physicians, nurses and informants. The impact of abnormal cognitive test results on mortality was studied using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results 55 patients (28% had no cognitive impairment while 68 patients (34% had 1 abnormal test result (on MMSE or CDT and 77 patients (39% had 2 abnormal test results. Recognition by healthcare professionals was 12% in the group with 1 abnormal test and 44-64% in the group with 2 abnormal test results. In our model, cognitive impairment predicted 12-month mortality with a hazard ratio (95% CI of 2.86 (1.28-6.39 for the group with 1 abnormal cognitive test and 3.39 (1.54-7.45 for the group with 2 abnormal test results. Conclusions Cognitive impairment is frequent in medical inpatients and associated with increased mortality. Recognition rates of cognitive impairment need to be improved in hospitals.

  2. The Previously Undetected Presence of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central America, with Notes on Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    geografica actualizada. Rev. Inv. Salud Publica (Mexico) 33: 11 I - 125. Heinemann, S.J. and J.N. Belkin. 1977. Collection records of the project...Mosquitoes of Middle America” 8. Central America: Belize (BH), Guatemala (GUA), El Salvador ( SAL ), Honduras (HON), Nicaragua (NI, NIC). Mosq. Syst...Culicidae). Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 52, 50 pp. Vargas, L. 1956. Especies y distribucidn de mosquitos mexicanos no anofelinos. Rev. Instit. de

  3. The frequency of previously undetectable deletions involving 3' Exons of the PMS2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Cecily P; Baker, Christine L; Samowitz, Wade S; Swensen, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is characterized by mutations in one of four mismatch repair genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. Clinical mutation analysis of these genes includes sequencing of exonic regions and deletion/duplication analysis. However, detection of deletions and duplications in PMS2 has previously been confined to Exons 1-11 due to gene conversion between PMS2 and the pseudogene PMS2CL in the remaining 3' exons (Exons 12-15). We have recently described an MLPA-based method that permits detection of deletions of PMS2 Exons 12-15; however, the frequency of such deletions has not yet been determined. To address this question, we tested for 3' deletions in 58 samples that were reported to be negative for PMS2 mutations using previously available methods. All samples were from individuals whose tumors exhibited loss of PMS2 immunohistochemical staining without concomitant loss of MLH1 immunostaining. We identified seven samples in this cohort with deletions in the 3' region of PMS2, including three previously reported samples with deletions of Exons 13-15 (two samples) and Exons 14-15. Also detected were deletions of Exons 12-15, Exon 13, and Exon 14 (two samples). Breakpoint analysis of the intragenic deletions suggests they occurred through Alu-mediated recombination. Our results indicate that ∼12% of samples suspected of harboring a PMS2 mutation based on immunohistochemical staining, for which mutations have not yet been identified, would benefit from testing using the new methodology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative setting for breast cancer patients with undetected additional disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Israel; Chabrera, Carolina; García-Fernández, Antonio; Fraile, Manel; Vidal, MCarmen; González, Sonia; Lain, Jose María; Reñé, Assumpta; Canales, Lidia; Vallejo, Elena; Deu, Jordi; Pessarrodona, Antoni; Giménez, Nuria; García-Font, Marc

    2016-10-01

    The last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the preoperative use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for staging purposes in breast cancer (BC) patients. Many studies have confirmed the improvement that MRI can provide in terms of diagnostic assessment, especially with regard to additional disease foci. In the present study, we address the advantages and disadvantages of MRI in the preoperative setting for BC patients. There were 1513 consecutive breast MRI studies performed in patients with either primary or recurrent BC, who were scheduled for surgery. Beyond the primary lesion, 10.4% of our cases had additional disease at the final histological assessment. MRI overall sensitivity, when considering tumour size and additional foci together, was 74.3%, and 80.3% when considering additional foci exclusively. MRI specificity for additional disease was 95.3%, positive predictive value was 77.4%, and negative predictive value was 94.6%. Nevertheless, 5% of cases had additional tumours that were missed by MRI or, conversely, had additional foci on MRI that were not confirmed by histology. Age (p=0.020) and lobular carcinomas (p=0.030) showed significance in the multivariate analysis by logistic regression, using the presence of additional foci diagnosed by MRI as a dependent variable. Preoperative MRI seems to have a role in preoperative tumour staging for breast cancer patients, as it discloses additional disease foci in some patients, including contralateral involvement. However, given the lack of absolute accuracy, core-needle biopsy cannot be neglected in the diagnosis of such additional malignant foci, which could result in a change in surgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thiamine Deficiency in Self-Induced Refeeding Syndrome, an Undetected and Potentially Lethal Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Hershkowitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid restoration of nutrients and electrolytes after prolonged starvation could result in a life threatening condition characterized by sensory and neurological dysfunction and severe metabolic imbalance that has been designated as refeeding syndrome. Its diagnosis is frequently missed resulting in severe complications and even death. We describe a 25-years-old female patient with mental disorders and severe malnutrition who developed severe clinical manifestations and biochemical abnormalities characteristic of the refeeding syndrome, after restarting oral feeding on her own. Schizophrenia was later diagnosed. Increased awareness of this condition and its complications is necessary to prevent its detrimental complications.

  6. Thiamine Deficiency in Self-Induced Refeeding Syndrome, an Undetected and Potentially Lethal Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Einat; Reshef, Alon; Munich, Olga; Yosefi, Bracha; Markel, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Rapid restoration of nutrients and electrolytes after prolonged starvation could result in a life threatening condition characterized by sensory and neurological dysfunction and severe metabolic imbalance that has been designated as refeeding syndrome. Its diagnosis is frequently missed resulting in severe complications and even death. We describe a 25-years-old female patient with mental disorders and severe malnutrition who developed severe clinical manifestations and biochemical abnormalities characteristic of the refeeding syndrome, after restarting oral feeding on her own. Schizophrenia was later diagnosed. Increased awareness of this condition and its complications is necessary to prevent its detrimental complications. PMID:25614745

  7. Thiamine Deficiency in Self-Induced Refeeding Syndrome, an Undetected and Potentially Lethal Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Hershkowitz, Einat; Reshef, Alon; Munich, Olga; Yosefi, Bracha; Markel, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Rapid restoration of nutrients and electrolytes after prolonged starvation could result in a life threatening condition characterized by sensory and neurological dysfunction and severe metabolic imbalance that has been designated as refeeding syndrome. Its diagnosis is frequently missed resulting in severe complications and even death. We describe a 25-years-old female patient with mental disorders and severe malnutrition who developed severe clinical manifestations and biochemical abnormalit...

  8. Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U.S. invasion and undetected in native Asian range

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskin, John F.; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2002-01-01

    Biological invasions are drastically altering natural habitats and threatening biodiversity on both local and global levels. In one of the United States' worst invasions, Eurasian Tamarix plant species have spread rapidly to dominate over 600,000 riparian and wetland hectares. The largest Tamarix invasion consists of Tamarix chinensis and Tamarix ramosissima, two morphologically similar species. To clarify the identity, origins, and population structuring of this invasion, we analyzed DNA seq...

  9. Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U.S. invasion and undetected in native Asian range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, John F.; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2002-01-01

    Biological invasions are drastically altering natural habitats and threatening biodiversity on both local and global levels. In one of the United States' worst invasions, Eurasian Tamarix plant species have spread rapidly to dominate over 600,000 riparian and wetland hectares. The largest Tamarix invasion consists of Tamarix chinensis and Tamarix ramosissima, two morphologically similar species. To clarify the identity, origins, and population structuring of this invasion, we analyzed DNA sequence data from an intron of a nuclear gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PepC). This intron proved to be highly variable at the population level, and the 269 native and invasive specimens yielded 58 haplotypes, from which we constructed a gene genealogy. Only four of these haplotypes were common to both the U.S. and Eurasia. Surprisingly, we found that the most common plant in this U.S. invasion is a hybrid combination of two species-specific genotypes that were geographically isolated in their native Eurasian range. Less extensive hybrids exist in the invasion, involving combinations of T. ramosissima and T. chinensis with Tamarix parviflora and Tamarix gallica. The presence of potentially novel hybrids in the U.S. illustrates how importation of exotics can alter population structures of species and contribute to invasions. PMID:12177412

  10. Limits On Undetected Planets in the Six Transiting Planets Kepler-11 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler-11 has five inner planets ranging from approx. 2 - 1 times as massive Earth in a tightly-packed configuration, with orbital periods between 10 and 47 days. A sixth planet, Kepler-11 g, with a period of118 days, is also observed. The spacing between planets Kepler-11 f and Kepler-11 g is wide enough to allow room for a planet to orbit stably between them. We compare six and seven planet fits to measured transit timing variations (TTVs) of the six known planets. We find that in most cases an additional planet between Kepler-11 f and Kepler-11 g degrades rather than enhances the fit to the TTV data, and where the fit is improved, the improvement provides no significant evidence of a planet between Kepler-11 f and Kepler-11 g. This implies that any planet in this region must be low in mass. We also provide constraints on undiscovered planets orbiting exterior to Kepler-11 g. representations will be described.

  11. Virological and immunological profiles among patients with undetectable viral load followed prospectively for 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T.; Ullum, H.; Røge, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify HIV-RNA in plasma, in lymphoid tissue and proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to relate these to immunological markers among patients with plasma viral load counts of

  12. MEASURING THE UNDETECTABLE: PROPER MOTIONS AND PARALLAXES OF VERY FAINT SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Jester, Sebastian; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2009-01-01

    The near future of astrophysics involves many large solid-angle, multi-epoch, multiband imaging surveys. These surveys will, at their faint limits, have data on a large number of sources that are too faint to be detected at any individual epoch. Here, we show that it is possible to measure in multi-epoch data not only the fluxes and positions, but also the parallaxes and proper motions of sources that are too faint to be detected at any individual epoch. The method involves fitting a model of a moving point source simultaneously to all imaging, taking account of the noise and point-spread function (PSF) in each image. By this method it is possible to measure the proper motion of a point source with an uncertainty close to the minimum possible uncertainty given the information in the data, which is limited by the PSF, the distribution of observation times (epochs), and the total signal-to-noise in the combined data. We demonstrate our technique on multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging of the SDSS Southern Stripe (SDSSSS). We show that with our new technique we can use proper motions to distinguish very red brown dwarfs from very high-redshift quasars in these SDSS data, for objects that are inaccessible to traditional techniques, and with better fidelity than by multiband imaging alone. We rediscover all 10 known brown dwarfs in our sample and present nine new candidate brown dwarfs, identified on the basis of significant proper motion.

  13. Accounting for undetected compounds in statistical analyses of mass spectrometry 'omic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra L; Leiserowitz, Gary S; Kim, Kyoungmi

    2013-12-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important high-throughput technique for profiling small molecular compounds in biological samples and is widely used to identify potential diagnostic and prognostic compounds associated with disease. Commonly, this data generated by mass spectrometry has many missing values resulting when a compound is absent from a sample or is present but at a concentration below the detection limit. Several strategies are available for statistically analyzing data with missing values. The accelerated failure time (AFT) model assumes all missing values result from censoring below a detection limit. Under a mixture model, missing values can result from a combination of censoring and the absence of a compound. We compare power and estimation of a mixture model to an AFT model. Based on simulated data, we found the AFT model to have greater power to detect differences in means and point mass proportions between groups. However, the AFT model yielded biased estimates with the bias increasing as the proportion of observations in the point mass increased while estimates were unbiased with the mixture model except if all missing observations came from censoring. These findings suggest using the AFT model for hypothesis testing and mixture model for estimation. We demonstrated this approach through application to glycomics data of serum samples from women with ovarian cancer and matched controls.

  14. Undetected angle closure in patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Devesh K; Simpson, Sarah M; Rai, Amandeep S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the proportion of patients referred to a tertiary glaucoma centre with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) who were found to have angle closure glaucoma. Retrospective chart review. Consecutive new patients referred for glaucoma management to a tertiary centre between July 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed. Patients whose referrals for glaucoma assessment specified angle status as "open" were included. The data collected included glaucoma specialist's angle assessment, diagnosis, and glaucoma severity. The status of those with 180 degrees or more Shaffer angle grading of 0 was classified as "closed." From 1234 glaucoma referrals, 179 cases were specified to have a diagnosis of OAG or when angles were known to be open. Of these, 16 (8.9%) were found on examination by the glaucoma specialist to have angle closure. Pseudoexfoliation was present in 4 of 16 patients (25%) in the missed angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) group and 22 of 108 patients (13.5%) in the remaining OAG group. There was no difference found in demographic or ocular biometric parameters between those with confirmed OAG versus those with missed ACG. Almost 1 in 11 patients referred by ophthalmologists to a tertiary glaucoma centre with a diagnosis of OAG were in fact found to have angle closure. Given the different treatment approaches for ACG versus OAG, this study suggests a need to strengthen angle evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic Ultrasonography of an Ankle Fracture Undetectable by Conventional Radiography: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Clinton J.; Welk, Aaron B.; Enix, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to present diagnostic ultrasonography assessment of an occult fracture in a case of persistent lateral ankle pain. Clinical Features A 35-year-old woman presented to a chiropractic clinic with bruising, swelling, and pain along the distal fibula 3 days following an inversion ankle trauma. Prior radiographic examination at an urgent care facility was negative for fracture. Conservative care over the next week noted improvement in objective findings, but the pain persisted. Intervention and Outcome Diagnostic ultrasonography was ordered to assess her persistent ankle pain and showed a minimally displaced fracture of the fibula 4 cm proximal to the lateral malleolus. The patient was referred to her primary care physician and successfully managed with conservative care. Conclusion In this case, diagnostic ultrasonography was able to identify a Danis-Weber subtype B1 fracture that was missed by plain film radiography. PMID:27069430

  16. Ghost in the PLC: Designing an Undetectable Programmable Logic Controller Rootkit via Pin Control Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Hashemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Input/Output is the mechanisms through which embedded systems interact and control the outside world. Particularly when employed in mission critical systems, the I/O of embedded systems has to be both reliable and secure. Embedded system’s I/O is controlled by a pin based approach. In this paper, we

  17. Labeling dating abuse: Undetected abuse among Spanish adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodríguez-Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de la Mujer en España matiza la existencia de mujeres adultas autopercibidas como maltratadas y técnicamente maltratadas (la víctima soporta algún tipo de violencia sin atribuirle la etiqueta de maltrato. El objetivo del presente estudio ex post facto es verificar ambos tipos de maltrato y desarrollar alternativas de evaluación en parejas jóvenes. Para ello, se utilizó una combinación de 13 ítems conductuales y de una pregunta sobre percepción de maltrato (evaluaciones atómica y molecular, respectivamente. A través de las preguntas contenidas en el Cuestionario de Violencia de Novios (CUVINO, se realizaron dos estudios diferenciados con muestra de mujeres adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizadas. El primero de ellos (N = 709; M = 18,5 años replicó la evaluación de maltrato técnico llevada a cabo por el Instituto de la Mujer, encontrando un 6,2% de maltrato percibido y un 71% de maltrato técnico. En un segundo estudio (N = 1.327; M = 18,5, se evaluó la concordancia entre percepciones generales (sentirse maltratada, sentir miedo y sentirse atrapada en la relación, encontrando un 5,8% de mujeres maltratadas, un 11,9% de atemorizadas y un 26,8% atrapadas en sus relaciones. Se discuten las implicaciones que las inconsistencias encontradas en ambos estudios pueden tener sobre los esfuerzos preventivos.

  18. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles provide strong adjuvant effect for hepatitis B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sandra; Soares, Edna; Borchard, Gerrit; Borges, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells. The addition of pRC/CMV-HBs to the HBsAg-adsorbed NPs inhibited IL-17 secretion but had minor effect on IFN-γ levels. Lastly, pRC/CMV-HBs-loaded NPs generated a weak serum antibody response. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan NPs provide a strong humoral adjuvant effect for HBsAg and induce a Th1/Th17-mediated cellular immune responses worth explore for hepatitis B virus vaccination.

  19. Hepatitis A and B among young persons who inject drugs--vaccination, past, and present infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Melissa G; Drobeniuc, Jan; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S; Kamili, Saleem; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-06-04

    Our study aims were to assess hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) susceptibility and infection among young persons who inject drugs (PWID) who may have been vaccinated as children and to evaluate self-report of HAV and HBV vaccination. We recruited PWID aged 18-40 years-old in San Diego during 2009 and 2010 and collected demographic, socioeconomic, health, and behavioral factors. Participants were asked if they had been vaccinated against HAV and HBV, and serum samples were collected for HAV and HBV serologic testing. Of 519 participants, 365 (72%) were male, 252 (49%) were white non-Hispanic, 38 (7%) were Black non-Hispanic, 138 (27%) were White Hispanic, and 22 (4%) were born outside the U. S. Of the total participants, 245 (47%) had surface hepatitis B antibody (anti-HBs) titers Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in 7 (1%) of total participants; and 135 (26%) were anti-HCV-antibody positive. Compared to serologic findings, self-report of HBV and HAV vaccination was 71% and 41% sensitive, and 58% and 73% specific, respectively. HAV and HBV antibodies in half or more of this young PWID population did not have levels indicative of protection, and about a quarter had HCV infection, putting them at risk for complications resulting from co-infection with HAV or HBV. Programs serving this population should vaccinate PWIDs against HAV and HBV and not rely on self-report of vaccination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay: analysis of borderline reactive sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Laurence; Laffont, Catherine; Kechkekian, Aurore; Doglio, Alain; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    Routine use of the automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc for diagnosis of hepatitis B is limited in case of borderline reactive sera with low signal close to the cut-off index. In order to determine the significance of anti-HBc detection when borderline reactivity occurs using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay, a comparative study was designed. 3540 serum samples collected over a 2-month period in the hospital of Nice were examined for markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). One hundred seven samples with sufficient volume and with borderline reactivity by the ARCHITECT assay were tested by two other anti-HBc assays, a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA, AxSYM Core, Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA) and an enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA, VIDAS Anti-HBc Total II, bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Only 46 samples were confirmed by the AxSYM and the VIDAS assays. Additional serological information linked to patient history showed that the remaining samples (61) were false positives (11), had low titer of anti-HBc antibodies (13), or were inconclusive (37). This comparative study highlighted the existence of a grey zone around the cut-off index. Confirmative results through a different immunoassay are needed to confirm the diagnosis of HBV on borderline reactive sera using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    Full Text Available Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to short term combined treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or thymosin alpha 1. In both studies NAP monotherapy was accompanied by 2-7 log reductions of serum HBsAg, 3-9 log reductions in serum HBV DNA and the appearance of serum anti-HBsAg antibodies (10-1712 mIU / ml. Eight of the 9 patients transitioning to combined treatment with immunotherapy (pegylated interferon or thymosin alpha 1 in the REP 102 study experienced HBsAg loss and all 9 patients experienced substantial increases in serum anti-HBsAg antibody titers before withdrawal of therapy. For 52 weeks after removal of REP 2055 therapy, rebound of serum viremia (HBV DNA > 1000 copies / ml, HBsAg > 1IU / ml was not observed in 3 / 8 patients. Suppression of serum virema was further maintained for 290 and 231 weeks in 2 of these patients. After withdrawal of all therapy in the 9 patients that transitioned to combination therapy in the REP 102 study, 8 patients achieved HBV DNA < 116 copies / ml after treatment withdrawal. Viral rebound occurred over a period of 12 to 123 weeks in 7 patients but was still absent in two patients at 135 and 137 weeks of follow-up. Administration tolerability issues observed with REP 2055 were rare with REP 2139-Ca but REP 2139-Ca therapy was accompanied by hair loss, dysphagia and dysgeusia which were considered related to heavy metal exposure endemic at the trial site. These preliminary studies suggest that NAP can elicit important antiviral responses during

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Polymers in Monotherapy and Combined with Immunotherapy in Treatment-Naive Bangladeshi Patients with HBeAg+ Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Bazinet, Michel; Vaillant, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have suggested that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) may reduce circulating levels of HBsAg in the blood by blocking its release from infected hepatocytes and that this effect may have clinical benefit. NAP treatment, was evaluated in two clinical studies in patients with HBeAg positive chronic HBV infection. The REP 101 study examined REP 2055 monotherapy in 8 patients and the REP 102 study examined REP 2139-Ca, in monotherapy in 12 patients, 9 of which transitioned to short term combined treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a or thymosin alpha 1. In both studies NAP monotherapy was accompanied by 2-7 log reductions of serum HBsAg, 3-9 log reductions in serum HBV DNA and the appearance of serum anti-HBsAg antibodies (10-1712 mIU / ml). Eight of the 9 patients transitioning to combined treatment with immunotherapy (pegylated interferon or thymosin alpha 1) in the REP 102 study experienced HBsAg loss and all 9 patients experienced substantial increases in serum anti-HBsAg antibody titers before withdrawal of therapy. For 52 weeks after removal of REP 2055 therapy, rebound of serum viremia (HBV DNA > 1000 copies / ml, HBsAg > 1IU / ml) was not observed in 3 / 8 patients. Suppression of serum virema was further maintained for 290 and 231 weeks in 2 of these patients. After withdrawal of all therapy in the 9 patients that transitioned to combination therapy in the REP 102 study, 8 patients achieved HBV DNA < 116 copies / ml after treatment withdrawal. Viral rebound occurred over a period of 12 to 123 weeks in 7 patients but was still absent in two patients at 135 and 137 weeks of follow-up. Administration tolerability issues observed with REP 2055 were rare with REP 2139-Ca but REP 2139-Ca therapy was accompanied by hair loss, dysphagia and dysgeusia which were considered related to heavy metal exposure endemic at the trial site. These preliminary studies suggest that NAP can elicit important antiviral responses during treatment which may

  3. Decline of hepatitis B antibody level in vaccinated 5-7 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Safari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaccination is the best way to prevent hepatitis B infection. The efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine and duration of protection after vaccination in infants is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunity level of school age children against HBV in order to determine the decline of hepatitis B antibody level during the childhood period.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional research was performed on 729, 5-7 year-old children in Kohgiloyeh& Boyerahmad Province who had been vaccinated at birth. Patients selected by multiple stage sampling method. While interviewing parents the questionnaire were completed. The laboratory rep[ort was attached to the questionnaire. After confirming the correct date of vaccination time, parents were asked for an informed consent. From each patient 3ml blood sample were taken and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs-Ab and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag were determined by ELISA method. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to analyze obtained data by using SPSS-15 software.Results: HBs-Ag was negative in all patients. 84.4% of subjects were immune against HBV (had protective antibody titer. The mean antibody titer was 308.9±230.5 IU/ml with range of 10.6–1175 IU/ml. 15.6% of samples had non protective antibody titer and mean antibody titer was 4.97 ±3. 5 IU/ml. Anti-HBsAb titers were related to the age and residency of children. The immunity level decreased with increasing age. No statistically significant differences could be found between two sexes. Conclusion: Based on this stud, the immunity persistency rate in this age group was suitable compared to other studies. Unfortunately, there is about 20% of non-immune children to HBV infection in this susceptible age with a high risk of contamination and affliction. Because of seriousness of HBV infection proper immunization strategy should be considered in this era by health care authorities

  4. Frequency of hepatitis B (HBV) viral markers in sixth year dental students after three years clinical exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxt, P; Fairbairn, P J.M.; Stern, S R; Treisman, B [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of Hepatitis B viral markers was studied in 40 6th year dental students at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, after three years clinical exposure, using the radioimmunoassay technique. Three were anti-HBs positive; none was HBsAg positive. The frequency of the anti-HBs positive cases did not differ significantly from a group of blood donors, nor were there any statistically significant associated risk factors.

  5. The frequency of hepatitis B (HBV) viral markers in sixth year dental students after three years clinical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxt, P.; Fairbairn, P.J.M.; Stern, S.R.; Treisman, B.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency of Hepatitis B viral markers was studied in 40 6th year dental students at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, after three years clinical exposure, using the radioimmunoassay technique. Three were anti-HBs positive; none was HBsAg positive. The frequency of the anti-HBs positive cases did not differ significantly from a group of blood donors, nor were there any statistically significant associated risk factors [af

  6. Multicenter study on the immunogenicity and safety of two recombinant vaccines against hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Menezes Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity and safety of a new recombinant hepatitis B vaccine from the Instituto Butantan (Butang® were evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind, prospective equivalence study in three centers in Brazil. Engerix B® was the standard vaccine. A total of 3937 subjects were recruited and 2754 (70% met all protocol criteria at the end of the study. All the subjects were considered healthy and denied having received hepatitis B vaccine before the study. Study subjects who adhered to the protocol were newborn infants (566, children 1 to 10 years old (484, adolescents from 11 to 19 years (740, adults from 20 to 30 years (568, and adults from 31 to 40 years (396. Vaccine was administered in three doses on the schedule 0, 1, and 6 months (newborn infants, adolescents, and adults or 0, 1, and 7 months (children. Vaccine dose was intramuscular 10 µg (infants, children, and adolescents or 20 µg (adults. Percent seroprotection (assumed when anti-HBs titers were > 10mIU/ml and geometric mean titer (mIU/ml were: newborn infants, 93.7% and 351.1 (Butang® and 97.5% and 1530.6 (Engerix B®; children, 100% and 3600.0 (Butang® and 97.7% and 2753.1 (Engerix B®; adolescents, 95.1% and 746.3 (Butang® and 96% and 1284.3 (Engerix B®; adults 20-30 years old, 91.8% and 453.5 (Butang® and 95.5% and 1369.0 (Engerix B®; and adults 31-40 years old, 79.8% and 122.7 (Butang® and 92.4% and 686.2 (Engerix B®. There were no severe adverse events following either vaccine. The study concluded that Butang® was equivalent to Engerix B® in children, and less immunogenic but acceptable for use in newborn infants, adolescents, and young adults.

  7. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated va...

  8. Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine: a six-year follow-up in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla Vêncio Frauzino Alexandre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective anti-HBs titres were examined six-year post-immunisation with the Brazilian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. After the primary vaccination, all adolescents (n = 89 responded with protective anti-HBs titres and had a geometric mean titre (GMT of 4031.8 mIU/mL. In 2010, 94.5% maintained protective anti-HBs (> 10 mIU/mL antibodies, with a GMT of 236.0 mIU/mL. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-HBs titres after the primary vaccination and the titres at the six-year follow-up (p < 0.01. Eleven subjects showed anti-HBs titres suggestive of a natural booster. Prostitution and tattoos/piercings were marginally associated with natural boosters in the multivariate analysis. This study showed the first data on anti-HBs persistence following the Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine in sexually active individuals and highlights its effectiveness in the medium term.

  9. Relationship between serum Chlamydia trachomatis antibody titer and tubal block in infertile Egyptian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khairy Makled

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: ELISA can be used as a simple, noninvasive screening test for C. trachomatis IgG antibodies, with a high predictive value for tubal occlusion in infertile Egyptian women, however larger studies are needed to confirm our results.

  10. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release.

  11. Evaluation of Serum Anti-Cardiolipin Antibody Titer in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Faghihi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evidence shows periodontally infected patients may be at a higher risk of thrombotic accidents and adverse pregnancy outcomes, via induced systemic inflammatory mediators’ production. Some authors have concluded that increase in systemic inflammatorymarkers occurs together with increase in serum levels of auto antibodies including anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACLA. The aim of the present study was to compare the serum ACLA level between patients with chronic periodontitis (CP and periodontally healthycontrols.Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with moderate and advanced CP (test groupand 49 periodontally healthy people (control group were included in the study. Clinical parameters including PI, GBI, PPD and CAL were measured. Serum ACLA level of all cases was measured using ELISA method. The data were analyzed with Student t-test and Pearson's correlation.Results: A significant difference existed in serum ACLA level between test and control groups (P=0.001. All cases in both test and control groups, however, showed a normal range of serum ACLA level.A positive correlation also existed between serum ACLA level and periodontal parameters including CAL, PPD, GBI and PI (P<0.001, P<.001, P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively.In addition, a moderately positive correlation (P=0.003 between age and ACLA level wasfound.Conclusion: An increased serum ACLA level might be associated with chronic periodontitis.

  12. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and viral ribonucleic acid titers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer worldwide, with associated significant morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 3% of the world population have HCV, and in Nigeria, prevalence rates of between 4.7-20% have been reported ...

  13. Study on Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Titer and Specific Interferon Gamma Response Among Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Makvandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major problem for healthcare workers worldwide, and among them, dentists are at risk of acquiring HBV infection. The prevalence of HBV infection has been reported among the dentists in different regions of the world. Since none of the available drugs can clear HBV infection, the presence of effective immunity against HBV infection is important to prevent HBV infection. Objectives This study aimed at determining HBs antibody and specific HBV gamma interferon among the dentists, who received hepatitis B vaccine. Methods The blood samples were collected from 40 dentists, including 7 endodontics, 2 oral and maxillofacial radiologist, 4 periodontics, 11 oral and maxillofacial surgeons, 6 implantologists, 3 orthodontics, 1 oral and maxillofacial pathologist, 2 esthetic and restorative dentists, and 4 doctors of dental surgery (DDS at from dental college of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran during December, 2013. Overall, 31 (77.5% dentists had already received 3 doses of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, and 9 (22.5% had received only two doses of the vaccine. Their sera were tested for HBsAb and anti-HBc-IgG by the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test. The lymphocyte of individuals was separated from their blood sample by Ficoll-Hypaque, cells were washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS by centrifugation, and finally the pellet cells was resuspended in RPMI-1640 media. Separated cells were exposed to 2.5 µg of purified recombinant HBs antigen, and supernatants were collected after 72 hours and tested for detection of specific interferon γ level by ELISA test. Results Overall, 97.5% of dentists showed positive HBs antibody test results while 36 showed (90% positive test results for specific interferon γ against hepatitis B virus infection. Conclusions High coverage of 97.5% immune response against hepatitis B infection was found, indicating high efficacy of recombinant HBV vaccine among the dentists.

  14. High-titer production and strong antimicrobial activity of sophorolipids from Rhodotorula bogoriensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodotorula bogoriensis produces sophorolipids (SLs) that contain 13-hydroxydocosanoic acid (OH-C22) as the lipid moiety. A systematic study was conducted to further understand the fermentative production of SLs containing OH-C22 (C22-SL) by R. bogoriensis. Shake-flask studies showed that R. bogor...

  15. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Rok, Kwon; Suk Ho, Choi; Bae Chun Cha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom). Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom ...

  16. Effects of Gan Lian Yuping Feng powder on the antibody titers to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in order to investigate the immuno-enhancing property of the Chinese herbal formula, Gan lian Yu ping feng powder. Three hundred and thirty six 45-day-old chicks were randomly divided into eight groups. The chicks in groups A, B, C were orally given 0.25 g/mL (low-)C0.5 g/mL (middle-) and 1.0 ...

  17. FREQUENCY OF BLOOD GROUPS AND TITERS OF ALLOANTIBODIES IN DOMESTIC CATS

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Barros Teixeira Pinto; Miguel Angelo da Silva Medeiros; Mariana Palha de Brito Jardim; Antonio Peixoto Albernaz

    2016-01-01

    Hemotherapy requires reliable blood compatibility tests, such as blood typing, to avoid possible transfusion reactions in cats. However, it is also important to avoid neonatal isoerythrolysis. When blood transfusions are performed between incompatible feline donors and recipients, they may develop acute transfusion reactions, especially severe when type A blood is transfused into a type B cat because it has high levels of anti-A alloantibodies. Therefore, knowing on the blood type frequency i...

  18. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T.D. Nhat (Nguyen Thi Duy); S. Todd (Stephen); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); Thao, T.T.N. (Tran Thi Nhu); Vy, N.H.T. (Nguyen Ha Thao); Quan, T.M. (Tran Minh); Vinh, D.N. (Dao Nguyen); J. van Beek (Janko); Anh, P.H. (Pham Hong); Lam, H.M. (Ha Minh); Hung, N.T. (Nguyen Thanh); Le Thanh, N.T. (Nguyen Thi); Huy, H.L.A. (Huynh Le Anh); Ha, V.T.H. (Vo Thi Hong); Baker, S. (Stephen); Thwaites, G.E. (Guy E.); Lien, N.T.N. (Nguyen Thi Nam); Hong, T.T.K. (Tran Thi Kim); Farrar, J. (Jeremy); C.P. Simmons (Cameron); Chau, N.V.V. (Nguyen Van Vinh); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); Boni, M.F. (Maciej F.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSeroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous

  19. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy; Todd, Stacy; de Bruin, Erwin; Thao, Tran Thi Nhu; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao; Quan, Tran Minh; Vinh, Dao Nguyen; van Beek, Janko; Anh, Pham Hong; Lam, Ha Minh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le; Huy, Huynh Le Anh; Ha, Vo Thi Hong; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Koopmans, Marion; Boni, Maciej F

    2017-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A

  20. Desensitization Protocol in Recipients of Deceased Kidney Donor With Donor-Specific Antibody-Low Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter Berga, J; Sancho Calabuig, A; Gavela Martinez, E; Puig Alcaraz, N; Avila Bernabeu, A; Crespo Albiach, J; Molina Vila, P; Beltrán Catalan, S; Pallardó Mateu, L

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the better option for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization, the wait times are significantly longer than for patients without antibodies. Many desensitization protocols have been described involving strong immunosuppression, the use of apheresis, and B-cell-modulating therapies. We have designed a desensitization protocol from day 0 for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Our aim was to present our initial experience with five kidney transplant patients. All patients had a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match. The desensitization protocol included five to seven doses of thymoglobulin (1.25 mg/kg) and three sessions of plasmapheresis (PP) within the first week after transplantation, with intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg) after each PP session and one dose of rituximab on day 8. The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) was analyzed by use of Luminex technology; levels between 1000 and 3000 mean fluorescence intensity were considered for desensitization. The median age was 44 years and median renal replacement therapy time was 9 years. All recipients presented 1 to 3 DSA specificities. There were no severe side effects related to PP, infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, or rituximab. The median follow-up period was 19.3 months. Median serum creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.7 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed in all patients. Graft and patient survival was 100%. Until now, few data are available concerning whether HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation after desensitization would benefit patients with ERSD. The desensitization strategy using the combination of PP, low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab at our center resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High Titer and Yields Achieved with Novel, Low-Severity Pretreatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    NREL researchers obtained high concentration sugar syrups in enzymatic hydrolysis that are fermentable to ethanol and other advanced biofuels and intermediate products at high yields. The novel DMR process is simpler and bypasses all severe pretreatment methods, thus reducing the environmental impact. The results are unprecedented. Researchers achieved a high concentration of sugars (230g/L of monomeric sugar and 270 g/L total sugar) and this low toxicity, highly fermentable syrup yielded 86 g/L ethanol (> 90 percent conversion). In addition, the lignin streams from this process can readily be converted to jet or renewable diesel blendstocks through a hydrodeoxygenation step. The NREL-developed, low severity DMR process may potentially replace higher severity chemical pretreatments and associated expensive reactors constructed of exotic alloys with a simpler process, using commercial-scale equipment commonly associated with the pulp and paper industry, to produce high concentration, low toxicity sugar streams and highly reactive lignin streams from non-food renewable biomass for biological and catalytic upgrading to advanced biofuels and chemicals. The simpler DMR process with black liquor recycling could reduce environmental and life-cycle impacts, and repurpose shuttered pulp and paper mills to help revitalize rural economies.

  2. High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce and hardwood (birch, as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

  3. Response to booster doses of hepatitis B vaccine among young adults who had received neonatal vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K S Chan

    Full Text Available Newborns who have received hepatitis B immunization in 1980s are now young adults joining healthcare disciplines. The need for booster, pre- and post-booster checks becomes a practical question.The aim of this study is to refine the HBV vaccination policy for newly admitted students in the future.A prospective study on medical and nursing school entrants to evaluate hepatitis B serostatus and the response to booster doses among young adults.Among 212 students, 17-23-year-old, born after adoption of neonatal immunization, 2 (0.9% were HBsAg positive, 40 (18.9% were anti-HBs positive. At 1 month after a single-dose booster for anti-HBs-negative students, 14.5% had anti-HBs 100 mIU/mL, respectively. The anti-HBs levels were significantly higher for females than males (mean [SD]: 431 [418] vs. 246 [339] mIU/mL, P = 0.047. At 2-4 month after the third booster dose, 97.1% had anti-HBs >100 mIU/mL and 2.9% had 10-100 mIU/mL.Pre-booster check is still worthwhile to identify carriers among newly recruited healthcare workers born after adoption of neonatal immunization. A 3-dose booster, rather than a single dose, is required for the majority to achieve an anti-HBs level >100 mIU/mL, as memory immunity has declined in a substantial proportion of individuals. Cost-effectiveness of post-booster check for anti-HBs is low and should be further evaluated based on contextual specific utilization of results.

  4. Benefit of cone-beam computed tomography angiography in acute management of angiographically undetectable ruptured arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Jason P; Malek, Adel M

    2013-10-01

    Ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a frequent cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In some cases, compression from the associated hematoma in the acute setting can partially or completely occlude an AVM, making it invisible on conventional angiography techniques. The authors report on the successful use of cone-beam CT angiography (CBCT-A) to precisely identify the underlying angioarchitecture of ruptured AVMs that are not visible on conventional angiography. Three patients presented with ICH for which they underwent examination with CBCT-A in addition to digital subtraction angiography and other imaging modalities, including MR angiography and CT angiography. All patients underwent surgical evacuation due to mass effect from the hematoma. Clinical history, imaging studies, and surgical records were reviewed. Hematoma volumes were calculated. In all 3 cases, CBCT-A demonstrated detailed anatomy of an AVM where no lesion or just a suggestion of a draining vein had been seen with other imaging modalities. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated enhancement in 1 patient; CT angiography demonstrated a draining vein in 1 patient; 2D digital subtraction angiography and 3D rotational angiography demonstrated a suggestion of a draining vein in 2 cases and no finding in the third. In the 2 patients in whom CBCT-A was performed prior to surgery, the demonstrated AVM was successfully resected without evidence of a residual lesion. In the third patient, CBCT-A allowed precise targeting of the AVM nidus using Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Cone-beam CT angiography should be considered in the evaluation and subsequent treatment of ICH due to ruptured AVMs. In cases in which the associated hematoma compresses the AVM nidus, CBCT-A can have higher sensitivity and anatomical accuracy than traditional angiographic modalities, including digital subtraction angiography.

  5. The follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg antibodies during ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Plukker, John T. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    Objective: This retrospective study describes the rote of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) in relation to tumor characteristics in the prediction of persistent/recurrent disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with negative Tg at the time of ablation. Design: Between 1989 and 2006, 94

  6. Packaging of human endogenous retrovirus sequences is undetectable in porcine endogenous retrovirus particles produced from human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suling, Kristen; Quinn, Gary; Wood, James; Patience, Clive

    2003-01-01

    The chronic shortage of human donor organs and tissues for allotransplantation could be relieved if clinical xenotransplantation were to become a viable clinical therapy. Balanced against the benefits of xenotransplantation are the possible consequences of zoonotic infections, and in particular, infection by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An often-proclaimed risk of PERV infection is the possible recombination of PERV with human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) . To address this issue, we examined the potential for HERV sequences to be cross-packaged into PERV particles produced from infected human 293 cells. Although HERV-K, W, E, R, and ERV-9 RNA transcripts are expressed in 293 cells, we did not detect cross-packaging of any of these HERV groups. Quantitative analysis indicated that less than approximately 1 in 10 4 -10 7 PERV particles might contain HERV sequences. In comparison, we found that murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vector transcripts were cross-packaged at a rate of approximately one copy in 10 4 PERV particles. Our results indicate that the potential for recombination of PERV and HERV sequences is low and that novel viruses generated by this mechanism are unlikely to represent a significant risk for xenotransplantation

  7. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela; Watson, C. J.; Turkenburg, J. P.; Jiráček, Jiří; Brzozowski, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 10 (2014), s. 2765-2774 ISSN 0907-4449 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/11/P430; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : insulin * insulin receptor * complex * active form * analog * structure Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 7.232, year: 2013

  8. Statistical analysis of COMPTEL maximum likelihood-ratio distributions: evidence for a signal from previously undetected AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, O. R.; Bennett, K.; Much, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Blom, J. J.; Ryan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum likelihood-ratio method is frequently used in COMPTEL analysis to determine the significance of a point source at a given location. In this paper we do not consider whether the likelihood-ratio at a particular location indicates a detection, but rather whether distributions of likelihood-ratios derived from many locations depart from that expected for source free data. We have constructed distributions of likelihood-ratios by reading values from standard COMPTEL maximum-likelihood ratio maps at positions corresponding to the locations of different categories of AGN. Distributions derived from the locations of Seyfert galaxies are indistinguishable, according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, from those obtained from ''random'' locations, but differ slightly from those obtained from the locations of flat spectrum radio loud quasars, OVVs, and BL Lac objects. This difference is not due to known COMPTEL sources, since regions near these sources are excluded from the analysis. We suggest that it might arise from a number of sources with fluxes below the COMPTEL detection threshold

  9. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among students with cognitive impairment in eastern Taiwan: The special group with undetected visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Wei-Shan; Hsieh, Hsi-Pao; Chuang, Yi-Ting; Sheu, Min-Muh

    2017-05-01

    Students with cognitive impairment are at increased risk of suffering from visual impairment due to refractive errors and ocular disease, which can adversely influence learning and daily activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular and visual status among students at the special education school in Hualien. All students at the National Hualien Special Education School were evaluated. Full eye examinations were conducted by a skilled ophthalmologist. The students' medical records and disability types were reviewed. A total of 241 students, aged 7-18 years, were examined. Visual acuity could be assessed in 138 students. A total of 169/477 (35.4%) eyes were found to suffer from refractive errors, including 20 eyes with high myopia (≤-6.0 D) and 16 eyes with moderate hypermetropia (+3.0 D to +5.0 D). A total of 84/241 (34.8%) students needed spectacles to correct their vision, thus improving their daily activities and learning process, but only 15/241 (6.2%) students were wearing suitable corrective spectacles. A total of 55/241 students (22.8%) had ocular disorders, which influenced their visual function. The multiple disability group had a statistically significant higher prevalence of ocular disorders (32.9%) than the simple intellectual disability group (19.6%). Students with cognitive impairment in eastern Taiwan have a high risk of visual impairment due to refractive errors and ocular disorders. Importantly, many students have unrecognized correctable refractive errors. Regular ophthalmic examination should be administered to address this issue and prevent further disability in this already handicapped group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. In quantum direct communication an undetectable eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ Bell states in the message mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavičić, Mladen

    2013-04-01

    We show that in any quantum direct communication protocol that is based on Ψ and Φ Bell states, an eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ states without altering the transmission in any way in the message mode. This renders all protocols that make use of only one Ψ state and one Φ state completely insecure in the message mode. All four-Bell-state protocols require a revision and this might be of importance for new implementations of entanglement-based cryptographic protocols. The detection rate of an eavesdropper is 25% per control transmission, i.e., a half of the rate in the two-state (ping-pong) protocol. An eavesdropper can detect control probes with certainty in the standard control transmission without a photon in the Alice-to-Bob's travel mode and with near certainty in a transmission with a fake photon in the travel mode. Resending of measured control photons via the travel mode would make an eavesdropper completely invisible.

  11. Macrocyclic trichothecenes are undetectable in kudzu (Pueraria montana) plants treated with a high-producing isolate of Myrothecium verrucaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, H K; Tak, H; Boyette, C D; Shier, W T; Jarvis, B B

    2001-09-01

    Myrothecium verrucaria was found to be an effective pathogen against kudzu grown in the greenhouse and the field. M. verrucaria produced large amounts of macrocyclic trichothecenes when cultured on solid rice medium, including epiroridin E (16.8 mg/g crude extract), epiisororidin E (1 mg/g), roridin E (8.7 mg/g), roridin H (31.3 mg/g), trichoverrin A (0.6 mg/g), trichoverrin B (0.1 mg/g), verrucarin A (37.4 mg/g), and verrucarin J (2.2 mg/g). Most of these toxins were also isolated from M. verrucaria spores and mycelia grown on potato dextrose agar medium, including epiroridin E (32.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (28.6 mg/g), roridin E (0 mg/g), roridin H (60 mg/g), trichoverrin A (1.3 mg/g), trichoverrin B (1.8 mg/g), verrucarin A (13.8 mg/g), and verrucarin J (131 mg/g). When M. verrucaria was cultured on liquid media, the numbers but not the amounts of toxins decreased. Only epiroridin E (28.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (29.6 mg/g), verrucarin B (195 mg/g) and verrucarin J (52.6 mg/g) were measured when the fungus was cultured on cornsteep medium. On soyflour-cornmeal broth M. verrucaria produced several toxins, including epiroridin E (58.1 mg/g), epiisororidin E (5.8 mg/g), verrucarin B (29.9 mg/g) and verrucarin J (32 mg/g). In contrast, no macrocyclic trichothecenes were detected by HPLC analysis of plant tissues of kudzu, sicklepod, and soybean treated with aqueous suspensions of M. verrucaria spores formulated with a surfactant. Chloroform-methanol extracts of kudzu leaves and stems treated with M. verrucaria spores were less cytotoxic to four cultured mammalian cell lines than the corresponding extracts from control plants. Purified macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarin A and T-2 toxin) were very cytotoxic to the same cell lines (< or = 2 ng/ml). These results show that neither intact macrocyclic trichothecenes nor toxic metabolites could be detected in plant tissues after treatment with M. verrucaria spores. These results argue for both safety and efficacy for the use of M. verrucaria in biological control of kudzu and other noxious weeds, and support proceeding to animal feeding trials for further evaluation of safety.

  12. Preanalytical external quality assessment of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine and CROQALM: finding undetected weak spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac, Nora; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this paper is to present results of first two years of preanalytical external quality assessment (EQA) in Croatia. This paper summarizes results from 6 rounds of preanalytical EQA during 2014-2016 in 161-175 Croatian laboratories (number ranged between cycles). EQA was designed as an online survey of the compliance with National recommendations for phlebotomy (NRP). Forty-seven questions in 5 categories are analyzed (materials and equipment, patient identification, patient preparation, sampling and storage). Additionally, preanalytical cases are presented. Overall performance scores (Question score (Qscore) for compliance with NRP and Case score (Cscore) for preanalytical cases) are calculated for each question/case as a proportion of laboratories with satisfactory procedure (x 100). Qscores and Cscores ≥ 70 were classified as acceptable (maximal score = 100). In investigation of compliance with NRP, acceptable Qscores were obtained for 34/47 questions. The lowest scores were observed for the availability of sterile disposable tourniquets (Qscore = 15) and safe-sharp needles (Qscore = 34), obtaining patients address as an identifier (Qscore = 21), using glycolysis inhibitor tubes for glucose concentration measurement (Qscore = 21) and verification of manufacturers declarations on temperature and time of storage (Qscore = 31). There was no statistically significant difference in overall Qscore according to different categories of phlebotomy procedures (P = 0.284). The results of preanalytical cases showed acceptable Cscore values for all cases (89-96). First two years of preanalytical EQA showed good compliance with the NRP and excellent expertise in resolving complex preanalytical issues. Major critical spots are lack of availability of safe-sharp needles, disposable tourniquets and glucose inhibitor tubes.

  13. Investigation and Root Cause Analysis Guideline for Undetected Cracking Incidents in Safety-of-Flight Aircraft Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    diagram” because it was invented by Kaoru Ishikawa , or a “Fishbone Diagram” because of the way it looks. This diagram should incorporate the resulting...the relationships between a given outcome and all the factors that influence the outcome. This type of diagram is sometimes called an “ Ishikawa

  14. Undetected Severe Fetal Myelosuppression following Administration of High-Dose Cytarabine for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Is More Frequent Surveillance Necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Parrott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cytarabine use during pregnancy carries a 5–7% risk of neonatal cytopenia. We report two cases of fetal myelosuppression following high-dose cytarabine administration for acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Case 1. A 36-year-old G9P6 diagnosed with AML at 21 weeks was monitored for fetal anemia weekly and growth monthly. At 33 weeks (after 2 cycles, BPP was 2/10 and MCA PSV was elevated at 1.51 MoM. Urgent cesarean section was performed. The infant had an initial pH of 6.78 and pancytopenia (hematocrit 13.3%, platelets 3 K/UL, and white blood cell count 2.0 K/UL. Initially transfusion dependent, the neonate had count recovery by 3 weeks. Case 2. A 30-year-old G4P3 with AML at 26 weeks was monitored for fetal anemia twice weekly and growth monthly. At 34 weeks (after cycle 1, she was admitted with neutropenic fever. The fetal MCA PSV was borderline at 1.48 MoM. It improved to 1.38 MoM at 35 weeks but the fetal tracing worsened. At delivery the fetus was found to have a hematocrit of 30%, but with normal platelet and WBC. The fetus did not require any transfusions. Conclusion. Cytarabine use during pregnancy may cause neonatal myelosuppression. We recommend monitoring for fetal anemia with MCA Dopplers twice weekly.

  15. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson-Miller Connie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Methods Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. Results MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43% and malignant (3-17% breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors.

  16. Increasing cerebrospinal fluid chemokine concentrations despite undetectable cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA in HIV-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisolf, E. H.; van Praag, R. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Portegies, P.; Goudsmit, J.; Danner, S. A.; Lange, J. M.; Prins, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Only limited data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA responses and markers of local inflammation in CSF during antiretroviral therapy are available. HIV-RNA, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (sTNFr)-II, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein

  17. WHERE ARE THE FOSSILS OF THE FIRST GALAXIES? I. LOCAL VOLUME MAPS AND PROPERTIES OF THE UNDETECTED DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovill, Mia S.; Ricotti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for generating initial conditions for ΛCDM N-body simulations which provides the dynamical range necessary to follow the evolution and distribution of the fossils of the first galaxies on Local Volume, 5-10 Mpc, scales. The initial distribution of particles represents the position, velocity, and mass distribution of the dark and luminous halos extracted from pre-reionization simulations. We confirm previous results that ultra-faint dwarfs have properties compatible with being well-preserved fossils of the first galaxies. However, because the brightest pre-reionization dwarfs form preferentially in biased regions, they most likely merge into non-fossil halos with circular velocities >20-30 km s -1 . Hence, we find that the maximum luminosity of true fossils in the Milky Way is L V 6 L sun , casting doubts on the interpretation that some classical dSphs are true fossils. In addition, we argue that most ultra-faints at small galactocentric distance, R V ) 50 (∼400 kpc) up to 1 Mpc from the Milky Way contains about a hundred true fossils of the first galaxies with V-band luminosity 10 3 -10 5 L sun and half-light radii, r hl ∼ 100-1000 pc.

  18. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  19. Investigation of occult hepatitis B virus infection in anti-hbc positive patients from a liver clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmela; Kok, Chee Choy; Baleriola, Cristina; Robertson, Peter; Rawlinson, William D

    2015-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is manifested by presence of very low levels (Hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) in the blood and the liver while exhibiting undetectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). The molecular mechanisms underlying this occurrence are still not completely understood. This study investigated the prevalence of OBI in a high-risk Australian population and compared the HBV S gene sequences of our cohort with reference sequences. Serum from HBV DNA positive, HBsAg negative, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive patients (study cohort) were obtained from samples tested at SEALS Serology Laboratory using the Abbott Architect, as part of screening and diagnostic testing. From a total of 228,108 samples reviewed, 1,451 patients were tested for all three OBI markers. Only 10 patients (0.69%) out of the 1,451 patients were found to fit the selection criteria for OBI. Sequence analysis of the HBV S gene from 5 suspected OBI infected patients showed increased sequence variability in the 'a' epitope of the major hydrophilic region compared to reference sequences. In addition, a total of eight consistent nucleotide substitutions resulting in seven amino acid changes were observed, and three patients had truncated S gene sequence. These mutations appeared to be stable and may result in alterations in HBsAg conformation. These may negatively impact the affinity of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and may explain the false negative results in serological HBV diagnosis. These changes may also enable the virus to persist in the liver by evading immune surveillance. Further studies on a bigger cohort are required to determine whether these amino acid variations have been acquired in the process of immune escape and serve as markers of OBI.

  20. The immunization status of children with chronic neurological disease and serological assessment of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, Meltem; Carman, Kursat Bora; Kilic, Omer; Laciner Gurlevik, Sibel; Yarar, Coskun; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the age-appropriate immunization coverage in 366 children with chronic neurological disease (CND), to evaluate the use of vaccines not included in routine program, to evaluate serological tests for vaccine-preventable diseases and to describe the related factors in unvaccinated children. 95.6% of all children with had received age-appropriate vaccinations according to the actual National Immunization Program (NIP) during childhood. 12 children (3.6%) had not received vaccines; only two had true contraindications. Because most of the vaccines have been implemented through the NIP for 10 years in Turkey, 88% of children required these new vaccines or booster doses. Moreover, 86.6% of the children and 92.6% of household contacts had no prior history of influenza vaccine. Furthermore, 88% of the patients had not received the varicella vaccine, and the anti-varicella IgG levels were only negative in 27.9%. In addition, 18.6% of the children were negative for anti-mumps IgG, 23.7% for anti-measles IgG, and 6.3% for anti-rubella IgG. Anti-HBs IgG level was 0-10 IU/L in 45.6% of the patients (most of them previously vaccinated) and 79.8% were negative for hepatitis A IgG antibodies. For pertussis infection, the antibody titers of 54.1% of patients were below the protective level, and 10% of patients had a prior acute pertussis infection. Therefore, it is suggested that children with CND should be evaluated for their vaccination status during their first and follow-up visits at certain intervals, and their primary immunization should be completed; moreover, many will need revaccination or booster doses.

  1. A randomized trial assessing the safety and immunogenicity of AS01 and AS02 adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine candidates in children in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Lell

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The malaria vaccine candidate antigen RTS,S includes parts of the pre-erythrocytic stage circumsporozoite protein fused to the Hepatitis B surface antigen. Two Adjuvant Systems are in development for this vaccine, an oil-in water emulsion--based formulation (AS02 and a formulation based on liposomes (AS01.In this Phase II, double-blind study (NCT00307021, 180 healthy Gabonese children aged 18 months to 4 years were randomized to receive either RTS,S/AS01(E or RTS,S/AS02(D, on a 0-1-2 month vaccination schedule. The children were followed-up daily for six days after each vaccination and monthly for 14 months. Blood samples were collected at 4 time-points. Both vaccines were well tolerated. Safety parameters were distributed similarly between the two groups. Both vaccines elicited a strong specific immune response after Doses 2 and 3 with a ratio of anti-CS GMT titers (AS02(D/AS01(E of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.68-1.15 post-Dose 3. After Doses 2 and 3 of experimental vaccines, anti-CS and anti-HBs antibody GMTs were higher in children who had been previously vaccinated with at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine compared to those not previously vaccinated.RTS,S/AS01(E proved similarly as well tolerated and immunogenic as RTS,S/AS02(D, completing an essential step in the age de-escalation process within the RTS,S clinical development plan.ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT00307021.

  2. Decreasing prevalence of Hepatitis B and absence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in the Warao indigenous population of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ruth Y.; Loureiro, Carmen L.; Sulbarán, Yoneira F.; Maes, Mailis; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Rangel, Héctor R.

    2018-01-01

    Prevalence and molecular epidemiology studies for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus are scarce in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela, where an epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has recently been documented. To carry out a molecular epidemiology analysis of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus in Warao individuals from the Delta Amacuro State of Venezuela. A total of 548 sera were tested for serological and molecular markers for HBV and HCV. The prevalence of active infection (presence of HBV surface antigen, HBsAg), exposure to HBV (presence of Antibody to HBV core antigen, anti-HBc) and anti-HCV, was 1.8%, 13% and 0% respectively. HBV exposure was significantly lower in men below 18 years old and also lower than rates previously reported in other Amerindian communities from Venezuela. Thirty one percent (31%, 25/80) of individuals without evidence of HBV infection exhibited anti-HBs titer ≥ 10U.I / ml, being significantly more frequent in individuals younger than 20 years. A higher HBV exposure was observed among HIV-1 positive individuals (33% vs 11%, p <0.005). A high prevalence of occult HBV infection was also observed (5.6%, 11/195). Phylogenetic analysis of S gene and complete HBV genomes showed that F3 is the only circulating subgenotype, different from the F2 subgenotype found in 1991 in this population. These results suggest a recent introduction of subgenotype F3, with a low divergence among the isolates. These results highlight the importance of molecular epidemiology studies for viral control, and support the effectiveness of vaccination in reducing transmission of HBV. PMID:29799873

  3. A novel therapeutic hepatitis B vaccine induces cellular and humoral immune responses and breaks tolerance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Pascale; Dembek, Claudia; Kuklick, Larissa; Jäger, Clemens; Tedjokusumo, Raindy; von Freyend, Miriam John; Drebber, Uta; Janowicz, Zbigniew; Melber, Karl; Protzer, Ulrike

    2013-02-06

    Therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed for chronic hepatitis B and C. As an alternative to long-term antiviral treatment or to support only partially effective therapy, they should activate the patient's immune system effectively to fight and finally control the virus. A paradigm of therapeutic vaccination is the potent induction of T-cell responses against key viral antigens - besides activation of a humoral immune response. We have evaluated the potential of a novel vaccine formulation comprising particulate hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and core antigen (HBcAg), and the saponin-based ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant for its ability to stimulate T and B cell responses in C57BL/6 mice and its ability to break tolerance in syngeneic HBV transgenic (HBVtg) mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the vaccine induced multifunctional HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T cells detected by staining for IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2, as well as high antibody titers against both antigens. Vaccination of HBVtg animals induced potent HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in spleens and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in livers as well as anti-HBs seroconversion two weeks post injection. Vaccination further reduced HBcAg expression in livers of HBVtg mice without causing liver damage. In summary, this study demonstrates therapeutic efficacy of a novel vaccine formulation in a mouse model of immunotolerant, chronic HBV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are liver transplant recipients protected against hepatitis A and B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, D; Castedal, M; Friman, V

    2013-04-01

    Liver transplant recipients are at an increased risk for liver failure when infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Therefore, it is important to vaccinate these individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate how well liver transplanted patients in our unit were protected against HAV and HBV infection. Furthermore we investigated the vaccination rate and the antibody response to vaccination in these liver transplanted patients. Patients liver transplanted from January 2007 until August 2010 with a posttransplant check-up during the period March-November 2010 were included (n = 51). Information considering diagnose, date of transplantation, Child-Pugh score, and vaccination were collected from the patient records. Anti-HAV IgG and anti-HBs titers in serum samples were analyzed and protective levels were registered. Of the patients 45% were protected against hepatitis A infection and 29% against hepatitis B infection after transplantation. Only 26% were vaccinated according to a complete vaccination schedule and these patients had a vaccine response for HAV and HBV of 50% and 31%, respectively. An additional 31% received ≥ 1 doses of vaccine, but not a complete vaccination and the vaccine response was much lower among these patients, stressing the importance of completing the vaccination schedule. Even when patients were fully vaccinated, they did not respond to the same degree as healthy individuals. Patients seemed to be more likely to respond to a vaccination if they had a lower Child-Pugh score, suggesting that patients should be vaccinated as early as possible in the course of their liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term persistence in protection and response to a hepatitis B vaccine booster among adolescents immunized in infancy in the western region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Zi; Gao, Yu-Hua; Lu, Wei; Jin, Cun-Duo; Zeng, Ying; Yan, Ling; Ding, Feng; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-04-03

    To evaluate the persistence of protection from hepatitis B (HB) vaccination among adolescents immunized with a primary series of HB vaccine as infants, and the immune response to booster doses. Healthy adolescents aged 15-17 y vaccinated with HB vaccine only at birth were enrolled. Baseline serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and anti-HBs level was measured using Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA). The rate of HBV infection was calculated. The seroprotection rate of anti-HBs (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and GMC level were used to evaluate the persistence of immunity from HB vaccination. Those with anti-HBs infants, 3 (1.7%) had HBV infection and 74 (41.1%) had anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/ml with a GMC of 145.11 mIU/ml. The remaining 103 (57.2%) with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml received a booster dose of 20 μg HB vaccine and achieved the seroprotection rate of 84% (84/100) and a GMC of 875.19 mIU/ml at one month post-booster. An additional dose of 60 μg HB vaccine was administered to the 16 adolescents with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml after the first booster. All of them obtained anti-HBs seroprotection with a GMC of 271.02 mIU/ml at 1.5 months after an additional dose. Vaccine-induced immunity persisted for up to 15-17 y in 89.3% (158/177) of participants after a primary HB vaccination in infancy. Administering a booster dose of 20μg HB vaccine elicited an anamnestic immune responses in the majority of individuals with baseline anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml.

  6. Fatores associados à imunização contra Hepatite B entre trabalhadores da Estratégia Saúde da Família

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal conduzido entre trabalhadores da Estratégia Saúde da Família de Montes Claros. Objetivo: investigar o relato de vacinação contra Hepatite B, a verificação da imunização e os fatores associados às dosagens de anti-HBs. Método: coletaram-se amostras de sangue daqueles que relataram ter recebido uma ou mais doses da vacina. Avaliou-se a associação da dosagem de anti-HBs com condições sociodemográficas, ocupacionais e comportamentais. As associações foram verificadas pelos testes Mann Whitney e Kruskal Wallis e correlação de Spermann seguida pela regressão linear, utilizou-se o SPSS® 17.0. Resultados: dentre os 761 entrevistados, 504 (66,1% foram vacinados, 52,5% tomaram três doses, 30,4% verificaram a imunização. Dos 397 avaliados quanto à dosagem de anti-HBs, 16,4% estavam imunes. Conclusão: constatou-se que o maior tempo de trabalho foi associado a níveis mais elevados de anti-HBs, enquanto os níveis de tabagismo foram inversamente associados ao anti-HBs. Há necessidade de campanhas de vacinação entre esses trabalhadores.

  7. High titer ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and combined fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.Q. Lan; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald E. Hector

    2012-01-01

    Lodgepole wood chips were pretreated by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) at 25% solids loading and 180 °C for 20 min with sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite charges of 2.2 and 8 wt/wt% on an oven-dry wood basis, respectively. The pretreated wood chips were disk-milled with pretreatment spent liquor and water, and the...

  8. Generation of a high-titer retroviral vector capable of expressing high levels of the human β-globin gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sadelain (Michel); C.H.J. Wang (Jason); M. Antoniou (Michael); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); R.C. Mulligan

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRetrovirus-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic cells may provide a means of treating both inherited and acquired diseases involving hematopoietic cells. Implementation of this approach for disorders resulting from mutations affecting the beta-globin gene (e.g., beta-thalassemia and

  9. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  10. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  11. Comparative lipid production by oleaginous yeasts in hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass and process strategy for high titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slininger, Patricia J; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Moser, Bryan R; Bakota, Erica L; Thompson, Stephanie R; O'Bryan, Patricia J; Cotta, Michael A; Balan, Venkatesh; Jin, Mingjie; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Dale, Bruce E

    2016-08-01

    Oleaginous yeasts can convert sugars to lipids with fatty acid profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, making them attractive for production of biodiesel. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of sugars for yeast lipid production because it is abundant, potentially low cost, and renewable. However, lignocellulosic hydrolyzates are laden with byproducts which inhibit microbial growth and metabolism. With the goal of identifying oleaginous yeast strains able to convert plant biomass to lipids, we screened 32 strains from the ARS Culture Collection, Peoria, IL to identify four robust strains able to produce high lipid concentrations from both acid and base-pretreated biomass. The screening was arranged in two tiers using undetoxified enzyme hydrolyzates of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated cornstover as the primary screening medium and acid-pretreated switch grass as the secondary screening medium applied to strains passing the primary screen. Hydrolyzates were prepared at ∼18-20% solids loading to provide ∼110 g/L sugars at ∼56:39:5 mass ratio glucose:xylose:arabinose. A two stage process boosting the molar C:N ratio from 60 to well above 400 in undetoxified switchgrass hydrolyzate was optimized with respect to nitrogen source, C:N, and carbon loading. Using this process three strains were able to consume acetic acid and nearly all available sugars to accumulate 50-65% of cell biomass as lipid (w/w), to produce 25-30 g/L lipid at 0.12-0.22 g/L/h and 0.13-0.15 g/g or 39-45% of the theoretical yield at pH 6 and 7, a performance unprecedented in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Three of the top strains have not previously been reported for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to lipids. The successful identification and development of top-performing lipid-producing yeast in lignocellulose hydrolyzates is expected to advance the economic feasibility of high quality biodiesel and jet fuels from renewable biomass, expanding the market potential for lignocellulose-derived fuels beyond ethanol for automobiles to the entire U.S. transportation market. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1676-1690. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Increased serum anti-mycobacterial antibody titers in rheumatoid arthritis patients: Is there any specific antigenic target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Emel S.; Aksoy, Ali M

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the presence of immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Ra) and to detect the target of the immune reaction. This study was carried out on 60 patients with RA, and 25 patients with no joint diseases in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology Department of Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey between July 2003 to January 2004. Secreted and cellular antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) were isolated and purified by high performance liquid chromatography to antigenic fractions. The immunoreactivity of patient and control sera against these antigens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in RA patients were significantly higher than controls. Significant difference between patients and controls has been determined with M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) culture fluid and sonicate antigens, but not with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. This suggests that the antigen triggering immune response in patients with RA may belong to or mainly expressed on M. bovis BCG. The ELISA results showed significant difference between RA patients and controls with all antigenic fractions. Presence of increased immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in the sera of patients with RA was detected. When statistical analysis was considered, we cannot put forward any antigenic fraction alone as the one responsible for the increased reactivity. (author)

  13. Change of hemoagglutinin and hemolysin titers in hemolymph of gastropod molluscs in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskakov, AV; Polevshchikov, AV; Harazova, AD; Krasnodembskii, EG

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with analysis of changes of the levels of hemoagglutinins (HA) and hemolysins (HL) in hemolymph of three gastropod species, Planorbius corneus, Lymnea stagnalis, and Achatina fulica, in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes (ShE). The levels of HA and HL were determined

  14. Identification and analysis of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and titer improvement of the paulomycins in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jine Li

    Full Text Available The paulomycins are a group of glycosylated compounds featuring a unique paulic acid moiety. To locate their biosynthetic gene clusters, the genomes of two paulomycin producers, Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115 and Streptomyces sp. YN86, were sequenced. The paulomycin biosynthetic gene clusters were defined by comparative analyses of the two genomes together with the genome of the third paulomycin producer Streptomyces albus J1074. Subsequently, the identity of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by inactivation of two genes involved in biosynthesis of the paulomycose branched chain (pau11 and the ring A moiety (pau18 in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115. After determining the gene cluster boundaries, a convergent biosynthetic model was proposed for paulomycin based on the deduced functions of the pau genes. Finally, a paulomycin high-producing strain was constructed by expressing an activator-encoding gene (pau13 in S. paulus, setting the stage for future investigations.

  15. Immune status of health care workers to measles virus: evaluation of protective titers in four measles IgG EIAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Hall, M.A.; Vreeswijk, J.; Vries, J.J. de; Vossen, A.C.; Hulscher, H.I. Ten; Kerkhof, J.; Smits, G.P.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.; Binnendijk, R.S. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition of a measles case in a hospital in The Netherlands, health care workers (HCW) from the premises were screened by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measles IgG to identify persons at risk for measles. At least 10% of the HCW were tested measles

  16. Risk Factors for High-Titer Inhibitor Development in Children with Hemophilia A: Results of a Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Halimeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the discussed risk factors for high-titre inhibitor (HRI development in patients with hemophilia A (HA are high dose FVIII replacement therapy and use of recombinant FVIII concentrates (rFVIII. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aforementioned risk factors for HRI development in children with hemophilia A ≤2%. About 288 ascertained PUPs (Israel and Germany were followed after initial HA diagnosis over 200 exposure days. Inhibitor-free survival, hazard ratios (HR, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Adjustment was performed for factor VIII concentrates, median single dose over the first three months of treatment, first FVIII administration before the age of three months, presence of risk HA gene mutations, “intensive treatment moments” and “year of birth” (proxy for different treatment periods. HRI occurred in 71/288 children (24.7%. In multivariate analysis adjusted for “year of birth”, underlying risk gene mutations (HR/CI: 2.37/1.40–3.99, FVIII dose, measured per one IU increase per kgbw (HR/CI: 1.05/1.04–1.07, and first FVIII administration before the age of three months showed a significant impact on HR development. The risk of HRI development was similar for recombinant or plasmatic FVIII products. Children at risk should be treated with carefully calculated lower dose regimens, adapted to individual bleeding situations.

  17. Is the titer of adipokinetic peptides in Leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes increased by oxidative stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habuštová, Oxana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5, (2007), s. 974-980 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0151; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/1591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * oxidative stress * GMO Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  18. FX knockout CHO hosts can express desired ratios of fucosylated or afucosylated antibodies with high titers and comparable product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Salina; Haley, Benjamin; Marshall, Brett; Heidersbach, Amy; Yim, Mandy; Brozynski, Martina; Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Petryniak, Bronislawa; Shaw, David; Shim, Jeongsup; Miller, Aaron; Lowe, John B; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    During antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) the target cells are killed by monocytes and natural killer cells. ADCC is enhanced when the antibody heavy chain's core N-linked glycan lacks the fucose molecule(s). Several strategies have been utilized to generate fully afucosylated antibodies. A commonly used and efficient approach has been knocking out the FUT8 gene of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cells, which results in expression of antibody molecules with fully afucosylated glycans. However, a major drawback of the FUT8-KO host is the requirement for undertaking two separate cell line development (CLD) efforts in order to obtain both primarily fucosylated and fully afucosylated antibody species for comparative studies in vitro and in vivo. Even more challenging is obtaining primarily fucosylated and FUT8-KO clones with similar enough product quality attributes to ensure that any observed ADCC advantage(s) can be strictly attributed to afucosylation. Here, we report generation and use of a FX knockout (FXKO) CHO host cell line that is capable of expressing antibody molecules with either primarily fucosylated or fully afucosylated glycan profiles with otherwise similar product quality attributes, depending on addition of fucose to the cell culture media. Hence, the FXKO host not only obviates the requirement for undertaking two separate CLD efforts, but it also averts the need for screening many colonies to identify clones with comparable product qualities. Finally, FXKO clones can express antibodies with the desired ratio of primarily fucosylated to afucosylated glycans when fucose is titrated into the production media, to allow achieving intended levels of FcγRIII-binding and ADCC for an antibody. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 632-644. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Seroprevalence in Black Sea Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... the seroprevalence of hepatitis B among all age groups in northern Turkey using HBsAg and anti-HBs serological markers. Materials and Methods: .... in human serum or plasma, with a total incubation time of 18 min. All the ...

  20. Intradermal vaccination against hepatitis B in a group of medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of a low-dose (one-tenth) intradermal regimen using recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was undertaken during two consecutive years in 4th-year medical students. Eighty one per cent of the vaccinees (123/152) seroconverted with anti-HBs levels of > 10 lU/l. The lower titre of hepatitis B surface antibodies ...

  1. Development of hen antihepatitis B antigen IgY-based conjugate for ELISA assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Muayed Nafea

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that laying hens can be used as an alternative source for production of polyclonal antibodies against HBsAg and anti-HBs IgY could be labeled with HRP enzyme and could subsequently be used successfully as secondary antibody in ELISA for detection of HBsAg in the patients sera.

  2. Construction of a fusion gene containing hepatitis B virus L gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that the recombinant protein was induced by methanol and stably expressed in P. pastoris, while it has specific reaction with the serum containing anti-HbsAg or anti-Ag85B. However, the successful construction of a recombinant yeast expression vector containing gene ...

  3. Protection status against hepatitis B infection assessed fromanti-HBs level, history of vaccination andhistory of infection based on anti-HBc in medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annisa; Zain, LH; Loesnihari, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most contagious pathogens where the risk of exposure is very high among health care workers, especially students in the clerkship. This study describes the protection status by measuring anti-HBs level, history of vaccination, and history of HBV infection in medical students.Forty-four (44) students over 18 years old were randomly selected, interviewed for their vaccination history and then had their blood serum taken for anti-HBs and anti-HBc examinations to determine the protectivity and history of infection.There were 81.8% students without a protective anti-HBs level. Before starting their clerkship, 18.2% students received thevaccination, and only one-fourth formed protective antibody level above 10mIU/mL. Seventeen (38.6%) students had been exposed to HBV(positive anti-HBc), and only six of them showed protective anti-HBs level. None of the students that received vaccine underwent a post-vaccination serological test (PVST) to determine their immune response. These results indicated the vulnerability of medical students to the risk of HBV transmission while performing medical care. With the high incidence of HBV transmission, educational institutions are encouraged to make provisions for vulnerable students to receive a booster and an adequate PVST before their clerkship.

  4. Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Perdikaris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe or antigens (HBsAg in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg. The observed response was rapid (45 sec and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed.

  5. Comparison of an enzyme-immunoassay with a radio-immunoassay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... patient's serum is added to beads coated with HBsAg and, after a period of incubation, HBsAg conjugated with iodine-. 125 which binds to any anti-HBs on the bead, is added. Department of Virology, University of the Witwatersrand and National Institute for Virology, Johannesburg. N. K. BLACKBURN, F.LM ...

  6. Lack of immune potentiation by complexing HBsAg in a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine with antibody in hepatitis B immunoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelie, P. N.; van Amelsfoort, P. J.; Martine de Groot, C. S.; Bakker, E.; Schaasberg, W.; Niessen, J. C.; Reesink, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    In a randomized, dose-response study among 305 health care workers, we examined whether the immunogenicity of a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine could be enhanced when HBsAg was complexed by anti-HBs contained in hepatitis B immunoglobulin either at equivalent proportions or at 10-fold antigen

  7. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  8. Faktor Risiko Hepatitis B Pada Tenaga Kesehatan Kota Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Amtarina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is still the one of serious public health problem in the world including Indonesia. Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV is strongly associated with use of contaminated blood products. For many people infected with HBV, risk factors of transmission are unknown. We examined risk factors for acquiring HBV in health care worker. This research was done by retrospective to blood participants who tested positive for HBs antibody or HBs antigen, using a questionnaire.participants divided into 2 groups. Had/having exposed to VHB with ati-HBs Positive HBsag negative or HBsag positive, anti-HBs negative and never had exposed to VHB with HBsag and anti-HBs negative. Positive anti- HBs were identified in 32 (29.1% of 110 participants. Positive HBs antigen anti-HBs negative was identified in 1 (0.9% of 110 participants. In questionnaire analysis, significant risk factors for HBV infection among HBs antibody - positive participants were tooth extraction in 29 (90.6%, and needle stick injuries in 18 (56.2% of 32 participants. Only 3 (9.3% of 32 participants with HBs antibody - positive had history of post infected HBV for several years ago. In 1 participant with HBs antigen - positive, significant risk factors were needle stick injuries, acupuncture, tooth extraction, and contact infected person. The most significant risk factors for transmission of hepatitis B in health care worker in Pekanbaru city are tooth extraction and needle stick injuries.

  9. Concurrence of hepatitis B surface antibodies and surface antigen: implications for postvaccination control of health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, Hans L.; Lelie, P. N.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Koot, M.

    2002-01-01

    Among 1081 persons testing positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 106 (10%) tested positive for antibodies to surface antigen (anti-HBs) in the same blood sample. Thirty of these persons were studied in detail: seven tested positive for hepatitis B e-antigen, nine were apparently healthy blood

  10. Is hepatitis B vaccination performed at infant and adolescent age able to provide long-term immunological memory? An observational study on healthcare students and workers in Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Costanza; Grazzini, Maddalena; Chellini, Martina; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio; Tiscione, Emilia; Bonanni, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Universal vaccination programmes against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) have significantly reduced the burden of the disease; nevertheless, HBV infection remains a relevant issue for high-risk subjects, such as healthcare workers (HCWs), who may potentially be exposed to blood or body fluids. Our study evaluates the long-term duration of the immunological memory of HBV vaccination 11-23 years after primary immunization by examining the response to booster doses in HCWs and students of health disciplines at Careggi Teaching Hospital in Florence (Italy). All participants (n = 2,203) had received a complete HBV immunization course in infancy or adolescence. Blood samples were collected to measure antibody levels against the HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs); an anti-HBs titre long-term anti-HBs titres compared to those in case of vaccination performed during adolescence (titre long incubation period of the disease allows the activation of immunologic memory mechanisms, which is also true in case of low anti-HBs level. In conclusion HCWs still represent a high-risk category; it is therefore, necessary to increase efforts to protect and vaccinate these subjects.

  11. Persistence of immunity 18-19 years after vaccination against hepatitis B in 2 cohorts of vaccinees primed as infants or as adolescents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Galli, Cristina; Tagliacarne, Catia; Tosti, Maria Elena; Velati, Claudio; Fomiatti, Laura; Chironna, Maria; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Cuccia, Mario; Mangione, Rossana; Marrone, Fosca; Negrone, Francesco Saverio; Parlato, Antonino; Zotti, Carla Maria; Mele, Alfonso; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo

    2017-05-04

    This study was aimed at assessing the anti-HBs persistence and immune memory 18-19 y after vaccination against hepatitis B in healthy individuals primed as infants or adolescents. We enrolled 405 teenagers (Group A) vaccinated as infants, and 409 young adults (Group B) vaccinated as adolescents. All vaccinees were tested for anti-HBs and anti-HBc antibodies; those found anti-HBc positive were further tested for HBsAg and HBV DNA. Eight individuals belonging to Group B were positive for anti-HBc alone, and were excluded from analysis. Individuals with anti-HBs concentration ≥ 10 mIU/ml were considered protected while those with anti-HBs concentration memory persists for at least 18-19 y after immunization of infants or adolescents with a primary course of vaccination. Thus, booster doses are not needed at this time, but additional follow up is required to assess the long-life longevity of protection.

  12. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS MARKERS IN SURGEONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers in surgeons in a major city in Nigeria. ... Interventions: Blood samples were taken from subjects and analysed for hepatitis B virus markers ( HBsAg, antiHBs and .... Lagos was comparable to those of Romieu et al (10) who found HBsAg seropositivity ...

  13. High-resolution melting (HRM) re-analysis of a polyposis patients cohort reveals previously undetected heterozygous and mosaic APC gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out, Astrid A; van Minderhout, Ivonne J H M; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Bommel, Lysette S R; Kluijt, Irma; Aalfs, Cora; Voorendt, Marsha; Vossen, Rolf H A M; Nielsen, Maartje; Vasen, Hans F A; Morreau, Hans; Devilee, Peter; Tops, Carli M J; Hes, Frederik J

    2015-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is most frequently caused by pathogenic variants in either the APC gene or the MUTYH gene. The detection rate of pathogenic variants depends on the severity of the phenotype and sensitivity of the screening method, including sensitivity for mosaic variants. For 171 patients with multiple colorectal polyps without previously detectable pathogenic variant, APC was reanalyzed in leukocyte DNA by one uniform technique: high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Serial dilution of heterozygous DNA resulted in a lowest detectable allelic fraction of 6% for the majority of variants. HRM analysis and subsequent sequencing detected pathogenic fully heterozygous APC variants in 10 (6%) of the patients and pathogenic mosaic variants in 2 (1%). All these variants were previously missed by various conventional scanning methods. In parallel, HRM APC scanning was applied to DNA isolated from polyp tissue of two additional patients with apparently sporadic polyposis and without detectable pathogenic APC variant in leukocyte DNA. In both patients a pathogenic mosaic APC variant was present in multiple polyps. The detection of pathogenic APC variants in 7% of the patients, including mosaics, illustrates the usefulness of a complete APC gene reanalysis of previously tested patients, by a supplementary scanning method. HRM is a sensitive and fast pre-screening method for reliable detection of heterozygous and mosaic variants, which can be applied to leukocyte and polyp derived DNA.

  14. SiO2 decoration dramatically enhanced the stability of PtRu electrocatalysts with undetectable deterioration in fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinxin; Xu, Zejun; Yang, Zehui; Xu, Sen; Zhang, Quan; Ling, Ying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Prevention of Ru dissolution is essential for steady CO tolerance of anodic electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate a facile way to stabilize Ru atoms by decorating commercial CB/PtRu with SiO2, which shows a six-fold higher stability and similar activity toward a methanol oxidation reaction leading to no discernible degradation in fuel cell performance compared to commercial CB/PtRu electrocatalysts. The higher stability and stable CO tolerance of SiO2-decorated electrocatalysts originate from the SiO2 coating, since Ru atoms are partially ionized during SiO2 decorating, resulting in difficulties in dissolution; while, in the case of commercial CB/PtRu, the dissolved Ru offers active sites for Pt coalescences and CO species resulting in the rapid decay of the electrochemical surface area and fuel cell performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about the stabilization of Ru atoms by SiO2. The highest stability is obtained for a PtRu electrocatalyst with negligible effect on the electrochemical properties.

  15. Hemiuroid trematode sporocysts are undetected by hemocytes of their intermediate host, the ark cockle Anadara trapezia: potential role of surface carbohydrates in successful parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Minami; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome; Dang, Cecile; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    In order to establish a successful relationship with their hosts, parasites must subvert or evade immune defences. Cockle Anadara trapezia and Sydney Rock oyster (SRO) Saccostrea glomerata live in the same location but only ark cockles are infected by sporocysts of hemiuroid trematode. This provides an opportunity to explore differing interactions between the parasite and the immune system of susceptible and refractive hosts. Rapid migration and encapsulation of sporocysts was observed by SRO hemocytes but not by cockle hemocytes. This migration/encapsulation was inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine but not by the other sugars, implicating specific surface carbohydrates in immune detection. Effector responses of hemocytes were investigated in vitro in terms of production of reactive oxygen production (ROS). Hemocytes of both species strongly reacted to Zymosan, but only SRO hemocytes responded to live sporocysts. Neither species' hemocytes produced ROS in the presence of dead/fixed sporocysts, and there was no suppression of Zymosan-induced respiratory burst by sporocysts. This suggests that immune escape is mediated by avoiding encapsulation, perhaps through molecular mimicry. Membrane-shaving with proteases indicated that sporocyst surface proteins are not a key factors in hemocytic detection. Surface carbohydrates of SRO and cockle hemocytes and of sporocysts were profiled with a panel of biotinylated lectins. This revealed substantial differences between cockle and SRO hemocytes, but greater similarity between cockle hemocytes and sporocysts. Results suggest that surface carbohydrates play an integral role in hemocyte immunorecognition and that surface carbohydrate molecular mimicry is a potential strategy for immune evasion in cockles by hemiuroid trematode sporocysts. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of detecting undetected common mental disorders on psychological distress and quality of life in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life.......The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life....

  17. The effect of detecting undetected common mental disorders on psychological distress and quality of life in long-term sickness absence: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life.......The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life....

  18. Genomic investigation of a suspected outbreak of legionella pneumophila st82 reveals undetected heterogeneity by the present gold-standard methods, denmark, july to november 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring, Susanne; Stegger, M.; Kjelsø, C.

    2017-01-01

    Between July and November 2014, 15 communityacquired cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD), including four with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 sequence type (ST) 82, were diagnosed in Northern Zealand, Denmark. An outbreak was suspected. No ST82 isolates were found in environmental samples and ...

  19. Pragmatic approach to chest pain patients discharged with undetectable high-sensitivity troponin T and normal electrocardiogram: the STABS + CT protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Warrick; Girao, Gary

    2017-06-01

    A strategy that discharges chest pain patients with negative high-sensitivity troponin and non-ischaemic electrocardiography changes may still result in 0.44% of patients experiencing myocardial infarction within 30 days. We observed that a pragmatic approach that systematically discharged 25 patients on cardio-protective medications of aspirin, metoprolol and atorvastatin followed with prompt (<10 days) coronary computed tomography angiography resulted in no major adverse cardiac event and adverse drug reaction 30 days post-presentation. The strategy resulted in three patients (12%) ultimately diagnosed with likely unstable angina, which required planned coronary intervention in two patients and medical management in one patient. No unplanned readmissions for chest pains were noted from initial presentation through to 6-month follow up. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Downregulated microRNA-148b in circulating PBMCs in chronic myeloid leukemia patients with undetectable minimal residual disease: a possible biomarker to discontinue imatinib safely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohyashiki JH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Junko H Ohyashiki,1 Kazushige Ohtsuki,1 Izuru Mizoguchi,2 Takayuki Yoshimoto,2 Seiichiro Katagiri,3 Tomohiro Umezu,1,4 Kazuma Ohyashiki3,4 1Department of Molecular Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, 2Department of Immunoregulation, Institute of Medical Science, 3Department of Hematology, 4Department of Molecular Science, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Background: A subset of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML can sustain a complete molecular response after discontinuing imatinib mesylate (IM. We focused on microRNAs (miRNAs, with the aim of finding a molecular biomarker to discriminate which patients can safely and successfully discontinue IM use. Methods: To identify miRNAs that showed altered expression in patients who had discontinued IM (STOP-IM group, we first screened miRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by using a TaqMan miRNA array on samples from five unselected patients from the STOP-IM group, seven CML patients receiving IM (IM group, and five healthy volunteers. We then performed miRNA quantification in 49 CML patients with deep molecular response. Mann–Whitney U and chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance for comparisons between the control (healthy volunteers and test groups (STOP-IM and IM groups. Multiple groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Results: Downregulation of miR-148b was noted in patients in the STOP-IM group and in a subset of the IM group. We then subdivided the IM patients into two groups: one with downregulated miR-148b expression (IM-1; less than the cut-off value and the other without downregulated miR-148b expression (IM-2; greater than the cut-off value. The number of patients who had a sustained stable molecular response was significantly lower in IM-2 group. This group also had a significantly lower percentage of natural killer cells. Conclusion: Downregulated miR-148 may contribute to immune surveillance in STOP-IM patients and may therefore have potential as additive information in managing CML patients undergoing treatment with IM. Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib mesylate, discontinuation, miR-148b 

  1. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  2. Retrospective identification of a previously undetected clinical case of OXA-48-producing K-pneumoniae and E-coli : the importance of adequate detection guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Ina; van Esser, Joost; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein; Zhou, Kai; Rossen, John W.; Verhulst, Carlo; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    The laboratory detection of OXA-48-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is difficult, as minimum inhibition concentrations for carbapenems are often below the clinical breakpoint. In 2011, the Dutch national guideline for the detection of highly resistant micro-organisms was issued, which

  3. HBV reactivation in patients with HCV/HBV cirrhosis on treatment with direct-acting antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, V; Ferraro, D; Licata, A; Bavetta, M G; Petta, S; Bronte, F; Colomba, G; Craxì, A; Di Marco, V

    2018-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) hepatitis and overt or occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection may reactivate HBV when HCV is suppressed or cleared by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). We assessed the prevalence of overt or previous HBV coinfection and the risk of HBV reactivation in patients with HCV cirrhosis treated with DAAs. This was a retrospective cohort of 104 consecutive patients with HCV cirrhosis treated with DAAs. Serum HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA were tested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 of DAAs therapy and at week 12 of follow-up. At the start of DAAs, eight patients (7.7%) were HBsAg positive/HBeAg negative with undetectable HBV-DNA and low levels of quantitative HBsAg (four on nucleos(t)ide analogues [NUCs] and four inactive carriers), 37 patients (35.6%) had markers of previous HBV infection (25 anti-HBc positive, 12 anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive) and 59 (56.7%) had no evidence of HBV infection. Sixty-seven patients (64.4%) were HCV-RNA negative at week 4 and 98 (94.2%) achieved sustained virological response. All four HBsAg-positive patients treated with NUCs remained HBV-DNA negative, but three of four untreated patients showed an increase in HBV-DNA of 2-3 log without a biochemical flare and achieved HBV-DNA suppression when given NUCs. During or after DAAs, by conventional assay, HBV-DNA remained not detectable in all 37 anti-HBc-positive patients but in three of them (8.1%) HBV-DNA became detectable with a highly sensitive PCR. HBV reactivation is likely to occur in untreated HBV/HCV-coinfected cirrhotic patients when they undergo HCV treatment with DAAs. Pre-emptive therapy with NUCs should be considered in this setting. Anti-HBc-positive patients rarely reactivate HBV without clinical or virological outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A cross-sectional serosurvey on hepatitis B vaccination uptake among adult patients from GP practices in a region of South-West Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Dmytrzyk-Daniłów, Gabriela; Korzeń, Marcin; Szych, Zbigniew

    2015-10-16

    Hepatitis B is a significant health burden in Poland with nosocomial transmission being the main source of infection. Therefore, HBV vaccination is widely recommended for those not covered by the national immunisation program. To assess the coverage and influencing determinants of HBV vaccination among adult patients attending GP clinics as well as to establish serological status in terms of HBV infection. Patients who were seen consecutively in March 2013 at four randomly selected GP practices located in Zgorzelec county, in south-western part of Poland, were invited to participate and complete questionnaires on socio-demographic data and other factors related to vaccination. A pilot study was done in one urban GP practice in the city of Gryfino (Gryfino county), the results have been included in the study. Patients' immunisation status was assessed basing on vaccination cards and anti-HBs titer with the use of third-generation testing methods. In addition, serum samples were assayed for anti-HBc total. Response rate: 99.3 %. Of 410 participants (66.1 % females, median age 56 years), 55.4 % (95%CI:50.5-60.1 %) were previously vaccinated; in those 11.5 % took 2 doses, 66.1 % - 3 doses,18.1 % - 4 doses. Elective surgery was the main reason (57.7 %) for HBV immunization, 4.8 % - were vaccinated due to recommendations by GPs. The multivariable logistic regression model revealed that living in a city (OR 2.11), and having a surgery in the past (OR 2.73) were each associated with greater odds of being vaccinated. Anti-HBc total prevalence among those unvaccinated was 13.6 % (95%CI:9.3 %-19,5 %), and 7.2 % (95%CI:4.4-11.8 %) among those vaccinated. Low HBV immunization coverage among adult patients from GP clinics and the presence of serological markers of HBV infection among both - those unvaccinated and vaccinated call for comprehensive preventative measures against infection, including greater involvement of family doctors. Although interventions should cover the

  5. DNA immunization with fusion of CTLA-4 to hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein enhanced Th2 type responses and cleared HBV with an accelerated kinetic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typically, DNA immunization via the intramuscular route induces specific, Th1-dominant immune responses. However, plasmids expressing viral proteins fused to cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 primed Th2-biased responses and were able to induced effective protection against viral challenge in the woodchuck model. Thus, we addressed the question in the mouse model how the Th1/Th2 bias of primed immune responses by a DNA vaccine influences hepatitis B virus (HBV clearance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasmids expressing HBV core protein (HBcAg or HBV e antigen and HBcAg fused to the extracellular domain of CTLA-4 (pCTLA-4-HBc, CD27, and full length CD40L were constructed. Immunizations of these DNA plasmids induced HBcAg-specific antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice, but with different characteristics regarding the titers and subtypes of specific antibodies and intensity of T-cell responses. The plasmid pHBc expressing HBcAg induced an IgG2a-dominant response while immunizations of pCTLA-4-HBc induced a balanced IgG1/IgG2a response. To assess the protective values of the immune responses of different characteristics, mice were pre-immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc and pHBc, and challenged by hydrodynamic injection (HI of pAAV/HBV1.2. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and DNA in peripheral blood and HBcAg in liver tissue were cleared with significantly accelerated kinetics in both groups. The clearance of HBsAg was completed within 16 days in immunized mice while more than 50% of the control mice are still positive for HBsAg on day 22. Stronger HBcAg-specific T-cell responses were primed by pHBc correlating with a more rapid decline of HBcAg expression in liver tissue, while anti-HBs antibody response developed rapidly in the mice immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc, indicating that the Th1/Th2 bias of vaccine-primed immune responses influences the mode of viral clearance. CONCLUSION: Viral clearance could be efficiently achieved by Th1/Th2-balanced

  6. Prevalence of rotavirus antibodies in breast milk and inhibitory effects to rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen V; Braeckman, Tessa; Lernout, Tinne; Hau, Vu T B; Anh, Le T K; Luan, Le T; Van Damme, Pierre; Anh, Dang D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of childhood diarrhea worldwide, and several vaccines have been successfully developed to reduce the burden of disease. However, lower vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in developing countries might be related to the virus-neutralizing activity of breast milk. We examined possible differences in breast milk antibody levels (total IgA antibody, RV-specific antibodies, and RV-neutralizing antibodies) between healthy mothers living in a rural area (n=145) and mothers living in an urban area (n=147) of Vietnam. Total IgA concentration was significantly higher in samples from mothers in the rural region than in samples from mothers in the urban region, whereas urban mothers had significantly higher RV-specific IgA antibody titers than did rural mothers. Neutralizing antibodies against RV strain G1P[8] were undetected in nearly one-half of the breast milk samples (45-48%), whereas the majority of the remaining samples had low antibody titers (2-16). Despite these low titers, the breast milk still reduced vaccine strain titers (2×10(6) plaque forming units/mL) up to 80% or more, even at a milk-to-virus ratio of 1:8. An increase in neutralizing anti-G1P[8] antibody titers (Pvaccine efficacy and immunogenicity in Vietnamese infants.

  7. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  8. In vitro effects of pomegranate juice and pomegranate polyphenols on foodborne viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; Sangster, Mark Y; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-12-01

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) has gained popularity because of its associated antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects against epidemiologically significant foodborne viruses have not been investigated. In the absence of culturable human noroviruses, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage were used as foodborne viral surrogates. The aim of this research was to study the effects of PJ and pomegranate polyphenols (PP) on foodborne viral infectivity. Viruses at high (∼ 7 log(10) PFU/mL) or low (∼ 5 log(10) PFU/mL) titers were mixed with equal volumes of PJ, 8, 16, and 32 mg/mL of PP, or water (control) and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after treatments was evaluated using standardized plaque assays. PJ decreased the titer of FCV-F9, MNV-1, and MS2 by 2.56, 1.32, and 0.32 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for low titers and 1.20, 0.06, and 0.63 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for high titers. Interestingly, FCV-F9 was undetectable after exposure to the three tested PP solutions using both low and high titers. MNV-1 at low initial titers was reduced by 1.30, 2.11, and 3.61 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 1.56, 1.48, and 1.54 log(10) PFU/mL with 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. MS2 at low initial titers was reduced by 0.41, 0.45, and 0.93 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 0.32, 0.41, and 0.72 log(10) PFU/mL after 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. PJ and PP resulted in titer reductions of foodborne virus surrogates after 1 h exposure, showing promise for use in hurdle technologies and/or for therapeutic or preventive use. To suggest the use of PJ and PP as natural remedies for foodborne viral illness prevention, their mechanism of action against viral infectivity needs to be further investigated.

  9. Lack of immunoglobulin M suppression by immunoglobulin G antibody in thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, J; Hafizi, A; Modabber, F

    1980-01-01

    Thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (T-deprived) mie infected with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii produced antibody titers comparable to those produced in intact syngeneic mice. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were produced in T-deprived animals; however, the IgM antibody remained constant in the presence of increasing amounts of IgG. In the intact animals, IgM became undetectable by day 50 postinfection as expected. Feedback inhibition of IgM by IgG ...

  10. Lack of immunoglobulin M suppression by immunoglobulin G antibody in thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, J; Hafizi, A; Modabber, F

    1980-03-01

    Thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (T-deprived) mie infected with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii produced antibody titers comparable to those produced in intact syngeneic mice. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were produced in T-deprived animals; however, the IgM antibody remained constant in the presence of increasing amounts of IgG. In the intact animals, IgM became undetectable by day 50 postinfection as expected. Feedback inhibition of IgM by IgG seems to be dependent upon T-cells in Toxoplasma-infected mice.

  11. Serologic and molecular characteristics of hepatitis B virus among school children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Lusida, Maria Inge; Amin, Mochamad; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2010-07-01

    Universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination was introduced in Indonesia in 1997; by 2008, coverage was estimated to be 78%. This study aimed to investigate the serologic status and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the children in East Java. A total of 229 healthy children born during 1994-1999 were enrolled in this study. Overall, 3.1% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 23.6% were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). HBV DNA was detected in 5 of 222 HBsAg-negative carriers, which were suggested to be cases of occult HBV infection. A single amino substitution (T126I) in the S region was frequently found. HBV infection remains endemic, and the prevalence of anti-HBs remains insufficient among children in East Java, Indonesia.

  12. The hybrid EIA test: a specific and sensitive assay for the detection of woodchuck antibody to hepatitis surface antigen (anti-WHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, I; Glass, R G

    1988-05-01

    'Ausria II' polystyrene beads (Abbott Labs, N. Chicago) are reacted with woodchuck serum positive for WHsAg in a dilution predetermined by titration. This modified bead is used in a blocking assay to detect the presence of antibody to the surface antigen of woodchuck hepatitis virus (anti-WHs). Serum containing woodchuck anti-WHs and commercial horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled anti-HBs are sequentially added. A drop in optical density at 492 nm of 50% or more due to the blocking of HRP conjugated anti-HBs by anti-WHs compared with a control (negative woodchuck serum) is a measure of anti-WHs. The ease and simplicity of converting readily available 'Ausria II' beads to specific reagents for detecting anti-WHs should be welcomed by investigators studying WHV. The method described is both sensitive and reproducible.

  13. Six-year pilot study on nucleic acid testing for blood donations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianlin; Yang, Baocheng; Zhu, Weigang; Zheng, Xin; Du, Peng; Zeng, Jingfeng; Li, Chengyao

    2013-10-01

    A six-year pilot study on nucleic acid testing for HBV, HCV and HIV-1 has been undertaken on sero-negative plasmas in mini-pool and individual donation testing at Shenzhen Blood Center. Of 307,740 sero-negative blood samples, 95 of 102 HBV DNA yields were confirmed positive, 80/95 (84.2%) were classified as occult HBV infection (OBI) and 15 (15.8%) as window period cases. Amongst OBIs, 45% carried anti-HBc only, 41.3% anti-HBc and anti-HBs and 13.7% anti-HBs only. HBV DNA yield was 1:3239. One HCV WP and one HIV-1 infected donations were detected. High residual risk was found in current blood donations screening in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intradermal vaccination against hepatitis B in a group of medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of a low-dose (one-tenth) intradermal regimen using recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was under- taken during two consecutive years in 4th-year medical stu- dents. Eightj;one per cent of the vaccinees (123/152) sero- converted with anti.HBs levels of> 10 lUll. The lower titre of hepatitis B surface ...

  15. Seroepidemiological survey of health care workers in Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taishete, S; Chowdhary, A

    2016-01-01

    HCWs all over the world carry occupational risk of getting infected with major blood borne infections through needle stick injuries (NSIs). As health care industry has been expanding, risk of nosocomial infections is increasing proportionately. Measures to prevent it and put in place a mechanism to control these injuries are needed urgently, especially in India where there is not only increase in domestic demand but impetus in health tourism. To determine HBs Ag, HBc IgM level and to assess anti-HBs level prevalence in HCWs, in a tertiary care hospital and to study the influence of factors like age and sex in the vaccinated HCWs and formulate mechanism to increase awareness to create a safe working environment in the hospitals. 437 HCWs, working in Laboratories, Surgical, Medical or Dental departments in 11 Civil Hospitals and Sub-district Hospitals covering 8 circles of the State. Qualitative and Quantitative estimation of HBs Ag and Anti-HBs by sandwich ELISA technique and qualitative HBc IgM level by antibody-capture, non-competitive test. Liver profile (SGPT, SGOT and Alkaline Phosphatase) by IFCC method done. Tabulation and Pie Circle Result: 193 of the total 229 vaccinated HCWs tested positive for core antibody, meaning that they were infected prior to HBs Ag vaccination, leaving a total of 36 'truly' vaccinated HCWs. 11 HBs Ag positive HCWs were tested for Liver Profile and all had ALAT, ASAT and ALP within normal range. Out of total number of 141 HCWs having 10 and below IU/L anti HBs, 5 HCWs were positive for HBS Ag, showing a positivity of 3.5%. Need of vaccination and for post-vaccination serological testing of all HCWs considering the high rates of non-responders and low responders (anti-HBs-34.2%). Importance of educating the HCWs of safety precautions while handling body fluids, and the management of ' sharps ' injuries.

  16. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Horejsi, J; Urbankova, J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen.

  17. Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in Japan: Efficacy of Nucleos(tide Analogues for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Nakamoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed 413 recipients with hematologic malignancies who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT between June 1986 and March 2013. Recipients with antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc and/or to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs were regarded as experiencing previous hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Clinical data of these recipients were reviewed from medical records. We defined ≥1 log IU/mL increase in serum HBV DNA from nadir as HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive recipients, and also defined ≥1 log IU/mL increase or re-appearance of HBV DNA and/or HBsAg as HBV reactivation in HBsAg-negative recipients. In 5 HBsAg-positive recipients, 2 recipients initially not administered with nucleos(tide analogues (NUCs experienced HBV reactivation, but finally all 5 were successfully controlled with NUCs. HBV reactivation was observed in 11 (2.7% of 408 HBsAg-negative recipients; 8 of these were treated with NUCs, and fortunately none developed acute liver failure. In 5 (6.0% of 83 anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs-positive recipients, HBV reactivation occurred. None of 157 (0% recipients without HBsAg, anti-HBs or anti-HBc experienced HBV reactivation. In HSCT recipients, HBV reactivation is a common event in HBsAg-positive recipients, or in HBsAg-negative recipients with anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs. Further attention should be paid to HSCT recipients with previous exposure to HBV.

  18. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kselikova, M.; Horejsi, J.; Urbankova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen. (author)

  19. Construction and expression of hepatitis B surface antigen escape variants within the "a" determinant by site directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsaz Shirazi, Forough; Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Hamed; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Roohi, Azam; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-09-01

    The antibody response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) controls hepatitis B virus infection. The "a" determinant of HBsAg is the most important target for protective antibody response, diagnosis and immunoprophylaxis. Mutations in this area may induce immune escape mutants and affect the performance of HBsAg assays. To construct clinically relevant recombinant mutant forms of HBsAg and assessment of their reactivity with anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Wild type (wt) and mutant (mt) HBsAg genes were constructed by site directed mutagenesis and SEOing PCR. The amplified genes were inserted into pCMV6-neo plasmid and transfected in CHO cell line. The expression of wt- and mtHBsAg was assessed by commercial ELISA assays and stable cells were established and cloned by limiting dilution. The recombinant mutants were further characterized using a panel of anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and the pattern of their reactivity was assessed by ELISA. Ten HBsAg mutants having single mutation within the "a" determinant including P120E, T123N, Q129H, M133L, K141E, P142S, D144A, G145R, N146S and C147S together with a wt form were successfully constructed and expressed in CHO cells. Reactivity of anti-HBs MAbs with mtHBsAgs displayed different patterns. The effect of mutations on antibody binding differed depending on the amino acid involved and its location within the ''a'' determinant. Mutation at amino acids 123 and 145 resulted in either complete loss or significant reduction of binding to all anti-HBs MAbs. Our panel of mtHBsAgs is a valuable tool for assessment of the antibody response to HBV escape mutants and may have substantial implications in HBV immunological diagnostics.

  20. Safety and immune response to a challenge dose of hepatitis B vaccine in healthy children primed 10years earlier with hexavalent vaccines in a 3, 5, 11-month schedule: An open-label, controlled, multicentre trial in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Alessandro; Desole, Maria Giuseppina; Romanò, Luisa; d'Alessandro, Antonio; Conversano, Michele; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Panico, Maria Grazia; Tomasi, Alberto; Zoppi, Giorgio; Zuliani, Massimo; Thomas, Stéphane; Soubeyrand, Benoît; Eymin, Cécile; Lockhart, Stephen

    2017-07-13

    The strategy of vaccinating infants to prevent hepatitis B virus infection in adolescence or adulthood requires durable immunity. This study investigated responses to a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine in children primed with three doses of either Hexavac® or Infanrix hexa® 10years earlier during infancy. This open-label, controlled, multicentre study conducted in Italy, enrolled 751 healthy pre-adolescents (aged 11-13years) who were given either Hexavac (n=409) or Infanrix hexa (n=342) at 3, 5 and 11months of life. All participants received a challenge dose of a monovalent hepatitis B vaccine (HBVaxPro® 5µg). The concentrations of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were measured before and 1month after the challenge dose. The analysis was descriptive and no formal hypothesis was tested. One month post-challenge, 331 participants in the Hexavac cohort [83.6%, 95% CI: 79.6; 87.1] and 324 in the Infanrix hexa cohort [96.4%, 95% CI: 93.8; 98.1] had anti-HBs concentrations ≥10mIU/mL. Before the challenge dose, an anti-HBs concentration of ≥10mIU/mL was found in 94 children in the Hexavac cohort [23.9%, 95% CI: 19.7; 28.4] and in 232 children in the Infanrix hexa cohort [69%, 95% CI: 63.8; 74.0]. Among children with a pre-challenge anti-HBs concentration of children (>80%) at least 10years after a two-dose primary and booster vaccination schedule with a hexavalent vaccine (Hexavac or Infanrix hexa). EudraCT Number: 2013-001602-28; clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012998. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Challenges and successes in the treatment of hemophilia: the story of a patient with severe hemophilia A and high-titer inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba HI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hussain I Saba, Duc Quang Tran, JrDepartment of Medicine, University of South Florida Medical Center, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: In the past, patients with severe hemophilia have suffered a substantially reduced quality of life with frequent bleeding episodes, disabling arthropathy, and shorter life expectancy. In addition, methods of treatment and management have been costly and time-consuming, and have placed a considerable burden on patients' physical and psychological well-being. With the advent of the on-demand therapy and prophylactic treatment paradigm, patients have been able to receive care with less interruption of daily activities. Treatments may be more challenging for hemophiliacs with inhibitors to replacement factor; however, recent advances in the use of bypassing agents and immune tolerance therapy have enabled them to aggressively manage their disease while maintaining their independence. This review focuses on the challenges of treating such a severe hemophiliac through examination of the lifetime experience of a young adult male with a severe form of congenital hemophilia A. At this stage of his life, the patient has minimal disabilities and is inhibitor-free through optimal care and strong family support. His aspiration to pursue a productive life has led him to a career in medicine. After receiving his medical degree, he pursued a specialty in the treatment of hemophilia. By assisting other hemophilia patients, he exemplifies both the rewards of persevering through episodes of bleeding and other complications and the fact that disabilities can be minimized when managed meticulously and in a timely fashion to enable a productive and dignified life.Keywords: hemophilia, quality of life, factor VIII inhibitors, hemophilia treatment center, early treatment, bypassing agent

  2. Replicating Rather than Nonreplicating Adenovirus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Recombinant Vaccines Are Better at Eliciting Potent Cellular Immunity and Priming High-Titer Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1MNenv/rev recombinants and boosting wit...

  3. Anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G monoclonal antibodies reduce lung inflammation and viral lung titers when delivered therapeutically in a BALB/c mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caidi, Hayat; Miao, Congrong; Thornburg, Natalie J; Tripp, Ralph A; Anderson, Larry J; Haynes, Lia M

    2018-06-01

    RSV continues to be a high priority for vaccine and antiviral drug development. Unfortunately, no safe and effective RSV vaccine is available and treatment options are limited. Over the past decade, several studies have focused on the role of RSV G protein on viral entry, viral neutralization, and RSV-mediated pathology. Anti-G murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 131-2G treatment has been previously shown to reduce weight loss, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number, airway reactivity, and Th2-type cytokine production in RSV-infected mice more rapidly than a commercial humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) against RSV F protein (Palivizumab). In this study, we have tested two human anti-RSV G mAbs, 2B11 and 3D3, by both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for RSV in the BALB/c mouse model. Both anti-G mAbs reduced viral load, leukocyte infiltration and IFN-γ and IL-4 expression in cell-free BAL supernatants emphasizing the potential of anti-G mAbs as anti-inflammatory and antiviral strategies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Antibody titers against vaccine and contemporary wild poliovirus type 1 in children immunized with IPV+OPV and young adults immunized with OPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Alexander N; Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Sychev, Daniil A; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I

    2016-02-02

    In 2010, a type 1 poliovirus outbreak in Congo with 445 lethal cases was caused by a virus that was neutralized by sera of German adults vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine with a reduced efficiency. This seroprevalence study was done in two cohorts immunized with other vaccination schedules. Russian children aged 3-6 years immunized with a combination of inactivated and live polio vaccines were reasonably well protected against any wild type poliovirus 1, including the Congolese isolate. Adults aged 20-29 years immunized only with live vaccine were apparently protected against the vaccine strain (92% seropositive), but only 50% had detectable antibodies against the Congo-2010 isolate. Both waning immunity and serological divergence of the Congolese virus could contribute to this result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunoglobulin with High-Titer In Vitro Cross-Neutralizing Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies Passively Protects Chimpanzees from Homologous, but Not Heterologous, Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Engle, Ronald E.; Faulk, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in protection against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains controversial. We infused a chimpanzee with H06 immunoglobulin from a genotype 1a HCV-infected patient and challenged with genotype strains efficiently neutralized by H06 in vitro. Genotype 1a...

  6. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  7. Discordance of epstein-barr virus (ebv) specific humoral and cellular immunity in patients with malignant lymphomas : Elevated antibody titers and lowered invitro lymphocyte-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Napel, C. H. H.; The, T. Hauw; van Egten-Bijker, J; de Gast, G. C.; Halie, M. R.; Langenhuysen, M. M. A. C.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between specific viral cellular and humoral immunity to the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) was investigated in thirty-one untreated patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) and sex- and age-matched controls. In vitro reactivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes to heatinactivated purified EBV,

  8. Solar thermotherapy reduces the titer of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ while enhancing canopy growth in HLB-affected residential and commercial citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), a systemic and destructive disease of citrus, is associated with three species of a-proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. africanus’ and ‘Ca. L. americanus’. Previous studies have found distinct variations in temperature sensitivity and tolerance amo...

  9. Decline in titers of anti-idiotypic antibodies specific to autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab precedes development of GAD65Ab and type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Elding Larsson

    Full Text Available The humoral Idiotypic Network consisting of antibodies and their anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id can be temporarily upset by antigen exposure. In the healthy immune response the original equilibrium is eventually restored through counter-regulatory mechanisms. In certain autoimmune diseases however, autoantibody levels exceed those of their respective anti-Id, indicating a permanent disturbance in the respective humoral Idiotypic Network. We investigated anti-Id directed to a major Type 1 diabetes (T1D-associated autoantibody (GAD65Ab in two independent cohorts during progression to disease. Samples taken from participants of the Natural History Study showed significantly lower anti-Id levels in individuals that later progressed to T1D compared to non-progressors (anti-Id antibody index of 0.06 vs. 0.08, respectively, p = 0.02. We also observed a significant inverse correlation between anti-Id levels and age at sampling, but only in progressors (p = 0.014. Finally, anti-Id levels in progressors showed a significant decline during progression as compared to longitudinal anti-Id levels in non-progressors (median rate of change: -0.0004 vs. +0.0004, respectively, p = 0.003, suggesting a loss of anti-Id during progression. Our analysis of the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne cohort showed that early in life (age 2 individuals at risk have anti-Id levels indistinguishable from those in healthy controls, indicating that low anti-Id levels are not an innate characteristic of the immune response in individuals at risk. Notably, anti-Id levels declined significantly in individuals that later developed GAD65Ab suggesting that the decline in anti-Id levels precedes the emergence of GAD65Ab (median rate of change: -0.005 compared to matched controls (median rate of change: +0.001 (p = 0.0016. We conclude that while anti-Id are present early in life, their levels decrease prior to the appearance of GAD65Ab and to the development of T1D.