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Sample records for undesirable mutagenic recombinogenic

  1. Comparative studies on the lethal, mutagenic, and recombinogenic effects of ultraviolet -A, -B, -C, and visible light with and without 8-methoxypsoralen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondon, P.; Shahin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Genetic effects of UV-A, UV-B, UV-C and the combination of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) with UV-A or visible light were studied in the haploid strain XV185-14C and diploid strain D5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The induction of his + , lys + , and hom + reverse mutations was measured in strain XV185-14C. In strain D5 we measured the induction of genetically altered colonies, particularly twin spot colonies arising from a mitotic crossing-over. UV-C and UV-B induced point mutations at the three loci in the haploid strain and mitotic crossing-over and other genetic alterations in the diploid strain. UV-C was more mutagenic and recombinogenic than UV-B. UV-A or visible light alone did not induce genotoxic effects at the doses tested. However, UV-A plus 8-MOP produced lethal and mutagenic effects in the haploid strain XV185-14C, although mutagenic activity was less than that of UV-B. Visible light plus 8-MOP also induced genotoxic effects in strain XV185-14C. In the diploid strain D5, UV-A plus 8-MOP induced a higher frequency of genetic alterations than UV-B at comparative doses. Visible light plus 8-MOP was also genetically active in strain D5. The haploid strain was more sensitive to the lethal effects of UV-C, UV-B, UV-A, and impure visible light plus 8-MOP than the diploid strain. (Author)

  2. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  3. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulhonate in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Basudeo

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit dose of a mutagen while mutagenic efficiency gives the proportion of mutations in relation to other associated undesirable biological effects such as gross chromosomal aberrations, lethality and sterility induced by the mutagen in question (Konzak, et al., 1965). The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its mutagenic effectiveness but also on its mutagenic efficiency. The efficiency and effectiveness of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) in relation to gamma rays in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] was studied. (author)

  4. Filtering Undesirable Flows in Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Gao, X.; Du, H.; Han, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of fully mitigating the effects of denial of service by filtering the minimum necessary set of the undesirable flows. First, we model this problem and then we concentrate on a subproblem where every good flow has a bottleneck. We prove that unless P=NP, this subproblem is

  5. Interventional radiology and undesirable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, M.

    2009-01-01

    As some procedures of interventional radiology are complex and long, doses received by patients can be high and cause undesired effects, notably on the skin or in underlying tissues (particularly in the brain as far as interventional neuroradiology is concerned and in lungs in the case of interventional cardiology). The author briefly discusses some deterministic effects in interventional radiology (influence of dose level, delay of appearance of effects, number of accidents). He briefly comments the diagnosis and treatment of severe radiological burns

  6. Hyper-recombinogenity of the chimeric protein RecAX53 (Esherichia coli/Pseudomonas aeruginosa is caused by its increased dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria B Chervyakova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RecAX53 is the most recombinogenic protein among the chimeric RecA proteins composed ofEsherichia coli RecA (RecAEc and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RecA (RecAPa protein fragments. We found out that RecAX53 protein is more rapid in ATP hydrolysis, dissociation from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, SSB protein displacement from ssDNA and in association with doublestranded DNA (dsDNA, as compared with RecAEc and RecAPa proteins. These results indicate that the RecAX53 hyper-recombinogenity is caused by high dynamics of this protein - by its rapid association with and dissociation from ssDNA. The ability of RecAX53 to bind actively with dsDNA accounts for the SOS-independent mechanism of hyper-recombination used by this protein.

  7. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  8. Risk sectors for undesirable behaviour and mobbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubert, A.B.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this short note was to get an impression of risk sectors for the prevalence of undesirable behaviour and mobbing in The Netherlands. Data were collected from 1995 to 1999 with the Questionnaire on The Assessment and Experience of Work (Vragenlijst Beleving en Beoordeling van de Arbeid;

  9. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  10. Mutagenicity of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelroy, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of coal-derived complex chemical mixtures on the mutagenicity of 6-aminochrysene (6-AC) was determined with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Previous results suggested that the mutagenic potency of 6-AC for TA98 in the standard microsomal activation (Ames) assay increased if it was presented to the cells mixed with high-boiling coal liquids (CL) from the solvent refined coal (SRC) process. In this year's work, the apparent mutational synergism of CL and 6-AC was independently verified in a fluctuation bioassay which allowed quantitation of mutational frequencies and cell viability. The results of this assay system were similar to those in the Ames assay. Moreover, the fluctation assay revealed that mutagenesis and cellular toxicity induced by 6-AC were both strongly enhanced if 6-AC was presented to the cells mixed in a high-boiling CL. 4 figures

  11. Handbook of mutagenicity test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbey, B.J.; Legatov, M.

    1977-01-01

    27 articles are presented on particular techniques of mutagen testing. Background information is given in materials, experimental design, pitfalls and difficults, to enable the reader to perform these tests with minimal additional help. Also included is the use of data from population records, the handling and safety aspects of mutagens and carcinogens and some of the basic statistical concepts to be borne in mind when mutation experiments are designed. (C.F.)

  12. Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owais, W.M.; Rosichan, J.L.; Ronald, R.C.; Kleinhofs, A.; Nilan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium axide produces high mutation rates in a number of species. Azide mutagenicity is mediated through a metabolite in barley and bacteria. Many studies showed that azide affects the L-cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Cell-free extracts of Salmonella typhimurium convert azide and O-acetylserine to the mutagenic metabolite. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the metabolite biosynthesis. To confirm the conclusion that the azide metabolite is formed through the β-substitution pathway of L-cysteine, we radioactively labeled the azide metabolite using 14 C-labeled precursors. Moreover, the mutagenic azide metabolite was purified and identified as azidoalanine based on mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Mutagenicity of cooked foods. Kuumennuskaesiteltyjen elintarvikkeiden mutageenisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikkanen, L. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Elintarvikelaboratorio)

    1989-09-01

    In this study the mutagenic activity in different kinds of ordinary Finnish foods was determined using mainly the Ames Salmonella bacterial assay. The purpose of this study was also to acquire the technical capability to study cooked food mutagens and to get basic informavtion about the mutagenic activity of foods under different cooking conditions. The samples tested were different kinds of ready-to-eat foods. Products were industrially heat-processed by frying and roasting, sterilization, smoking, deep-frying, spray-drying and UHT-treatment. According to the results, the majority of the fried and roasted food samples containing meat or fish were clearly or strongly mutagenic. Some of the products processed by sterilization and deep-frying were marginally mutagenic. The effect of the frying temperature on the mutagenicity in the Ames test was studied with minced meat. The mutagenic activity of the fried meat clearly correlated with the frying temperature. There were conspicuous differences in mutagenic activity between different fried and roasted products. Charcoal-grilled fish and the surface layers of the grilled meat and chicken were strongly mutagenic. Meat and fish hamburgers were in most cases only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenic activity was stronger in the surface layers of the products than in the inside. Also reheating by frying increased the mutagenicity of meat patties clearly. Differences in mutagenic activity between equivalent products of different manufacturers were evident in many cases. Variation of the mutagenicity was most conspicuous in the grilled products. This variation indicates that the industrial processing of food has a marked effect on the mutagenic activity of the final product, which thus might be reduced by modifying the process. The solvent extraction method used in this study was more effective than the Blue-Cotton method for the isolation of mutagenic compounds.

  14. Undesirable compounds in oils and fats: analysis and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, for some undesirable compounds representative of the major origins, a comparison between the efficiency of the analytical methods used (sensitivity, precision and existing regulations. An idea of the different origins of the presence of undesirable compounds in oils and fats is given. Then a focus is done on guidelines on contaminant analysis provided by European directives or Codex Alimentarius. The reliability of some existing test methods compared to regulations is also examined: lead, hexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticide residues.

  15. A safety control device for detecting undesirable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-26

    The invention relates to safety control devices. It deals with a device adapted to transmit a warning signal and to the detection of an undesirable condition in an associated apparatus, said device comprising switching means comprising transistors mounted in a reaction path, feeding means for opening the switching means whenever an undesirable condition has been detected by sensors, whereby an oscillator is caused to stop oscillating, and an outlet device controlled by the oscillator stoppage. This can be applied to the supervision of nuclear reactor.

  16. Mutagenic DNA repair in enterobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.; Chao Ho; Woodgate, R.

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen species of enterobacteria have been screened for mutagenic DNA repair activity. In Escherichia coli, mutagenic DNA repair is encoded by the umuDC operon. Synthesis of UmuD and UmuC proteins is induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, and after induction, the UmuD protein undergoes an autocatalytic cleavage to produce the carboxy-terminal UmuD' fragment needed for induced mutagenesis. The presence of a similar system in other species was examined by using a combined approach of inducible-mutagenesis assays, cross-reactivity to E. coli UmuD and UmuD' antibodies to test for induction and cleavage of UmuD-like proteins, and hybridization with E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium u mu DNA probes to map umu-like genes. The results indicate a more widespread distribution of mutagenic DNA repair in other species than was previously thought. They also show that umu loci can be more complex in other species than in E. coli. Differences in UV-induced mutability of more than 200-fold were seen between different species of enteric bacteria and even between multiple natural isolates of E. coli, and yet some of the species which display a poorly mutable phenotype still have umu-like genes and proteins. It is suggested that umuDC genes can be curtailed in their mutagenic activities but that they may still participate in some other, unknown process which provides the continued stimulus for their retention

  17. Free-Will and the Undesirability of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David

    1975-01-01

    This paper makes two arguments: (1) that education does not imply determinism; and (2) that if one takes the libertarian position with regard to the free-will/determinism issue, one is forced to the conclusion that moral education is undesirable. (RC)

  18. Mutagenicity tests on irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston-Arthur, T.

    1979-01-01

    The mutagenicity of ''standard'' food pellets from three different suppliers was tested after radappertization and after sterilization with steam, respectively. The histidine-deficient mutants G-46 and TA-1530 of salmonella typhimurium were used as indicators in a hostmediated assay. The mutant TA-1530 showed a highly sighificant increase of the back-mutation frequency after feeding with pellets irradiated with 3 Mrad gamma radiation. There were, however, large quantitative differences between the products of different suppliers. (G.G.)

  19. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  20. A Case of Undesired Bleb Developed After Penetrating Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Ozgonul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-year-old male patient was admitted to our policlinic with stinging, burning and itching in both eyes. Ophthalmological examination revealed avascular undesired bleb that releated with anterior chamber at 2-3 hour quadrant nasal limbus with the surrounding corneal and conjunctival epithelium was vascularized and the dimension was 3x3x3 mm. Towards these findings, we questioned the patient again and we found that, 40 years ago, a broken part of the shaving razor had injured his eye. After penetrating injury of the eye, because of the sutured wound leakage, undesired bleb formations can be seen. We suggest that kind of patient shold be followed up to prevent late complications of penetrating injury.

  1. Worry and perceived threat of proximal and distal undesirable outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Berenbaum, Howard; Spielberg, Jeffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who are prone to worry tend to overestimate the likelihoods and costs of future undesirable outcomes. However, it is unclear whether these relations vary as a function of the timeframe of the event in question. In the present study, 342 undergraduate students completed a self-report measure of worry and rated the perceived probabilities and costs of 40 undesirable outcomes. Specifically, each participant estimated the probability that each of these outcomes would occur within three different timeframes: the next month, the next year, and the next 10 years. We found that the strength of the association between worry and probability estimates was strongest for the most proximal timeframe. Probability estimates were more strongly associated with worry for participants with elevated cost estimates, and this interactive effect was strongest for the most distal timeframe. Implications of these findings for understanding the etiology and treatment of excessive worry are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [de

  3. Human somatic, germinal and heritable mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report deals with the general process of variant formation rather than with the consequences of a specific variant being present. It focusses on mutational mechanisms, mutagens, and the method for detecting de novo mutants and estimating mutation rate. It is to human genetics much like disease causation and prevention medicine are to medicine as a whole. The word ''mutagenicity'' is used in the title and throughout the text to connote the causation of all classes of genetic damage. Mutagenicity and the corresponding words mutation, mutagen and mutagenesis can have multiple meaning, sometimes relating to gene mutation, sometimes to heritable mutation, and somtimes to all types of genetic damage. 38 refs., 1 tab

  4. Undesirable Effects of Media on Children: Why Limitation is Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen

    2015-06-01

    Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance to developing countries.

  5. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R R

    1980-11-01

    Occupational exposure represents the main source of human contamination by chromium. For non-occupationally exposed people the major environmental exposure to chromium occurs as a consequence of its presence in food. Chromium must be considered as an essential element. Its deficiency impairs glucose metabolism. Trivalent chromium salts are poorly absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts because they do not cross membranes easily. Hexavalent chromium can be absorbed by the oral and pulmonary routes and probably also through the skin. After its absorption, hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to the trivalent form which is probably the only form to be found in biological material. Epidemiological studies have shown that some chromium salts (mainly the slightly soluble hexavalent salts) are carcinogens. Lung cancers have, indeed, often been reported among workers in chromate-producing industry and, to a lesser extent, in workers from the chrome-pigment industry. The first attempts to produce cancers in experimental animals by inhalation or parenteral introduction gave negative or equivocal results but, from 1960, positive results have been obtained with various chromium compounds. As for the carcinogenic activity, the mutagenicity of chromium has mainly been found with hexavalent salts. In the majority of assay systems used, trivalent chromium appears inactive. It can be considered as evident, however, that the ultimate mutagen which binds to the genetic material is the trivalent form produced intracellularly from hexavalent chromium, the apparent lack of activity of the trivalent form being due to its poor cellular uptake.

  6. Adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate undesirable light in holographic projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Li, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-08

    In this paper, we propose an adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate the undesirable light in a holographic projection. The aperture is based on hydrodynamic actuation. A chamber is formed with a cylindrical tube. A black droplet is filled in the sidewall of the cylinder tube and the outside space is the transparent oil which is immiscible with the black droplet. An ultrathin glass sheet is attached on the bottom substrate of the device and a black shading film is secured to the central area of the glass sheet. By changing the volume of the black droplet, the black droplet will move to the middle or sidewall due to hydrodynamic actuation, so the device can be used as an adjustable aperture. A divergent spherical wave and a solid lens are used to separate the focus planes of the reconstructed image and diffraction beams induced by the liquid crystal on silicon in the holographic projection. Then the aperture is used to eliminate the diffraction beams by adjusting the size of the liquid aperture and the holographic projection does not have undesirable light.

  7. Undesirable substances in vegetable oils: anything to declare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of undesirable compounds in vegetable and animal oils and fats may have many different origins. Although the potential toxicity of most of these undesirable compounds is real, poisoning risks are rather limited due to the efficient elimination during oil-refining steps, careful conditioning, choice of efficient packaging and industrial quality control management. However the research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations such as the European commission regulation EC No. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for some contaminants in food as lead, some mycotoxins, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, benzo[a]pyrene. In the absence of regulation, the detection of contaminants must be addressed in partnership with authorities according to the toxicity of molecules. The controls are not confined to environmental contaminants. They also include compounds that can be formed during the production process of vegetable oils such as esters of 3-monochloropropanediol. This article focuses more particularly on heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, phthalates and 3-MCPD or glycidyl esters. Aspects such as methods for analysis, limits fixed by EC regulation and occurrence in vegetable oils are discussed.

  8. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  9. [Undesired treatment effects in behavior group therapy: Frequency and spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Walter, M; Fritz, K; Muschalla, B

    2015-11-01

    Psychotherapy not only has positive but also negative effects, which is especially true for group psychotherapy due to psychodynamic and interactional processes. Using the UE-G questionnaire 71 patients who participated in cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy reported on negative experiences in the context of the group therapy. The answers were then validated in a qualitative interview. Of the patients 98.6% reported about at least one negative experience and 43.7% about severe or extremely severe negative experiences. Most prominent was the induction of hopelessness and demoralization by what patients saw and heard from other patients in the group. Burdensome and therefore undesired treatment effects are regularly seen in group psychotherapy, because of treatment or patient related factors. In any case they must be taken into account during treatment, in the training of group psychotherapists and in quality control.

  10. Pig herd monitoring and undesirable tripping and stepping prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hviid, Marchen Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Humane handling and slaughter of livestock are of major concern in modern societies. Monitoring animal wellbeing in slaughterhouses is critical in preventing unnecessary stress and physical damage to livestock, which can also affect the meat quality. The goal of this study is to monitor pig herds...... at the slaughterhouse and identify undesirable events such as pigs tripping or stepping on each other. In this paper, we monitor pig behavior in color videos recorded during unloading from transportation trucks. We monitor the movement of a pig herd where the pigs enter and leave a surveyed area. The method is based...... on optical flow, which is not well explored for monitoring all types of animals, but is the method of choice for human crowd monitoring. We recommend using modified angular histograms to summarize the optical flow vectors. We show that the classification rate based on support vector machines is 93% of all...

  11. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  12. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  13. Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Renner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.

  14. Mutagenicity studies with the mouse spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, E.; Wild, D.; Eckhardt, K.; King, M.T.

    1983-04-01

    The mammalian spot test, which detects somatic gene mutations in mouse embryos, was investigated with selected chemicals to (a) further validate this test system ethylnitrosourea, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-acetylaminofluorene and colchicine (ENU, EMS, 2AAF), and (b) evaluate the mutagenic potential, in a whole-mammal system, of environmental compounds that had been previously recognized as mutagens in other mammalian or submammalian test systems (1,2-dichloroethane, hydroquinone, nitrofurantoin, o-phenylenediamine, fried sausage extract). Of these substances, ENU, EMS and 2AAF were significantly mutagenic, 1,2-dichloroethane was probably weakly mutagenic. The ENU data were used to estimate the number of pigment precursor cells present at the time of treatment (day 9.25). We also describe in this report the use of a fluorescence microscope for classification of hairs from spots on the coat of C57BL/6JHan X T hybrids.

  15. Mutagenic activities of biochars from pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterina, Anna V; Chipman, J Kevin; Pembroke, J Tony; Hayes, Michael H B

    2017-08-15

    Biochar production, from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks, agricultural residues, and animal and poultry manures are emerging globally as novel industrial and commercial products. It is important to develop and to validate a series of suitable protocols for the ecological monitoring of the qualities and properties of biochars. The highly sensitive Salmonella mutagenicity assays (the Ames test) are used widely by the toxicology community and, via the rat liver extract (S9), can reflect the potential for mammalian metabolic activation. We examined the Ames test for analyses of the mutagenic activities of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) extracts of biochars using two bacterial models (S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100) in the presence and in the absence of the metabolic activation with the S9-mix. Tester strain TA98 was most sensitive in detecting mutagenic biochar products, and the contribution of S9 was established. Temperature and times of pyrolysis are important. Biochar pyrolysed at 400°C for 10min, from a lignocellulose precursor was mutagenic, but not when formed at 800°C for 60min, or at 600°C for 30min. Biochars from poultry litter, and manures of calves fed on grass had low mutagenicities. Biochar from pig manure had high mutagenicity; biochars from manures of cows fed on a grass plus cereals, those of calves fed on mother's milk, and biochars from solid industrial waste had intermediate mutagenicities. The methods outlined can indicate the need for further studies for screening and detection of the mutagenic residuals in a variety of biochar products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Hygiene assessment of irradiated potato mutagenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uralova, M.; Grunt, J.; Patzeltova, N.

    1977-01-01

    Albino rat males were fed on gamma-irradiated potatoes for one month and mated with two intact female rats each. The dominant lethal mutation method was then used for the study of possible mutagenic activity of the irradiated potatoes. No statistically significant differences were observed and no mutagenic activity was found. Thus, the test showed that potatoes irradiated with a dose of 10 krad of gamma radiation does not present genetic hazards for albino rats. (L.O.)

  17. Mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, H.J.; van Kreijl, C.F.; Hrubec, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter results of oxidation treatments with chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and ultraviolet (UV), with respect to their effects on activity (Ames test) in drinking water supplies are reviewed. In addition, the authors present the preliminary results of a pilot plant study on the effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on mutagenicity. Furthermore, results of several carcinogenicity studies performed with organic drinking water concentrates are discussed in relation to the results of a Dutch carcinogenicity study with mutagenic drinking water concentrates

  18. Kaempferol, a mutagenic flavonol from Helichrysum simillimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgorashi, Ee; van Heerden, Fr; van Staden, J

    2008-11-01

    Helichrysum simillimum is native to South Africa. It is used for the treatment of coughs, colds, fever, infections, headache, and menstrual pain. Extracts of this species showed mutagenic effects in the Salmonella/microsome assay. The aim of this study was to isolate and determine the mutagenic constituents of H. simillimum. Bioassay-guided fractionation of 90% aqueous methanol extracts, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, led to the isolation of the flavonol kaempferol.

  19. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  20. Mutagenicity and co-mutagenicity of static magnetic field in SOD-deficient Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshie, Sachiko; Ikehata, Masateru; Hayakawa, Toshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Takemura, Taro; Minowa, Takashi; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2008-01-01

    The effects of strong static magnetic fields (SMFs) on mutagenesis related to reactive oxygen species were investigated. To estimate mutagenicity of SMFs, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient Escherichia coli QC774 and its parental strain GC4468 were employed. Tester strains were exposed to 5, 10 and 13 T SMFs for 24 hr at 37 C degrees in LB medium. After exposure, mutation frequency on thymine synthesis genes was determined for evaluation of mutagenicity of SMFs exposure. In the result, no statistically significant difference in mutation frequency on thymine synthesis genes was observed between SMF-exposed cells and unexposed cells in all of magnetic flux densities. Furthermore, SMFs up to 13 T did not affect mutagenicity of plumbagine under its presence of 25 μM, respectively. It suggests that SMF did not have either mutagenicity or co-mutagenicity in SOD-deficient and its parental E. coli strains under the condition in this study. (author)

  1. Molecular and genetic mechanisms of environmental mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubitschek, H.E.; Derstine, P.L.; Griego, V.M.; Matsushita, T.; Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J.; Reynolds, P.R.; Webb, R.B.; Williams-Hill, D.

    1981-01-01

    This program is primarily concerned with elucidation of the nature of DNA lesions produced by environmental and energy related mutagens, their mechanisms of action, and their repair. The main focus is on actions of chemical mutagens and electromagnetic radiations. Synergistic interactions between mutagens and the mutational processes that lead to synergism are being investigated. Mutagens are chosen for study on the basis of their potential for analysis of mutation (as genetic probes), for development of procedures for reducing mutational damage, for their potential importance to risk assessment, and for development of improved mutagen testing systems. Bacterial cells are used because of the rapidity and clarity of scientific results that can be obtained, the detailed genetic maps, and the many well-defined mutand strains available. The conventional tools of microbial and molecular genetics are used, along with intercomparison of genetically related strains. Advantage is taken of tcollective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  2. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Sforzolini, G S; Conti, R; Fagioli, F

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; 'before working time', 'after working time', and also during Sunday. The results showed that urine samples collected 'before' occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure.

  3. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  4. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence.

  5. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Mutagenicity and Toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A demonstration of cytotoxicity is required (measurement of cell number, culture confluency and inhibition of mitotic index) for in vitro cytogenetic assays. The study therefore investigated whether delayed cytotoxicity can be used to simultaneously predict mutagenicity and cytotoxicty. Chinese hamster lung cells were ...

  7. Synthesis and radiolabeling of heterocyclic food mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, H.; Waterhouse, A.L.; Thompson, C.M.; O'Connell, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The imidazoquinoline and imidazoquinoxaline food mutagens found in cooked meat are being synthesized by unambiguous methods that allow for the preparation of sufficient quantities of material for biological studies. These methods avoid difficult separations of regioisomeric mixtures of products and are designed to allow incorporation of specific high level tritium labeling

  8. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  9. Undesired Behaviors Faced in Classroom by Physics Teachers in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define undesired behaviors in the classroom, to better understand the reasons of these undesired behaviors, and to offer strategies to overcome these behaviors. The researchers have used a qualitative research approach in this study. For this aim, the researchers have purposefully selected 12 physics teachers who work…

  10. Induced mutations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) I. comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of physical & chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharkwal, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness usually means the rate of mutation as related to dose. Mutagenic efficiency refers to the mutation rate in relation to damage. Studies on comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of two physical (gamma rays and fast neutrons) and two chemical mutagens (NMU and EMS) on two desi (G 130 & H 214), one kabuli (C 104) and one green seeded (L 345) chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been reported. The treatments included three doses each of gamma rays (400, 500 and 600 Gy) and fast neutrons (5, 10 and 15 Gy) and two concentrations with two different durations of two chemical mutagens, NMU 0.01% 20h and 0.02% 8h) and EMS (0.1% 20h and 0.2% 8h). Results indicated that chemical mutagens, particularly NMU are not only more effective but also efficient than physical mutagens in inducing mutations in chickpea. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency showed differential behaviour depending upon mutagen and varietal type. Chemical mutagens were more efficient than physical in inducing cholorophyll as well as viable and total number of mutations. Among the mutagens NMU was the most potent, while in the physical, gamma rays were more effective. Out of four mutagens, NMU was the most effective and efficient in inducing a high frequency and wide spectrum of chlorophyll mutations in the M2 followed by fast neutrons. While gamma rays showed least effectiveness, EMS was least efficient mutagens. Major differences in the mutagenic response of the four cultivars were observed. The varieties of desi type were more resistant towards mutagenic treatment than kabuli and green seeded type

  11. Chemistry of mutagens and carcinogens in broiled food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, the following subjects are important areas in studies on mutagens and carcinogens in broiled foods. In addition to heterocyclic amines which need microsomal activation, the structural elucidation of more labile direct-acting mutagens is necessary. It is known that there are still various unknown minor mutagens in broiled foods. Although the structural characterization of such compounds is more difficult, it is important since they might be hazardous in spite of their low mutagenicity. A more feasible and easier method for quantitative analysis of mutagens, in addition to HPLC and GC/MS methods presently employed, must be developed. The mechanism of formation of mutagens by broiling of food should be studied. An effective chemical method to prevent formation of mutagens or to destroy them, once formed, should be developed. PMID:3757944

  12. [Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PESTICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of mutagenic potential of a few pesticides. Cytotoxicity tests, using plant test systems in vivo, such as Allium cepa, are validated by the similar results performed in animal testing in vitro. Cytogenetic tests are usefulness for identifying and evaluating the damaging effects of pesticides present in various concentrations under different exposure times on living organisms. Mutagenic potential of different pesticides used can be detected cytologically by cellular inhibition (mitotic index and replication index are used as indicators of adequate cell proliferation, disruption in metaphase, induction of chromosomal aberrations, numerical and structural, ranging from chromosomal fragmentation to the disorganization of the mitotic spindle, and consequently of all subsequent dependent mitotic phases.

  14. Mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Torres, Nelson Velasquez; Talain, Augusto Nicolas.

    1997-01-01

    Today, there has been a growing concern on the mutagenicity potential of environmental chemical systems. These environmental chemicals such as pesticides, food additives, synthetic drugs, water and atmospheric pollutants are possible causes of mutagenic activity. Meat products and some meat flavorings, were also reported to exhibit mutagenic activity. And since these products are normal part of the daily human diet, there is a need for extensive studies regarding the possible mutagenic activity associated with these products. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentration. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. Do beef, pork and chicken broth cubes exhibit mutagenic activity? 2. Are there significant differences in the mutagenic activity among the three samples? 3. Are these significant differences in the mutagenic activity exhibited by each of the samples compared to that of Mitomycin-C (positive control)? 4. Which of the sample of each specific concentration exhibit the greatest mutagenic activity? Three specific concentrations of beef, pork and chicken broth cubes were prepared and their mutagenicity potential was evaluated by using the Micronucleus test. The formation of micro nucleated polychromatic and micro nucleated normo chromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice treated with these samples were detected using a Carl-Zeiss photo microscope. The statistical tool used to test the validity of the null hypothesis was analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and independent T- test. (author)

  15. Mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Torres, Nelson Velasquez; Talain, Augusto Nicolas

    1998-12-31

    Today, there has been a growing concern on the mutagenicity potential of environmental chemical systems. These environmental chemicals such as pesticides, food additives, synthetic drugs, water and atmospheric pollutants are possible causes of mutagenic activity. Meat products and some meat flavorings, were also reported to exhibit mutagenic activity. And since these products are normal part of the daily human diet, there is a need for extensive studies regarding the possible mutagenic activity associated with these products. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentration. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. Do beef, pork and chicken broth cubes exhibit mutagenic activity? 2. Are there significant differences in the mutagenic activity among the three samples? 3. Are these significant differences in the mutagenic activity exhibited by each of the samples compared to that of Mitomycin-C (positive control)? 4. Which of the sample of each specific concentration exhibit the greatest mutagenic activity? Three specific concentrations of beef, pork and chicken broth cubes were prepared and their mutagenicity potential was evaluated by using the Micronucleus test. The formation of micro nucleated polychromatic and micro nucleated normo chromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice treated with these samples were detected using a Carl-Zeiss photo microscope. The statistical tool used to test the validity of the null hypothesis was analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and independent T- test. (author). 28 refs., 9 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Investigations on potential co-mutagenic effects of formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speit, Günter, E-mail: guenter.speit@uni-ulm.de; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Duong, Giang; Bausinger, Julia

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A549 cells were exposed to formaldehyde in combination with various mutagens. • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction and removal of DNA damage (comet assay). • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction of micronuclei by the mutagens tested. • The expression of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was not affected. - Abstract: The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of formaldehyde (FA) has been well-characterized during the last years. Besides its known direct DNA-damaging and mutagenic activity in sufficiently exposed cells, FA at low concentrations might also enhance the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of other environmental mutagens by interfering with the repair of DNA lesions induced by these mutagens. To further assess potential co-mutagenic effects of FA, we exposed A549 human lung cells to FA in combination with various mutagens and measured the induction and removal of DNA damage by the comet assay and the production of chromosomal mutations by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). The mutagens tested were ionizing radiation (IR), (±)-anti-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (methyl nitrosourea; MNU) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). FA (10–75 μM) did not enhance the genotoxic and mutagenic activity of these mutagens under the test conditions applied. FA alone and in combination with MNU or MMS did not affect the expression (mRNA level) of the gene of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in A549 cells. The results of these experiments do not support the assumption that low FA concentrations might interfere with the repair of DNA damage induced by other mutagens.

  17. Space mutagenic effect of Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xingshan; Zhou Fengzheng; Huang Xiaoguang; Kuang Zheshi; Pan Mushui; Li Guoli; Guo Yong

    2005-01-01

    The slant mycelia cultured with or without mutagenic agent diethyl sulfate (DS) and spores of Trichoderma reesei were loaded in the 18th returning satellite. Systematical screening showed that the life cycle and morphology of some strains had changed after space flight. After selection and domestication, 3 mutant strains with high cellulose enzyme activity were isolated. The cellulose enzyme productivities of the mutants were significantly increased more than 50%, and the mutant were generically stable. (authors)

  18. Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, B.A.; Mottershead, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Incubation of E. coli WP2 in the presence of chloramphenicol (CAP) for 90 min before and 60 min after γ-irradiation had no effect on the induction of Trp + mutations. Bacteria that had been treated with CAP for 90 min prior to UV irradiation showed normal or near normal yields of induced mutations to streptomycin or colicin E2 resistance. Most of these mutations lost their photoreversibility (indicating 'fixation') during continued incubation with CAP for a further 60 min after irradiation, during which time neither protein nor DNA synthesis was detectable. It is suggested that CAP-sensitive protein synthesis is not required for mutagenic (error-prone) repair of lesions in pre-existing DNA, arguing against an inducible component in this repair. In contrast the frequency of UV-induced mutations to Trp + (largely at suppressor loci) was drastically reduced by CAP pretreatment, confirming the need for an active replication fork for UV-mutagenesis at these loci. It is known from the work of others that CAP given after UV abolishes mutagenesis at these loci. It is concluded that CAP-sensitive protein synthesis (consistent with a requirement for an inducible function) is necessary for mutagenic repair only in newly-replicated DNA (presumably at daughter strand gaps) and not in pre-existing DNA. The data are consistent with but do not prove the hypothesis that CAP-sensitive and insensitive modes of mutagenesis reflect minor differences in the operation of a single basic mutagenic repair system. (Auth.)

  19. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar, E-mail: sahubar@uum.edu.my; Ramli, Razamin, E-mail: razamin@uum.edu.my; Baten, M. D. Azizul, E-mail: baten-math@yahoo.com [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency.

  20. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency

  1. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers' efficiency.

  2. Mutagenic activity of phthalate esters in bacterial liquid suspension assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, J L

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of several phthalate esters have been evaluated in an 8-azaguanine resistance assay in Salmonella typhimurium. Three phthalate esters were found to be mutagenic: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate. A number of other phthalate esters were not found to be mutagenic, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. A metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 2-ethylhe...

  3. Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, T

    1986-08-01

    Mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium enabled us to detect various types of mutagens in cooked foods. A series of mutagenic heterocyclic amines has been isolated and identified in broiled fish and meat and in pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins. Feeding experiments showed these mutagens to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. The mechanism of formation and pathway of metabolic activation of these heterocyclic amines have been elucidated. Their contents in various cooked foods have been determined. The presence of mutagenic nitropyrenes (some of which were confirmed as carcinogens) in grilled chicken was also established. Roasted coffee beans also yield mutagens such as methylglyoxal. The formation of mutagen precursors, including beta-carboline derivatives and tyramine which become mutagens with nitrite treatment, was found during food processing. Oncogene activation in animal tumors induced by some of these food mutagens/carcinogens has been confirmed. The role of mutagens/carcinogens in cooked foods in human cancer development has not yet been exactly evaluated. In order to do this, more information on their carcinogenic potency, human intake, metabolism in the human body, and the effects of combined administration with other initiators, promoters and other modifying factors in food is required.

  4. Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E D; Coppinger, W J; Valencia, R; Iavicoli, J

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (diEGBE) was examined with a Tier I battery of in vitro assays followed by a Tier II in vivo Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. The in vitro battery consisted of: the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma test, a cytogenetics assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells and the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the cytogenetics test, and the rat hepatocyte assay were negative at concentrations up to 20 microL/plate, 7.92 microL/mL, and 4.4 microL/mL, respectively. Toxicity was clearly demonstrated at all high doses. A weak, but dose-related increase in the mutation frequency (4-fold increase over the solvent control at 5.6 microL/mL with 12% survival) was obtained in the L5178Y lymphoma test in the absence of metabolic activation. Results of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay results were assessed by performing the Tier II sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila in which the target tissue is maturing germinal cells. Both feeding (11,000 ppm for 3 days) and injection (0.3 microL of approximately 14,000 ppm solution) routes of administration were employed in the Drosophila assay. Approximately 11,000 individual crosses with an equal number of negative controls were performed for each route of administration. diEGBE produced no increase in recessive lethals under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6389113

  5. Analysis of commercial bouillons for trace levels of mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavric, B; Matula, T I; Klassen, R; Downie, R H

    1993-12-01

    A new method, developed specifically for the extraction of heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) type mutagens from different food matrices, was applied to various forms of commercially available bouillons. This procedure is based on liquid-liquid extraction of the sample at different pH values. Recovery and reproducibility of the procedure was determined by processing spiked samples using a mutagenicity bioassay technique as an endpoint. The mutagenicity was tested in the Salmonella/microsome assay using strain TA98 with metabolic activation. 22 bouillon samples in liquid, cube or powder forms from seven manufacturers were extracted and tested for potential mutagenicity. The mutagenic activity of these samples varied and ranged from non-detectable to about 1200 induced revertants per gram of solid material, with a median value of approximately 250 revertants/g. The mutagenic response appeared to be dependent on the source rather than the type or form of the product tested. A negative response was obtained from only one chicken bouillon, and the highest positive response was obtained from a beef bouillon in cube form. It appears that the average beef sample, regardless of form, has a higher mutagenic potency than chicken or chicken and turkey samples. Overall, the intake of mutagens from commercial bouillons (obtained as cubes, concentrates or dry mixes) to prepare one serving (as bouillon, soup, casseroles, etc.) is considerably less than that reported in the literature for one serving of fried beef or pork. The extractability and mutagenic characteristics of these samples indicate the presence of HAA-type mutagens. Work is in progress to identify the mutagenic factors in bouillons.

  6. Assessing chemical mutagens: the risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewen, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: chromosomal aberrations induced by x radiation, tritiated thymidine, maleic hydrazide, and nitrogen mustard; removal of pyrimidine dimers by photoreactivation in amphibian cells following uv radiation; effects of 4-nitroquinoline-oxide on leukocytes from XP and normal patients; DNA as a target for alkylating agents; sensitivity of spermatogonia to chemical mutagens; chromosomal aberrations induced by 8-ethoxycaffeine, methoxycaffeine, cytosine arabinoside, streptonigrin, bleomycin, and phleomycin; effects of MMS and triethylenemelamine on germ cells; and use of chromosomal aberrations for improving risk estimates for ionizing radiation

  7. Energy efficiency of selected OECD countries: A slacks based model with undesirable outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Aye, Goodness C.; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Gupta, Rangan; Wanke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency assessment of selected OECD countries using a Slacks Based Model with undesirable or bad outputs (SBM-Undesirable). In this research, SBM-Undesirable is used first in a two-stage approach to assess the relative efficiency of OECD countries using the most frequent indicators adopted by the literature on energy efficiency. Besides, in the second stage, GLMM–MCMC methods are combined with SBM-Undesirable results as part of an attempt to produce a model for energy performance with effective predictive ability. The results reveal different impacts of contextual variables, such as economic blocks and capital–labor ratio, on energy efficiency levels. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency of selected OECD countries. • SBM-Undesirable and MCMC–GLMM are combined for this purpose. • Find that efficiency levels are high but declining over time. • Analysis with contextual variables shows varying efficiency levels across groups. • Capital-intensive countries are more energy efficient than labor-intensive countries.

  8. Desirable and undesirable future thoughts call for different scene construction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, S; Neroni, M A; Gamboz, N; Della Sala, S; Brandimonte, M A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the ability of foreseeing (episodic future thinking), it is still unclear how healthy people construct possible future scenarios. We suggest that different future thoughts require different processes of scene construction. Thirty-five participants were asked to imagine desirable and less desirable future events. Imagining desirable events increased the ease of scene construction, the frequency of life scripts, the number of internal details, and the clarity of sensorial and spatial temporal information. The initial description of general personal knowledge lasted longer in undesirable than in desirable anticipations. Finally, participants were more prone to explicitly indicate autobiographical memory as the main source of their simulations of undesirable episodes, whereas they equally related the simulations of desirable events to autobiographical events or semantic knowledge. These findings show that desirable and undesirable scenarios call for different mechanisms of scene construction. The present study emphasizes that future thinking cannot be considered as a monolithic entity.

  9. Ranking of bank branches with undesirable and fuzzy data: A DEA-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Kordrostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks are one of the most important financial sectors in order to the economic development of each country. Certainly, efficiency scores and ranks of banks are significant and effective aspects towards future planning. Sometimes the performance of banks must be measured in the presence of undesirable and vague factors. For these reasons in the current paper a procedure based on data envelopment analysis (DEA is introduced for evaluating the efficiency and complete ranking of decision making units (DMUs where undesirable and fuzzy measures exist. To illustrate, in the presence of undesirable and fuzzy measures, DMUs are evaluated by using a fuzzy expected value approach and DMUs with similar efficiency scores are ranked by using constraints and the Maximal Balance Index based on the optimal shadow prices. Afterwards, the efficiency scores of 25 branches of an Iranian commercial bank are evaluated using the proposed method. Also, a complete ranking of bank branches is presented to discriminate branches.

  10. Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in Fenugreek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shagufta

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... improvement, the basic studies on effectiveness and efficiency of a mutagen in a crop are necessary to recover high frequency of desirable mutations (Kumar and Mani, 1997; Badere and Chaudhary, 2007). Mutagenic effectiveness is an index of the response of a genotype to the increasing doses of the ...

  11. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  12. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  13. QSAR ligand dataset for modelling mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and rodent carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Five datasets were constructed from ligand and bioassay result data from the literature. These datasets include bioassay results from the Ames mutagenicity assay, Greenscreen GADD-45a-GFP assay, Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE assay, and 2 year rat carcinogenicity assay results. These datasets provide information about chemical mutagenicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

  14. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowska, Barbara; Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna; Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. → The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. → The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. → We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  15. Mutagenic activities of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1975-01-01

    Environmental contaminations by certain metal compounds are bringing about serious problems to human health, including genetic hazards. It has been reported that some compounds of iron, manganese and mercury induce point mutations in microorganisms. Also it has been observed that those of aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead and tellurium cause chromosome aberrations in plants, insects and cultured human cells. The mechanism of mutation induction by these metals remains, however, still obscure. For screening of chemical mutagens, Kada et al, recently developed a simple and efficient method named rec-assay by observing differential growth sensitivities to drugs in wild and recombination-deficient strains of Bacillus subtilis. When a chemical is more inhibitory for Rec/sup -/ than for Rec/sup +/ cells, it is reasonable to suspect mutagenicity based on its DNA-damaging capacity. In the present report, 56 metal compounds were tested by the rec-assay. Compounds showing positive results in the assay such as potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/), ammonium molybdate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 6/Mo/sub 7/O/sub 24/) and sodium arsenite (NaAsO/sub 2/) were then examined as to their capacities to induce reversions in E. coli Trp/sup -/ strains possessing different DNA repair pathways. 11 references, 3 tables.

  16. Risk management of undesirable substances in feed following updated risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed is the framework for the EU action on undesirable substances in feed. This framework Directive provides: ⁎that products intended for animal feed may enter for use in the Union from third countries, be put into circulation and/or used in the Union only if they are sound, genuine and of merchantable quality and therefore when correctly used do not represent any danger to human health, animal health or to the environment or could adversely affect livestock production. ⁎that in order to protect animal and public health and the environment, maximum levels for specific undesirable substances shall be established where necessary. ⁎for mandatory consultation of a scientific body (EFSA) for all provisions which may have an effect upon public health or animal health or on the environment. ⁎that products intended for animal feed containing levels of an undesirable substance that exceed the established maximum level may not be mixed for dilution purposes with the same, or other, products intended for animal feed and may not be used for the production of compound feed. Based on the provisions and principles laid down in this framework Directive, maximum levels for a whole range of undesirable substances have been established at EU level. During the discussions in view of the adoption of Directive 2002/32/EC, the European Commission made the commitment to review all existing provisions on undesirable substances on the basis of updated scientific risk assessments. Following requests of the European Commission, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed a series of 30 risk assessments undertaken over the last 5 years on undesirable substances in animal feed reviewing the possible risks for animal and human health due to the presence of these substances in animal feed. EU legislation

  17. Risk management of undesirable substances in feed following updated risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, Frans, E-mail: Frans.Verstraete@ec.europa.eu

    2013-08-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed is the framework for the EU action on undesirable substances in feed. This framework Directive provides: ⁎that products intended for animal feed may enter for use in the Union from third countries, be put into circulation and/or used in the Union only if they are sound, genuine and of merchantable quality and therefore when correctly used do not represent any danger to human health, animal health or to the environment or could adversely affect livestock production. ⁎that in order to protect animal and public health and the environment, maximum levels for specific undesirable substances shall be established where necessary. ⁎for mandatory consultation of a scientific body (EFSA) for all provisions which may have an effect upon public health or animal health or on the environment. ⁎that products intended for animal feed containing levels of an undesirable substance that exceed the established maximum level may not be mixed for dilution purposes with the same, or other, products intended for animal feed and may not be used for the production of compound feed. Based on the provisions and principles laid down in this framework Directive, maximum levels for a whole range of undesirable substances have been established at EU level. During the discussions in view of the adoption of Directive 2002/32/EC, the European Commission made the commitment to review all existing provisions on undesirable substances on the basis of updated scientific risk assessments. Following requests of the European Commission, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed a series of 30 risk assessments undertaken over the last 5 years on undesirable substances in animal feed reviewing the possible risks for animal and human health due to the presence of these substances in animal feed. EU legislation

  18. Changes in mutagenicity of protein pyrolyzates by reaction with nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, D; Matsumoto, T

    1978-09-01

    Pyrolyzates of protein and related materials were treated with nitrite under acidic conditions, and the mutagenic activity toward Salmonella tester strains was determined. After treatment with nitrite in acidic solution, casein pyrolyzate, an extract of roasted chicken meat, tobacco-smoke condensate and some aromatic amines showed appreciable decreases in their mutagenic activities toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. Aromatic amines in the pyrolyzates may be changed by nitrite treatment to other forms having no or lower mutagenic activity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The contribution by aromatic amines to the total mutagenic activity of the pyrolyzates was as high as 80% in both casein pyrolyzate and extract of roasted chicken meat and 50% in tobacco-smoke condensate. Pyrolyzates of protein and related materials did not show a decrease in the mutagenic activity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 with the same treatment.

  19. Mutagenicity screening: General principles and minimal criteria. Report of a committee of the European Environmental Mutagen Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilbey, B.J.; Igali, S.; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1978-01-01

    A statement of general principles and minimal criteria for the screening of chemicals for potential mutagenicity in man that may be used as guidelines for regulatory agencies and industrial organisations. To make clear the potentialities and current limitations of short-term mutagenicity testing for

  20. Array diagnostics, spatial resolution, and filtering of undesired radiation with the 3D reconstruction algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Jørgensen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three important features of the 3D reconstruction algorithm of DIATOOL: the identification of array elements improper functioning and failure, the obtainable spatial resolution of the reconstructed fields and currents, and the filtering of undesired radiation and scattering...

  1. Relationships between College Students' Credit Card Debt, Undesirable Academic Behaviors and Cognitions, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…

  2. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual

  3. School Social Workers' Perceived Efficacy at Tasks Related to Curbing Suspension and Undesirable Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell L.; Miller, Christina R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores school social workers' perceptions of their ability to successfully engage in practice tasks that reduce the likelihood of school suspension and undesirable behaviors among racial and ethnic groups within diverse geographical locations (urban, suburban, and rural). Using survey research methods with a convenience sample, 201…

  4. Application of mammalian cytogenetics to mutagenicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewen, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on induction of chromosome damage in germ cells by triethylene melamine (TEM) included determination of frequencies of chromosomal aberrations observed in human leukocytes after treating different stages of the cell cycle with TEM, frequencies of chromatid aberrations in metaphase I oocytes and the female pronuclear chromosomes following treatment of female mice with TEM, and frequencies of labeled diplotene-diakinesis figures and chromosome abberations at various intervals after treatment of primary spermatocytes with TEM and 3 H-thymidine. Studies on effects of low linear energy transfer radiation on mouse oocytes showed that the frequency of aberrations increased as a function of time and remained constant 8 to 9 days post-exposure. It was concluded that cytogenetic procedures were adequate to evaluate certain mutagenic end points

  5. Mutagenic effects of ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1998-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 75 keV nitrogen and carbon ions with various doses. The biological effects in M 1 and mutation in M 2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam dose. The rate of cells with chromosomal aberration was lower than that induced with γ-rays. Frequency of the mutation induced by implantation of N + and C + ions were higher than those induced by γ-rays. The rate of cell with chromosome aberration and in M 2 useful mutation induced by implantation of C + ion was higher than those induced by implantation of N + ion. Mutagenic effects Feng 1 x Riyuan and Riyuan x Feng 2 by implantation of N + and C + were higher than that of Jining and Feng 2

  6. Metabolic aspects of pyrolysis mutagens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Negishi, C.; Umemoto, A.; Sugimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first step in metabolic activation of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines has been elucidated to be N-hydroxylation by cytochrome P-448. N-Hydroxyamino compounds are further activated to form N-O-acyl derivatives that readily react with DNA. The adducts between the metabolites of Trp-P-2 and Glu-P-1 and DNA were shown to have a C 8 -guanylamino structure. In the case of Glu-P-1, modification of guanine in GC clusters occurred preferentially. Glutathione transferases and myeloperoxidase were shown to inactivate some heterocyclic amines or their active metabolites. Hemin and fatty acids bind to and inactivate them. Fibers and other factors from vegetables also work to inactivate heterocyclic amines. Nitrite at low pH also degraded some heterocyclic amines, but those with an imidazole moiety were resistant. Glu-P-1 induced intestinal tumors in a high incidence when fed orally to rats. When 14 C-Glu-P-1 was administered by gavage into rats about 50% and 35% were excreted into feces and urine, respectively, within 24 hr. When the bile was collected, around 60% of radioactivity was excreted into it within 24 hr. In the bile, N-acetyl-Glu-P-1 was identified as one of the metabolites of Glu-P-1. It showed a mutagenic activity of about one fourth that of Glu-P-1 with S9 mix. Some radioactivity was also detected in the blood. At 24 hr after administration, most of the radioactivity was found to be bound to erythrocyte β-globins and serum proteins including albumin

  7. Induction of Abasic Sites by the Drinking-Water Mutagen MX in Salmonella TA100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagen X (MX) is a chlorinated furanone that accounts for more of the mutagenic activity of drinking water than any other disinfection by-product. It is one of the most potent base-substitution mutagens in the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay, producing primarily GC to TA mu...

  8. Mutagenicity of anthraquinone and hydroxylated anthraquinones in the Ames/Salmonella microsome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, D F; Fink, R C; Schaefer, F L; Mulcahy, R J; Stark, A A

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenicity of anthracene, anthraquinone, and four structurally similar compounds of each was evaluated in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay. Anthraquinone was shown to be mutagenic for strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98 in the absence of rat liver homogenate. The four anthraquinone derivatives tested were mutagenic for TA1537 exclusively. None of the anthracenes exhibited mutagenic activity. PMID:7103489

  9. Mutagenicity of anthraquinone and hydroxylated anthraquinones in the Ames/Salmonella microsome system.

    OpenAIRE

    Liberman, D F; Fink, R C; Schaefer, F L; Mulcahy, R J; Stark, A A

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenicity of anthracene, anthraquinone, and four structurally similar compounds of each was evaluated in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay. Anthraquinone was shown to be mutagenic for strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98 in the absence of rat liver homogenate. The four anthraquinone derivatives tested were mutagenic for TA1537 exclusively. None of the anthracenes exhibited mutagenic activity.

  10. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  11. Mutagenicity in drug development: interpretation and significance of test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, D

    1985-03-01

    The use of mutagenicity data has been proposed and widely accepted as a relatively fast and inexpensive means of predicting long-term risk to man (i.e., cancer in somatic cells, heritable mutations in germ cells). This view is based on the universal nature of the genetic material, the somatic mutation model of carcinogenesis, and a number of studies showing correlations between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An uncritical acceptance of this approach by some regulatory and industrial concerns is over-conservative, naive, and scientifically unjustifiable on a number of grounds: Human cancers are largely life-style related (e.g., cigarettes, diet, tanning). Mutagens (both natural and man-made) are far more prevalent in the environment than was originally assumed (e.g., the natural bases and nucleosides, protein pyrolysates, fluorescent lights, typewriter ribbon, red wine, diesel fuel exhausts, viruses, our own leukocytes). "False-positive" (relative to carcinogenicity) and "false-negative" mutagenicity results occur, often with rational explanations (e.g., high threshold, inappropriate metabolism, inadequate genetic endpoint), and thereby confound any straightforward interpretation of mutagenicity test results. Test battery composition affects both the proper identification of mutagens and, in many instances, the ability to make preliminary risk assessments. In vitro mutagenicity assays ignore whole animal protective mechanisms, may provide unphysiological metabolism, and may be either too sensitive (e.g., testing at orders-of-magnitude higher doses than can be ingested) or not sensitive enough (e.g., short-term treatments inadequately model chronic exposure in bioassay). Bacterial systems, particularly the Ames assay, cannot in principle detect chromosomal events which are involved in both carcinogenesis and germ line mutations in man. Some compounds induce only chromosomal events and little or no detectable single-gene events (e.g., acyclovir, caffeine

  12. A contribution to the study on the mutagenicity of atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, Philipp

    1986-01-01

    Following a review of the literature, the genotoxic hazards of atmospheric pollutants at various locations (rural sites, motorway tolls, paint shops...) were evaluated by in vitro mutagenicity assays (Ames' test and SOS chromo-test) and analytical methods (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). Instrumentation and procedures were developed for the sampling of volatile organic pollutants: adsorption on XAD 2 followed by acetone extraction of the compounds trapped. A comparative study allowed to assess the relative mutagenic action of the volatile organic compounds and to establish a mutagenicity scale. (author) [fr

  13. Rice growing farmers efficiency measurement using a slack based interval DEA model with undesirable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2017-11-01

    In recent years eco-efficiency which considers the effect of production process on environment in determining the efficiency of firms have gained traction and a lot of attention. Rice farming is one of such production processes which typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable. In efficiency analysis, these undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in the model to obtain the actual estimation of firm's efficiency. There are numerous approaches that have been used in data envelopment analysis (DEA) literature to account for undesirable outputs of which directional distance function (DDF) approach is the most widely used as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, slack based DDF DEA approaches considers the output shortfalls and input excess in determining efficiency. In situations when data uncertainty is present, the deterministic DEA model is not suitable to be used as the effects of uncertain data will not be considered. In this case, it has been found that interval data approach is suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding the underlying data distribution and membership function. The proposed model uses an enhanced DEA model which is based on DDF approach and incorporates slack based measure to determine efficiency in the presence of undesirable factors and data uncertainty. Interval data approach was used to estimate the values of inputs, undesirable outputs and desirable outputs. Two separate slack based interval DEA models were constructed for optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The developed model was used to determine rice farmers efficiency from Kepala Batas, Kedah. The obtained results were later compared to the results obtained using a deterministic DDF DEA model. The study found that 15 out of 30 farmers are efficient in all cases. It

  14. Nonmutagenicity of betel leaf and its antimutagenic action against environmental mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushan, M; Amonkar, A J; D'Souza, A V; Bhide, S V

    1987-01-01

    Betel leaf (Piper betel) water and acetone extract are nonmutagenic in S. typhimurium strains with and without S9 mix. Both the extracts suppress the mutagenicity of betel quid mutagens in a dose dependent manner. Moreover both the extracts of betel leaf reduce the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene and dimethylbenzanthracene. Acetone extract is more potent than water extract in inhibiting mutagenicity of environmental mutagens.

  15. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  16. Data Envelopment Analysis with Fixed Inputs, Undesirable Outputs and Negative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Seyed Esmaeili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, different models have been measured to evaluate the performance of decision making units with multiple inputs and outputs. Revised model of Slack-based measures known as MBSM of collective models family has been introduced by Sharp et al. Slack-based measure has been introduced by Ton. In this study, a model is proposed that is able to estimate the efficiency when a number of outputs of decision making units are undesirable, inputs are fixed and some of outputs and inputs are negative. So that, level of undesirable output is reduced at the constant level of inputs in the evaluation unit and by conserving the efficiency.

  17. Mutagenicity of pan residues and gravy from fried meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvik, E; Nilsson, L; Fredholm, L; Levin, O; Nord, C E; Gustafsson, J A

    1987-02-01

    Lean pork meat was fried with or without the addition of frying-fat at 200 or 250 degrees C. The pan residues were collected by washing the hot pan with boiling water. When producing thickened gravy the water was substituted by a mixture of water and flour, milk and flour or cream and flour. The basic extracts were tested for mutagenicity in Ames' Salmonella test on strain TA98 with the addition of S9 mix. High amounts of mutagenicity were found in all samples. The amounts of mutagenicity in the pan residues were at a comparable level of the amounts found in the meat crusts. Thickening of the gravy caused only small changes in the mutagenicity.

  18. Effectiveness and efficiency of certain mutagens in Linum usitatissimum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateef, M.A.; Nizam, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, ethylmethane sulphonate and mitomycin-C. mutagens were studied on the basis of chlorophyll mutations in Linum usitatissimum L. (author)

  19. Expert advice in case of exposure to mutagens or teratogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuber, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    To answer the question of any induced hazards in progeny by an exogeneous factor it is necessary to differentiate between mutagenic and teratogenic action. Mutations can be caused by ionisizing radiations and chemicals, e.g. cytostatic drugs. After exposure to mutagenic agents a conception should be prevented for a time of 3 months to avoid a fertilization of a germ cell that has been effected during a very sensible phase. In case of conception during mutagenic exposure it is possible to detect chromosome aberrations by prenatal diagnosis after amniocentesis. The spectrum of possible teratogens is extensive and less specific than that of mutagenic agents. Factors established as embryotoxic in man are for instance radiation, several drugs and some virus infections. They have been known to cause malformations in the fetus, if these events take place during a certain critical period of organogenesis. (orig.) [de

  20. Cytological effects of some new mutagens on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2002-01-01

    Air-dried seeds of five rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite (RS) for space mutation and were irradiated by synchronous irradiation (soft X-rays), protons and nitrogen ions. The cytological effects were compared with that of γ-irradiation. The results indicated that all the mutagens were able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The space environment had a stimulating mitotic effect on root tip cells. Other mutagens had inhibiting mitotic actions. The rates of micronuclei induced by synchronous irradiation and other mutagens were higher than that by γ-rays; and the rates of chromosomal bridge were lower. Furthermore, the radiosensitivity of five varieties varied with different mutagens

  1. How stable are the mutagenic tautomers of DNA bases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brovarets’ O. O.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the lifetime of the mutagenic tautomers of DNA base pairs through the investigation of the physicochemical mechanisms of their intramolecular proton transfer. Methods. Non-empirical quantum chemistry, the analysis of the electron density by means of Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM theory and physicochemical kinetics were used. Results. Physicochemical character of the transition state of the intramolecular tautomerisation of DNA bases was investigated, the lifetime of mutagenic tautomers was calculated. Conclusions. The lifetime of the DNA bases mutagenic tautomers by 3–10 orders exceeds typical time of DNA replication in the cell (~103 s. This fact confirms that the postulate, on which the Watson-Crick tautomeric hypothesis of spontaneous transitions grounds, is adequate. The absence of intramolecular H-bonds in the canonical and mutagenic tautomeric forms determine their high stability

  2. Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E)-piplartine by the Ames test. AA Morandim-Giannetti, F Cotinguiba, LO Regasini, MC Frigieri, EA Varanda, A Coqueiro, MJ Kato, VS Bolzani, M Furlan ...

  3. Effect of mutagen combined action on Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii cells. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, D.; Podstavkova, S.; Dubovsky, J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect was investigated of single and combined actions of alkylnitrosourea derivatives (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) and UV-radiation on the survival of cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation following mutagen activity. In particular, the single phases were investigated of the total lethal effect, i.e., the death of cells before division and their death after division. The most pronounced changes in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation were noted in cell death before division. In dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens, the effect of the combined action on the survival of cells changed from an additive (alkylnitrosourea + UV-radiation) to a protective effect (UV-radiation + alkylnitrosourea). (author)

  4. In vitro evaluation of mutagenicity and genotoxicity of sitagliptin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Sitagliptin, Artificial sweeteners, Comet assay, DNA damage, Ames assay, Genotoxicity,. Mutagenicity. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African.

  5. Undesirable Behaviors Elementary School Classroom Teachers Encounter in the Classroom and Their Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    E.G. Balcik; S. Gulec

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine how often elementary school teachers encounter undesirable behaviors in the classroom and what their thoughts regarding possible reasons of these behaviors are. The teachers’ opininon about the prevalence of these behaviors and their possible reasons were evaluated according to gender, marital status, level of class being taught, size of class being taught and it was tried to be determined if there were significant differences between variables. The measure...

  6. DEREGULATION, FINANCIAL CRISIS, AND BANK EFFICIENCY IN TAIWAN: AN ESTIMATION OF UNDESIRABLE OUTPUTS

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chang-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose- This study investigates the undesirable impacts of outputson bank efficiency and contributes to the literature by assessing howregulation policies and other events impact bank efficiency in Taiwan inregards to deregulation, financial crisis, and financial reform from 1993 to2011. Methodology- In order to effectively deal with both undesirableand desirable outputs, this study follows Seiford and Zhu (2002), who recommendusing the standard data envelopment analysis model to measure per...

  7. The effect of Aspergillus niger mutagenization on citric acid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Walisch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The industrial A. niger strain producing citric acid was mutagenized with the use of new chemical mutagens: free nitroxyl radicals. Strains of higher citric acid production yield were obtained. Citric acid was produced in a shorter time compared to the initial strain. During 6-12 months of storage most of the strains preserved their positive features which proves that mutants with profitable biotechnological properties were obtained. These mutants are used in industrial process.

  8. Mutagenicity of Flavonoids Assayed by Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Varanda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenicity of ten flavonoids was assayed by the Ames test, in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102, with the aim of establishing hydroxylation pattern-mutagenicity relationship profiles. The compounds assessed were: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone. In the Ames assay, quercetin acted directly and its mutagenicity increased with metabolic activation. In the presence of S9 mix, kaempferol and galangin were mutagenic in the TA98 strain and kaempferol showed signs of mutagenicity in the other strains. The absence of hydroxyl groups, as in flavone, only signs of mutagenicity were shown in strain TA102, after metabolization and, among monohydroxylated flavones (3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone, the presence of hydroxyl groups only resulted in minor changes. Luteolin and fisetin also showed signs of mutagenicity in strain TA102. Finally, chrysin, which has only two hydroxy groups, at the 5-OH and 7-OH positions, also did not induce mutagenic activity in any of the bacterial strains used, under either activation condition. All the flavonoids were tested at concentrations varying from 2.6 to 30.7 nmol/plate for galangin and 12.1 to 225.0 nmol/plate for other flavonoids. In light of the above, it is necessary to clarify the conditions and the mechanisms that mediate the biological effects of flavonoids before treating them as therapeutical agents, since some compounds can be biotransformed into more genotoxic products; as is the case for galangin, kaempferol and quercetin.

  9. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-01-01

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  10. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-03-14

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  11. Development of Data Envelopment Analysis for the Performance Evaluation of Green Supply Chain with Undesirable Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alinezhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem is the use of DEA in multistep or multilevel processes such as supply chain, lack of attention to processes’ internal communications in a way that the recent studies on DEA in the context of serial processes have focused on closed systems that the outputs of one level become the inputs of the next level and none of the inputs enter the mediator process. The present study aimed to examine the general dimensions of an open multilevel process. Here, some of the data such as inputs and outputs are supposed to leave the system while other outputs turn into the inputs of the next level. The new inputs can enter the next level as well. We expand this mode for network structures. The overall performance of such a structure is considered as a weighted average of sectors’ performance or distinct steps. Therefore, this suggested model in this study, not only provides the possibility to evaluate the performance of the entire network, but creates the performance analysis for each of the sub-processes. On the other hand, considering the data with undesirable structure leads to more correct performance estimation. In the real world, all productive processes do not comprise desirable factors. Therefore, presenting a structure that is capable of taking into account the undesirable structure is of crucial importance. In this study, a new model in the DEA by network structure is offered that can analyze the performance considering undesirable factors.

  12. Study of anti mutagenic and mutagenic effect of different chemicals on clinically isolated strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.; Durrani, F.; Janjua, M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to study the effect of twelve different compounds to test their anti mutagenic and mutagenic activity against clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effect of these compounds was estimated by counting the number of rifampicin resistant colonies growing in a particular time in a compound. The results were interpreted by plotting graphs between 10g N/NO (Rif R Colonies/ ml) and time to estimate the forward mutation rat. The results revealed that acridine, Basic fuchsin, Caffeine, cycloheximide, Ethidium bromide and Histidine probably have an anti mutagenic effect, while Cysteine, folic acid, Ethyl methane, suplphonate, Manganous Chloride and N-nitrosodietylamine acted as mutagen. Ecoli was used as control through out the study. (author)

  13. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references

  14. 32 CFR 887.7 - Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. 887.7 Section 887.7 National Defense... honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. Those persons whose character...

  15. Dietary mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghui; Day, Rena Sue; Bondy, Melissa L; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T; Evans, Douglas B; Abbruzzese, James L; Hassan, Manal M

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (+/-5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases than controls showed a preference to well-done pork, bacon, grilled chicken, and pan-fried chicken, but not to hamburger and steak. Cases had a higher daily intake of food mutagens and mutagenicity activity (revertants per gram of daily meat intake) than controls did. The daily intakes of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity, were significant predictors for pancreatic cancer (P = 0.008, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively) with adjustment of other confounders. A significant trend of elevated cancer risk with increasing DiMeIQx intake was observed in quintile analysis (P(trend) = 0.024). A higher intake of dietary mutagens (those in the two top quintiles) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer among those without a family history of cancer but not among those with a family history of cancer. A possible synergistic effect of dietary mutagen exposure and smoking was observed among individuals with the highest level of exposure (top 10%) to PhIP and BaP, P(interaction) = 0.09 and 0.099, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that dietary mutagen exposure alone and in interaction with other factors contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.

  16. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raamsdonk LWD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual status of enforcement and of the present occurrence of these botanical substances, a survey was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to 103 laboratories, including official control labs from all member states of the European Union. The results, indicating the frequency of occurrence as far as reported, are compared to the publications of the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF. A total of 44 questionnaires was returned (42.7% from 22 member states. Ten member states predominantly from north-western Europe appeared to have an active monitoring of botanical undesirable substances. The questionnaire results did not indicate that the other member states enforce this part of Directive 2002/32/EC. Reports on the frequency of occurrence include: a few to 25-50% of the samples contain traces of ergot (8 member states, a few to 24% contain at least some traces of thorn apple (6 member states, zero to 17% contain some castor oil plant seeds (3 member states, zero to a few samples contain Crotalaria seeds (3 member states, and zero to 6% contain traces of Sareptian mustard (4 member states. One member state conducted extra surveillance since several cases of animal intoxications have been reported. In some cases a coincidence with undesirable botanical substances was found.

  17. Undesirable Behaviors Elementary School Classroom Teachers Encounter in the Classroom and Their Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Balcik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine how often elementary school teachers encounter undesirable behaviors in the classroom and what their thoughts regarding possible reasons of these behaviors are. The teachers’ opininon about the prevalence of these behaviors and their possible reasons were evaluated according to gender, marital status, level of class being taught, size of class being taught and it was tried to be determined if there were significant differences between variables. The measurement tool was applied to a total of 54 teachers at 5 schools in Gölcük district of the Kocaeli province. The data collection tool is composed of three sections. The first section is for establishing teachers’ personal information. In this study, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire was used. When preparing questions for the questionnaire, following the examination of resources available, the questionnaire prepared by Aksoy (1999 and used in the thesis study entitled “Classroom Management and Student Discipline in Elementary Schools of Ankara” and also used in the thesis study by Boyraz (2007 entitled “Discipline Problems that Candidate Teachers Servicing at Elementary Schools Encounter in the Classroom” was employed. Although the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was tested by Aksoy (1999 and Boyraz (2007, the reliability study for the questionnaire was retested and found to be 0,9. The questionnaire include 42 items. 19 of them are related to the reasons of undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom and 23 of them are related to undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom.

  18. Mutagenicity of irradiated solutions of nuclei acid bases and nucleosides in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, J.; Schubert, J.

    1981-01-01

    Solutions of nucleic acid bases, nucleosides and a nucleotide, saturated with either N 2 , N 2 O or O 2 , were irradiated and tested for mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium, with and without pre-incubation. Irradiated solutions of the nuclei acid bases were all non-mutagenic. Irradiated solutions of the nucleosides showed mutagenicity in S. typhimurium TA100 (pre-incubation assay). Generally, the mutagenicity followed the order: N 2 O > N 2 > O 2 . The results show that the formation of mutagenic radiolytic products is initiated by attack of mainly solutions of the nucleotide thymidine-5'-monophosphate, no mutagenicity could be detected. (orig.)

  19. The effects of mutagens on some algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranez, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    Pure cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. and chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick were subjected to 0.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Kr gamma radiation ( 60 Co source) from the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Untreated cells were used as control. Dose of 0.5 Kr increased the growth rate of Scenedesmus by 3.12%, 15.27% and 20.48% during the first, third and fourth week respectively. Doses of 6, 9 and 12 decreased the growth rate by 86.33%, 70.7% and 58.2% respectively during the first week. The stimulating effect of low dose (0.5 Kr) was recovered after the fourth week while the inhibiting effect on growth by higher doses was recovered after the first week. Gamma radiation produced morphological changes in the Scenedesmus in the form of enlarged cells, cells with kidney-shape chloroplast, cells in chain, and coenobia with cells that were not in perfect alignment with each other. In chlorella, gamma radiation produced enlarged cells, cells with wrinkled surface and cells that were colourless. Ethyl methanesulfate of 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.25% in phosphate buffer solution was another mutagen used. Algae in distilled water and phosphate buffer were used as control. Treatment with EMS produced coenobia of Scenedesmus with cells that were twice and thrice the normal cells, cells that were rounded or oval in outline, with wavy instead of smooth margin, cells with pseudopodia-like protrusions and coenobia with abnormal number of cells. In Chlorella, EMS produced cells that were twice the size of the normal size of the normal ones, cells that were wavy in outline, abnormal in shape, and cells with no chlorophyll. Scenedesmus was more sensitive to gamma radiation and EMS than chlorella. Of the morphological changes observed, only Scenedesmus with cells around twice the size of the normal ones produced by treatment with either gamma radiation of EMS were successfully propagated. (author)

  20. Cooking with Fire: The Mutagenicity- and PAH-Emission ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from solid fuels used for cooking cause ~4 million premature deaths per year. Advanced solid-fuel cookstoves are a potential solution, but they should be assessed by appropriate performance indicators, including biological effects. We evaluated two categories of solid-fuel cookstoves for 8 pollutant- and 4 mutagenicity-emission factors, correlated the mutagenicity-emission factors, and compared them to those of other combustion emissions. We burned red oak in a 3-stone fire (TSF), a natural-draft stove (NDS), and a forced-draft stove (FDS); we combusted propane as a liquified petroleum gas control fuel. We determined emission factors based on useful energy (megajoules delivered, MJd) for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon, methane, total hydrocarbons, 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, levoglucosan (a wood-smoke marker), and mutagenicity in Salmonella. Other than NOx the emission factors per MJd correlated highly among each other (r2 ≥ 0.92); NOx correlated 0.58-0.76 with the other emission factors. Excluding NOx, the NDS and FDS reduced the emission factors on average 68 and 92%, respectively, relative to the TSF. Nonetheless, the mutagenicity-emission factor based on fuel energy used (MJthermal) for the most efficient stove (FDS) was intermediate to that of a large diesel bus engine and a small diesel generator. Both mutagenicity- and pollutant-emission factors may be informative for characterizing cookstove

  1. Effects of diet composition on mutagenic activity in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Tsugio

    2004-01-01

    The effects of dietary habits on mutagenic activity in urine were investigated using the umu test based on the use of the genetically engineered bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 pSK1002. Genotoxic effects in sample urine were detected by measuring the activation of the SOS response in the bacteria and recording the beta- galactosidase activity. Human subjects consisted of smokers and non-smokers. Urine from subjects who consumed fish showed the highest mutagenic activity, followed by the urine samples from subjects who ate pork or beef. Chicken induced a low level of mutagenic activity. When the subjects ate fried or roasted animal foods, the urine samples gave higher mutagenicity than the urine samples from the subject who consumed non-fried or non-roasted animal foods. When the subject ate vegetables along with a diet rich in animal foods, the activity in urine decreased. Herbs and spices gave the same tendency toward decline as vegetables. Non-smoker urine shower mutagenic activity than samples from smokers.

  2. Productivity Growth-Accounting for Undesirable Outputs and Its Influencing Factors: The Case of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, China’s social development is facing the dilemma of supporting economic growth and reducing emissions. Therefore, it is crucial to analyse productivity growth and examine its relationship with influencing factors in China. This study evaluated the total factor productivity (TFP growth of 30 provinces in China by adopting the Malmquist-Luenberger (ML productivity index and incorporating undesirable outputs from 2011–2014. Then, a Tobit regression model was employed to explore the factors that influence China’s TFP growth. The results show that the average annual growth of the Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index was lower than that of the traditional Malmquist (M productivity index growth during the research period. The findings reveal several key conclusions: First, the true TFP growth in China will be overestimated if undesirable outputs are ignored. Second, technical changes are the main contributor to TFP growth. Third, there are huge regional disparities of productivity growth in China. Fourth, coal intensity, environmental regulations, and industrial structure have significantly negative effects on productivity growth, while real per capita gross domestic product (GDP and foreign direct investment (FDI have strongly positive effects on productivity growth.

  3. Absence of mutagenicity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos F.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna (locally called “Cerrado” is an important biome presenting several plants that are used in popular medicine. However, the risks associated with the consumption of derivatives from these plants are generally unknown. Studies with compounds obtained from different species have shown the risks of DNA damage. The present work assessed the in vivo mutagenicity of three plant species used in popular medicine to treat human gastrointestinal disorders (Mouriri pusa, Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora. The micronucleus assay was performed in peripheral blood of mice submitted to acute treatments. Results showed that no assessed extracts were mutagenic in vivo. In fact, the absence of mutagenicity in the present study indicates that the extracts do not contain compounds capable of inducing DNA breaks or chromosomal loss. However, further analysis should be performed in others systems to guarantee their safety, mainly to human chronic use.

  4. Sources of mutagenic activity in urban fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.K.; Lewis, C.W.; Dzubay, T.G.; Cupitt, L.T.; Lewtas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Samples were collected during the winter of 1984-1985 in the cities of Albuquerque, NM and Raleigh NC as part of a US Environmental Protection Agency study to evaluate methods to determine the emission sources contributing to the mutagenic properties of extractable organic matter (EOM) present in fine particles. Data derived from the analysis of the composition of these fine particles served as input to a multi-linear regression (MLR) model used to calculate the relative contribution of wood burning and motor vehicle sources to mutagenic activity observed in the extractable organic matter. At both sites the mutagenic potency of EOM was found to be greater (3-5 times) for mobile sources when compared to wood smoke extractable organics. Carbon-14 measurements which give a direct determination of the amount of EOM that originated from wood burning were in close agreement with the source apportionment results derived from the MLR model

  5. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishidate, M. Jr.; Yoshikawa, Kunie; Sofuni, Toshio; Iwahara, Shigeo; Sibuya, Tohru.

    1981-01-01

    The alcohol extracts freshly prepared from gamma-irradiated potatoes were examined for their mutagenic activity in bacterial and mammalian cell systems. Negative results were obtained from all following test systems: Mutation assays with Salmonella typhimurium His - strains such as TA 100, TA 98, TA 1535, TA 1537, and streptomycin-dependent mutant (SM sup(d)) strain, TA 100 - 10, inductests with Escherichia coli strains, K 12 GY 5027 and K 12 C600, chromosomal aberration tests with Chinese hamster cells in culture, as well as micronucleus tests in mice. In addition, no difference in the mutagenic activities was found between extracts prepared from the irradiated and the unirradiated potatoes, suggesting that no mutagenic substance was produced in potatoes following gamma-irradiation. (author)

  6. Optimal Mutagen Doses for Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P.

    2016-02-01

    Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi) is one of the most prominent coccolithophores. Given favorable conditions, E. huxleyi blooms can reach sizes exceeding 100,000km2, with densities of 107 cells per L (Olson & Strom 2002). With increasing demand and limited supply of fossil fuels, it has become increasingly popular to look toward alternative renewable fuel sources. E. Huxleyi store energy predominately as uniquely structured polyunsaturated long chain (C37-39) alkenes, alkenones and alkenoates (abbreviated as PULCAs) (Eltgroth et al 2005). Unlike the stored energy of macroalgae and higher order plants, triacylglycerols (TAGs), PULCAs provide a similar composition to native petroleum crude oils (Yamane 2013), which offers a more cost effective and higher yielding extraction process (Wu et al 1999). A number of factors have been shown to influence the alkenone content of E. huxleyi, such as nitrogen deficiency, phosphate limitation (Li et al 2014), and temperature (Shiraiwa et al 2005). For these reasons E. huxleyi has the potential to be an attractive system for algal biofuel. The broad and long-term objective of our research is to elucidate the alkenone biosynthesis pathway in E. Huxleyi, using random mutagenesis techniques. We propose to use UV light and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) to create a mutant population, from which clones unable to synthesize alkenones will be selected. Identifying genes whose specific mutations underlie the loss-of-function phenotype will then reveal genes of interest. The aim of this research was to determine the UV and MMS dose response rates for E. huxleyi to ascertain optimal doses defined as a 50% survival rate for each of the two mutagens. Preliminary data indicate that E. huxleyi appear to be highly sensitive to UV mutagenesis, with an LD50 of 0.57mJ/cm2 for the calcifying strain M217 and 0.96mJ/cm2 for the non-calcifying strain CCMP1516. Both calcifying and non-calcifying strains exhibit similar LD50 values for MMS at 1-2% (v/v).

  7. Urine mutagenicity of steel workers exposed to coke oven emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.P.; Dumenil, G.; Botta, A.H.; Laget, M.; Zabaloueff, V.; Mathias, A.

    1987-03-01

    Urine mutagenicity of 19 individuals was investigated at a steel mill. All the subjects worked on the coal processing unit. Urine samples were collected at the end of a working day. Urine samples of two exposed workers were collected at the end of two periods of rest and two periods of working. Mutagens were extracted on XAD-2 resin and tested by the Salmonella microsomal assay and the SOS spot test. Mutagenic potencies of exposed smokers and exposed non-smokers were 8.62 +/- 6.56 and 1.1 +/- 0.48 revertants/mg creatinine respectively with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 + S9. Both values were significantly higher than those of unexposed smokers and non-smokers (5.07 +/- 3.33 and 0.47 +/- 0.72 revertants/mg creatinine respectively). The urinary mutagenic potency of the two exposed individuals increased at the end of periods of working (15.97 +/- 2.57 revertants/mg creatinine) and decreased at the end of periods of rest (12.31 +/- 2.45 revertants/mg creatinine). Urinary mutagens were detected with S. typhimurium strain TA100 + S9 to a lesser extent. No direct-acting mutagens were detected by the SOS spot test. Atmospheric benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also measured by h.p.l.c. on the coke battery. BaP concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 0.6 microgram/m3 air at the different working sites. Biological monitoring with short-term tests is discussed.

  8. Mutagenicity of heated sugar-casein systems: effect of the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, C M; Alink, G M; van Boekel, M A; Jongen, W M

    2000-06-01

    The formation of mutagens after the heating of sugar-casein model systems at 120 degrees C was examined by the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. Several sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, tagatose, lactose, and lactulose) were compared in their mutagenicities. Mutagenicity could be fully ascribed to Maillard reaction products and strongly varied with the kind of sugar. The differences in mutagenicity among the sugar-casein systems were caused by a difference in reaction rate and a difference in reaction mechanism. Sugars with a comparable reaction mechanism (glucose and galactose) showed a higher mutagenic activity corresponding with a higher Maillard reactivity. Disaccharides showed no mutagenic activity (lactose) or a lower mutagenic activity (lactulose) than their corresponding monosaccharides. Ketose sugars (fructose and tagatose) showed a remarkably higher mutagenicity compared with their aldose isomers (glucose and galactose), which was due to a difference in reaction mechanism.

  9. Determining effective radiation mutagen dose for garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to get database for future garlic mutation breeding studies. For this aim, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy doses of Cs 137 (gamma-ray) were applied on garlic cloves as a physical mutagen. 50 cloves were used for each dose. Sixty days after treatment, germination rate and shoot development of cloves were determined. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED 50 ) was calculated by regression analyses. According to the results, 4.455 Gy dose was found to be effective as ED 50 . (author)

  10. Mutagen induced variability in Ragi (Eleucine coracana Gaertn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Z.A.; Mahto, J.L.; Kumar, Binod

    1996-01-01

    Varieties A-404 and HR-374 of Ragi (Eleucine coracana Gaertn) when subjected to different doses of gamma rays, EMS and their combination treatments showed a linear reverse relationship between doses and germination percentage. The same was true for seedling survival and pollen fertility. Variety A-404 proved to be more sensitive to all mutagenic treatments as compared to the variety HR-374. There was, however, a general gain with respect to panicle length in most of the treatments, where as for a number of fingers per panicle no order could be observed in any of the mutagen used. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Study on increasing mutagenic efficiency of radiation breeding for rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xianguo; Pang Boliang; Zhu Xiaoqi

    1993-04-01

    Increasing mutagenic efficiency and improving selection method are of important topics for crop mutation breeding. Investigation on the radiation breeding for rice (Oryza Sativa L.) showed that the crossing in combination with gamma ray irradiation or laser irradiation and proper selection of dosage rate can increase mutagenic efficiency. According to the correlation of phenotype in M 1 generation and mutation frequency in M 2 for rice, the materials with certain characters were chose as seeds, thus the works of generation selections will be reduced

  12. Environmental chemical mutagens and genetic risks: Lessons from radiation genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed substantial progress in the development and use of a variety of in vitro and in vivo assay systems for the testing of environmental chemicals which may pose a mutagenic hazard to humans. This is also true of basic studies in chemical mutagenesis on mechanisms, DNA repair, molecular dosimetry, structure-activity relationships, etc. However, the field of quantitative evaluation of genetic risks of environmental chemicals to humans is still in it infancy. This commentary addresses the question of how our experience in estimating genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation can be helpful in similar endeavors with environmental chemical mutagens. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain; Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe ''Carry over unerwuenschter Stoffe in Futtermitteln'' beim Bundesministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (BMELV) hat in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut fuer Tierernaehrung des Friedrich-Loeffler-Instituts (FLI) am 27. und 28. Oktober 2011 in Braunschweig einen Workshop zum Thema ''Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette'' durchgefuehrt. Ziel des Workshops war es, die aktuellen Erkenntnisse der Carry over Forschung und die Empfehlungen der Carry over - Arbeitsgruppe zu unerwuenschten Stoffen in Futtermitteln und Produktionsverfahren in

  14. Operation condition for continuous anti-solvent crystallization of CBZ-SAC cocrystal considering deposition risk of undesired crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaru, Momoko; Nakasa, Miku; Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Crystallization operation of cocrystal production has deposition risk of undesired crystals. Simultaneously, continuous manufacturing processes are focused on. In this study, conditions for continuous cocrystallization considering risk reduction of undesired crystals deposition were investigated on the view point of thermodynamics and kinetics. The anti-solvent cocrystallization was carried out in four-component system of carbamazepine, saccharin, methanol and water. From the preliminary batch experiment, the relationships among undesired crystal deposition, solution composition decided by mixing ratio of solutions, and residence time for the crystals were considered, and then the conditions of continuous experiment were decided. Under these conditions, the continuous experiment was carried out. The XRD patterns of obtained crystals in the continuous experiment showed that desired cocrystals were obtained without undesired crystals. This experimental result was evaluated by using multi-component phase diagrams from the view point of the operation point's movement. From the evaluation, it was found that there is a certain operation condition which the operation point is fixed with time in the specific domain without the deposition risk of undesired single component crystals. It means the possibility of continuous production of cocrystals without deposition risk of undesired crystals was confirmed by using multi-component phase diagrams.

  15. 40 Years of the Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: Implications for 21st Century Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay was developed and introduced by Bruce Ames and colleagues in 1971. Since then, it has become the standard assay for hazard identification of mutagens worldwide. It is a first-tier test for mutagenic activity in the pharmaceutical and chemi...

  16. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of bioflavonoids and structural analogues in the Ames/Salmonella test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohn GR; Van der Stel JJ; Stavenuiter JFC; Hamzink MRJ; Kreijl CF; LEO; LBO

    1996-01-01

    The mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of bioflavonoids were determined in the bacterial mutagenicity test of Ames, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The decreasing order of mutagenic activity found in both strains was quercetin>myricetin-kaempferol>morin hydrate. The

  17. Mutagenicity of heated sugar-casein systems : effect of the Maillard :reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.; Alink, G.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of mutagens after the heating of sugar-casein model systems at 120 C was examined by the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. Several sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, tagatose, lactose, and lactulose) were compared in their mutagenicities. Mutagenicity could be

  18. The application of game theory and cognitive economy to analyze the problem of undesired location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, S.

    2008-01-01

    The analysts of the processes of public bodies decision - taking have long been discussing on the establishment of proper strategies to manage environmental conflicts - above all the so-called problems of undesired location of public works and facilities - efficiently (i.e. on a short-period basis so as to grant decision and agreement stability) and fairly (the parties' satisfaction is itself a further guarantee of decision and agreement stability). Each strategy, anyway, is still in progress, like a universe to create and explore. Therefore, in this paper, we will focus on the analysis of the problem and provide as well some theoretical proposals to arrange a new interpreting model of public bodies decision-taking processes based on the achievements of two new subject-matters: evolutionary game theory and cognitive economy. Both sciences share their investigation field with law and economic science. [it

  19. Method of eliminating undesirable gaseous products resulting in underground uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, J.; Dedic, K.; Johann, J.; Haas, F.; Sokola, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method described is characteristic of the fact that gases being formed or dissolved are oxidized using a combined oxidation-reduction system consisting of airborne oxygen, oxygen carriers and a strong irreversible oxidant. The oxygen carrier system consists of a mixture of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations or of Cu + and Cu 2+ cations introduced in solutions in form of iron salts at a concentration of 0.0001 to 0.003 M, or copper salts maximally of 0.0003 M. The irreversible oxidant shows a standard redox potential of at least +1.0 V. In addition to undesirable product elimination, the method allows increasing the leaching process yield. (J.B.)

  20. BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE COMMON. HOW GROUPS REACT TO SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komendant-Brodowska Agata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm, but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph. The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.

  1. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  2. Qualitative screening of undesirable compounds from feeds to fish by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Ibáñez, María; Serrano, Roque; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Hernández, Félix

    2013-03-06

    This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a rapid screening method for the detection and identification of undesirable organic compounds in aquaculture products. A generic sample treatment was applied without any purification or preconcentration step. After extraction of the samples with acetonitrile/water 80:20 (0.1% formic acid), the extracts were centrifuged and directly injected in the LC-HRMS system, consisting of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). A qualitative validation was carried out for over 70 representative compounds, including antibiotics, pesticides, and mycotoxins, in fish feed and fish fillets spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg. At the highest level, the great majority of compounds were detected (using the most abundant ion, typically the protonated molecule) and unequivocally identified (on the basis of the presence of two accurate-mass measured ions). At the 20 μg/kg level, many contaminants could already be detected, although identification using two ions was not fully reached for some of them, mainly in fish feed due to the complexity of this matrix. Subsequent application of this screening methodology to aquaculture samples made it possible to find several compounds from the target list, such as the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, the insecticide pirimiphos-methyl, and the mycotoxins fumonisin B2 and zearalenone. A retrospective analysis of accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition data provided by QTOF MS was also made, without either reprocessing or injecting the samples. This allowed the detection and tentative identification of other organic undesirables different from those included in the validated list.

  3. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  4. Assessment of mutagenic, antimutagenic and genotoxicity effects of Mimosa tenuiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir, Fabaceae, were investigated by using both micronucleus test and bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 respectively. In respect of Ames test results show that the extract does not induce mutations in any strains of Salmonella typhimurium tested since the mutagenicity index is less than 2. In the antimutagenic effect was observed that the extract at the concentrations tested significantly decreased the mutagenicity index of all strains tested which characterized the extract as antimutagenic in these conditions. In the micronucleus test in vivo, we observed that the concentrations used did not induce an increase in the frequency of micronucleus in normochromatic erythrocytes of mice. Therefore, we concluded that the extract of M. tenuiflora is not mutagenic in the absence of exogenous metabolizing system and does not induce an increase in the frequency of the micronucleus characterized as an agent not mutagenic in these conditions. Further studies of toxicity need to be made to the use of this plant in the treatment of diseases to be stimulated.

  5. Assessment of mutagenic, antimutagenic and genotoxicity effects of Mimosa tenuiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir, Fabaceae, were investigated by using both micronucleus test and bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 respectively. In respect of Ames test results show that the extract does not induce mutations in any strains of Salmonella typhimurium tested since the mutagenicity index is less than 2. In the antimutagenic effect was observed that the extract at the concentrations tested significantly decreased the mutagenicity index of all strains tested which characterized the extract as antimutagenic in these conditions. In the micronucleus test in vivo, we observed that the concentrations used did not induce an increase in the frequency of micronucleus in normochromatic erythrocytes of mice. Therefore, we concluded that the extract of M. tenuiflora is not mutagenic in the absence of exogenous metabolizing system and does not induce an increase in the frequency of the micronucleus characterized as an agent not mutagenic in these conditions. Further studies of toxicity need to be made to the use of this plant in the treatment of diseases to be stimulated.

  6. Effectiveness and efficiency of chemical mutagens in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... A study was undertaken in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO 6 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical mutagens; ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS treatments were found highly effective than the other chemicals.

  7. The molecular properties of nitrobenzanthrone isomers and their mutagenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Bojana D; Stanković, Branislav; Ðorđević, Dragana S

    2014-06-01

    The mutagenic activity of five mono-substituted nitrobenzanthrones (NBA) has been determined in the Ames assay (Takamura-Enya et al., 2006). In the present study, a theoretical investigation of the electronic properties of all mono-substituted NBA isomers and their relation to mutagenic activity are presented. Equilibrium geometries, vertical ionization potentials (VIP), vertical electron affinities (VEA), relative energies, dipole moments and electronic dipole polarizabilities, and the IR and Raman spectra of NBA isomers calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods are presented. The position of the nitro group affects the spectral features of the IR and Raman spectra of the NBA isomers. The results show that a good linear relationship exists between the summation of Raman activities (∑ARaman) over all the 3N-6 vibrational modes and the mutagenic activity of the NBA isomers in Salmonella typhimurium strains. The spectroscopic results suggest that the unknown mutagenic activities of 4-NBA, 5-NBA, 6-NBA, 8-NBA and 10-NBA are predicted to follow the order 4-NBA>10-NBA>5-NBA>8-NBA>6-NBA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    studies in children are a promising field, since because of evident differences in the uptake, metabolism, distribution and excretion of mutagens this population seems to be more susceptible than adults. Further, the effect of major confounders such as cigarettes smoking, occupation, life...

  9. Absence of Mutagenicity in Three Nigerian Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    of the medicinal plant trade in the region [2]. One of the basic criteria set by World Health. Organization (WHO) for the use of herbs as medicines is that they should be shown to be non-toxic [3,4]. Bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) was used in this work to evaluate the mutagenic potential of the methanolic extracts ...

  10. (Anti)mutagenic and immunomodulatory properties of quercetin glycosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, Kateřina; Šíma, Petr; Rybková, Z.; Křižan, Jiří; Malachová, K.; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 5 (2016), s. 1492-1499 ISSN 0022-5142 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0767; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14096 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : quercetin glycosides * (anti)mutagenicity * mice Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2016

  11. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of solid waste leachates: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... There is need for a shift from waste disposal to sustainable waste management. Awareness on possible health ... Key words: Solid waste leachate, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, environmental pollution. INTRODUCTION. Solid wastes .... landfills and incineration residues from Japan include persistent organic ...

  12. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  13. Mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of fruit juices of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of freeze dried fruit juices (FDFJ) of Morinda elliptica Ridl. (Rubiaceae), Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), Phyllantus acidus (L.) Skeels (Phyllantaceae) and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) in Allium cepa L was evaluated. Testing the ...

  14. 28. Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The 28{sup th} Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society took place in Salzburg from September 7{sup th} till September 11{sup th}, 1998. A lot of presentations also dealt with many radiation effects on cells, chromosomal aberrations and genetic effects caused by radioactive irradiation. In vivo and in vitro experiments concerning radiation injuries and carcinomas are analyzed. (Cecil)

  15. 28. Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The 28 th Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society took place in Salzburg from September 7 th till September 11 th , 1998. A lot of presentations also dealt with many radiation effects on cells, chromosomal aberrations and genetic effects caused by radioactive irradiation. In vivo and in vitro experiments concerning radiation injuries and carcinomas are analyzed. (Cecil)

  16. Mutagenicity and chemical characterization of two petroleum distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; MacGregor, J A; King, R W

    1984-08-01

    To investigate if the Salmonella/microsome assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples for their carcinogenic potential, two high boiling (700-1070 degrees F) petroleum distillates with known activity in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay were fully characterized with respect to their hydrocarbon composition and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA) content and assayed for mutagenic activity. Mutagenicity assays were also carried out on the aromatic hydrocarbon aggregates separated from these oils by adsorption chromatography. The composition of the distillates differed substantially, and reflected the fact that they were derived from crude oils that were extremely divergent in hydrocarbon character. Both the distillate and aromatic samples consistently induced a very slight increase in revertant TA98 and TA100 colonies; however, an increase of 2-4-fold over background was observed when the S-9 concentration was increased 5-10 times that of the standard assay. The maximal response was less than that expected from the samples' known PNA content and observed potency in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. In the Salmonella/microsome assay, all samples inhibited the mutagenic activity of added benzo[a]pyrene. Discordance between the magnitude of the samples' mutagenic activity and their known PNA content may be related to direct or indirect inhibition of sample PNAs by other components of the complex petroleum fractions. Observed inhibitory effects support the use of elevated S-9 concentration in the in vitro assays assessing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials.

  17. Mutagenic potentials of crataegus and laxaricin in human blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay was introduced as a microelectrophoretic method for direct visualization of DNA damage in individual cells. Green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information. Due to the increased use and availability of herbal ...

  18. MUTAGEN: Multi-user tool for annotating GENomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brugger, K.; Redder, P.; Skovgaard, Marie

    2003-01-01

    MUTAGEN is a free prokaryotic annotation system. It offers the advantages of genome comparison, graphical sequence browsers, search facilities and open-source for user-specific adjustments. The web-interface allows several users to access the system from standard desktop computers. The Sulfolobus...

  19. Mutagenic effects of alkylating agents on prophage lambda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, S.; Kalinin, V.L.; Kuznetsova, L.V.

    1984-06-01

    An evaluation was made of the relative contribution of repair and reparative mechanisms to the mutagenic potency of several alkylating agents on thermoinducible prophage lambdacI857 ind/sup -/ in several stains of E. coli. Following treatment of lysogenic E. coli with the mutagens and heat induction, 0.02 N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induced c mutations with a high frequency (ca. 10%) in both wild type E. coli and cells with repair mutations (recA13, lexA102, uvrA6, umuC36, xthA9, recF143, polA1, uvrD3, uvrD502). It appears that NUM-induced mutations are stabilized as replicative errors due to mismatched, altered bases. Delay in induction following exposure to NMU improves prophage survival and diminishes c mutant formation, regardless of the E. coli genotype. Evidently, carbamoylation is not involved in NMU mutagenicity since 0.02 M KNCO is nonmutagenic and is virtually without effect on prophage viability. Replicative mechanisms are also involved in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (15%) and ethyl methanesulfonate (2%) induced mutations, since the maximum yield of mutants was independent of recA/sup +/ genotype. However, the mutagenicity of methyl methanesulfonate was abolished by the recA mutation, indicating that the mutagenicity of this agent is repair-dependent. Mitomycin C (0.1%) and acridine mustard (0.3%) induce c mutations regardless of recA/sup +/ and, therefore, appear to do so by intercalation. 26 references, 6 figures.

  20. Assessment of the Mutagenicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary Using Salmonella Typhimurium/Microsome Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Bluhm, Kerstin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Sediments in estuaries are of important environmental concern because they may act as pollution sinks and sources to the overlying water body. These sediments can be accumulated by benthic organisms. This study assessed the mutagenic potential of sediment extracts from the Yangtze River estuary by using the Ames fluctuation assay with the Salmonella typhimurium his (−) strain TA98 (frameshift mutagen indicator) and TA100 (baseshift mutagen indicator). Most of the sediment samples were mutagenic to the strain TA98, regardless of the presence or absence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9 induction by β-naphthoflavone/phenobarbital). However, none of the samples were mutagenic to the strain TA100. Thus, the mutagenicity pattern was mainly frameshift mutation, and the responsible toxicants were both direct (without S9 mix) and indirect (with S9 mix) mutagens. The mutagenicity of the sediment extracts increased when S9 was added. Chemical analysis showed a poor correlation between the content of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the detected mutagenicity in each sample. The concept of effect-directed analysis was used to analyze possible compounds responsible for the detected mutagenic effects. With regard to the mutagenicity of sediment fractions, non-polar compounds as well as weakly and moderately polar compounds played a main role. Further investigations should be conducted to identify the responsible components. PMID:26606056

  1. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    Full Text Available Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1, based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of ami

  2. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulong; Han, Yao; Ma, Jing; Wang, Huiping; Sang, Xianchun; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1), based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of amiRNAs in gene

  3. Mutagenic activity of halogenated propanes and propenes: effect of bromine and chlorine positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låg, M; Omichinski, J G; Dybing, E; Nelson, S D; Søderlund, E J

    1994-10-01

    A series of halogenated propanes and propenes were studied for mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in the absence or presence of NADPH plus liver microsomes from phenobarbital-induced rats as an exogenous metabolism system. The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the halogenated propane 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) has previously been studied in our laboratories. These studies showed that metabolic activation of DBCP was required to exert its detrimental effects. All of the trihalogenated propane analogues were mutagenic when the microsomal activation system was included. The highest mutagenic activity was obtained with 1,2,3-tribromopropane, with approximately 50-fold higher activity than the least mutagenic trihalogenated propane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The order of mutagenicity was as follows: 1,2,3-tribromopropane > or = 1,2-dibromo- 3-chloropropane > 1,3-dibromo-2-chloropropane > or = 1,3-dichloro-2-bromopropane > 1-bromo-2,3-dichloropropane > 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Compared to DBCP, the dihalogenated propanes were substantially less mutagenic. Only 1,2-dibromopropane was mutagenic and its mutagenic potential was approximately 1/30 of that of DBCP. In contrast to DBCP, 1,2-dibromopropane showed similar mutagenic activity with and without the addition of an activation system. The halogenated propenes 2,3-dibromopropene and 2-bromo-3-chloropropene were mutagenic to the bacteria both in the absence and presence of the activation system, whereas 2,3-dichloropropene did not show any mutagenic effect. The large differences in mutagenic potential between the various halogenated propanes and propenes are proposed to be due to the formation of different possible proximate and ultimate mutagenic metabolites resulting from the microsomal metabolism of the various halogenated propanes and propenes, and to differences in the rate of formation of the metabolites. Pathways are proposed for the formation of genotoxic metabolites of di- and trihalogenated

  4. Field tests of an acephate baiting system designed for eradicating undesirable honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, R G; Williams, J L; Sugden, E A; Rivera, R

    1992-08-01

    Field evaluations were made of a baiting system designed for use by regulatory agencies in suppressing populations of undesirable feral honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (e.g., bees posing hazards [especially Africanized bees] and colonies infested with parasitic mites). Bees from feral or simulated feral (hived) colonies were lured with honey and Nasonov pheromone components to feeders dispensing sucrose-honey syrup. After 1-3 wk of passive training to feeders, colonies were treated during active foraging by replacing untreated syrup with syrup containing 500 ppm (mg/liter) acephate (Orthene 75 S). In four trials using hived colonies on Grant Terre Island, LA., 21 of 29 colonies foraged actively enough at baits to be treated, and 20 of the 22 treated were destroyed. In the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (two trials at each of two trials), treatments killed 11 of 16 colonies (6 of 10 hived; 50 of 6 feral). Overall results showed that all 11 colonies that collected greater than 25 mg acephate died, whereas 3 of 10 colonies receiving less than 25 mg survived. Delivering adequate doses required a minimum of approximately 100 bees per target colony simultaneously collecting treated syrup. The system destroyed target colonies located up to nearly 700 m away from baits. Major factors limiting efficacy were conditions inhibiting foraging at baits (e.g., competing natural nectar sources and temperatures and winds that restricted bee flight).

  5. The presence of undesirable mould species on the surface of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from manufacture to the industrial way of meat production and processing, as well as contemporary concept of food quality and safety, have led to the application of starter cultures. Their application leads towards the streamlining of the production process in the desired direction, quality improvement and its harmonization, and thereby to its standardization. Application of moulds in the meat industry is based on positive effects of their proteolytic and lipolytic egzoenzymes which, as a consequence, leads to the creation of characteristic sensory properties ('flavor' of fermented products. Penicillium nalgiovense is a typical representative of moulds used in the production of fermented sausages-salamis from our region. Samples of 'zimska salama' (dry sausage, produced with Penicillium nalgiovense, were evaluated as hygienically unacceptable. Their sensory properties changed due to contamination of this mould during the ripening process. Micological analysis discovered the presence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, which is a frequent mould contaminant in the meat industry. At the same time, thin layer chromatography revealed no possibility of metabolic activity of this mould in the creation of mycotoxins. However, the presence of this mould on the surface of 'zimska salama' is considered as undesirable due to formation of 'off flavor' in products. Such product is considered as hygienically unacceptable and cannot be used for the human consumption.

  6. Tracking Progress in Improving Diagnosis: A Framework for Defining Undesirable Diagnostic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Andrew P J; Graber, Mark L; Singh, Hardeep

    2018-01-29

    Diagnostic error is a prevalent, harmful, and costly phenomenon. Multiple national health care and governmental organizations have recently identified the need to improve diagnostic safety as a high priority. A major barrier, however, is the lack of standardized, reliable methods for measuring diagnostic safety. Given the absence of reliable and valid measures for diagnostic errors, we need methods to help establish some type of baseline diagnostic performance across health systems, as well as to enable researchers and health systems to determine the impact of interventions for improving the diagnostic process. Multiple approaches have been suggested but none widely adopted. We propose a new framework for identifying "undesirable diagnostic events" (UDEs) that health systems, professional organizations, and researchers could further define and develop to enable standardized measurement and reporting related to diagnostic safety. We propose an outline for UDEs that identifies both conditions prone to diagnostic error and the contexts of care in which these errors are likely to occur. Refinement and adoption of this framework across health systems can facilitate standardized measurement and reporting of diagnostic safety.

  7. On the undesired frequency chirping in photonic time-stretch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxiao; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2017-12-01

    The technique of photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in the past decade due to its potential in the acquisition of ultra-high speed signals. The frequency-related RF power fading in the PTS systems with double sideband (DSB) modulation has been well-known, which limits the maximum modulation frequency. Some solutions have been proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, we report another effect, i.e., undesired frequency chirping, which also relates to the performance degradation of PTS systems with DSB modulation, for the first time to our knowledge. Distinct from the nonlinearities caused by nonlinear modulation and square-law photodetection, which is common in radio frequency analog optical links, this frequency chirping originates from the addition of two beating signals with a relative delay after photodetection. A theoretical model for exactly describing the frequency chirping is presented, and is then verified by simulations. Discussion on the method to avoid the frequency chirping is also presented.

  8. Study on Operator Actions during the Occurrences of Undesirable Events in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, P.P.; Nurul Husna Zainal Abidin; Lanyau, T.A.; Zaredah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent Fukushima accident, the potential risks at one and only nuclear research reactor in the country, which is the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP), has increasingly gain concerns and an attempt on the development of Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for this reactor has been commenced. The preliminary scope of the PSA is to analyse the risk of core degradation during normal daily operation due to the random component failure and human error. SPAR-H and THERP method is used for quantifying human error probability (HEP). However, the scopes of this study only cover the qualitative parts that use interview/questionnaire method. The objectives of the questionnaire are to identify the main action for RTP operators when any undesired incident occurs during full power operation that might be caused by random component failures. From the questionnaires that have been conducted, the respondents consisted of 4 licensed operators and 9 trainee operators. All licensed operators have experience of operating reactor for more than 15 years while the trainee operator have been operate the reactor with experience of less than 10 years. Generally, in the event of an abnormal condition involving the reactor, an operator whether a licensed operator or the trainee does not have to ask permission in advance from the top individuals to carry out scram. This is to prevent the situation becoming increasingly severe if the reactor is still operating. With complete training and knowledge derived from the management, an operator can act efficiently in any emergency case. (author)

  9. When carbon nanotubes encounter the immune system: desirable and undesirable effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Hélène

    2013-12-01

    The role of our immune system is to bring efficient protection against invasion by foreign elements, not only pathogens but also any material it may be in contact with. Nanoparticles may enter the body and encounter the immune system either intentionally (e.g. administration for biomedical application) or not (e.g. respiratory occupational exposure). Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to get a thorough knowledge of the way they interact with immune cells and all related consequences. Among nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of special interest because of their tremendous field of applications. Consequently, their increasing production, processing and eventual incorporation into new types of composites and/or into biological systems have raised fundamental issues regarding their potential impact on health. This review aims at giving an overview of the known desirable and undesirable effects of CNTs on the immune system, i.e. beneficial modulation of immune cells by CNTs engineered for biomedical applications versus toxicity, inflammation and unwanted immune reactions triggered by CNTs themselves. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Fault Attributions and Other Factors in Adults' Attitudes Toward Hypothetical Children With an Undesirable Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadian, Taylor W; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Jones, Tucker L; Barnett, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 184 adults read descriptions of six hypothetical children with various undesirable characteristics (i.e., being extremely overweight, extremely aggressive, extremely shy, a poor student, a poor athlete, displaying symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Following each description, the participants were asked to rate how much they disagree or agree that the child, the child's parents, and the child's biological condition (i.e., "something wrong inside the child's body or brain") are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the undesirable characteristic. In addition, the participants were asked to rate their attitude toward each child using a 100-point "feeling thermometer." Analyses of the participants' various fault attribution ratings revealed that they tended to agree more strongly that a child's parents and his/her biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic than is the child him/herself. Despite the participants' reluctance to blame a hypothetical child for his/her undesirable characteristic, regression analyses revealed that, in general, the more they blamed the child for the onset of his/her undesirable characteristic, the more negative their attitude was toward the child. However, the participants' ratings of the extent to which the child's parents or biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic were not found to be associated with their attitude toward any of the children. Similarities and differences between the present findings and those reported in prior studies involving younger individuals are addressed.

  11. Cloning of Salmonella typhimurium DNA encoding mutagenic DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.M.; Sedgwick, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, a umu-like function of S. typhimurium has been found; the phenotype of this function is weaker than that of its E. coli counterpart, which is consistent with the weak mutagenic response of S. typhimurium to UV compared with the response in E. coli

  12. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilan, R.A.; Rosichan, J.L.; Arenaz, P.; Hodgdon, A.L.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1980-01-01

    To utilize and exploit pollen for in situ mutagen monitoring, screening and toxicology, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. To be useful for the development of mutagen detection systems proteins should be: (1) activity stainable or immunologically identifiable in the pollen, (2) the products of one to three loci; and (3) gametophytic and nuclear in origin. Several proteins, including alcohol dehydrogenase in maize, which meet these criteria are discussed. The waxy locus in barley and maize which controls starch deposition for pollen screening and mutant detection. Thirty waxy mutant lines, induced by sodium azide and gamma-rays are characterized for spontaneous and induced reversion frequencies, allelism, karyotype, amylose content, and UDPglucose glucosyltransferase (waxy gene product) activity. Twelve mutant alleles are being mapped by recombinant frequencies

  13. Mutagenic effect of tritated water on spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.; Munakata, N.

    1978-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of tritiated water was observed with spores of Bacillus subtilis polA strain suspended in 50 mCi/ml of tritiated water for various intervals. Dose rate given by tritium beta particles to spore core was estimated to be 400 rad/hr from some assumptions and E. coli data computed by Bockrath et al. and Sands et al. The initial mutation rate was 4.2 x 10 -9 mutants/rad, as compared with 2.4 x 10 -9 mutants/rad for 60 Co γ rays and 3.3 x 10 -9 mutants/rad for 30-kVp x rays. The mutagenic effect of tritiated water on spores is most likely due to beta particle ionizing radiation damage

  14. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 #betta#-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains

  15. Counteracting quasispecies adaptability: extinction of a ribavirin-resistant virus mutant by an alternative mutagenic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Perales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction promoted by mutagen-induced elevation of mutation rates of viruses, may meet with the problem of selection of mutagen-resistant variants, as extensively documented for standard, non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors. Previously, we characterized a mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus that included in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase replacement M296I that decreased the sensitivity of the virus to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Replacement M296I in the viral polymerase impedes the extinction of the mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus by elevated concentrations of ribavirin. In contrast, wild type virus was extinguished by the same ribavirin treatment and, interestingly, no mutants resistant to ribavirin were selected from the wild type populations. Decreases of infectivity and viral load of the ribavirin-resistant M296I mutant were attained with a combination of the mutagen 5-fluorouracil and the non-mutagenic inhibitor guanidine hydrocloride. However, extinction was achieved with a sequential treatment, first with ribavirin, and then with a minimal dose of 5-fluorouracil in combination with guanidine hydrochloride. Both, wild type and ribavirin-resistant mutant M296I exhibited equal sensitivity to this combination, indicating that replacement M296I in the polymerase did not confer a significant cross-resistance to 5-fluorouracil. We discuss these results in relation to antiviral designs based on lethal mutagenesis. CONCLUSIONS: (i When dominant in the population, a mutation that confers partial resistance to a mutagenic agent can jeopardize virus extinction by elevated doses of the same mutagen. (ii A wild type virus, subjected to identical high mutagenic treatment, need not select a mutagen-resistant variant, and the population can be extinguished. (iii Extinction of the mutagen-resistant variant can be achieved by a sequential treatment of a

  16. Size exclusion chromatography of lignin: The mechanistic aspects and elimination of undesired secondary interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, Anastasia A; Yeudakimenka, Natallia A; Lilak, Samuel L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Ugrinov, Angel; Sibi, Mukund P; Kubátová, Alena

    2018-01-26

    Characterization of lignin and its degradation products, more specifically determination of their molecular weight (MW) distribution, is essential for assessment and applications of these potentially renewable phenolics. Several representative gel filtration and gel permeation systems were evaluated in this work focusing on understanding of undesired secondary non-SEC interactions while utilizing four sets of commercially available polymeric standards as well as low-MW lignin model compounds including diarene standards synthesized in-house. The gel permeation column with a nonpolar highly cross-linked porous polystyrene/divinylbenzene-based stationary phase provided the most effective separation by MW for both low and high MW model compounds. Notably, the column with a higher pore and lower particle size provided a better resolution towards polymeric standards, even though the particle size effect was downplayed in the earlier SEC studies of lignin. For two other evaluated gel filtration and gel permeation columns, the separation was strongly affected by functionalities of the analytes and correlated with the compounds' pK a rather than MW. We showed that the separation on the stationary phases featuring polar hydroxyl groups led to specific column-analyte secondary interactions, perhaps based on their hydrogen bonding with lignin. Further, the SEC column evaluation yielded similar results with two sets of chemically different standards. This setup may be used as a general approach to selecting an applicable column for lignin SEC analysis. We confirmed the obtained results with a different independent method implementing a novel approach for lignin number-average MW (M n ) calculation based on laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF-MS) data. The determined M n corroborated the SEC results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced the formation of other by-products. With alumina ethene showed a lower tendency to form HCN as compared to propene and water addition further suppressed by-product formation. This contrasts the findings with Cu/ZSM-5, where HCN production was not significantly altered by the presence of water. On this catalyst HNCO was found additionally for dry feeds, whereas ammonia appeared in the presence of water in the same temperature range. Under special feed gas compositions further by-products, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons, were found over Cu/ZSM-5, whereas none of these compounds were observed over {gamma}-alumina

  18. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring....... The limited number of published papers indicates that the conduct of properly designed studies on the effect of environmental pollutants in children may be difficult. This review confirmed the usefulness of MN assay in biomonitoring studies conducted in children, revealing that in many circumstances...

  19. Dietary Mutagen Exposure and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Donghui; Sue Day, Rena; Bondy, Melissa L.; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T.; Evans, Douglas B.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Hassan, Manal M.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. Atotal of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (±5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases tha...

  20. Differences in mutagenic and recombinational DNA repair in enterobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.; Goodwin, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of recombinational DNA repair and inducible mutagenic DNA repair has been examined in Escherichia coli and 11 related species of enterobacteria. Recombinational repair was found to be a common feature of the DNA repair repertoire of at least 6 genera of enterobacteria. This conclusion is based on observations of (i) damage-induced synthesis of RecA-like proteins, (ii) nucleotide hybridization between E. coli recA sequences and some chromosomal DNAs, and (iii) recA-negative complementation by plasmids showing SOS-inducible expression of truncated E. coli recA genes. The mechanism of DNA damage-induced gene expression is therefore sufficiently conserved to allow non-E. coli regulatory elements to govern expression of these cloned truncated E. coli recA genes. In contrast, the process of mutagenic repair, which uses umuC+ umuD+ gene products in E. coli, appeared less widespread. Little ultraviolet light-induced mutagenesis to rifampicin resistance was detected outside the genus Escherichia, and even within the genus induced mutagenesis was detected in only 3 out of 6 species. Nucleotide hybridization showed that sequences like the E. coli umuCD+ gene are not found in these poorly mutable organisms. Evolutionary questions raised by the sporadic incidence of inducible mutagenic repair are discussed

  1. Mutagenicity of some alkyl nitrites used as recreational drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkel, V.C.; Cameron, T.P. (National Institute of Health, Bethesda (USA)); Rogers-Back, A.M.; Lawlor, T.E.; Harbell, J.W. (Microbiological Associates Inc., Rockville, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    When the AIDS epidemic was in its earliest stages, and prior to identification of HIV as the etiological factor, the use of volatile nitrites by the male homosexual community to enhance sexual activities appeared to have a significant role in this disease. Preliminary observations indicated that that portion of the male homosexual community which developed Kaposi's sarcoma were also heavy nitrite users. These nitrites had been demonstrated to be mutagenic in bacteria and thus it was postulated that they could be responsible for the appearance of the sarcoma. To evaluate further the genotoxic activity of these chemicals, six nitrites, including those most commonly used by homosexuals for sexual gratification, were selected for testing in the mouse lymphoma TK {plus minus} and Salmonell typhimurium mutagenicity assays. One chemical, n-amyl nitrite, was negative in the mouse lymphoma assay, while the other five chemicals, n-butyl, isobutyl, iso-amyl, sec-butyl, and n-propyl nitrite, were positive. All six compounds were positive in the Salmonella assay. The mutagenic and known toxic effects of these chemicals remain a concern because a large population of teenagers and young adults continue to abuse these substances.

  2. DNA replication after mutagenic treatment in Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Kus, Arita; Swoboda, Monika; Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    The temporal and spatial properties of DNA replication in plants related to DNA damage and mutagenesis is poorly understood. Experiments were carried out to explore the relationships between DNA replication, chromatin structure and DNA damage in nuclei from barley root tips. We quantitavely analysed the topological organisation of replication foci using pulse EdU labelling during the S phase and its relationship with the DNA damage induced by mutagenic treatment with maleic hydrazide (MH), nitroso-N-methyl-urea (MNU) and gamma ray. Treatment with mutagens did not change the characteristic S-phase patterns in the nuclei; however, the frequencies of the S-phase-labelled cells after treatment differed from those observed in the control cells. The analyses of DNA replication in barley nuclei were extended to the micronuclei induced by mutagens. Replication in the chromatin of the micronuclei was rare. The results of simultanous TUNEL reaction to identify cells with DNA strand breaks and the labelling of the S-phase cells with EdU revealed the possibility of DNA replication occurring in damaged nuclei. For the first time, the intensity of EdU fluorescence to study the rate of DNA replication was analysed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  4. DNA repair in mutagen-injured higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleminsky, J.; Gichner, T.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summarized proving the occurrence of photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in cells of Nicotiana tabucum, Gingko and carrot, the excision of dimers in cells of Nicotiana tabacum, Gingko and carrot, the excision of dimers in protoplasts of carrot and in embryos of Lathyrus sativus, and the repair of DNA single-strand breaks induced in carrot protoplasts and barley embryonic cells by ionizing radiation. In irradiated barley embryos the unscheduled DNA synthesis and higher accessibility of induced primers to DNA polymerase I of E. coli were observed preferentially in G 1 cells with diffused chromatin. These reactions were inhibited by caffeine and EDTA. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was also observed in synchronized irradiated root cuttings of Vicia faba and in barley embryos treated with 4-nitroquinoline oxide, the latter being inhibited by caffeine and hydroxyurea. Repair synthesis was also established in barley embryos treated with mutagenic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea under conditions that postponed the onset of germination after the treatment. The same conditions enhanced the repair of DNA single-strand breaks induced by this mutagen and several other monofunctional alkylating compounds. From tissues of barley and of Phaseolus multiflorus, endonucleases for apurinic sites were isolated and characterized. Some of them are located in chromatin, others in chloroplasts. The relation between DNA repair and genetic effects of mutagens in higher plants is also discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Preconception exposures to potential germ-cell mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation and other agents can cause germ-cell mutations in animal systems. No human germ-cell mutagen has been identified, but this does not mean that human germ-cells are not vulnerable to mutagenesis. There has been particular concern about the possible health effects on offspring following parental preconception exposure to ionizing radiation - both occupational and therapeutic. A strong association with preconception radiation exposure in the fathers of the cases was found in a case-control study of young people with leukaemia living near the Sellafield nuclear plant in the UK. Subsequent studies of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation have failed to confirm these findings. No statistically significant effects have been reported from studies of possible indicators of germ-cell mutagenesis in the A-bomb survivors. Studies of offspring of cancer survivors who receive radiotherapy and mutagenic chemotherapy have found no evidence of germ-cell mutagenesis. Failure to detect human germ-cell mutagenic agents may be a consequence of inadequate study sizes or insufficiently sensitive laboratory techniques. (authors)

  6. The Emperor’s New Clothing: National Responses to “Undesirable and Unreturnable” Aliens under Asylum and Immigration Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantor, David James; van Wijk, J.; Singer, Sarah; Bolhuis, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    The “scandal” of foreign criminals whom our governments cannot send back to their own countries has become something of a tabloid obsession. Yet, while suspected or convicted of serious crimes or considered to pose a danger to society, such “undesirable and unreturnable” aliens equally often

  7. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in tryptophan-requiring auxotrophs of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rong; Qian Hongwei; Yao Fenying; Gu Shuzhu; Xu Jiaxin; Bi Hekan; Liu Yuying

    1989-01-01

    Mutation and killing caused by X-ray radiation and 60 Co γ-ray radiation were studied in three different tryptophan-requiring auxotrophs (WP2, Wp2A, Cm 891) of Escherichia coli. These testers are sensitive to base pair substitution mutagens. Cm891 carries a R-factor and is more sensitive than WP2 and WP2A to radiation-induced mutation and lethality. The results of the study show that (1) ionizing radiation was mutagenic to E. coli, (2) the order of mutagenic sensitivity among three strains to ionizing radiation was Cm891 > WP2A > WP2, (3) the dose rate of γ-ray influences mutagenicity and lethalty of E. coli strain, (4) the toxicity and mutagenicity of γ-ray were similar to X-ray when Cm891 was tested, however, γ-ray was more toxic and mutagenic than X-ray to WP2A ang WP2

  8. Role of ozone and granular activated carbon in the removal of mutagenic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbigot, M M; Hascoet, M C; Levi, Y; Erb, F; Pommery, N

    1986-01-01

    The identification of certain organic compounds in drinking water has led water treatment specialists to be increasingly concerned about the eventual risks of such pollutants to the health of consumers. Our experiments focused on the role of ozone and granular activated carbon in removing mutagenic compounds and precursors that become toxic after chlorination. We found that if a sufficient dose of ozone is applied, its use does not lead to the creation of mutagenic compounds in drinking water and can even eliminate the initial mutagenicity of the water. The formation of new mutagenic compounds seems to be induced by ozonation that is too weak, although these mutagens can be removed by GAC filtration. Ozone used with activated carbon can be one of the best means for eliminating the compounds contributing to the mutagenicity of water. A combined treatment of ozone and activated carbon also decreases the chlorine consumption of the treated water and consequently reduces the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. PMID:3816720

  9. Mutagenicity of urine from nurses handling cytostatic drugs, influence of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, R P; Leenaars, A O; Theuws, J L; Henderson, P T

    1982-01-01

    Mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 of urine from smoking nurses, who were occupationally involved in the treatment of patients with cytostatic drugs, was significantly increased in comparison with that of smoking control subjects. Mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was not increased in exposed non-smokers when compared to control non-smokers. In smoking subjects urinary mutagenicity appeared increased towards Salmonella typhimurium TA 1538 in the presence of S-9 mix. Rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254 showed higher mutagenicity in their urine than untreated rats after cyclophosphamide administration. Therefore, the synergistic effect of smoking might be due in part to induction of enzymes involved in the mutagenic activation of cytostatic drugs. Further, the animal experiments showed that cyclophosphamide (the most frequently used mutagenic cytostatic drug) can be absorbed after oral or percutaneous administration. Therefore, it is not excluded that differences in working hygiene between smokers and non-smokers also play a role.

  10. Combined effects of a chemical mutagen and radiation sterilized diet in mutagenicity and reproduction studies in the same mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The possible intensification of the mutagenic effect of cyclophosphamide (Endoxan) by the feeding of a radiation-sterilized diet (dose, 4.5 Mrad) was studied in 2000 NMRI/Han mice. In a dominant lethal test, males were pretreated with 100 mg Endoxan/kg body weight. The greatest sensitivity towards Endoxan was observed during the late-spermatid stage. No significant differences were detected between the control group (Endoxan plus non-irradiated diet) and the experimental group (Endoxan plus radiation-sterilized diet). In this test, radiation-sterilized feed showed no co-mutagenic effect when combined with Endoxan treatment. In a reproduction study of 7 months duration (continuous mating without lactation periods), the females were treated every 2 wk with 20 mg Endoxan/kg body weight. The decline in litter size with increasing number of litters (i.e. with advancing age of the females) was more pronounced after treatment with the chemical mutagen than in the untreated group. Increases in the frequency of abortions and in premature sterility resulted from Endoxan treatment. During the entire observation period, no effects from the intake of radiation-sterilized food were detected. (author)

  11. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L F [Univ. of California, Berkeley; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-01-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100 g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock cod and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the food that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  12. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling and boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the foods that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  13. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Morris, M.M.; Felton, J.S.; Healy, S.; Stuermer, D.; Berry, P.; Timourian, H.; Hatch, F.T.

    1982-01-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling at 100-475/sup 0/C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham, pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs andd egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperature above 225/sup 0/C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  14. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling of 100-475 degrees C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs and egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperatures above 225 degrees C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  15. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m -3 . The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  17. Evaluation of different treatment processes with respect to mutagenic activity in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, H J; Hrubec, J; van Kreijl, C F; Piet, G J

    1985-12-01

    Treatment processes which are applied in The Netherlands during the preparation of drinking water have been evaluated with regard to introduction and removal of organic mutagens as well as halogenated organics. It appeared that the most efficient processes in reducing mutagenic activity were activated carbon filtration and artificial dune recharge. In general these processes were also the most efficient in removing halogenated organics. Using low doses of chlorine dioxide (less than 1 mg C1O2/l) for safety disinfection of drinking water, no change or substantial less mutagenic activity than by chlorination (1 mg Cl/l) was found. This counts too for the formation of halogenated organics. Transport chlorination of stored river Meuse water was able to introduce or activate mutagenic nitro organics which have not been found previously. Ozone treatment under field conditions showed mostly a tendency to decrease the activity of organic mutagens. It was also shown that dependent on the water quality and treatment conditions a slight increase of mutagenic activity occurred, but this activity would be reduced by increasing the ozone dose. It seems possible to optimize the ozone treatment conditions regarding the level of ozone dose and the contact time to avoid an increase of mutagenic activity. Furthermore it was shown that when a mutagenic raw water source was used a proper combination of treatment processes is able to produce drinking water in which no mutagenic activity could be detected under the test conditions. Finally it is stated that before far-reaching decisions with respect to use mutagenicity data for a selection of water sources or treatment processes will be made, more information on the relation mutagenic activity from drinking water and effects on human health should become available.

  18. Formation of new heterocyclic amine mutagens by heating creatinine, alanine, threonine and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, K; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Jägerstad, M

    1992-08-01

    A mixture of alanine, threonine, creatinine and glucose was heated in diethylene glycol and water (5:1, v/v) for 15 min at 200 degrees C. The mutagens formed were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography using the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic activity to guide the purification. The structures of the purified mutagens were determined using UV absorption, mass and NMR spectrometry. A new mutagenic compound with a mass number of 217 was found and its mass spectrum did not correspond to any known mutagen derived from food. This new compound accounted for 4% of the total mutagenic activity. Other mutagenic compounds were identified as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), and a new mutagen 4,7,8-TriMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) with a mutagenic activity of 73,000 TA98 revertants per microgram. The percentage of the mutagenic activity attributable to MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and 4,7,8-TriMeIQx was 10%, 70% and 3%, respectively. The yield of MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and 4,7,8-TriMeIQx was 10, 36 and 6 nmole/mmole creatinine. The formation of TriMeIQx from natural meat components suggests that this new quinoxaline mutagen may be present in cooked foods.

  19. UNDESIRED REACTIONS AT THE UROGRAPHY IN THE CORRELATION OF THE IODIC AND THE NON-TODIC CONTRAST MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babić

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the undesired reactions at 6053 urographies (IVU in thecorrelation of the iodic and the non-iodic contrast media (ICM.Depending on the allergological status the ICM (iodic or non-iodic is chosenfor the sake of carrying out an urographic examination as well as the necessarypremedication measures.The undesired reactions to the TCM are registered in 4,87% (1:20 TVU,namely in 5,6% (1:17 TVU to the iodic and in 2,39% (1:41 IVU to the non-iodicICM.At the intravenous application of the iodic ICM at the IVU the undesiredreactions are registered for2,4 times more often than at the application of the non-iodicICM.

  20. The photoreactivable component in the mutagenic action of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnik, M.N.; Morozov, I.I.; Derevyanko, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of visible light on the lethal and the mutagenic effects of gamma-radiation on E. coli WP 2 uvrA + and E. coli WP 2 uvrA cells was studied. It was shown that visible light appears to reduce the yield of gamma-induced prototrophs in E. coli WP 2 uvrA cells while the yield of prototrophs in E. coli WP 2 uvrA + stays unchanged. Visible light did not change the survival of gamma-irradiated cells. (author)

  1. Hyper production of alkaline protease by mutagenized bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.; Tanseem, F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to augment the alkaline protease production from Bacillus subtilis by using chemical mutagen (MMS) and UV mutagenesis. A number of mutants were isolated which produce high levels of extra cellular proteases. Analysis of culture supernatants of these mutants had shown that the total amounts of proteolysis activity were increased from 1 to 2 fold over the wild strain. Clones showing promote response were further characterized by analyzing different parameters; like of Temperature, pH substrate concentration and incubation period, to study the activity of protease enzyme. (author)

  2. Mutagenic and carcinogenic structural alerts and their mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plošnik, Alja; Vračko, Marjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2016-09-01

    Knowing the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals is very important for their hazard (and risk) assessment. One of the crucial events that trigger genotoxic and sometimes carcinogenic effects is the forming of adducts between chemical compounds and nucleic acids and histones. This review takes a look at the mechanisms related to specific functional groups (structural alerts or toxicophores) that may trigger genotoxic or epigenetic effects in the cells. We present up-to-date information about defined structural alerts with their mechanisms and the software based on this knowledge (QSAR models and classification schemes).

  3. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schairer, L.A.; Sautkulis, R.C.; Tempel, N.R.

    1982-01-01

    The major emphasis for short-term bioassays has been placed on bacterial and mammalian cell lines. However, for increased perspective on the state-of-the-art of specific in vitro assays it is important to consider the environmental impact on whole organisms by reviewing the contributions made by in vivo assays. This paper will deal exclusively with somatic mutation in the Tradescantia stamen hair: describing the system briefly, demonstrating its relevance to environmental mutagen assessment and discussing its adaptation for in situ ambient atmosphere monitoring

  4. Mutagenic effects of irradiated glucose in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.B.; Rao, K.P.; Nandan, S.D.; Rao, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of irradiated glucose were studied using the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster. Oregon K males of D. melanogaster reared on a medium containing 20 or 40% glucose irradiated with a dose of 0.02, 0.10, 0.20, 2 or 5 Mrad #betta#-rays were scored for the induction of sex-linked recessive lethals. The results showed no significant increase in the frequency of X-lethals in Drosophila at any of the dose levels. (author)

  5. Effect of mutagen combined action on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. I. Lethal effect dependence on the sequence of mutagen application and on cultivation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcek, D; Podstavkova, S; Dubovsky, J [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1978-01-01

    The effect was investigated of single and combined actions of alkylnitrosourea derivatives (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) and UV-radiation on the survival of cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation following mutagen activity. In particular, the single phases were investigated of the total lethal effect, i.e., the death of cells before division and their death after division. The most pronounced changes in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation were noted in cell death before division. In dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens, the effect of the combined action on the survival of cells changed from an additive (alkylnitrosourea + UV-radiation) to a protective effect (UV-radiation + alkylnitrosourea).

  6. Mutagenicity of basic fractions derived from lamb and beef cooked by common household methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, P J; Baker, R S; Truswell, A S; Bonin, A M; Ryan, A J; Paulin, A P

    1990-03-01

    Mutagen production was examined in lamb and beef in relation to certain common household cooking methods. Mutagenicity was assessed, after extraction of the basic fraction of cooked meat samples, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 with added rat-liver S-9 homogenate. Little or no mutagenicity was found in barbecued lamb chops, in microwave-cooked lamb chops, sirloin steak, leg of lamb, or rolled beef loaf, in roasted leg of lamb or rolled beef loaf, in stewed blade steak or in boiled chuck steak. However, the basic fraction from well-done, edible fried or grilled meat contained mutagenic activity equivalent to approximately 30,000 TA1538 revertants/100 g cooked meat. It was found tht the mutagenic activity of grilled lamb chops, sirloin and rump steaks was directly related to the average surface temperatures attained during cooking. Use of butter as a frying medium was particularly associated with higher mutagenicity in meat samples. Fried meats (rump and fillet steaks) generally yielded higher mutagenic activity than did grilled meats (rump steak, lamb chops) at comparable temperatures of the cooking medium. Using similar cooking procedures, lamb did not differ markedly from beef in mutagenic activity.

  7. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of two regioisomeric mercapturic acids and cysteine S-conjugates of trichloroethylene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.N.M.; Boogaard, P.J.; Mulder, G.J.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and metabolism of two regioisomic l-cysteine- and N-acetyl-l-cysteine-S-conjugates of trichloroethylene were studied. The 1,2-dichlorovinyl(1,2-DCV) isomers of both the cysteine conjugate and the mercapturate were much stronger mutagens in the Ames test with Salmonella

  8. Mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from wood combustion in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, B.; Alves, C.A.; Gonçalves, C.; Pio, C.; Gonçalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) extracts of fine particles (PM 2.5 ) collected from combustion of seven wood species and briquettes were tested for mutagenic activities using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (olive), and Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak). Burning experiments were done using woodstove and fireplace, hot start and cold start conditions. A mutagenic response was recorded for all species except golden wattle, maritime pine, and briquettes. The mutagenic extracts were not correlated with high emission factors of carcinogenic PAHs. These extracts were obtained both from two burning appliances and start-up conditions. However, fireplace seemed to favour the occurrence of mutagenic emissions. The negative result recorded for golden wattle was interesting, in an ecological point of view, since after confirmation, this invasive species, can be recommended for domestic use. - Highlights: ► Both woodstove and fireplace, either with a cold or hot start, produce emissions with mutagenic potential. ► The high level of carcinogenic PAHs in combustion emissions was not correlated with mutagenicity. ► The golden wattle, an invasive species, produced no mutagenic emissions. - Wood smoke from fireplace burning of dominant forest species displayed strong mutagenic activity without a significant correlation with carcinogenic PAHs emission factors.

  9. Induction of forward gene mutations in saccharomycetes. Comparison of efficiencies of different mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, I.A.; Gracheva, L.M.; Ivanov, E.L.; Koval'tsova, S.V.; Kozhina, T.N.; Korolev, V.G.; Fedorova, I.V.; Shanshiashvili, T.A.; Yadgarov, Kh.T.

    1981-01-01

    The data on the induction of forward mutations in locus ade 2 of the wild haploid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts by three types of mutagens-chamical mutagens, various radiations and defferent isotopes incorporated in the cell - are generalyzed. The ratio of mutation frequency observed at different doses of mutagen to the survival rate logarithm for the same doses is expressed as rectilinear regression M=m(-1 nS). The application of the same mutation system in the case of all studied mutagens allows to consider the inclination value ''m'' to be the characteristic of mutagen efficiency. We propose to call the ratio of the efficiency of a given mutagen to the efficiency of γ-rays (msub(x)/msub(γ)) - the relative mutagenous effifiency (RME). According to the decrease of this index the studied mutagens have stood in the following succession: ethylene imine (EI), nitrosomethylurea (NMU) 89 Sr, UV rays, 35 S, 91 Y, 33 P, 32 P, acridine-yprite, β-radiation ( 32 P), γ-rays, hard X-rays, 3 H, soft X-rays, neutrons, 125 I [ru

  10. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1988-11-01

    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  11. Use of genetic toxicity data in GHS mutagenicity classification and labeling of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas S; Hollnagel, Heli M

    2017-06-01

    One of the key outcomes of testing the potential genotoxicity or mutagenicity of a substance is the conclusion on whether the substance should be classified as a germ cell mutagen and the significance of this for other endpoints such as carcinogenicity. The basis for this conclusion are the criteria presented in classification and labelling systems such as the Globally Harmonized System for classification and labeling (GHS). This article reviews the classification criteria for germ cell mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and how they are applied to substances with evidence of mutagenicity. The implications and suitability of such a classification for hazard communication, risk assessment, and risk management are discussed. It is proposed that genotoxicity assessments should not focus on specifically identifying germ cell mutagens, particularly given the challenges associated with communicating this information in a meaningful way. Rather the focus should be on deriving data to characterize the mode of action and for use in the risk assessment of mutagens, which could then feed into a more robust, risk based management of mutagenic substances versus the current more hazard based approaches. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:354-360, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of eugenol on the genotoxicity of established mutagens in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Evertz, S.J.C.J.; Bruijntjes-Rozier, G.C.D.M.; Heuvel, P.D. van den; Verhagen, H.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of in vivo treatment with eugenol on established mutagens was studied to determine whether eugenol has antigenotoxic potential. The effects of eugenol in rats was investigated in the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay with established mutagens and the Salmonella typhimurium

  13. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of chemicals in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R J

    1985-12-01

    Isolated cases of careless handling of industrial and domestic waste has lead to a wide variety of dangerous chemicals being inadvertently introduced into drinking water. However, chemicals with established carcinogenic and mutagenic properties that occur with a high frequency and in multiple locations are limited in number. To date, the chief offenders have been chemicals of relatively low carcinogenic potency. Some of the more common chemicals are formed as by-products of disinfection. The latter process is generally regarded as essential to the production of a ''microbiologically safe'' drinking water. Consequently, any reductions in what may be a relatively small carcinogenic risk must be balanced against a potential for a higher frequency of waterborne infectious disease. The results of recent toxicological investigations will be reviewed to place the potential carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards frequently associated with drinking water into perspective. First, evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride is considered. Second, the carcinogenic activity that can be ascribed to various by-products of chlorination is reviewed in some detail. Finally, recent evidence that other chemicals derived from the treatment and distribution of drinking water is highlighted as an area requiring move systematic attention. 72 references.

  14. The mutagenic potential of high flash aromatic naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C A; Edwards, D A; McKee, R H; Swanson, M; Wong, Z A; Schmitt, S; Beatty, P

    1989-06-01

    Catalytic reforming is a refining process that converts naphthenes to aromatics by dehydrogenation to make higher octane gasoline blending components. A portion of this wide boiling range hydrocarbon stream can be separated by distillation and used for other purposes. One such application is a mixture of predominantly 9-carbon aromatic molecules (C9 aromatics, primarily isomers of ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene), which is removed and used as a solvent--high-flash aromatic naphtha. A program was initiated to assess the toxicological properties of high-flash aromatic naphtha since there may be human exposure through inhalation or external body contact. The current study was conducted partly to assess the potential for mutagenic activity and also to assist in an assessment of carcinogenic potential. The specific tests utilized included the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay, the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) forward mutation assay in CHO cells, in vitro chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays in CHO cells, and an in vivo chromosome aberration assay in rat bone marrow.

  15. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  16. Molecular dosimetry of the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeland, A.A. van; Aaron, C.S.; Mohn, G.R.; Hung, C.Y.; Brockman, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Extending previous work with E. coli and mammalian cells in culture, forward-mutation frequencies induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were quantitatively compared in Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under standardized conditions. Concomitantly, the actual dose to DNA was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity bound to DNA after treatment with tritium-labeled EMS. After exposure to EMS (2.5-50 mM), alkylation levels in N. crassa and S. cerevisiae were similar to those previously determined in E. coli and cultured mammalian cells. Consistently, there was a slightly less than proportional increase of the DNA alkylation level with the exposure concentration of the mutagen. Forward mutagenesis induced in yeast and N. crassa showed exponential kinetics with exponents of 1.5 and 2.6, respectively. These results are similar to those previously reported with E. coli, which differed from the results with cultured mammalian cells, where a linear dose-effect relationship between exposure and genetic effect was observed. These differences may reflect differences in the fate of EMS-induced adducts by cellular DNA repair systems, but are not due to initial differences in DNA alkylation levels. The fate and persistence of specific DNA adducts potentially responsible for pre-mutagenic changes are under investigation. (orig.)

  17. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  18. Detection of mutagens in water-distribution systems after disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, Licia; Di Caterino, Filomena; Monarca, Silvano; Zani, Claudia; Feretti, Donatella; Zerbini, Ilaria; Nardi, Giuseppe; Buschini, Annamaria; Poli, Paola; Rossi, Carlo

    2006-09-19

    This research examined the quality of water-before and after distribution-of four drinking-water production plants located in Northern Italy, two of which collected water from local aquifers and two from the River Po. A battery of genotoxicity assays for monitoring drinking-water was performed to assess the quality of the water produced by the treatment plants under study. Three different sampling stations were selected at each plant, one right at the outlet of the treatment plant and two along with the distribution pipelines. Raw river water was also sampled and analysed as a control. The water samples (500 l) were concentrated on silica C18 cartridges and the extracts were tested in in vitro mutagenicity assays (Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA 98 and TA 100; SOS Chromotest with Escherichia coli strain PQ37); gene conversion, point mutation and mitochondrial DNA mutability assays with the diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7 and a toxicity test using the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox). The Microtox test and the mitochondrial DNA mutability assay showed the greatest sensitivity towards toxic or mutagenic substances in the water extracts considered. The results show that this battery of short-term tests is applicable in the routine monitoring of drinking-water quality before and after distribution.

  19. The use of organic solvents in mutagenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondandolo, A; Bonatti, S; Corsi, C; Corti, G; Fiorio, R; Leporini, C; Mazzaccaro, A; Nieri, R; Barale, R; Loprieno, N

    1980-10-01

    13 organic substances (dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, ethanol, n-propyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, dl-sec-amyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, acetone, methyl acetate and formamide) were considered from the standpoint of their use as solvents for water-insoluble chemicals to be tested for mutagenicity. First, the effect of these solvents on cell survival was studied in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in V79 Chinese hamster cells. 8 solvents showing relatively low toxicity on either cell system (dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, acetone, methyl acetate and formamide) were tested for their effect on aminopyrine demethylase. 4 solvents (ethanol, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, methyl acetate and formamide) showed a more or less pronounced adverse effect on the microsomal enzymic activity. The remaining 4 and methanol (whose effect on aminopyrine demethylase was not testable) were assayed for mutagenicity in S. pombe. They all gave negative results both with and without the post-mitochondrial fraction from mouse liver.

  20. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on morphological parameters in garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) were treated with various doses of gamma rays and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate, diethyl sulphate and ethyleneimine. The effect of mutagens was studied in respect of morphological parameters such as sprouting, survival, sprout height, plant height, number and size of leaves, number of cloves and weight of bulb. In case of mutagen treatment the percentage of sprouting and survival as well as sprout height were found to be decreased with an increase in the dose/concentration of the mutagen. The effect of mutagen on leaf size and number was inhibitory. However, the number of cloves and weight of bulb were found to be increased at lower dose concentration of mutagens. (author)

  1. Studies on mutagenic effect on genetic variability in green gram (Vigna radiata (L. ) Wilczek)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ. Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1982-03-01

    With a view to finding out the effect of mutagenic treatments on heritability in green gram, two cultivars, showing extremes of sensitivity to mutagen, were subjected to two levels each of gamma irradiation and EMS separately and conjointly and the M/sub 2/ generation raised. Families of the higher dose in each treatment were advanced to the M/sub 3/ and the genetic parameters of the various growth and yield attributes, besides seed yield, studied. Barring plant height, heritability of all other traits registered an increase under the mutagen effect. No consistency was evident in the superiority of one mutagen over the other, their behaviour varying with the cultivar and the character studied. Consequent to enhancement in heritability, correlations between the characters underwent alterations under the mutagens.

  2. Mutagenic effects of β-rays on rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Shen Mei; Xu Gang

    1994-07-01

    The mutagenic effects of 14 C and some other mutagenic factors were compared, and the relationships between mutagenic effects of 14 C and treated stages, doses and methods were studied with different rice varieties as test materials. The mutation rates of heading date and plant height were observed in M 2 . The results showed that the mutagenic effects of 14 C were better than those of other mutagenic factors tested. It is most effective for inducing early-maturing mutation to treat plants with the doses of 333 x 10 4 Bq/plant at the stage of pollen mother cell formation; but for dwarf mutation , they were treated with 74 x 10 4 Bq/plant at the stage of pistil and stamen formation to pollen mother cell formation. As a best treating method, Na 2 14 CO 3 solution was injected to plant bases

  3. Scanning electron-microscopic and X-ray-microanalytic observation of diesel-emission particles associated with mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, K.; Yoshitsugu, K.; Tokiwa, H.; Fukuoka Environmental Research Center

    1983-01-01

    The particles formed by diesel combustion, which may contain various mutagenic chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), are analyzed in their morphology by scanning electron microscopy; their sulfur content is detected by X-ray microanalysis, and mutagenicity is tested with a Salmonella typhimurium bioassay. The authors find a close correlation between sulfur content and mutagenicity of PAH. (Auth.)

  4. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, Søren; Zechner, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination...... resistance genes and fluorescent markers. The choice of 5' non-homologous extensions in primer pairs used for amplifying the marker cassettes determines the site specificity of the targeting DNA. This methodology is applicable to the modification of all plasmids that replicate in E coli and is not restricted...

  5. Are undesirable contact kinematics minimized after kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty? An intersurgeon analysis of consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Hodapp, Esther E; Vernace, Joseph V; Hull, Maury L; Meade, Thomas D

    2013-10-01

    Tibiofemoral contact kinematics or knee implant motions have a direct influence on patient function and implant longevity and should be evaluated for any new alignment technique such as kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Edge loading of the tibial liner and external rotation (reverse of normal) and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component are undesirable contact kinematics that should be minimized. Accordingly, this study determined whether the overall prevalence of undesirable contact kinematics during standing, mid kneeling near 90 degrees and full kneeling with kinematically aligned TKA are minimal and not different between groups of consecutive patients treated by different surgeons. Three surgeons were asked to perform cemented, kinematically aligned TKA with patient-specific guides in a consecutive series of patients with their preferred cruciate-retaining (CR) implant. In vivo tibiofemoral contact positions were obtained using a 3- to 2-dimensional image registration technique in 69 subjects (Vanguard CR-TKA N = 22, and Triathlon CR-TKA N = 47). Anterior or posterior edge loading of the tibial liner was not observed. The overall prevalence of external rotation of the tibial component on the femoral component of 6 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). The overall prevalence of adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component of 4 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). Kinematically aligned TKA minimized the undesirable contact kinematics of edge loading of the tibial liner, and external rotation and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component during standing and kneeling, which suggests an optimistic prognosis for durable long-term function. III.

  6. Toxic pyrrolizidinalkaloids as undesired contaminants in food and feed: degradation of the PAs from Senecio jacobaea in silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Jiminez, J; Kuschak, M; Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H

    2013-07-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) can show a hazardous potential for men and animals. They can act as cancerogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and fetotoxic agents. One pathway of a human intoxication is its occurence as contaminants in food and feed. Here, the contamination of cereals already led to severe and fatal intoxication episodes. Besides this, milk is of special concern as it is the main food for children which show a very high susceptibility for a PA intoxication. Milk can contain PAs in case the milk producing animals have access to contaminated feed. In this context it is of special interest whether the PA content of contaminated silage remains stable during the ensiling procedure or show a more or less high level of decomposition. We could show that ensiling will not lead to PA-free silage.

  7. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  8. Mutagenicity of Tween 80-solvated mild gasification products in the Ames salmonella microsomal assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-13

    The results of the Tween 80-solvated Ames testing of six mild gasification samples indicate significant mutagenic activity only in the composite materials (MG-119 and MG-120), previously suspected from the DMSO-solvated assays, which had shown some variable but ultimately insignificant mutagenic responses. The activity of these samples from the Tween 80-solvated assays was quite low when compared to either the positive controls or the SRC-II HD coal-liquefaction reference material. The class of mutagenic activity expressed by these samples solvated in Tween 80 was that of an indirect-acting, frameshift mutagen(s) since significant activity was found only on tester strain TA98 in the presence of the metabolic activation fraction (S9). Because DMSO and other solvents have been shown to affect the mutagenic activity of certain pure chemicals, the possibility of solvent/mutagen interactions in complex mixtures such as coal-derived liquids exists. Thus, the testing of the genotoxic activity of undefined, chemically complex compounds may require the use of at least two solvent systems to reduce the possibility of artifactual findings. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Application of the Ames mutagenicity test to food processed by physical preservation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J.G. van; Leveling, H.B.; Schubert, J.

    1978-01-01

    An irradiated (380 krad) mixture of four fresh vegetables - leek, celery, carrot, and cauliflower - was examined for mutagenicity by the Ames mutagenicity test using four different histidine-deficient strains of Salmonellae. Water extracts were prepared from the irradiated and unirradiated vegetables - a freeze dried extract (FDE) and a boiled extract (BE). Several problems were overcome in the mutagenicity testing of a complex substance such as food which contains free histidine, different species of bacteria, and a mixture of low and high molecular weight chemicals. In addition, we eliminated an omission in the usual protocols of the Ames test by testing the positive mutagen controls in the presence and absence of the test samples, thus reducing the possible incidence of false negatives and false positives. The induction and expression of mutagenesis by sodium azide (SA) and ethidium bromide (EB) in TA 100 and TA 98 mutant strains, respectively, decreased with increasing amounts of FDE, while increasing levels of BE suppressed the number of revertants in TA 98 in the presence of EB, but exerted little influence on the mutagenicity of SA in TA 100. No difference was observed in the antimutagenic action between the irradiated and unirradiated vegetable extracts. Both the FDE and BE preparations suppressed the action of a frameshift mutagen, but with a base-pair mutagen only the FDE or uncooked vegetable extracts produced suppression. (author)

  10. Assessing Mutagenicity of Methanolic Exteract of Borage Flower (Echium amuenum Using Ames Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Moosavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been isolated from Echium amuenum. These alkaloids knowing as hepatotoxic, damage the liver. Mutagenicity of pure pyrrolizidine alkaloids has been identified. Thus, the mutagenic effect of the methanolic flower extract was tested using Amest test. Materials and Methods: The long maceration process (for 48 hrs is carried out in order to extract all constitutes. Thin layer chromatography (TLC method was used to evaluate aflatoxin B1 contamination and histidine amino acid presence. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined with the dilution method. Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 was used to determination of mutagenicity. The genotype was confirmed by using histidine requirement, R- factor presence, rfa and uvrB mutations tests. The mutagenicity assay was performed by four extract concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1mg/ml. Sodium azide (NaN3 and methanol were used as the mutagens (positive control and negative control, respectively in the absence or presence of liver-metabolizing enzymes. Results: The data indicate that Echium amuenum has not significant mutagenic activity against negative control. The presence of liver-metabolizing enzymes did not exhibit a significant change against the properties of extract. Conclusion: It seems that this extensive used plant in traditional medicine, doesn’t contain mutagenic or genotoxic effect in usual doses.

  11. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of EMS, sodium azide and gamma radiation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshile, J.D.; Apparao, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS), Sodium Azide (SA) and gamma radiation on two cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L), Vijay and Vishwas were evaluated by the biological damages caused by them in M 1 generation and on the basis of frequency of chlorophyll mutations produced in the M 2 generation. All mutagenic treatments of EMS, SA and gamma radiation decreased germination, seedling height, plant survival and pollen fertility in both the cultivars. The extent of effect was dose dependent. LD 50 values of mutagen were found to be helpful for planning experimental mutagenesis in chickpea. Frequency of chlorophyll mutations in M 2 generation was less in Vijay as compared to Vishwas. Mutagenic effectiveness is inversely proportional to the increasing concentrations/doses of mutagens in both the cultivars, except for gamma radiation treatments in the cultivar Vishwas. All three mutagens (except EMS in the Vijay and gamma radiation in the cultivar Vishwas) exhibited gradual decrease in mutagenic efficiency, with an increase in their concentration/dose. (author)

  12. Mutagenic effect of radiations of various LET on Salmonella cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Amirtaev, K.G.; Tokarova, B.; Basha, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Regularities of mutagenic effect of heavy charged particles of helium, deuterium ions and protons on various strains of Salmonella typhimurium were studied. Linear dose dependences of mutation frequency in the range of low doses were revealed. A conclusion was made that mutation process at low dose irradiation is determined in various teststrains of Salmonella typhimurium by certain premutation injuries. Quite a different picture is observed in mutation process in case of high dose irradiation where effect of inducible SOS-repair is distinctly manifested. Not only spectra of primary DNA injuries but probability of their fixation into mutation can change with the increase of LET. If fixation probability doesn't change with LET increase for replicative mutagenesis which make basis contribution to linear component of dose dependence of mutation frequency the probability of fixation is increased for reparative mutagenesis. It accounts for increase of values of relative genetic efficiency with LET increase. 7 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Mutagenic effects of space environment and protons on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Shen Mei

    1998-07-01

    Dry seeds of 5 rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite for space mutation, and were irradiated by 4∼8 MeV protons with various doses. The mutagenic effects was studied. The results indicated that the space environment could cause chromosomal structure aberration and had stimulating mitosis action in root tip cells. As compared with γ-rays and protons, the effects of space environment flight were lower on chromosomal aberration but were significantly higher on mitosis index. Space environment and protons induce high frequency of chlorophyll deficient mutation and mutation in plant height and heading date in M 2 generation. Frequency of beneficial mutation induced by space environment and protons were higher than those induced by γ-rays

  14. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacono, T.

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  15. Survey of the mutagenicity of surface water, sediments, and drinking water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sarah H; Claxton, Larry D; Diliberto, Janet; Hughes, Thomas J; Swank, Adam; Kusnierz, Daniel H; Marshall, Valerie; DeMarini, David M

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) projects address the effects of environmental pollutants in a particular region on the health of the population in that region. This report is part of a RARE project that addresses this for the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN), Penobscot Island, Maine, U.S., where the Penobscot River has had fish advisories for many years due to high levels of mercury. We used the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strains TA100, TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without metabolic activation to assess the mutagenic potencies of organic extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediment, as well as drinking-water samples, all collected by the PIN Department of Natural Resources. The source water for the PIN drinking water is gravel-packed groundwater wells adjacent to the Penobscot River. Most samples of all extracts were either not mutagenic or had low to moderate mutagenic potencies. The average mutagenic potencies (revertants/L-equivalent) were 337 for the drinking-water extracts and 177 for the river-water extracts; the average mutagenic potency for the river-sediment extracts was 244 revertants(g-equivalent)(-1). This part of the RARE project showed that extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediments and Penobscot drinking water have little to no mutagenic activity that might be due to the classes of compounds that the Salmonella mutagenicity assay detects, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (nitroarenes), and aromatic amines. This study is the first to examine the mutagenicity of environmental samples from a tribal nation in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Rat Carcinogenesis and Assessing the Role Mutagens Play in Model Predictivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquer, C. Alex; Batey, Kaylind; Qamar, Shahid; Cunningham, Albert R.; Cunningham, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that fragment based cat-SAR carcinogenesis models consisting solely of mutagenic or non-mutagenic carcinogens varied greatly in terms of their predictive accuracy. This led us to investigate how well the rat cancer cat-SAR model predicted mutagens and non-mutagens in their learning set. Four rat cancer cat-SAR models were developed: Complete Rat, Transgender Rat, Male Rat, and Female Rat, with leave-one-out (LOO) validation concordance values of 69%, 74%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. The mutagenic carcinogens produced concordance values in the range of 69–76% as compared to only 47–53% for non-mutagenic carcinogens. As a surrogate for mutagenicity comparisons between single site and multiple site carcinogen SAR models was analyzed. The LOO concordance values for models consisting of 1-site, 2-site, and 4+-site carcinogens were 66%, 71%, and 79%, respectively. As expected, the proportion of mutagens to non-mutagens also increased, rising from 54% for 1-site to 80% for 4+-site carcinogens. This study demonstrates that mutagenic chemicals, in both SAR learning sets and test sets, are influential in assessing model accuracy. This suggests that SAR models for carcinogens may require a two-step process in which mutagenicity is first determined before carcinogenicity can be accurately predicted. PMID:24697549

  17. The detection and analysis of mutagens: Final report, 1968--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Our main objectives are: to develop and improve the Salmonella test for detecting environmental mutagens; to investigate the relationship between carcinogens and mutagens and to validate the Salmonella test for detecting carcinogens; to uncover significant unsuspected environmental mutagens/carcinogens; to investigate the theory of mutagenesis; to develop new methods for determining DNA damage by particular chemicals in individual people; to understand the role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage, cancer, and aging; and to investigate the role of anti-carcinogens in preventing DNA damage

  18. Antimutagenic properties of lactic acid-cultured milk on chemical and fecal mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, A.; Kashina, T.; Kada, T.

    1986-09-01

    The antimutagenic properties of milk cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were examined using streptomycin-dependent strains of Salmonella in an in vitro assay system. The mutagens utilized for testing included 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, and fecal mutagenic extracts from cats, monkeys, dogs and other mammals. Both types of cultured milk exhibited antimutagenic activity on all mutagens used. Antimutagenic activities of the cultured milks with 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide increased with incubation time but were thermolabile beyond 55/sup 0/C for 10 min.

  19. Evaluation of the tickcide, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of the Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vargas de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis investigated the tickcide effects of the aqueous extract and chloroform fractions of Ruta graveolens L. (rue on engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus, as well as their genotoxic and mutagenic effects on human leukocytes. The best tickcide activity (non-dependent dose and genotoxic / mutagenic effects (dependent-dose were observed on exposure to chloroform fractions. Results suggest that extract fractions of R. graveolens L are efficient against R. microplus, although the fraction and the tested concentrations show genotoxic and mutagenic potential for human leukocytes.

  20. Reproductive health control of the families with mutagenic exposures after Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genyk-Berezovska, S.O.; Havrylyuk, Yu.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the additional genetic risk (hazard) of mutagenic radiation for evacuated families in relatively ecologically favorable region. The reproductive characteristics, birth defects prevalence and antropometric data compare was held among newborns for 130 families before and after mutagenic exposure, when they were evacuated from radiation polluted region. The study results indicated no evidence of low-dose radiation exposure impact on realization of additional mutagenic burden in the liquidators and evacuees families through the extent of reproductive losses and CM

  1. Responses of physiological and biochemical components in Gossypium hirsutum L. to mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Vasanth, K.; Jayabalan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The two tetraploid varieties of cotton were exposed to gamma rays, EMS and SA. Chlorophyll, carotenoids, sugar, starch, free amino acids, protein, lipids, DNA and RNA were estimated quantitatively. All the physiological and biochemical components were increased in lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments and they were decreased in higher dose/concentrations. The stimulation of the biochemical contents was a dose/concentration dependent response. Among the two varieties, MCU 11 was found to be responsive to mutagens than MCU 5. Based on the study the lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments could enhance the biochemical components which is used for improved economic characters of cotton. (author)

  2. Comparative efficiency of chemical and radiation mutagens on two Cicer arietinum Rhizobial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, A K; Shinde, D A; Nayak, M L [Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Indore (India)

    1982-03-01

    A comparison of efficacy due to chemical and radiation mutagens on morphology, nutritional totipotence and symbiotic character of two Cicer arietinum rhizobia has been made. The mutants produced as a result of radiations (gamma and UV rays) differed from parents in that, the mutant colony size was bigger and gelatinase activity was higher. The mutants were not deficient nutritionally, had wider host range and the size and number of nodules produced were higher. Radiation mutagenic effects were more pronounced than chemical mutagens. The mutants derived from chemicals were not as efficient as radiation mutants although they were better than parents in total nodulation.

  3. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the mutagenic potential of carbamazepine: does melatonin have anti-mutagenic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, W M; El-Gohary, M; El-Nabi, S H; Fadel, W A

    1998-01-16

    The mutagenic potential of carbamazepine (CBZ) therapy has been evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), mitotic and proliferation indices (PRI) were performed. The in vivo study was carried out on 30 patients with idiopathic epilepsy end undergoing treatment with CBZ for different periods starting from 6 months up to 15 years. Plasma CBZ levels were also determined for each patient. The results showed that the total CA and SCEs were significantly increased in CBZ-treated patients. There was no significant correlation between CA and either duration of treatment or the plasma CBZ levels for each patient. The mitotic and proliferation indices were found to be slightly but non-significantly decreased compared to control values. On the other hand, in vitro analysis showed a significant dose-dependent increase in CA and SCEs in human lymphocyte cultures treated with CBZ (4-12 microg/ml). The mitotic and proliferation indices were also found to be decreased but only significantly in case of high doses of CBZ (12 microg/ml). Pretreatment of human lymphocytes with melatonin (0.5 mM) exhibited a significant decrease in the frequencies of CBZ-induced CA and SCEs as compared with non-treated cultures. The depressed mitotic and proliferation indices were also found to be improved in cultures pretreated with melatonin. In conclusion, these observations suggest that CBZ monotherapy may lead to chromosome damaging effects (genotoxic) and the use of melatonin as anti-mutagenic agent for human protection against CBZ-induced chromosome damage should be considered.

  4. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  5. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withrow, T.J.; Brown, N.T.; Hitchins, V.M.; Strickland, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK +/- ) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 37 0 C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author)

  6. The effect of γ-radiation on smoked fish using short-term mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Banzon, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on the mutagenicity potential of wood-smoked fish was investigated. Smoked fish were irradiated with radiation doses of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy. The DMSO extracts of non-radiated and irradiated smoked fish were tested for mutagenicity using the Ames plate incorporation assay, host-mediated assay, and the micronucleus test. It was observed that γ-irradiation did not induce any significant increase in the number of revertants of TA98, TA100 and TA104 as compared with the non-radiated smoked fish. Results of the host-mediated assay and the micronucleus test showed no difference in the mutagenic response of non-radiated in irradiated smoked fish. The results indicate thet γ-radiation does not introduce mutagens in smoked fish. (author). 17 refs.; 6 tabs

  7. Quantitative changes in endogenous DNA damage correlate with conazole mutagenicity and tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazolefungicides triadimefon and propiconazole have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the nontumorigenic conazole myclobutanil w...

  8. Study on mutagenic and toxic compounds in lake water used as drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Zanardini, A.

    1996-01-01

    Trace amounts of mutagenic and toxic substances are frequently found in drinking water, causing a great concern for their potential health effects. Aim of this work is to develop a reliable and efficient screening method for detecting aquatic mutagens and toxins in surface water used for human consumption. For this purpose different methods of concentration of lake water have been experimented by using three different solid phase extraction systems at different pHs and studying the adsorbates by means of a mutagenicity test (Ames test), a toxicity test (LUMIStox) and chemical analysis (GC,MS). This integrated chemical/biological approach showed to be a suitable system for the preliminary choice of an efficient screening method for aquatic mutagens and toxins and to give useful data for the evaluation of potential health hazards

  9. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withrow, T.J.; Brown, N.T.; Hitchins, V.M.; Strickland, A.G. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA). Center for Devices and Radiological Health)

    1989-09-01

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK{sup +/-}) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 37{sup 0}C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author).

  10. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity: Frameworks,State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendou...

  11. An approach to quantitate and control the mutagenic hazards of environmental chemical and radioactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Human population, both at the occupational and non-occupational levels, is exposed to the environment polluted by man-made chemicals and radiation sources. The parameters required for quantitating mutagenic hazards of any agent are listed and it has been pointed out that though sufficient information of this nature is available in the case of radiations, it is almost impossible to collect similar information for chemical substances due to their number running into astronomical figures. A short-cut approach, therefore, is suggested to quantitate and control the mutagenic hazards of these pollutants. It is to express the mutagenic hazards of a chemical substance in terms of equivalent radiation units. The unit proposed for this purpose is called as Rem-Equivalent Chemical (REC). Total mutagenic burden to the society should take account of exposure from both chemicals and radiations. Advantages and limitation of this approach are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  12. Improved mutagen-testing systems in mice. Progress report, 1 June 1975--31 May 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: detection of inversions; inversions produced by chemical mutagens and x radiation; phenotypic effects of inversions; linkage of inversions; cytology of inversions; Robertsonian metacentric translocations; and somatic crossing-over in mammals

  13. Analysis of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and Dipicryethane (DPE) for Mutagenicity by the Ames/Salmonella Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R; Felton, J

    2007-10-12

    The Ames/Salmonella assay, developed by Professor Bruce Ames at the University of California, Berkeley, is a rapid and sensitive assay for detecting mutagenicity of various chemical compounds (Maron and Ames, 1983). It is a widely accepted short-term assay for detecting chemicals that induce mutations in the histidine (his) gene of Salmonella typhimurium. This is a reverse mutation assay that detects the mutational reversion of his-dependent Salmonella to the his-independent counterpart. Thereby, mutagenic compounds will increase the frequency of occurrence of his-independent bacterial colonies. The assay utilizes the specific genetically constructed strains of bacteria either with or without mammalian metabolic activation enzymes (S9), Aroclor induced rat liver homogenate to assess the mutagenicity of different compounds. In this study, we will use the Ames/Salmonella assay to investigate the mutagenicity of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) from both Bofors and Pantex, and Dipicryethane (DPE).

  14. Mutagen Sensitivity, Apoptosis, and Polymorphism in DNA Repair as Measures of Prostate Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Radoslav

    2006-01-01

    .... We also created a computerized database of the samples in Microsoft Access. We developed assays for mutagen sensitivity, comet assay, and apoptosis in white blood cells exposed to bleomycin and ionizing radiation to evaluate...

  15. Negative symbolic aspects in destination branding: exploring the role of the 'undesired self' on web-based vacation information search intentions among potential first-time visitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bosnjak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tourist destination choices depend, among other factors, on the match between the destination’s personality image and consumers’ self-concept, in line with self-image congruence theory. Motives also mediate this relationship, yet tourism research largely neglects the influence of avoidance motives. This study applies the product-based construct of undesired congruity, or consumers’ tendency to avoid undesired stereotypical images, to the context of web-based vacation destination information s...

  16. Health effects of soy-biodiesel emissions: mutagenicity-emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H; Matthews, Peggy P; King, Charly; Walsh, Leon; Kligerman, Andrew D; Schmid, Judith E; Janek, Daniel; Kooter, Ingeborg M; Linak, William P; Gilmour, M Ian; DeMarini, David M

    2015-01-01

    Soy biodiesel is the predominant biodiesel fuel used in the USA, but only a few, frequently conflicting studies have examined the potential health effects of its emissions. We combusted petroleum diesel (B0) and fuels with increasing percentages of soy methyl esters (B20, B50 and B100) and determined the mutagenicity-emission factors expressed as revertants/megajoule of thermal energy consumed (rev/MJ(th)). We combusted each fuel in replicate in a small (4.3-kW) diesel engine without emission controls at a constant load, extracted organics from the particles with dichloromethane, determined the percentage of extractable organic material (EOM), and evaluated these extracts for mutagenicity in 16 strains/S9 combinations of Salmonella. Mutagenic potencies of the EOM did not differ significantly between replicate experiments for B0 and B100 but did for B20 and B50. B0 had the highest rev/MJ(th), and those of B20 and B100 were 50% and ∼85% lower, respectively, in strains that detect mutagenicity due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroarenes, aromatic amines or oxidative mutagens. For all strains, the rev/MJ(th) decreased with increasing biodiesel in the fuel. The emission factor for the 16 EPA Priority PAHs correlated strongly (r(2 )= 0.69) with the mutagenicity-emission factor in strain TA100 + S9, which detects PAHs. Under a constant load, soy-biodiesel emissions were 50-85% less mutagenic than those of petroleum diesel. Without additional emission controls, petroleum and biodiesel fuels had mutagenicity-emission factors between those of large utility-scale combustors (e.g. natural gas, coal, or oil) and inefficient open-burning (e.g. residential wood fireplaces).

  17. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth; Meléndez Gélvez, Iván; Quijano Parra, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic a...

  18. Microplate Ames MPF™ test use in assessment of mutagenic properties of dust pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Highly industrialized Upper Silesia Region is particularly polluted by both anthropogenic and natural airborne particulate matters, which may lead to negative health effects in human. Materials and methods: The aim of the study was to assess the mutagenic properties of dust extracts which were collected in six cities in the Silesian Voivodeship. Dust samples were collected on glass fiber filters by the aspirator with air flow ca. 1 m3/min. Extraction of pollution was carried out using dichlorometane. The extracted samples were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. The mutagenic properties were assessed using microplate Ames assay MPFTM with the use of bacteria Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100. Results: In microplate Ames assay MPFTM there was observed a linear dose-response relationship in both metabolic variants of TA98 strain. Similar relationship was observed for TA100 strain with metabolic activation (S9. Mutagenic activity (AM of 100% extracts for TA98 strain in both metabolic variants (S9 exceeded 2, what indicate highly mutagenic effects of dust extracts. There was no mutagenic activity observed in the assay with TA100 (S9, AM 1. In the variant with exogenous metabolic activation (S9 in TA100 strain AM values ranged from AM1,160,15 to AM9,671,02. Mutagenic activity varied between different cities. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that microplate Ames assay MPFTM is fast and complex method of assessing the mutagenic properties of dust pollution, which exert toxic effect on organisms. The use of microplate Ames assay MPFTM together with chemical analyses of air dust pollution may evaluate the level of exposure in the environment and enable to perform health risk assessment in populations exposed to mutagenic, toxic and cytotoxic substances.

  19. Diamagnetic composite material structure for reducing undesired electromagnetic interference and eddy currents in dielectric wall accelerators and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Poole, Brian R.; Hawkins, Steven A.

    2015-06-30

    The devices, systems and techniques disclosed here can be used to reduce undesired effects by magnetic field induced eddy currents based on a diamagnetic composite material structure including diamagnetic composite sheets that are separated from one another to provide a high impedance composite material structure. In some implementations, each diamagnetic composite sheet includes patterned conductor layers are separated by a dielectric material and each patterned conductor layer includes voids and conductor areas. The voids in the patterned conductor layers of each diamagnetic composite sheet are arranged to be displaced in position from one patterned conductor layer to an adjacent patterned conductor layer while conductor areas of the patterned conductor layers collectively form a contiguous conductor structure in each diamagnetic composite sheet to prevent penetration by a magnetic field.

  20. Nanofluids and chemical highly retentive hydrogels for controlled and selective removal of overpaintings and undesired graffiti from street art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Michele; Baglioni, Piero

    2017-06-01

    One of the main problems connected to the conservation of street art is the selective removal of overlying undesired graffiti, i.e., drawings and tags. Unfortunately, selective and controlled removal of graffiti and overpaintings from street art is almost unachievable using traditional methodologies. Recently, the use of nanofluids confined in highly retentive pHEMA/PVP semi-interpenetrated polymer networks was proposed. Here, we report on the selective removal of acrylic overpaintings from a layer of acrylic paint on mortar mockups in laboratory tests. The results of the cleaning tests were characterized by visual and photographic observation, optical microscopy, and FT-IR microreflectance investigation. It was shown that this methodology represents a major advancement with respect to the use of nonconfined neat solvents.

  1. Rapid detection of undesired cosmetic ingredients by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; An, Dongli; Chen, Tengteng; Lin, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, cosmetic industry profits soared due to the widespread use of cosmetics, which resulted in illicit manufacturers and products of poor quality. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of the composition of cosmetics has become crucial. At present, numerous methods, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were available for the analysis of cosmetic ingredients. However, these methods present several limitations, such as failure to perform comprehensive and rapid analysis of the samples. Compared with other techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry offered the advantages of wide detection range, fast speed and high accuracy. In this article, we briefly summarized how to select a suitable matrix and adjust the appropriate laser energy. We also discussed the rapid identification of undesired ingredients, focusing on antibiotics and hormones in cosmetics.

  2. A descriptive mutagenicity assessment of tretinoin in Allium sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Llana, Jonamine M.; Reyes, Florence C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is primarily designed to assess the mutagenicity of tretinoin by applying the Allium test. Furthermore, it has the following objectives: to evaluate the macroscopic abnormalities caused by tretinoin based on root length and root form parameters; to investigate whether tretinoin can induce aberrances in cell division such as the formation of micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky chromosome, stretched chromosome, vagrant chromosome and precocious chromosome; to determine the variation in the aberrations in the different concentration of tretinoin. Procedure: eight hundred equal-sized garlic bulbs were immersed in various concentrations of tretinoin and in tap water as control. These were divided into two groups. Six hundred bulbs were evaluated for macroscopic parameters while the remaining two hundred bulbs were fixed for microscopic observations. The Allium test set-ups were placed in the plant laboratory of UP-Manila. The were harvested on the third and on the fifth day. The fixed roots were examined in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The data gathered for macroscopic parameter was statistically tested using Complete Randomized Design and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference. The microscopic abnormalities were determined descriptively for every concentration. Findings: analysis of macroscopic and microscopic parameters showed that: according to the analyses of variances, the number of roots, the root length and the number of root forms such as straight, bent, bulbous and tapered were not equal in all concentrations. However, the difference in the number of curled roots was not significant.; the root length distinctly showed the toxicity effect of tretinoin. The growth or the length of roots decreases as the tretinoin concentration increases; the mitotic abnormalities observed in the garlic cells include micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase. C-metaphase, sticky

  3. Cytotoxic, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity effects of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhatti, Valéria Rodrigues; da Silva, Juliana; Martins, Tales Leandro Costa; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Rosa, Renato Moreira; Villela, Izabel; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; da Silva Santos, Selma; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Machado, Carlos Renato; Saffi, Jenifer; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have reported that guanylhydrazones display a variety of desirable biological properties, such as antihypertensive, antibacterial, and antimalarial behaviour. They furthermore promote anti-pneumocystosis and anti-trypanosomiasis, exhibit antitumor activity, and show significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. In this work, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity of two guanylhydrazones derivatives, (E)-2-[(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazine carboxymidamide hydrochloride (2,3-DMeB) and (E)-2-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazine carboxymidamide hydrochloride (3,4-DMeB), in different biological models. Both 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB induce weak cytotoxic and mutagenic effects in bacteria and yeast. The genotoxicity of these compounds was determined in a fibroblast cell line (V79) using alkaline comet assay, as well as a modified comet assay with bacterial enzymes formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). Both guanylhydrazone derivatives induced DNA damage. Treatment of V79 cells with EndoIII and FPG proteins demonstrated a significant effect of 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB with respect to oxidized bases. In addition, the derivatives induced a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells at high doses. The antifungal and anti-trypanosomal properties of these guanylhydrazone derivatives were also evaluated, and the obtained results suggest that 2,3-DMeB is more effective than 3,4-DMeB. The biological activity of 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB may thus be related, at least in part, to their oxidative potential, as well as to their ability to interact with DNA. Considering the previously reported in vitro antitumor activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives in combination with the lack of acute toxicity and the fact that DNA damage is only observed at high doses should render both compounds good candidates for in vivo studies on antitumor activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  4. A descriptive mutagenicity assessment of tretinoin in Allium sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dela Llana, Jonamine M; Reyes, Florence C

    1999-07-01

    This paper is primarily designed to assess the mutagenicity of tretinoin by applying the Allium test. Furthermore, it has the following objectives: to evaluate the macroscopic abnormalities caused by tretinoin based on root length and root form parameters; to investigate whether tretinoin can induce aberrances in cell division such as the formation of micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky chromosome, stretched chromosome, vagrant chromosome and precocious chromosome; to determine the variation in the aberrations in the different concentration of tretinoin. Procedure: eight hundred equal-sized garlic bulbs were immersed in various concentrations of tretinoin and in tap water as control. These were divided into two groups. Six hundred bulbs were evaluated for macroscopic parameters while the remaining two hundred bulbs were fixed for microscopic observations. The Allium test set-ups were placed in the plant laboratory of UP-Manila. The were harvested on the third and on the fifth day. The fixed roots were examined in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The data gathered for macroscopic parameter was statistically tested using Complete Randomized Design and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference. The microscopic abnormalities were determined descriptively for every concentration. Findings: analysis of macroscopic and microscopic parameters showed that: according to the analyses of variances, the number of roots, the root length and the number of root forms such as straight, bent, bulbous and tapered were not equal in all concentrations. However, the difference in the number of curled roots was not significant.; the root length distinctly showed the toxicity effect of tretinoin. The growth or the length of roots decreases as the tretinoin concentration increases; the mitotic abnormalities observed in the garlic cells include micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase. C-metaphase, sticky

  5. Structural features of nitroaromatics that determine mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, W.A.; Levin, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Seventeen structurally homologous nitroaromatics were tested for direct-acting mutagenic potency in nine strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The following four structural features were determined to have a strong influence on mutagenic activity: physical dimensions of the aromatic rings, isomeric position of the nitro group, conformation of the nitro group with respect to the plane of the aromatic rings, and ability to resonance-stabilize the utimate electrophile. Progressive addition of five- and six-membered rings to a nitrobenzene nucleus demonstrated that mutagenic activity was a direct function of size. Nitroaromatics with a nitro group oriented along the long axis of symmetry of the molecule were more potent mutagens that those with the nitro group oriented along the short axis. These results are discussed in light of the insertion-denaturation model for intercalation of certain DNA adducts. Finally, structural features that contribute to resonance stabilization of the reactive nitrenium ion enhance mutagenic potency. The predictive value of these structure-activity relationships should permit a first approximation in the assessment of mutagenic potency of nitroaromatics

  6. Intramolecular tautomerisation and the conformational variability of some classical mutagens – cytosine derivatives: quantum chemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovorun D. M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the lifetime of the mutagenic cytosine derivatives through the investigation of the physicochemical mechanisms of their intramolecular proton transfer. Methods. Non-empirical quantum chemistry, the analysis of the electron density by means of Bader’s atoms in molecules (AIM theory and physicochemical kinetics were used. Results. It is shown that the modification of all investigated compounds, except DCyt, prevents their pairing in both mutagenic and canonical tautomeric forms with a base which is an interacting partner. This effect can inhibit their mutagenic potential. It is also established that Watson-Crick tautomeric hypothesis can be formally expanded for the investigated molecules so far as a lifetime of the mutagenic tautomers much more exceeds characteristic time for the incorporation of one nucleotides pair by DNA biosynthesis machinery. It seems that just within the frame of this hypothesis it will be possible to give an adequate explanation of the mechanisms of mutagenic action of N4-aminocytosine, N4-methoxycytosine, N4-hydroxycytosine and N4dehydrocytosine, which have much more energy advantageous imino form in comparison with amino form. Conclusions. For the first time the comprehensive conformational analysis of a number of classical mutagens, namely cytosine derivatives, has been performed using the methods of non-empirical quantum chemistry at the MP2/6-311++G (2df,pd//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p level of theory

  7. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of cyanobacterial extracts and pure cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroslawska, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the mutagenic potential of extracts obtained from the cyanobacterial bloom-forming cells harvested from the water body located in Lubelszczyzna region of southeastern Poland. Three cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a were detected in some of the studied samples in different concentrations. All extracts were assessed for their potential mutagenic effects with the use of a short-term bacterial assay, the Ames test. Mutagenic activity was observed in four of all ten studied extracts, mainly toward the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. On the contrary, the cyanotoxins in purified forms occurred not to be mutagenic or cytotoxic towards S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA and WP2 [pKM101] up to a concentration of 10 μg/ml. Similarly, there were no effects after bacteria exposure to the mixture of purified toxins. It has been also detected that after fractionation, genotoxic impact of previously mutagenic extracts was weaker and the highest potency in revertant induction possessed fractions containing very hydrophilic compounds. The results indicate, that while tested cyanotoxins were not directly responsible for the observed mutagenicity of the extracts analysed, some synergistic interactions with other unidentified cyanobacterial-derived factors involved in the process are possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutagenic atmospheres resulting from the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbon and NOx mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Theran P.; DeMarini, David M.; Zavala, Jose; Warren, Sarah H.; Corse, Eric W.; Offenberg, John H.; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.; Lewandowski, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Although many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated to limit air pollution and the consequent health effects, the photooxidation products generally are not. Thus, we examined the mutagenicity in Salmonella TA100 of photochemical atmospheres generated in a steady-state atmospheric simulation chamber by irradiating mixtures of single aromatic VOCs, NOx, and ammonium sulfate seed aerosol in air. The 10 VOCs examined were benzene; toluene; ethylbenzene; o-, m-, and p-xylene; 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene; m-cresol; and naphthalene. Salmonella were exposed at the air-agar interface to the generated atmospheres for 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h. Dark-control exposures produced non-mutagenic atmospheres, illustrating that the gas-phase precursor VOCs were not mutagenic at the concentrations tested. Under irradiation, all but m-cresol and naphthalene produced mutagenic atmospheres, with potencies ranging from 2.0 (p-xylene) to 11.4 (ethylbenzene) revertants m3 mgC-1 h-1. The mutagenicity was due exclusively to direct-acting late-generation products of the photooxidation reactions. Gas-phase chemical analysis showed that a number of oxidized organic chemical species enhanced during the irradiated exposure experiments correlated (r ≥ 0.81) with the mutagenic potencies of the atmospheres. Molecular formulas assigned to these species indicated that they likely contained peroxy acid, aldehyde, alcohol, and other functionalities.

  9. Assessment of Cellular Mutagenicity of Americano Coffees from Popular Coffee Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.

  10. Lack of mutagens in deep-fat-fried foods obtained at the retail level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Berg, C M; Shoptaugh, N H; Scott, V N

    1982-04-01

    The basic methylene chloride extract from 20 of 30 samples of foods fried in deep fat failed to elicit any mutagenic response that could be detected in the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The basic extracts of the remaining ten samples (all three chicken samples studied, two of the four potato-chip samples, one of four corn-chip samples, the sample of onion rings, two of six doughnuts, and one of three samples of french-fried potato) showed evidence of weak mutagenic activity. In these samples, amounts of the basic extract equivalent to 28.5-57 g of the original food sample were required to produce revertants at levels of 2.6-4.8 times the background level. Only two of the acidic methylene chloride extracts from the 30 samples exhibited mutagenic activity greater than 2.5 times the background reversion level, and in both cases (one corn-chip and one shrimp sample) the mutagenic response was quite weak. The basic extract of hamburgers fried in deep fat in a home-style fryer possessed higher levels of mutagenic activity (13 times the background reversion level). However, the mutagenic activity of deep-fried hamburgers is some four times lower than that of pan-fried hamburgers.

  11. [EVALUATION OF THE CYTOGENETIC AND MUTAGEN-MODIFYING ACTIVITY OF CAFFEINE IN MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnev, A D; Kulakova, A V; Zhanataev, A K; Oganesiants, L A

    2015-01-01

    The cytogenetic and mutagen-modifying activity of caffeine was studied with the method of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice hybrids F1 CBAxC57BL/6. Caffeine per se was administered intragastrically or intraperitoneally, and in combination with mutagens--intragastrically. Mutagens injected intraperitoneally. Caffeine at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg (single dose) and 10 mg/kg (five days) in parenteral administration and oral introduction failed to possess cytogenetic activity. In combination with mutagens caffeine (1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) had no effect on the cytogenetic activity of dioxydine (200 mg/kg/intraperitoneally) for a single coadministration, five-day pre or five-day coadministration. In combination with other mutagens under the same processing conditions caffeine at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg significantly increased cytogenetic effects of cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg) in the pretreatment of the animals and at the dose of 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated the cytogenetic effect of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) in single and repeated co-administration. Thus we have shown the absence of caffeine cytogenetic activity in vivo and showed the multidirectional effect of caffeine in doses far exceeding its daily consumption, to the manifestation ofcytogenetic effects of certain chemical mutagens in some modes of processing animals.

  12. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Gupta, R K [Department of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)

    1988-07-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M{sub 2} male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M{sub 3}, open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  13. Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubleday, O.P.; Bridges, B.A.; Green, M.H.L.

    1975-01-01

    The photoreversibility of UV-induced mutations to Trp + in strain Escherichia coli WP2 uvr A trp (unable to excise pyrimidine dimers) was lost at different rates during incubation in different media. In Casamino acids medium after a short initial lag, photoreversibility was lost over about one generation time; in minimal medium with tryptophan, photoreversibility persisted for more than two generations; in Casamino acids medium with pantoyl lactone photoreversibility was lost extremely slowly. The rate of loss of photoreversibility was unaffected by UV dose in either Casamino acids medium or in minimal medium. The same eventual number of induced mutants was obtained when cells were incubated for two generations in any of the three media before being transferred to selective plates supplemented with Casamino acids. Thus in each the proportion of cells capable of giving rise to a mutant was the same and only the rate at which these cells did so during post-irradiation growth varied, suggesting that there might be a specific fraction of pyrimidine dimers at a given site capable of initiating a mutagenic repair event, and that the size of this fraction is dose dependent. Segregation experiments have shown that error-prone repair appears to occur once only and is not repeated in subsequent replication cycles, in contrast to (presumed error-free) recombination repair. The results are discussed in the light of current models of UV mutagenesis. (orig.) [de

  14. Is ultraviolet enhanced reactivation of mammalian virus mutagenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Hellman, K.B.; Cantwell, J.M.; Strickland, A.

    1981-01-01

    Ultraviolet enhanced reactivation consists of an increase in the survival of certain uv-irradiated mammalian viruses when assayed for infectivity in uv-irradiated host mammalian cells, as compared with unirradiated cells. In this report ultraviolet enhanced reactivation is described, and a review is presented of investigations from this and other laboratories to establish whether or not this process is mutagenic. The answer to this question may help establish if error-prone DNA repair is induced in irradiated mammalian cells. We approached the mutagenesis question by examining the phenotypic reversion of a uv-irradiated temperature sensitive mutant of Herpes simplex virus to wild type growth in uv-irradiated monkey kidney cells. Apparent reversion was observed in both irradiated and unirradiated cells. No correlation could be found between the extent of reversion and uv exposure to the cells. The conclusions from studies reported by other investigators using various mammalian virus mutagenesis systems are conflicting. It was generally agreed that viral mutagenesis occurs when irradiated virus is passaged through either irradiated or unexposed cells. However, in some studies it was found that the frequency of mutagenesis in irradiated cells was greater than that in unirradiated cells, while in other studies increased mutagenesis in irradiated cells was not observed

  15. Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli: Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, F.; Bridges, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the dnaE485 mutation, which is nearly 'dead-stop', dnaE1026 allows DNA synthesis for some time at restrictive temperatures. When bacteria carrying the dnaE486 or dnaE1026 temperature-sensitive mutations were incubated at restrictive temperature after exposure to UV light they showed little or no fixation of mutations as determined by loss of photoreversibility and the mutation frequency fell progressively. These results confirm a role for DnaE protein in UV mutagenesis. A derivative of dnaE1026 carrying the umuC122 allele which blocks normal UV mutagenesis showed induction of mutations when photoreversing light was given to UV-irradiated bacteria after a period of incubation at either permissive or restrictive temperature. The defective DnaE1026 protein is therefore able to carry out the misincorporations postulated to be the first step in the mutagenic process. Its inability to give rise to mutations in umu + bacteria may therefore be attributed to its inability to participate in a later step. In contrast, UV-irradiated dnaE486 umuC122 bacteria did not show mutagenesis when incubated at restrictive temperature before photoreversal, suggesting that the altered DnaE486 protein was not able to carry out the postulate misincorporation step at 43 0 C. DNA polymerase III α-subunit therefore appears to be required for both the misincorporation and bypass steps in the two-step model for UV mutagenesis. (Author)

  16. Practical aspects of mutagenicity testing strategy: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, B B; Krishna, G

    2000-11-20

    Genetic toxicology studies play a central role in the development and marketing of new chemicals for pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, and consumer use. During the discovery phase of product development, rapid screening tests that require minimal amounts of test materials are used to assist in the design and prioritization of new molecules. At this stage, a modified Salmonella reverse mutation assay and an in vitro micronucleus test with mammalian cell culture are frequently used for screening. Regulatory genetic toxicology studies are conducted with a short list of compounds using protocols that conform to various international guidelines. A set of four assays usually constitutes the minimum test battery that satisfies global requirements. This set includes a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro cytogenetic test with mammalian cell culture, an in vitro gene mutation assay in mammalian cell cultures, and an in vivo rodent bone marrow micronucleus test. Supplementary studies are conducted in certain instances either as a follow-up to the findings from this initial testing battery and/or to satisfy a regulatory requirement. Currently available genetic toxicology assays have helped the scientific and industrial community over the past several decades in evaluating the mutagenic potential of chemical agents. The emerging field of toxicogenomics has the potential to redefine our ability to study the response of cells to genetic damage and hence our ability to study threshold phenomenon.

  17. Mutagenic effects of nitrogen and carbon ions on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Shen Mei; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1998-06-01

    Dry seeds of stevia were implanted by 60∼100 keV nitrogen ion and 75 keV carbon ion with various doses. The biological effects in M 1 and mutation in M 2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure and inhibited mitosis action in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. Energy effects of mitosis were presented between 75 keV and 60, 100 keV. As compared with γ-rays, the effects of ion beam were lower on chromosomal aberration but were higher on frequency of the mutation. The rate of cell with chromosome aberration and M 2 useful mutation induced by implantation of carbon ion was higher than those induced by implantation of nitrogen ion. Mutagenic effects of Feng 1 x Ri Yuan and of Ri Yuan x Feng 2 are higher than that of Ji Ning and Feng 2

  18. Mutagenic effects on indica rice carried by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dezhi; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Zhang Jianguo; Chen Zhiqiang; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Dried seeds of four indica rice varieties were carried into space by satellite Shijia No.8, the mutagenic effects of space condition on the seeds vigor and agronomic traits in the SP 1 generation, and on the agronomic traits, amylose conent and bacterial resistance in the SP 2 generation were studied. The results showed that the space condition slightly damaged rice seeds, with the physiological damage rate of germination rate, bud length, plant height and seed-setting rate in the SP 1 ranged from 0 to 26.9%. Different varieties responded differently to the space conditions, and the order from strong to weak was Gui 99, Hanghui 7, R998, Jinhang 138. Compared with the control, no trait showed segregation in the SP 1 generation. Some traits appeared larger segregation in the SP 2 generation, and the mutants of plant height, number of tillers, weight of grain, amylose content and bacterial blight resistance were isolated in the SP 2 generation, and these mutation traits could be inherited the SP 3 generation. Space conditions not only produced mutants of rice agronomic traits, but also produced mutants of rice quality and disease resistance. (authors)

  19. Studies on tritium (tritiated water) mutagenicity and teratogenicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    Single parental exposures to a range of tritium (tritiated water) activities, injecterd intraperitoneally, were used to study induction of genetic damage and effects on prenatal development in rats. In the male, treatment of postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis was found to produce genetic damage, as judged by the dominant lethality test, at activity levels of the order of 1.0 microcurie/g body weight and above; when treating spermatogonia, no genetic damage was detected by this test. In the female, induced dominant lethality was observed after exposing oocytes in growing follicles to a tritium activity level of 10 microcurie/g b.w. Cytogenetic analysis of spermatocytes in meiosis disclosed increased frequency of reciprocal translocations after exposure of premeiotic cells (spermatogonia) to activities above 7 microcurie/g b.w., the effect tending to rise with increase in activity aministered per gram of body weight. Maternal treatment during early pregnancy was shown to raise prenatal death rate only at activities above 0.1 microcurie/g b.w; with such low activities, no discernible effects on postnatal development were noted, judging by postnatal death rate and increase in offspring body weight with time. In conclusion, experimental evidence was obthained that a tritiated water activity level of 0.1 microcurie per gram body weight (which is one order of magnitude above the annual limit of intake of tritiated water for members of the public) appears to produce no mutagenic effect and exert no influence upon the embryo

  20. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Gupta, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M 2 male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M 3 , open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  1. Organic mutagens and drinking water in The Netherlands : a study on mutagenicity of organic constituents in drinking water in The Netherlands and their possible carcinogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Several mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds have been detected in Dutch surface waters and in drinking water prepared from these surface waters. Although the levels of these compounds in drinking- and surface water are relatively low, in general below μg per litre, it appeared that organic

  2. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Test the Mutagenicity of Household Compounds: An Open Ended Hypothesis-Driven Teaching Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In our Fundamentals of Genetics lab, students perform a wide variety of labs to reinforce and extend the topics covered in lecture. I developed an active-learning lab to augment the lecture topic of mutagenesis. In this lab exercise, students determine if a compound they bring from home is a mutagen. Students are required to read extensive background material, perform research to find a potential mutagen to test, develop a hypothesis, and bring to the lab their own suspected mutagen. This lab...

  3. Codon cassette mutagenesis: a general method to insert or replace individual codons by using universal mutagenic cassettes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kegler-Ebo, D M; Docktor, C M; DiMaio, D

    1994-01-01

    We describe codon cassette mutagenesis, a simple method of mutagenesis that uses universal mutagenic cassettes to deposit single codons at specific sites in double-stranded DNA. A target molecule is first constructed that contains a blunt, double-strand break at the site targeted for mutagenesis. A double-stranded mutagenic codon cassette is then inserted at the target site. Each mutagenic codon cassette contains a three base pair direct terminal repeat and two head-to-head recognition sequen...

  4. Quantitative mammalian cell mutagenesis and mutagen screening: study with CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsie, A.W.; O'Neill, J.P.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Brimer, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The CHO/HGPRT system has been developed and defined for quantifying mutation induced by various physical and chemical agents at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In all direct-acting chemical mutagens studied, mutation induction increases linearly as a function of the concentration, with no apparent threshold. Some chemicals induce mutation at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The mutagenicity of ethyl methanesulfonate has been quantified as a function of exposure concentration x treatment time. The sensitive and quantitative nature of the system enables studies of the structure-activity (mutagenicity) relationships of various classes of chemicals, including alkylating agents, heterocyclic nitrogen mustards, and platinum compounds. When rat liver S 9 -mediated metabolic activation is present, procarcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, and dimethylnitrosamine are mutagenic, whereas their noncarcinogenic structural analogues pyrene, fluorene, and dimethylamine are not. The system has been shown to be useful in determining the interactive effects between physical and chemical agents, and in screening for mutagenicity of fractionated organic mixtures and industrial chemicals in both liquid and gaseous state. For the system to be used successfully in routine screening, further studies should be directed toward the development of a metabolic activation system suitable for a broad spectrum of chemicals, a sensitive and reliable statistical method, and an experimental design to determine compounds with low mutagenicity. The system has been expanded for determination of mutagen-induced chromosome aberration, sister-chromatid exchange, and micronucleus formation in addition to gene mutation and cytotoxicity; it can also be used to study inhibition of DNA synthesis

  5. Inhibition of mutagenicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea by ellagic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, R.; Gold, B.

    1986-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a plant phenol present in a variety of soft fruits and vegetables, has been shown to possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties against bay region diol epoxide of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It is suggested that EA forms an adduct with diol epoxide of benzo (α) pyrene and thus prevents its binding to DNA. To better understand the mechanism of reactivity and inhibition properties of EA, we studied the effect of EA on mutagenicity and DNA alkylation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, including N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-Nnitrosoguanidine (MNNG). MNU and MNNG are direct-acting mutagens requiring no metabolic activation. MNU showed a linear dose response between the concentration range of 50 to 400 nmole in an Ames/Salmonella mammalian mutagenicity test. EA at concentrations of 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 nmole inhibited the mutagenicity of MNU (400 nmole) by 3, 13, 45,and 60%, respectively. MNNG produced a nonlinear dose response in mutagenicity between the concentrations of 0.5 to 4 nmole. EA showed no appreciable inhibition of MNNG mutagenicity. Inhibition of DNA alkylation by MNU and MNNG by EA was studied by preincubating 50 to 200 nmole of EA with 200 nmole of ( 3 H)-MNU or ( 3 H)-MNNG for 10 min at 37 0 c, followed by incubation of polymer deoxyguanosine: deoxycytosine (poly dG:dC) (1 unit) overnight. EA caused no inhibitory effect on MNNG alkylation of poly dG:dC. Experiments on the effect of EA on alkylation of DNA and formation of nucleoside adducts by MNU are in progress, and results will be discussed with reference to MNU and MNNG mutagenicity and EA inhibition

  6. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  7. Quantification of the genetic risk of environmental mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehling, U.H.

    1988-01-01

    Screening methods are used for hazard identification. Assays for heritable mutations in mammals are used for the confirmation of short-term test results and for the quantification of the genetic risk. There are two main approaches in making genetic risk estimates. One of these, termed the direct method, expresses risk in terms of the expected frequency of genetic changes induced per unit. The other, referred to as the doubling dose method or the indirect method, expresses risk in relation to the observed incidence of genetic disorders now present in man. The indirect method uses experimental data only for the calculation of the doubling dose. The quality of the risk estimation depends on the assumption of persistence of the induced mutations and the ability to determine the current incidence of genetic diseases. The difficulties of improving the estimates of current incidences of genetic diseases or the persistence of the genes in the population led them to the development of an alternative method, the direct estimation of the genetic risk. The direct estimation uses experimental data for the induced frequency for dominant mutations in mice. For the verification of these quantifications one can use the data of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. According to the estimation with the direct method, one would expect less than 1 radiation-induced dominant cataract in 19,000 children with one or both parents exposed. The expected overall frequency of dominant mutations in the first generation would be 20-25, based on radiation-induced dominant cataract mutations. It is estimated that 10 times more recessive than dominant mutations are induced. The same approaches can be used to determine the impact of chemical mutagens

  8. Potential conflict between TRIPS and GATT concerning parallel importation of drugs and possible solution to prevent undesirable market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-Fa

    2011-01-01

    From international perspective, parallel importation, especially with respect to drugs, has to do with the exhaustion principle in Article 6 of the TRIPS Agreement and the general exception in Article XX of the GATT 1994. Issues concerning the TRIPS Agreement have been constant topics of discussion. However, parallel importation in relation to the general rules of the GATT 1994 as well as to its exceptions provided in Article XX was not seriously discussed. In the view of the paper, there is a conflict between the provisions in these two agreements. The paper explains such conflict and tries to propose a method of interpretation to resolve the conflict between GATT Article XX and TRIPS Article 6 concerning parallel importation for the purpose of reducing the possible undesirable market segmentation in pharmaceutical sector. The method suggested in the paper is a proper application of good faith principle in the Vienna Convention to interpret GATT Article XX, so that there could be some flexibility for those prohibitions of parallel importation which have positive effect on international trade.

  9. Ames Mutagenicity Assessment of Flavored Water Pipe Tobacco Products :A Cross Sectional Study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Sadri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has become a global youth trend especially in the Middle East countries and Iran . The aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic effects of three most popular flavored tobaccos by four different salmonella typhimurium strains and compare the possible mutagenic effects of the test samples. Ames mutagenicity assessment was conducted according to the OECD guideline using TA100, TA98 , YG1024 and YG1029 strains. Charcoal burned flavored tobaccos of three different flavors including Orange, Double Apple, and Lime Mint were filtered and exposed to all strains after strain identification tests and MIC ,MBC determinations. The Ames test results indicated significant mutagenic effects of tobacco samples in all four test strains when compared with negative control (p≤0.0001. The highest Mutagenic Factor (MF was seen in Double Apple samples using TA 98 (MF=11.5±3.3 . In all experiments, TA strains showed higher sensitivity to the samples than YG strains which suggest these two strains for further regulatory toxicity tests ,policy making purposes and tobacco control programs . Present results represents an important step in understanding the genotoxic potentials of three most popular flavored tobaccos samples of a famous brand in the global markets .

  10. Mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and the effect of antioxidant vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Beverly A; Murphy, Jessica; Chen, James J; Desai, Varsha G; McGarrity, Lynda; Morris, Suzanne M; Casciano, Daniel A; Aidoo, Anane

    2002-01-01

    The food-derived heterocyclic amines (HCAs) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are mutagenic in the Ames test and produce tumors in laboratory animals, including monkeys. These HCAs have also been shown to induce gene mutations in vivo. To assess the antimutagenic effects of dietary antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), on food-borne mutagenes/carcinogens, we evaluated the mutagenic activity of the compounds alone or combined with antioxidant vitamins. We utilized the rat lymphocyte mutation assay at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus. Female Fischer 344 rats treated with different doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 25.0, and 50.0 mg/kg) of the carcinogens were sacrificed 5 wk after mutagen treatment. Although IQ and MeIQ slightly increased mutation frequency (MF) at some doses, a significant (P carcinogen metabolism would be affected by ingestion of vitamins. The activities of endogenous detoxification enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were thus examined. Intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C without the carcinogen resulted in an increase (P food or taken as supplements could, in part, counteract such mutagenic activities.

  11. Modulation of mutagen-induced biological effects by inhibitors of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Mullenders, L.F.H.; Zwanenburg, T.S.B.

    1986-01-01

    When lesions are induced in the DNA by mutagenic agents, they are subjected to cellular repair. Unrepaired and misrepaired lesions lead to biological effects, such as cell killing, point mutations and chromosomal alterations (aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges - SCEs). It is very difficult to directly correlate any particular type of lesion to a specific biological effect. However, in specific cases, this has been done. For example, short wave UV induced biological effects (cell killing, chromosomal alterations) result predominantly from induced cyclobutane dimers and by photoreactivation experiments, one can demonstrate that with the removal of dimers all types biological effects are diminished. In cases where many types of lesions are considered responsible for the observed biological effects other strategies have been employed to identify the possible lesion. The frequencies of induced chromosomal alterations and point mutations increase with the dose of the mutagen employed and an inhibition of DNA repair following treatment with the mutagen. Prevention of the cells from dividing following mutagen treatment allows them to repair premutational damage, thus reducing the biological effects induced. By comprehensive studies involving quantification of primary DNA lesions, their repair and biological effects will enable us to understand to some extent the complex processes involved in the manifestation of specific biological effects that follow the treatment of cells with mutagenic carcinogens

  12. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of airborne particles under industrial and rural influences in Northern Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Pamela N; Ledoux, Frédéric; Aouad, Samer; Billet, Sylvain; El Khoury, Bilal; Landkocz, Yann; Abdel-Massih, Roula M; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the main objectives were to assess the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of fine particulate matter collected in an industrial influenced site in comparison with a non-industrial influenced one (rural site) and to relate the particulate matter (PM) composition to the observed genotoxic effects. At the industrial influenced site, higher concentrations of phosphates, trace metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles could be related to the contributions of quarries, fertilizer producer, cement plants, and tires burning. Gasoline and diesel combustion contributions were evidenced in particles collected at both sites. Particles collected under industrial influence showed a higher mutagenic potential on three tested strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, YG1041, and TA102), and especially on the YG1041, compared to particles from the rural site. Furthermore, only particles collected in the vicinity of the industrial site showed a tendency to activate the SOS responses in Escherichia coli PQ37, which is indicative of DNA damage as a result of exposure of the bacteria cells to the action of mutagenic samples. The mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the industrial PM 2.5-0.3 particulates may be attributed to its composition especially in organic compounds. This study showed that proximity of industries can affect local PM composition as well as PM genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

  14. Quantitative measures of mutagenicity and multability based on mutant yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, F.; Haynes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    We describe, how mutant yield data (mutants per cell treated) can be used both to compare the mutagenenicity of different mutagens, and to characterize the mutability of different cell types. Yield curves reveal the net effect of the lethal and genetic actions of mutagens on cells. Normally, yields are the quantities measured in assays for mutagenesis, and rectilinear plots of such data baldly reveal the amount of experimental error and the extent of actual mutant induction above the background level. Plots of yield versus lethal hits can be used to quantify the relative mutagenenic efficiency (RME) of agents whose physical exposure doses otherwise would be incommensurable, as well as the relative mutability (Rmt) of different strains to the same mutagen. Plots of yield versus log dose provide an unambiguous way of assessing the relative mutational sensitivities (Rms) and mutational resolutions (Rmr) of different strains against a given mutagen. Such analysis is important for evaluation of the relative merits of excision-proficient and excision-deficient strains of the same organism as mutagen-testing systems. The mathematical approach outlined here is applied, by way of example, to measurements of UV and 4-NQO induced mutagenesis in both repair-deficient and repair-proficient haploid strains of the yeast Sacccharomyces cerevsiae. (orig.)

  15. Wholesomeness studies on gamma-irradiated smoked fish using short-term mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Banzon, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the mutagenicity potential of wood-smoked mackerel (Rastrelliger sp.) was investigated. Smoked fish were irradiated with dose of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 KGy, and tested for mutagenic activity using the Salmonella plate incorporation assay, host-mediated assay, and micronucleus test. The DMSO extract of unirradiated smoked fish was found to be mutagenic, without metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA 100 and TA 104, both sensitive to base-pair substitution mutations. Strains TA 98 and TA 97 which are sensitive to frameshift mutations showed no mutagenic activity towards the same DMSO extract. The observed response towards the Salmonella strains was not affected by irradiation in the range of radiation doses studied. The presence of protamutagens in the DMSO extract of unirradiated smoked fish was not detected using the host-mediated assay. In another in-vivo test however, the same DMSO extract induced the formation of micronuclei in the bonemarrow cells of mice. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 8.0 KGy did not affect the observed mutagenicity of wood-smoked fish. (author)

  16. Mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation and chemical and environmental agents in Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1988-01-01

    The studies covered the following problems: an influence of some environmental agents on the mutagenic effectiveness of ionizing radiation, interaction between ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the induction of somatic mutations and also an application of Tradescantia model system for biological monitoring. The studies showed that the pretreatment of Tradescantia plants with sodium fluoride or the modification of the soil composition with dolomite admixture, visibly influences plants radiosensitivity. The analysis of the changes in the dose-response curves suggested that the employed agents were influencing in different ways the repair processes of the DNA. The studies on the interaction between agents proved that the synergistic effect occurs in case of combined action of ionizing radiation with such chemical mutagens as ethyl methansulfonate or 1,2 dibromomethane. It was also discovered that in the range of low doses the effect was proportional to radiation dose and total exposition to chemical mutagen. The field application of Tradescantia method defined the mutagenicity of air pollution in the Cracow area. The highest frequencies of mutations were detected after the Chernobyl accident and after the damage of the filters in the Pharmaceutical Plant. The applied method was evaluated in respect of its usefulness for biological monitoring of environmental pollution. 163 refs. (author)

  17. Mutagenicity of smoke condensates from Canadian cigarettes with different design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladjenovic, Nemanja; Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Soo, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge regarding the impact of different cigarette designs on the toxicological properties of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This study used the Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay to examine the mutagenic activity of mainstream CSCs from 11 commercial Canadian cigarette brands with different design features or tobacco blend. The brands were selected to include design features that are common for cigarettes sold in the Canadian market, as well as cigarettes with alternate filters (charcoal or MicroBlue™), the super slim design, and cigarettes containing mixed blends of different tobacco types. CSCs were obtained using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) smoking regimes, and mutagenic activity was assessed using Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5185. Comparisons of the commercial brands to the Kentucky 3R4F, the Canadian Monitor 8 reference and a Canadian best seller revealed no significant reduction in CSC mutagenicity for cigarettes with alternate filters. However, the super slim design did afford some reduction in mutagenic potency. Nevertheless, since the study did not attempt to evaluate the impact of the cigarette designs on human health at the individual or population level, the super slim cigarettes cannot be considered 'reduced-harm' cigarettes.

  18. Mutagenic activity of N-nitrosoethylene urea in higher plants. [C. cappilaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sal' nikova, T.V.; Grigorova, N.V.; Laputin, D.L.; Shustova, L.L., Zazimko, V.V.; Shustov, G.V.; Kostyanovskiy, R.G.

    1984-04-01

    Cytopathogenetic effect of N-nitrosoethylene urea (NETM) on common wheat and C. cappilaris L. are studied. Air-dried wheat seeds were treated with 1 of 5 concentrations (0.1-0.01%) of NETM for 18 hours at pH 5.7 or 7.0. Treatment of seeds with NETM reduced the germinating power significantly at pH 5.7, especially at high concentrations of NETM. NETM is also a highly effective chemical mutagen. Maximum mutagenic effect appears at pH 7.0. NETM greatly reduced mitotic activity of wheat and C. cappilaris L. which is typical for alkylating type mutagens. The aberration rate is rather high for both objects studied. In both the anaphase and metaphase method of calculating chromosomal injuries, a great percentage of the total number of aberrations are chromatid type reconstructions which indicates predominance of the alkylating action of NETM. Wheat affected by NETM has a large number of anaphase cells with lagging chromosome which is atypical for alkylating type mutagens. This may be explained by the effect of NETM on centromeric and precentromeric parts of chromosomes and spindle filaments. NETM is an alkylating agent rather than a carbamoylating agent. It is a highly active and slightly toxic mutagen. 25 references, 1 figure.

  19. Assessment of diphenylcyclopropenone for photochemically induced mutagenicity in the Ames assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, M.G.; Connor, T.H.; Henkin, J.; Wilkin, J.K.; Matney, T.S.

    1987-10-01

    The photochemical conversion of diphenylcyclopropenone to diphenylacetylene has recently been reported. Diphenylcyclopropenone is used in the treatment of alopecia areata and is nonmutagenic in a limited Ames assay. We examined diphenylcyclopropenone and diphenylacetylene, as well as synthetic precursors of diphenylcyclopropenone--dibenzylketone and alpha,alpha'-dibromodibenzylketone--for mutagenicity against TA100, TA98, TA102, UTH8413, and UTH8414. All compounds were nonmutagenic except alpha,alpha'-dibromodibenzylketone, which was a potent mutagen in TA100 with and without S-9 activation. The effect of photochemical activation of diphenylcyclopropenone in the presence of bacteria demonstrated mutagenicity in UTH8413 (two times background) at 10 micrograms/plate with S-9 microsomal activation. 8-Methoxypsoralen produces a mutagenic response in TA102 at 0.1 microgram/plate with 60 seconds of exposure to 350 nm light. In vitro photochemically activated Ames assay with S-9 microsomal fraction may enhance the trapping of short-lived photochemically produced high-energy mutagenic intermediates. This technique offers exciting opportunities to trap high-energy intermediates that may play an important role in mutagenesis. This method can be applied to a variety of topically applied dermatologic agents, potentially subjected to photochemical changes in normal use.

  20. "Should I or shouldn't I?" Imitation of undesired versus allowed actions from peer and adult models by 18- and 24-month-old toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehagen, Sabine; Schneider, Silvia; Miebach, Kristin; Frigge, Katharina; Zmyj, Norbert

    2017-11-01

    Imitation is a common way of acquiring novel behaviors in toddlers. However, little is known about toddlers' imitation of undesired actions. Here we investigated 18- and 24-month-olds' (N=110) imitation of undesired and allowed actions from televised peer and adult models. Permissiveness of the demonstrated actions was indicated by the experimenter's response to their execution (angry or neutral). Analyses revealed that toddlers' imitation scores were higher after demonstrations of allowed versus undesired actions, regardless of the age of the model. In agreement with prior research, these results suggest that third-party reactions to a model's actions can be a powerful cue for toddlers to engage in or refrain from imitation. In the context of the present study, third-party reactions were more influential on imitation than the model's age. Considering the relative influence of different social cues for imitation can help to gain a fuller understanding of early observational learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Een onderzoek naar het voorkomen van mutagene en/of carcinogene verbindingen in organische concentraten van Nederlands drinkwater alsmede naar de effecten van diverse zuiveringsstappen op de mutagene activiteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool HJ; van Kreijl CF; Hrubec J; van Oers JAM; Persad S

    1987-01-01

    In drinkwater, bereid uit oppervlaktewater en grondwater werd in veel gevallen mutagene activiteit aangetoond. Duinfiltratie en actiefkool filtratie verwijderen de mutagene activiteit. Chloring verhoogt die activiteit aanzienlijk, chloordioxide in concentraties kleiner dan 1 mg/l C10-2 leidt tot

  2. Experimental study of mutagenous and mitosis modifying activity of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Kirbik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutagenous and mitosis modifying impact of silver nanoparticles has been studied on outbred mice. Nanoparticles were of round shape with dimensions of 5-50 nm, size of generated organic shell of 2-5 nm, the quantity in 1 mcm3 makes 120-270. Metaphasic analysis of mice bone marrow cells was used as a testing technique. The frequency of chromosome aberrations and mitotic index of preparations were accounted. During single intraperitoneal administration of the agent in the dose of 250 mcg/kg the silver nanoparticles demonstrated mitosis stimulating activity. No mutagenous effect of silver nanoparticles by daily administration for 4 days of 25 mcg/kg and single administration in the dose of 250 mcg/kg has been registered, but there is statistically insignificant tendency of aberrant metaphases increase. Consequently silver nanoparticles in the investigated doses demonstrated no mutagenous activity and can be considered safe for mammalian cells.

  3. New approaches to assessing the effects of mutagenic agents on the integrity of the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elespuru, R.K.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Heritable genetic alterations, although individually rare, have a substantial collective health impact. Approximately 20% of these are new mutations of unknown cause. Assessment of the effect of exposures to DNA damaging agents, i.e. mutagenic chemicals and radiations, on the integrity of the human genome and on the occurrence of genetic disease remains a daunting challenge. Recent insights may explain why previous examination of human exposures to ionizing radiation, as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, failed to reveal heritable genetic effects. New opportunities to assess the heritable genetic damaging effects of environmental mutagens are afforded by: (1) integration of knowledge on the molecular nature of genetic disorders and the molecular effects of mutagens; (2) the development of more practical assays for germline mutagenesis; (3) the likely use of population-based genetic screening in personalized medicine

  4. Interactive lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light and bleomycin in yeast: synergism or antagonism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, O L; Severgnini, A A; Nunes, E M

    1997-11-01

    The mutagenic interactions of ultraviolet light and bleomycin in haploid populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed. Survival and mutation frequency as a function of different bleomycin concentrations after one conditioning dose of UV radiation were determined. Furthermore, corresponding interaction functions and sensitization factors were calculated. A synergistic interaction between UV light and bleomycin was shown for both lethal and mutagenic events when the cells were in nutrient broth during the treatments. Conversely, the interaction between UV light and bleomycin was antagonistic when the cells were in deionized water during the treatment. The magnitude of lethal and mutagenic interactions depends on dose, and thus presumably on the number of lesions. The observed interactions between UV light and bleomycin suggest that the mechanism that is most likely involved is the induction of repair systems with different error probabilities during the delay of cell division.

  5. [Mutagenic effect of the food-coloring agents tartrazine and indigo carmine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpliuk, I A; Volkova, N A; Okuneva, L A; Gogol', A T; Rybakova, K D

    1984-01-01

    The authors studied the mutagenic action of the food dyes, tartrazine (both Soviet and imported) and indigocarmine in a microbial model and in warm-blooded animals (linear mice). Determined the toxicity and mutagenic action of the dyes on E. coli, strain K-12, carried out chromosomal analysis of the bone marrow, examined the dominant lethals in CBA X C57BL/6 mice. The recommended daily dose amounts to 400 mg/kg for tartrazine and to 50 mg/kg for indigocarmine with regard to the safety factor equal to 100. The data derived as a result of studying the mutagenic activity of tartrazine manufactured in the USSR and CSSR and indigocarmine paste in 3 experimental models allow the conclusion to be made that the doses of these dyes applied in food industry are fairly safe.

  6. Bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cell DNA damage by several substituted anilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, D; Mazurek, J; Petzold, G; Bhuyan, B K

    1980-04-01

    Several substituted alkyl- and haloanilines were tested for their ability to mutate Salmonella typhimurium and to damage the DNA of mammalian (V79) cells. These results were correlated with their reported carcinogenicity. Of 9 suspected carcinogens, 4 were bacterial mutagens and 4 (out of 7 tested) damaged DNA of V79 cells. The following compounds were weakly mutagenic (less than 150 revertants/mumole): 4-fluoroaniline, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5- and 3,4-dimethylaniline, and 2-methyl-4-fluoroaniline. The following compounds were strong mutagens: 2,4,5-trimethylaniline, 2-methyl-4-chloro-, and 2-methyl-4-bromo-, 4-methyl-2-chloro-, 4-methyl-2-bromo- and 2-ethyl-4-chloroaniline. The compounds which damaged DNA in V79 cells were: 2 methyl-4-chloroaniline, 2-methyl-4-bromoaniline, 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trimethylaniline.

  7. Mutagenicity evaluation of forty-one metal salts by the umu test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Kohyama, Yuko; Hanawa, Takao

    2002-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials implanted in a human body may corrode and wear, releasing metal ions and debris which may induce adverse reactions such as inflammation, allergy, neoplastic formation, developmental malformation, etc. Mutagenicity is a very fundamental and important toxicity related to carcinogenicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity because the damages to genes or DNA can be a cause of carcinogenesis and developmental abnormalities. However, available mutagenic data on metallic ions and compounds are restricted to the number of elements. Therefore, to obtain the systematic data necessary for metal ion mutagenicity, 41 metal salts encompassing 36 metals and 5 metallic elements tested with different valences, were evaluated on their mutagenicity by a microbial test, the umu test. As a result, K(2)Cr(2)O(7), RhCl(3), IrCl(4), and MgCl(2) are positive without metabolic activation. Concentrations having the maximum mutagenic effect (C(max)) are 9.65 x 10(-5), 1.00 x 10(-4), 3.11 x 10(-3), 4.12 x 10(-3) mol. L(-1), respectively. CuCl(2), VCl(3), CuCl, RhCl(3), K(2)Cr(2)O(7), and IrCl(4) are positive with metabolic activation by S-9 mix with C(max) of 1.60 x 10(-5), 3.91 x 10(-5), 1.57 x 10(-4), 2.00 x 10(-4), 3.86 x 10(-4), 1.56 x 10(-2) mol. L(-1), respectively. Thirty-five metal salts were negative for tests performed both with and without metabolic activation, whereas it was impossible to evaluate the mutagenicity of MoCl(5) and ZrCl(4) by the umu test because of their colorimetric reaction to testing reagents. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. An Evaluation of the Mode of Action Framework for MutagenicCarcinogens Case Study II: Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the 2005 revised U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Cancer Guidelines, a strategy is being developed to include all mutagenicity and other genotoxicity data with any additional information to determine whether a carcinogen operates through a mutagenic mode...

  9. ASCORBIC ACID REDUCTION OF ACTIVE CHLORINE PRIOR TO DETERMINING AMES MUTAGENICITY OF CHLORINATED NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many potable water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that result from the reaction of natural organic matter (NOM) with oxidizing chlorine are known or suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. The Ames assay is routinely used to assess an overall level of mutagenicity for all com...

  10. Mutagenic effects of 3-carbethoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365-nm irradiation in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulo, D.; Sagliocco, F.; Averbeck, D.

    1983-01-01

    Cell survival, i.e. colony-forming ability, and the induction of 6-thioguanine-resistant (6-TGsup(r)) mutants were determined in Chinese hamster V79 cells by using two photoreactive furocoumarins of photochemotherapeutic interest: the bifunctional compound 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and the monofunctional compound 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs). To quantify the mutation induction in V79 cells mutants deficient in the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) were selected with the purine analogue 6-thioguanine (6-TG). Both compounds exhibited lethal and mutagenic activities but the monofunctional compound 3-CPs was less lethal and mutagenic than the bifunctional compound 8-MOP. (Auth.)

  11. Mutagenic action of radiation with different LET on Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    edinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Obedinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" >Borejko, A.V.; edinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Obedinennyj Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij, Dubna (Russian Federation))" >Krasavin, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The induction of the his - -> his + mutants in vegetative and spores of Bacillus subtilis wild type cells irradiated with γ-rays and helium ions (LET = 20-80 keV/μm) has been investigated. It was shown that the dose dependence of the mutation induction in vegetative cells is described by a linear-quadratic function of dose in case of both γ-rays and helium ions. RBE (LET) dependencies on the lethal and mutagenic effect of radiation have a local maximum. The maximum of RBE (LET) dependence on the mutagenic assay is shifted at the low region of LET in comparison with the lethal effect of irradiation. (author)

  12. Radiosensitization, mutagenicity, and toxicity of Escherichia coli by several nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chessin, H.; McLaughlin, T.; Mroczkowski, Z.; Rupp, W.D.; Low, K.B.

    1978-08-01

    Representative nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, nifuroxime, NF-167, NF-269) and nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, misonidazole) were found to sensitize hypoxic RecA/sup -/ Escherichia coli cells to X irradiation. These compounds were also mutagenic to E. coli using a UvrA/sup -/ strain as a test system, and toxic at high concentrations, using several strains differing in their repair capacity. However, the relative degrees of radiosensitization, mutagenicity, and toxicity, for the various compounds, were not simply correlated, suggesting that potential radiosensitizers with fewer side effects could be screened using bacteria.

  13. Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Tanaka, Ryou-ichi

    1986-01-01

    SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens was strongly suppressed by instant coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. As decaffeinated instant coffee showed a similarly strong suppressive effect, it would seem that caffeine, a known inhibitor of SOS responses, is not responsible for the effect observed. The suppression was also shown by freshly brewed coffee extracts. However, the suppression was absent in green coffee-bean extracts. These results suggest that coffee contains some substance(s) which, apart from caffeine, suppresses SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens and that the suppressive substance(s) are produced by roasting coffee beans. (Auth.)

  14. The changeability of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. 1. The action of some mutagenous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinova, T.M.; Terekhova, V.A.; D'yakov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The lethal and mutagenous actions of UV rays, nitrozomethylurea, and nitrosoguanidine in respect to Conidia of rice Pyricularia oryzae Cav. agent have been investigated. It has been found out that low doses of UV-radiation, which are not lethal for a three-cell conidia, increase the intensity of two-cell vegetation. All the investigated mutagens cause a formation of mutants which are deficient according to pigment synthesis white and pink colonies and differ by their reduced growth. Auxotrophic mutants were mainly obtained under the action of nitroso compounds

  15. Investigation of mutagenicity of extracts of hydrobionts from lake Drukshiai and water from its streamlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekevichius, R.; Dagyte, B.; Sabaliuniene, I.; Shumyliene, I.; Mishkelevichiute, E.

    1995-01-01

    Rain-water samples from Ignalina NPP buildings and industry sewerage water samples collected in 1993-1994 induced statistically significant increase in levels of frameshift and and base-substitution mutations in Salmonella typhimurium Ames tester strains. It was found that mutagens originated not by Ignalina NPP get into lake Drukshiai from its streamlets. Extracts from 4 species of molluscs did not induce frameshift and base-substitution mutations in Ames tester-strains. Among extracts of liver, muscles and gonads from 4 fish species tested, the highest mutagenicity levels were induced by extracts of gonads from the largest fish. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Influence of mutagens on enzymes of germinating seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Jayabalan, N.; Juliana, B.

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the enzymes amylases, protease and phosphatases were studied in cotton during germination. The seeds were treated with 100-500 Gy of gamma rays, 10-50 mM of EMS, CA and SA in two cultivated varieties viz.. MCU 5 and MCU 11. Activity pattern of amylases, protease and phosphatases in treated seeds were significantly altered from controls. The alteration were positively correlated with increasing dose/concentration of mutagens up to 300 Gy of gamma rays and 30 mM of EMS, CA and SA. The present study pave the ways to discuss the importance of the enzymes and mutagens in germination of cotton seeds. (author)

  17. Mutagenic activity of 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol in strains TA1538 and TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, G; Bouter, S; de Knijff, P

    1982-12-01

    The mutagenicity of 2-(2',4'-diaminophenoxy)ethanol (2,4-DAPE) was compared with that of 2,4-diaminoanisole (2,4-DAA), a chemically related compound previously used in hair-dye formulations. Both chemicals were tested in standard procedures with the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test as described by Ames and colleagues. In several experiments, which extended over a total period of 2 years, 2,4-DAA exhibited definite, but variable mutagenicity toward strain TA1538 when S9 preparations of rat liver induced with Aroclor 1254 were present in the incubation mixtures. The compound 2,4-DAPE did not exhibit detectable mutagenic activity when tested concomitantly under the same experimental conditions. We conclude that 2,4-DAPE is not mutagenic for Salmonella under conditions of the standard mammalian microsome assay with strain TA1538 and TA98 as indicators.

  18. Some aspects of the combined mutagenic utilization of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the experimental mutagenesis with Chlorella vulgaris B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhandzhiev, A.D.; Chankova, S.G.; Petkova, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of mutagen dose and cell cycle phase in combined mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation and EMS was experimentally studied on Chlorella vulgaris B. The duration of the cell cycle phases was determined from autoradiographic data on the kinetics of the incorporated labelled precursor ( 3 H-thymidine). The mutagenic effect was evaluated on the 10th or 11th day by the induced pigment mutations on a total of 450,105 colonies. It was found that the combining of 2, 6 or 15 krad gamma rays with EMC in doses 0.002, 0.125 or 0.5 M on the 4th, 12th, 11th, 16th or 18th hour of the cell cycle has a different effect, depending on mutagen dose and cell cycle phase. In this way, combining three different doses of gamma rays with 0.5 M EMC(LDsub(90-99)) at the onset of G 1 induces a distinct rise in the percentage of pigment mutations, as compared to the theoretically expected. The superadditive effect in this case however was associated with limitation of the mutation spectrum. Treatment with average lethal combination (6 krad gamma rays + 0.002 M EMC or 6 krad gamma rays + 0.125 M EMC) was not very effective, but the induced mutations had a rather broader spectrum (8-9 types). A comparison of the theoretically expected yield of pigment mutations with the actually obtained one shows a superadditibility only in cells treated in G 1 (LD 60 ) and in the mid S-phase (LD 40 ). (A.B.)

  19. A comparative analysis of China’s regional energy and emission performance: Which is the better way to deal with undesirable outputs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wei Yiming; Zhang Xian

    2012-01-01

    Measuring and improving the energy performance with considering emission constraints is an important issue for China’s energy conservation, pollutant emissions reduction and environment protection. This study utilizes several data envelopment analysis (DEA) based models to evaluate the total-factor energy and emission performance of China’s 30 regions within a joint production framework of considering desirable and undesirable outputs as well as separated energy and non-energy inputs. DEA window analysis is applied in this study to deal with cross-sectional and time-varying data, so as to measure the performance during the period of 2000–2009. Two treatments for undesirable outputs are combined with DEA models and the associated indicators for simplex energy performance and unified energy and emission performance measurement are proposed and compared. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment of undesirable outputs transformation is more appropriate for China’s regional energy and emission performance evaluation because it has stronger discriminating power and can provide more reasonable evaluation results that characterize China’s regions. The empirical result shows that east China has the highest and the most balanced energy and emission performance. The energy and emission performance of China remained stable during 2000–2003, decreased slightly during 2004–2006, and has continuously increased since 2007. - Highlights: ► We evaluate China’s regional energy and emission performance using DEA based models. ► We compare two undesirable outputs treatments according to the evaluation results. ► To treat undesirable outputs as inputs has weaker discriminating power in evaluation. ► Simplex energy performance, without environmental factors, is a biased evaluation. ► China’s energy and emission performance is approximately stable during study period.

  20. Studies on chemical and physical mutagens' induced polygenic variability in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangwan, H.P.S.; Singh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Pulses used to be and still are cultivated on marginal lands under poor management conditions which result in low production. Genotypes which could respond to better management have been eliminated by past selection. It is, therefore, difficult and challenging to breed high yielding varieties in pulse crops with the limited genetic variability available. Induced mutations could supplement this variability. Extensive studies on genotype-mutagen interaction were undertaken with six varieties of mungbean having contrasting seed characteristics, morphological traits and genetic backgrounds. Each variety was treated with 300 Gy and 600 Gy of gamma rays, 0.1 and 0.5% of EMS, and 0.1 and 0.05 of SA. Dry seeds, water soaked and phosphate buffer soaked seeds served as controls. The following observations were made: differential response of varieties to mutagen treatments - irrespective of the variety or the characters; gamma-rays proved to be more effective than chemical mutagens; mutagenic treatments resulted in development of early maturing mutants that can fit well in multiple cropping systems particularly in raising a mung crop after the wheat harvest. The fact that some mutants were detected in M 4 with significant increase in yield and marginal improvement in protein content generation suggests the possibility of improving both characters provided a large population is screened. (author)

  1. Mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from wood combustion in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, B; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Pio, C; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2012-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) extracts of fine particles (PM(2.5)) collected from combustion of seven wood species and briquettes were tested for mutagenic activities using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (olive), and Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak). Burning experiments were done using woodstove and fireplace, hot start and cold start conditions. A mutagenic response was recorded for all species except golden wattle, maritime pine, and briquettes. The mutagenic extracts were not correlated with high emission factors of carcinogenic PAHs. These extracts were obtained both from two burning appliances and start-up conditions. However, fireplace seemed to favour the occurrence of mutagenic emissions. The negative result recorded for golden wattle was interesting, in an ecological point of view, since after confirmation, this invasive species, can be recommended for domestic use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intercellular distribution of mutations induced in oopcytes of Drosophila melanogaster by chemical and physical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, H.

    1979-01-01

    When females of Drosophila melanogaster are treated with chemical or physical mutagens, not only in one but also in both of the two homologous X chromosomes of a given oocyte, a recessive sex-linked lethal mutation may be induced. A method is described that discriminates between such single and double mutations. A theory is developed to show how a comparison betweeen the expected and the observer frequency of double mutations yields an indication of the intercellular distribution (random or nonrandom) of recessive lethal mutations induced by mutagenic agents in oocytes and, consequently, of the distribution (homogenous or nonhomogeneous) of those agents. Three agents were tested: FUdR (12.5, 50.0 and 81.0 μg/ml), mitomycin C (130.0 μg/ml) and x rays (2000 R, 150 kV). After FUdR feeding, no increase in the mutation frequency usually observed in D. melanogaster without mutagenic treatment was obtained (u = 0.13%, namely three single mutations among 2332 chromosomes tested). After mitomycin C feeding 104 single and three double mutations were obtained. All of the 50 mutations observed after x irradiation were single mutations. The results obtained in the mitomycin C and radiation experiments favor the assumption of a random intercellular distribution of recessive lethal mutations induced by these two agents in oocytes of D. melanogaster. Reasons are discussed why for other types of mutagenic agents nonrandom distributions may be observed with our technique

  3. [In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides

  4. MUTAGENICITY OF NITRITE-TREATED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF 'PIPER BETLE'; L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betel quid is chewed as a masticatory material by people in certain areas of Asia. The quid chewing has been related to oral cancer by epidemiological study. The mutagenic components in the aqueous extracts of betel quid ingredients were studied. Only nitrite-treated aqueous extr...

  5. The inactivating and mutagenic effect of hydroxylamine on bacteriophage φX174

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, J.H. van de; Arkel, G.A. van

    1965-01-01

    The inactivation of bacteriophage ΦXI74 by the mutagenic agents nitrous acid and ultraviolet irradiation proceeds according to a single-hit kinetics. However, treatment of purified ΦXI74 by hydroxylamine (HA) at pH 6 and 25° results in an inactivation that is not strictly exponential. The

  6. Quantitative changes in endogenous DNA adducts correlate with conazole mutagenicity and tumorigenicity in mouse liver.**

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that the conazole fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole, which are tumorigenic in mouse liver, are in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses. The nontumorigenic conazole myclo...

  7. Quantitative changes in endogenous DNA adducts correlate with conazole mutagenicity and tumorigenicity in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that the conazole fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole, which are tumorigenic in mouse liver, are in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses. The nontumorigenic conazole myclo...

  8. An evaluation of the mode of action framework for mutagenic carcinogens: Chromium (VI): SOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the 2005 revised U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Cancer Guidelines, a strategy is being developed to determine whether a carcinogen operates through a mutagenic mode of action (MOA). This information is necessary for EPA to decide whether age-dependent ...

  9. An evaluation of the mode of action framework for mutagenic carcinogens: chromium (VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the 2005 revised U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Cancer Guidelines, a strategy is being developed to determine whether a carcinogen operates through a mutagenic mode of action (MOA). This information is necessary for EPA to decide whether age-dependent ...

  10. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideropoulos, A.S.; Specht, S.M.; Jones, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr + and hcr - are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm 2 , chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed 'mutational synergism' [18,20]. We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for 'mutational synergism' between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 μg/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 μg/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 μg/ml), chloroquine (50 μg/ml), quinine (50 μg/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 μg/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effects with UV light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of UV than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Carcinogens, Teratogens and Mutagens: Their Impact on Occupational Health, Particularly for Women in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, J. E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant women, especially those working in veterinary medicine, face occupational health/disease risks from mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens. These hazards can be placed into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Each of these hazards is discussed with examples. (Author/JN)

  12. Paving asphalt products exhibit a lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; McKee, Richard H; Minsavage, Gary D; McGowan, Claude; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Freeman, James J

    2011-10-01

    A paving asphalt and a vacuum residuum (derived from crude oil by atmospheric and subsequent vacuum distillation and used as a blend stock for asphalt) were tested in skin carcinogenesis assays in mice and in optimized Ames assays for mutagenic activity. In the skin cancer tests, each substance was applied twice weekly for 104 weeks to the clipped backs of groups of 50 male C3H mice. Neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum (30% weight/volume and 75% weight/weight in US Pharmacopeia mineral oil, respectively) produced any tumors. The positive control benzo[a]pyrene (0.05% w/v in toluene) induced tumors in 46 of 50 mice, demonstrating the effectiveness of the test method. Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used in the optimized Ames assay to evaluate mutagenic potential. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extractions of the substances were not mutagenic when tested up to toxic limits. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum was carcinogenic or mutagenic.

  13. MUTAGENICITY AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN SURFACE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTED WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this research were to study the influence of peracetic acid (PAA) on the formation of mutagens in surface waters used for human consumption and to assess its potential application for the disinfection of drinking water. The results obtained using PAA were compared to ...

  14. Molecular basis of the mutagenic and lethal effects of ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.

    1982-01-01

    Using bacteria as a model, the molecular basis of the mutagenic and lethal effects of uv radiation is being studied. Attention is focused on the mechanism of action of uv-1 specific endonucleases in the repair of damaged DNA. The isolation and identification of similar enzymes in human cells are being conducted concurrently

  15. Mutagenic interactions between near-ultraviolet (365 nm) radiation and alkylating agents in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, E.C. de; Tyrell, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The mutagenic interaction between near-ultrviolet (365 nm) radiation and the alkylting agents ehtyl methanesulponate (EMS) and methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) was studied in a repair-component and an excision-deficient stram of Escherichia coli. Near-UV raditation modified the metabolic response of of exposure to these chemicals and either reduced or increased their mutagenic efficiency. Based on these results, an experimental model was formulated to explain the mutagenic interactions that occur between near-UV and various agents that induce prototrophic reverants cia error-prone repair of DNA. According to this model, low doses of near-UV provoke conditions for mutation frequency decline (MFI) and lead to a mutagenic antagonism. With increasing near-Uv doses, damage to constitutive error-free repairs system increases, favouring the error-prone system and inhibiting the MFD. Under these conditions there will be a progressive decrease in antagonism until at high doses an enhancement of mutation frequency (positive interaction) will occur. (orig.)

  16. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98, while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%, were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  17. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia extract in chromosomal aberration assays in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Carla Carolina; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Alves, Jacqueline Morais; de Sousa, João Paulo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2008-09-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (Asteraceae), a native plant from the Brazilian "cerrado", is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent and for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. B. dracunculifolia has been described as the most important plant source of propolis in southeastern Brazil, which is called green propolis due to its color. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the ethyl acetate extract of B. dracunculifolia leaves (Bd-EAE) on Chinese hamster ovary cells. On one hand, the results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations at the highest Bd-EAE concentration tested (100 microg/mL). On the other hand, the lowest Bd-EAE concentration tested (12.5 micro/mL) significantly reduced the chromosome damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. The present results indicate that Bd-EAE has the characteristics of a so-called Janus compound, that is, Bd-EAE is mutagenic at higher concentrations, whereas it displays a chemopreventive effect on doxorubicin-induced mutagenicity at lower concentrations. The constituents of B. dracunculifolia responsible for its mutagenic and antimutagenic effects are probably flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, since these compounds can act either as pro-oxidants or as free radical scavengers depending on their concentration.

  18. Diesel exhaust particles are mutagenic in FE1-MutaMouse lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Cohn, Corey Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The particulate phase of diesel engine exhaust is likely carcinogenic. However, the mechanisms of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) induced mutagenicity/carcinogenicity are still largely unknown. We determined the mutant frequency following eight repeated 72 h incubations with 37.5 or 75 microg...

  19. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideropoulos, A S; Specht, S M; Jones, M T [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1980-04-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/ are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm/sup 2/, chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed 'mutational synergism' (18,20). We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for 'mutational synergism' between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 ..mu..g/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 ..mu..g/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 ..mu..g/ml), chloroquine (50 ..mu..g/ml), quinine (50 ..mu..g/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 ..mu..g/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effects with UV light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of UV than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed.

  20. Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM David G. Nashab, Esra Mutluc, William T. Prestond, Michael D. Haysb, Sarah H. Warrenc, Charly Kingc, William P. Linakb, M. lan Gilmourc, and David M. DeMarinic aOak Ridge Institute for Science and Ed...

  1. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Salacia crassifolia (mart. Ex. Schult. G. Don. evaluated by Ames test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult. G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+ in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05, suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p < 0.05, demonstrating protection against mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, whereas the hexane fraction did not show antimutagenic effect in this strain. In the TA100 strain, all fractions of S. crassifolia protected DNA against the harmful action of sodium azide, and the hexane fraction exhibited the greatest protection in this work. Thus, it’s possible conclude that the fractions of S. crassifolia tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.

  2. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of food compounds : Application of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Cyrille Anna Maria

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of humans to potential mutagenic and carcinogenic food compounds through the diet is unavoidable. On the other hand, there is epidemiological evidence for antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties of food as well (such as vegetables and fruit). The assessment of carcinogenic and cancer

  3. Radiation and chemical mutagen induced somaclonal variations through in vitro organogenesis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Annamalai; Jayabalan, Narayanasamy

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to induce somaclonal variations by gamma rays (GR), ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA) during in vitro organogenesis of cotton. The shoot tip explants were irradiated with 5-50 Gray (Gy) GR (Cobalt 60), 0.5-5.0 mM EMS and SA separately, and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with plant growth regulator (PGR) for organogenesis. The plantlets with well-developed root systems were acclimatized and transferred into the experimental field to screen the somaclonal variations during growth and development. The number of somaclonal variations was observed in growth of irradiated/treated shoot tips, multiplication, plantlet regeneration and growth in vitro and ex vitro. The lower doses/concentrations of mutagenic treatments showed significant enhancement in selected agronomical characters and they showed decreased trends with increasing doses/concentrations of mutagenic agents. The results of the present study revealed the influence of lower doses/concentrations of mutagenic treatments on in vitro and ex vitro growth of cotton plantlets and their significant improvement in agronomical characters which needs further imperative stability analysis. The present observations showed the platform to use lower doses/concentrations of mutagenic agents to induce variability for enhanced agronomical characters, resistant and tolerant cotton varieties.

  4. Mutagenic effect of cyclophosphan on bone marrow cells of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkan, R.S.; Yakovleva, T.K.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of male rats was studied 24 hours after the intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphane (25 mg/kg weight). Cyclophosphane (CP) was injected to animals that had been earlier (15 days before, 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9 months earlier) exposed to X-ray and γ-irradiation at the dose of 400 rad. It has been shown that the preliminary irradiation of animals results in a higher mutagenic CP effect as against its effect for non irradiated rats. The effect was recorded during four months following the acute single x-irradiation (dose rate of 70 rad/min) and within one month following chronic γ-irradiation (dose rate of 100 rad/day). At later periods, the above effect fully disappeared. Chronic irradiation was less effective with regard to the subsequent mutagenic CP action than the acute irradiation. In most experiments with acute irradiation an increase in mutagenic CP efficiency revealed itself both in an increase in the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations and in the cell damage rate. The possible mechanisms of the effect of preliminary irradiation on the subsequent mutagenic effect of chemical compounds are discussed

  5. Ascorbic acid reduced mutagenicity at the HPRT locus in CHO cells against thermal neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinashi, Yuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Nagata, Kenji; Ono, Koji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the biological effects of the long-lived radicals induced following neutron irradiation. It has been reported that radiation-induced long-lived radicals were scavenged by post-irradiation treatment of ascorbic acid (Koyama, 1998). We studied the effects of ascorbic acid acting as a long-lived radical scavenger on cell killing and mutagenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells against thermal neutrons produced at the Kyoto University Research reactor. Ascorbic acid was added to cells 30 min after neutron irradiation and removed 150 min after irradiation. The biological end point of cell survival was measured by colony formation assay. The mutagenicity was measured by the mutant frequency in the HPRT locus. The post-irradiation treatment of ascorbic acid did not alter the cell killing effect of neutron radiation. However, the mutagenicity was decreased, especially when the cells were irradiated with boron. Our results suggested that ascorbic acid scavenged long-lived radicals effectively and caused apparent protective effects against mutagenicity of boron neutron capture therapy

  6. The photo-oxidation of automobile emissions: measurements of the transformation products and their mutagenic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.; Smith, David F.; Hudgens, Edward E.; Snow, Richard F.; Perry, Erica; Claxton, Larry D.; Bufalini, Joseph J.; Black, Francis M.; Cupitt, Larry T.

    Dilute mixtures of automobile emissions (comprising 50% exhaust and 50% surrogate evaporative emissions) were irradiated in a 22.7 m 3 smog chamber and tested for mutagenic activity by using a variant of the Ames test. The exhaust was taken from a single vehicle, a 1977 Ford Mustang equipped with a catalytic converter. Irradiated and nonirradiated gas-phase emissions were used in exposures of the bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA100 and TA98. A single set of vehicular operating conditions was used to perform multiple exposures. The mutagenic activities of extracts from the particulate phase were also measured with the standard plate incorporation assay. (In most experiments only direct-acting mutagenic compounds were measured.) The gas-phase data for TA100 and TA98 showed increased activity for the irradiated emissions when compared to the nonirradiated mixture, which exhibited negligible activity with respect to the control values. The particulate phase for both the irradiated and nonirradiated mixtures showed negligible activity when results were compared to the control values for both strains. However, the experimental conditions limited the amount of extractable mass which could be collected in the particulate phase. The measured activities from the gas phase and particulate phase were converted to the number of revertants per cubic meter of effluent (i.e. the mutagenic density) to compare the contributions of each of these phases to the total mutagenic activity for each strain. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the mutagenic density of the gas-phase component of the irradiated mixture contributed approximately two orders of magnitude more of the total TA100 activity than did the particulate phase. For TA98 the gas-phase component contributed approximately one order of magnitude more. However, caution must be exercised in extrapolating these results to urban atmospheres heavily impacted by automotive emissions, because the bacterial

  7. Plant composition, pharmacological properties and mutagenic evaluation of a commercial Zulu herbal mixture: Imbiza ephuzwato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, A R; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2011-01-27

    Imbiza ephuzwato is a traditional herbal tonic made from a mixture of extracts of roots, bulbs, rhizomes and leaves of 21 medicinal plants and is used in traditional medicine as a multipurpose remedy. To compile and investigate the bioactivity and mutagenic effects of extracts of the 21 plant species used in the preparation of Imbiza ephuzwato herbal tonic. The 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato herbal mixture were each investigated for their pharmacological properties. Petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), 80% ethanol (EtOH) and water extracts of the 21 plants were evaluated against two gram-positive, two gram-negative bacteria and a fungus Candida albicans. The extracts were also evaluated for their inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) and acetylcholinesterase AChE enzymes. Mutagenic effects of the water extracts were evaluated using the Ames test. Gunnera perpensa and Rubia cordifolia were the only plant species used to manufacture Imbiza ephuzwato that had water extracts which showed good antibacterial activity. The extracts of G. perpensa (EtOH), Hypericum aethiopicum (DCM) and Urginea physodes (EtOH) showed the best antifungal activity. The water extracts of H. aethiopicum, G. perpensa, Drimia robusta, Vitellariopsis marginata, Scadoxus puniceus and Momordica balsamina showed percentage inhibition of COX-1 that was over 70%. For COX-2 enzyme, the water extracts of G. perpensa, Cyrtanthus obliquus, M. balsamina and Tetradenia riparia exhibited inhibitory activity above 70%. Water extracts of G. perpensa, C. obliquus, V. marginata, Asclepias fruticosa and Watsonia densiflora showed good AChE inhibitory activity (>80%). The Ames test results revealed that all the water extracts of the 21 plant species used to make Imbiza ephuzwato were non-mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. In contrast, Imbiza ephuzwato showed mutagenic effects after exposure to S

  8. Genotoxic and mutagenic properties of Bauhinia platypetala extract, a traditional Brazilian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Francisco José Borges Dos; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Péres, Valéria Flores; Sperotto, Angelo Regis de Moura; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo; Saffi, Jenifer

    2012-12-18

    Bauhinia platypetala Burch. is a traditionally used Brazilian medicinal plant, although no evidence in the literature substantiates the safety of its use. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the ethanolic extract and the ethereal fraction of B. platypetala leaves. The identification of chemical compounds from the B. platypetala ethanolic extract and its ethereal fraction was performed by GC/MS and ESI-MS/MS. The plant's toxicological, cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic properties were determined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and V79 cell culture by survival assays and comet assay. The major compound identified in the B. platypetala ethanolic extract is palmitic acid, kaempferitirin and quercitrin, while the B. platypetala ethereal fraction was found to be rich in phytol, gamma-sitosterol and vitamin E. Moreover, the results indicated that the B. platypetala ethanolic extract has an anti-oxidative effect against H(2)O(2) in yeast. In addition, the B. platypetala ethanolic extract did not induce mutagenic effects on the S. cerevisiae N123 strain, but the ethereal fraction of B. platypetala at higher concentrations (250-500 μg/mL) induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A slight cytotoxic effect was observed in mammalian V79 cells; however, both the B. platypetala ethanolic extract and its ethereal fraction were able to induce DNA strand breaks in V79 cells, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. The B. platypetala ethanolic extract has antioxidant action and showed absence of mutagenic effects in yeast S. cerevisiae. On the other hand B. platypetala ethereal fraction is mutagenic and does not show antioxidant activity in yeast. In mammalian cells B. platypetala ethanolic extract and it's ethereal fraction induce cyotoxic and genotoxic action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atypical Role for PhoU in Mutagenic Break Repair under Stress in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Gibson

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses drive pathogen/host adaptation, antibiotic and anti-fungal-drug resistance, and perhaps much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs by homologous recombination is high fidelity in unstressed cells, but switches to a mutagenic mode using error-prone DNA polymerases when the both the SOS and general (σS stress responses are activated. Additionally, the σE response promotes spontaneous DNA breakage that leads to mutagenic break repair (MBR. We identified the regulatory protein PhoU in a genetic screen for functions required for MBR. PhoU negatively regulates the phosphate-transport and utilization (Pho regulon when phosphate is in excess, including the PstB and PstC subunits of the phosphate-specific ABC transporter PstSCAB. Here, we characterize the PhoU mutation-promoting role. First, some mutations that affect phosphate transport and Pho transcriptional regulation decrease mutagenesis. Second, the mutagenesis and regulon-expression phenotypes do not correspond, revealing an apparent new function(s for PhoU. Third, the PhoU mutagenic role is not via activation of the σS, SOS or σE responses, because mutations (or DSBs that restore mutagenesis to cells defective in these stress responses do not restore mutagenesis to phoU cells. Fourth, the mutagenesis defect in phoU-mutant cells is partially restored by deletion of arcA, a gene normally repressed by PhoU, implying that a gene(s repressed by ArcA promotes mutagenic break repair. The data show a new role for PhoU in regulation, and a new regulatory branch of the stress-response signaling web that activates mutagenic break repair in E. coli.

  10. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Mutagenicity of γ-irradiated oxygenated and deoxygenated solutions of 2-deoxy-D-ribose and D-ribose in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, J.; Leveling, H.; Schubert, J.

    1981-01-01

    Solutions of 2-deoxy-D-ribose and D-ribose were γ-irradiated under different experimental conditions and tested for mutagenicity, with and without preincubation, in Salmonella typhimurium. The irradiated sugar solutions were mutagenic in the tester strains TA 100 and TA 98. Except for malonaldehyde (MDA), which is not mutagenic in the concentrations produced radiolytically, the relative mutagenicities of the individual radiolytic products are unknown. With irradiated solutions of 2-deoxy-D-ribose, a relationship was found between the level of non-MDA aldehydes and the mutagenicity in TA 100. Heating the irradiated solutions of 2-deoxy-D-ribose resulted in a temperature-dependent reduction fo the mutagenicity. Autoclaved, non-irradiated solutions of 2-deoxy-D-ribose were not mutagenic in the Salmonella test. (orig.)

  12. Gene mutation, quantitative mutagenesis, and mutagen screening in mammalian cells: study with the CHO/HGPRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsie, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    We have employed CHO cells to develop and define a set of stringent conditions for studying mutation induction to TG resistance. Several lines of evidence support the CHO/HGPRT system as a specific-locus mutational assay. The system permits quantification of mutation at the HGPRT locus induced by various physical and chemical mutagens. The quantitative nature of the system provides a basis for the study of structure-function relationships of various classes of chemical mutagens. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility of this system suggests its potential for screening environmental agents for mutagenic activity

  13. Enhanced Peroxide Resistance of In Vitro Mutagenized Fluorideresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Ureases for Catalytic Buffering of Agent Decontamination Reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fry, Ilona J; DeFrank, Joseph J

    2004-01-01

    .... Fluoride-resistant (FR) ureases developed previously in our laboratory were >95% inhibited by 1% hydrogen peroxide. To overcome this problem, the FR mutant urease structural genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae were mutagenized in vitro in an E...

  14. Petroleum distillates suppress in vitro metabolic activation: higher [S-9] required in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; Machado, M L; MacGregor, J A

    1985-01-01

    To determine if standard conditions used in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples, two high-boiling (700-1,070 degrees F) distillates and their separated aromatic fractions were tested. The initial mutagenic activities were inconsistent with the samples' known polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and observed potencies in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. A significant mutagenic response was observed only at S-9 concentrations 5 to 10 times higher than those used in the standard assay, supporting the use of elevated levels of S-9 in the Salmonella/microsome assay to assess the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials. All four samples masked the expected mutagenic activity of added PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene and perylene). Data suggested that petroleum distillates suppress the functional efficacy of the S-9; possible mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Oxygen effect on mutagenic ionizing radiation damage in Bacillus subtilis spores of DNA polymerase I-proficient and -deficient strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of mutagenic ionizing radiation damage modified by the presence of oxygen or water was examined by comparing mutagenic with lethal expression of the damage in Bacillus subtilis spores irradiated with 6-MeV electrons. No specific difference was recognized between oxygen-dependent and -independent damages or between polA + -dependent and -independent damages with this system. The induced mutation frequency for His + mutation per lethal hit was 4.7 x 10 -5 for all tested cases

  16. Long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants from mainland East Asia to western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Oro, Tadashi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    Asian dust events, transport of dust particles from arid and semi-arid areas in China and Mongolia to the east by prevailing westerlies, are often observed in Japan in spring. In recent decades, consumption of fossil fuels has markedly increased in mainland East Asia with rapid economic growth, and severe air pollution has occurred. A part of air pollutants including mutagens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generated in mainland East Asia are thought to be transported to Japan by the prevailing westerlies, like Asian dust, and winter monsoon. The objective of this study was to clarify the long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants in East Asia. Thus, we collected total suspended particles (TSP) at a rural town in western Japan, namely, Yurihama in Tottori Prefecture, for 1 year (June 2012-May 2013), and investigated their chemical constituents and mutagenicity. Many TSP collected from January to March showed high mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with and without S9 mix, and high levels of lead (Pb) and sulfate ions (SO4 (2-)), which are indicators of transboundary air pollutions from mainland East Asia, were detected in those TSP. A large amount of iron, which is an indicator of sand, was found in highly mutagenic TSP collected in March, but not in TSP collected in January and February. High levels of PAHs were detected in highly mutagenic TSP collected from January to March. The ratios of the concentration of fluoranthene to those of fluoranthene and pyrene suggested that the main source of PAHs in TSP collected in winter and spring was coal and biomass combustion. Backward trajectories of air masses on days when high levels of mutagenicity were found indicated that these air masses had traveled from eastern or northern China to Yurihama. These results suggest that high levels of mutagens were transported from mainland East Asia to western Japan, and this transportation accompanied Asian dust in March, but not in

  17. The role of genotype in the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiations with different LET on E. coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarova, B.; Amirtaev, K.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.

    1988-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of γ-irradiation and accelerated deuterium and helium ions on Escherichia coli cells with various repair genotype (wild type, pol A, lex A, and rec BC mutants) have been investigated. It has been shown that the types of dose dependences of the mutagenic effect and the relative genetic effectivenes for various linear energy transfers of ionizing radiation differ in the case of repair deficient mutants and are discussed in terms of current hypotheses. 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Mutagenic activities of a chlorination by-product of butamifos, its structural isomer, and their related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoshita, Masahiro; Kosaka, Koji; Endo, Osamu; Asami, Mari; Aizawa, Takako

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of 5-methyl-2-nitrophenol (5M2NP), a chlorination by-product of butamifos, its structural isomer 2-methyl-5-nitrophenol (2M5NP), and related compounds were evaluated by the Ames assay. The mutagenic activities of 5M2NP and 2M5NP were negative or not particularly high. However, those of their chlorinated derivatives were increased in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 and the overproducer strains YG1026, and YG1029 in the absence and/or presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S9 mix), particularly for YG1029. The mutagenic activities of 6-chloro-2-methyl-5-nitrophenol (6C2M5NP) in YG1029 in the absence and presence of S9 mix were 70000 and 110000 revertants mg(-1), respectively. When nitro functions of 6C2M5NP and 4-chloro-5-methyl-2-nitrophenol (4C5M2NP) were reduced to amino functions, their mutagenic activities were markedly decreased. The mutagenic activities of 5M2NP and 4C5M2NP were lower than those of 2M5NP and 6C2M5NP, respectively. Thus, it was shown that substituent position is a key factor for the mutagenic activities of methylnitrophenols (MNPs) and related compounds. The mutagenic activities of the extracts of 2M5NP in chlorination increased early during the reaction time and then decreased. The main chlorination by-product contributing to the mutagenic activities of the extracts of 2M5NP in chlorination was 6C2M5NP. The results of chlorination of 2M5NP suggested that MNPs were present as their dichlorinated derivatives or further chlorination by-products in drinking water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  20. M1 chimerism following mutagen treatment of seeds in rice and some other cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.

    1983-01-01

    Articles reporting on M 1 chimerism following treatment of seed with mutagen in cereals were mostly published in the 1960's. Rice is a good material for making such studies because of its relatively large number of seeds per panicle, rather easily identifiable tillering and panicle branching systems and uniform growth after seedling transplanting. The present article summarizes results of studies on M 1 chimerism in rice and some other cereals which may serve as reference information in discussing M 1 chimerism of those plant species showing different development patterns, as dicotyledonous plants, following treatment of seed with mutagen. Studies on M 1 chimerism provide not only knowledge of the sporophyte development but also basic information for developing methods of harvesting M 2 seed which provide the maximum numbers of mutants of different origins in a limited number of M 2 plants. (author)

  1. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3......) in the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background air...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people....

  2. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich

    2001-01-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN 3 ). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  3. Suppression of SOS-inducing activity of chemical mutagens by metabolites from microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kazuki; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-02-24

    In this study, biotransformation of (-)-isolongifolene (1) by Glomerella cingulata and suppressive effect on umuC gene expression by chemical mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 were investigated. Initially, 1 was carried out the microbial transformation by G. cingulata. The result found that 1 was converted into (-)-isolongifolen-9-one (2), (-)-(2S)-13-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one (3), and (-)-(4R)-4-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one (4) by G. cingulata, and their conversion rates were 60, 25, and 15%, respectively. The metabolites suppressed the SOS-inducing activity of furylfuramid and AFB(1) in the umu test. Comound 2 showed gene expression by chemical mutagens furylfuramide and AFB(1) was suppressed 54 and 50% at <0.5 mM, respectively. Compound 2 is the most effective compound in this experiment.

  4. Analysis of mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams at different LET in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haining; Wang Jufang; Ma Shuang; Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Li Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate inactive and mutagenic effects of carbon beam at different LET, the inactivation cross section and mutation cross section induced by carbon beams of different LET values were investigated in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015. It was found that the maximum inactivation cross section of 4.37μm 2 , which was very close to the average nucleus cross section, was at LET of 120.0 keV/μm. The maximum mutation cross section was at LET of 96.0 keV/μm. Meanwhile, the highest mutagenicity of carbon ion was found around 58.2 keV/μm. It implied that the most efficient LET to induce mutation in survival yeasts was 58.2 keV/μm, which corresponded to energy of 35 MeV/u carbon beam. The most effective carbon beam to induce inactivation and mutation located at different energy region. (authors)

  5. Analysis of mutagenic DNA repair in a thermoconditional mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siede, W.; Eckardt, F.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies regarding the influence of cycloheximide on the temperature-dependent increase in survival and mutation frequencies of a thermoconditional rev2 mutant lead to the suggestion that the REV2-coded mutagenic repair function is UV-inducible. In the present study we show that stationary-phase rev2sup(ts) cells are characterized by a biphasic linear-quadratic dose-dependence of mutation induction ('mutation kinetics') of ochre alleles at 23 0 C (permissive temperature) but linear kinetics at the restrictive temperature of 36 0 C. Mathematical analysis using a model based on Poisson statistics and a further mathematical procedure, the calculation of 'apparent survival', support the assumption kinetics investigated can be attributed to a UV-inducible component of mutagenic DNA repair controlled by the REV2 gene. (orig.)

  6. A comprehensive survey of the mutagenic impact of common cancer cytotoxics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szikriszt, Bernadett; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    system, is well suited to accurately assay genomic mutations. Results: We use whole genome sequencing of multiple DT40 clones to determine the mutagenic effect of eight common cytotoxics used for the treatment of millions of patients worldwide. We determine the spontaneous mutagenesis rate at 2.3 x 10......-10 per base per cell division and find that cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide induce extra base substitutions with distinct spectra. After four cycles of exposure, cisplatin induces 0.8 mutations per Mb, equivalent to the median mutational burden in common leukaemias. Cisplatin-induced mutations......, hydroxyurea, doxorubicin and paclitaxel have no measurable mutagenic effect. The cisplatin-induced mutation spectrum shows good correlation with cancer mutation signatures attributed to smoking and other sources of guanine-directed base damage. Conclusion: This study provides support for the use of cell line...

  7. The relative cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and photoproducts in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Moon-shong; Hrncir, J.; Mitchell, D.; Ross, J.; Clarkson, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to calculate the relative cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and photoproducts, the authors have measured survival and mutation induction in UV-irradiated excision-deficient E. coli uvrA cells, with or without complete photoreactivation of the dimers. Radioimmunoassays with specificity for dimers or photoproducts have shown that maximum photoreactivation eliminates all of the dimers produce up to 10 Jm -2 254-nm light, while it has no effect on photoproducts. These results were confirmed by measuring the frequency of T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites. Based on the best fit equations for survival and mutation induction, the authors have found that the calculated cytotoxicity of photoproducts is similar to that of dimers; however, the former is much more mutagenic than the latter. (Auth.)

  8. Reaction mixtures formed by nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs showed mutagenicity in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trossero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, which is present in preserved meat and can be produced in the oral cavity by reduction of nitrate taken from vegetables, could react in stomach with nitrosatable drugs, giving genotoxic-carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOC. The mutagenicity of reaction mixtures formed by sodium nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs (sulfathiazole, HST; phtalylsulfathiazole, PhST; complex Co(II-sulfathiazole, Co(II-ST in acidic medium was evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test, with TA98 and TA 100 strains. The reactions were carried out at room temperature, with a mole ratio [nitrite]/[sulfa-drug] > 1. The three reaction mixtures showed mutagenic effects in the considered range.

  9. [Genetic control of the sensitivity of Aspergillus nidulans to mutagenic factors. VII. Inheritance of cross-sensitivity to different mutagenic factors by uvs-mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, G V; Kameneva, S V

    1977-01-01

    To study the inheritance of the sensitivity to UV, X-rays, methylmethanesulphonate (MMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG) and nitrous acid (NA) in five uvs mutants of Aspergillus nidulans, having multiple sensitivity to these factors, the sensitivity of recombinants obtained from crossing uvs mutants with uvs+ strain, resistant to all the factors analysed, and uvs leads to uvs+ revertants is investigated. Four uvs mutants (15, 17, 19 and 26) are found to have a nomogenic control of sensitivity to different mutagens. In one mutant (uvs11) the sensitivity to five factors is controlled by two non-linked mutations, one of them determining the sensitivity to UV, NG, NA, and the other--to X-rays and MMC. Phenotypic manifestations of uvs mutations is modified by cell genotype, both chromosomal and cytoplasmic factors being responsible for the modification. Phenotypic modification of uvs mutation results in the change to some (but not to all) mutagenic factors. It suggests, that not the product of uvs gene, but some other components of the reparation complex are modified. Otherwise, reparation of different DNA damages can be carried out by a single enzyme acting in different reparation complexes.

  10. Codon cassette mutagenesis: a general method to insert or replace individual codons by using universal mutagenic cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler-Ebo, D M; Docktor, C M; DiMaio, D

    1994-05-11

    We describe codon cassette mutagenesis, a simple method of mutagenesis that uses universal mutagenic cassettes to deposit single codons at specific sites in double-stranded DNA. A target molecule is first constructed that contains a blunt, double-strand break at the site targeted for mutagenesis. A double-stranded mutagenic codon cassette is then inserted at the target site. Each mutagenic codon cassette contains a three base pair direct terminal repeat and two head-to-head recognition sequences for the restriction endonuclease Sapl, an enzyme that cleaves outside of its recognition sequence. The intermediate molecule containing the mutagenic cassette is then digested with Sapl, thereby removing most of the mutagenic cassette, leaving only a three base cohesive overhang that is ligated to generate the final insertion or substitution mutation. A general method for constructing blunt-end target molecules suitable for this approach is also described. Because the mutagenic cassette is excised during this procedure and alters the target only by introducing the desired mutation, the same cassette can be used to introduce a particular codon at all target sites. Each cassette can deposit two different codons, depending on the orientation in which it is inserted into the target molecule. Therefore, a series of eleven cassettes is sufficient to insert all possible amino acids at any constructed target site. Thus codon cassettes are 'off-the-shelf' reagents, and this methodology should be a particularly useful and inexpensive approach for subjecting multiple different positions in a protein sequence to saturation mutagenesis.

  11. The mutagenicity of indoor air particles in a residential pilot field study: Application and evaluation of new methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewtas, Joellen; Goto, Sumio; Williams, Katherine; Chuang, Jane C.; Petersen, Bruce A.; Wilson, Nancy K.

    The mutagenicity of indoor air paniculate matter has been measured in a pilot field study of homes in Columbus, Ohio during the 1984 winter. The study was conducted in eight all natural-gas homes and two all electric homes. Paniculate matter and semi-volatile organic compounds were collected indoors using a medium volume sampler. A micro-forward mutation bioassay employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TM 677 was used to quantify the mutagenicity in solvent extracts of microgram quantities of indoor air particles. The mutagenicity was quantified in terms of both mutation frequency per mg of organic matter extracted and per cubic meter of air sampled. The combustion source variables explored in this study included woodburning in fireplaces and cigarette smoking. Homes in which cigarette smoking occurred had the highest concentrations of mutagenicity per cubic meter of air. The average indoor air mutagenicity per cubic meter was highly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked. When the separate sampling periods in each room were compared, the mutagenicity in the kitchen samples was the most highly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked.

  12. Mutagenicity of drinking water sampled from the Yangtze River and Hanshui River (Wuhan section) and correlations with water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xuemin; Lu, Yi; Yang, Xiaoming; Dong, Xiaorong; Ma, Kunpeng; Xiao, Sanhua; Wang, Yazhou; Tang, Fei

    2015-03-31

    A total of 54 water samples were collected during three different hydrologic periods (level period, wet period, and dry period) from Plant A and Plant B (a source for Yangtze River and Hanshui River water, respectively), and several water parameters, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and total organic carbon (TOC), were simultaneously analyzed. The mutagenicity of the water samples was evaluated using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. According to the results, the organic compounds in the water were largely frame-shift mutagens, as positive results were found for most of the tests using TA98. All of the finished water samples exhibited stronger mutagenicity than the relative raw and distribution water samples, with water samples collected from Plant B presenting stronger mutagenic strength than those from Plant A. The finished water samples from Plant A displayed a seasonal-dependent variation. Water parameters including COD (r = 0.599, P = 0.009), TOC (r = 0.681, P = 0.02), UV254 (r = 0.711, P = 0.001), and total nitrogen (r = 0.570, P = 0.014) exhibited good correlations with mutagenicity (TA98), at 2.0 L/plate, which bolsters the argument of the importance of using mutagenicity as a new parameter to assess the quality of drinking water.

  13. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, 1978-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Current progress in studies on the mutagenic effect of 3 H incorporated into the DNA of Drosophila melanogaster is reported. It was shown that selected 3 H precursors incorporated into DNA are metabolized. The forms (metabolites) of tritium found in the DNA molecules and the mutation frequencies resulting therefrom were identified. An alcohol dehydrogenase system was developed for recovering mutations that is capable of distinguishing between base changes and chain breakage events that may lead to the formation of deletions

  14. Performance of mutagen treated Jatropha curcas (Petro-crop) on alkali soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.K.; Datta, S.K.; Mishra, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    Under the user land development programme, seeds of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaces) were treated with 6, 12, 18 and 24 krad of gamma rays and sown in randomised block design on different grades of alkali soils. Wide range of variability could be detected in mutagen treated population. Results indicate that suitable strains of J. curcas can be isolated through mutation breeding programme for utilisation of user land. (author)

  15. Effects of gamma radiations with or without chemical mutagens on rose seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, P.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary experiment with seeds from 4 diploids, 17 tetraploids, 2 hexaploids and 1 octoploid roses confirmed that seed collection during early autumn under climatical conditions of London, gives a high percentage of viable seeds than those collected during late autumn. Seed stratification for about 100 days enhances germination when carried out under wet, purified sand. Harmful effects of radiations were recorded on seed germination, seedling survival, growth and flowering, after 0-120 Kr exposures of gamma rays. Rose cultivars were found to be more sensitive to radiations than the Rosa spp. The LD50 for diploid R. rugosa typica was between 20-30 Kr and for allo-tetraploid cultivar Aunty Dora, it was 8 Kr. No significant effect of radiations on seedling growth was recorded. Flowering in seedlings, raised from cultivar seeds, produced flowers during the first year of germination as compared with R. spp. seedlings which flowered after 3 to 4 years of germination. Among the chemical mutagens, Hydroxylamine produced least harmful effects on seed germination and survivals than those produced by Ethyl methane sulphonate; used alone or combined with low or high doses of radiations. The average seedling heights and number of leaves per seedlings were not affected. Mutagens were responsible for bringing about a loss in colour intensity which was more frequent when radiations and mutagens were used together. Real flower colour changes were rare and were attributed to the pollinating parent or mutagen or both. Present experiments indicate that although there are initial difficulties with seed germination but the resulting seedlings with increased genetic variability can generously reward a rose breeder in introducing new roses with rare combination of desirable characters which are difficult to accomplish merely by induced somatic mutations

  16. Antioxidant, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of an aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krifa, Mounira; Bouhlel, Ines; Skandrani, Ines; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall (G extract) was tested on Salmonella typhimurium to assess its mutagenic and antimutagenic effects. This extract showed no mutagenicity when tested with S. typhimurium strain TA104 either with or without exogenous metabolic activation mixture (S9), whereas our findings revealed that the aqueous gall extract induced a mutagenic effect in S. typhimurium TA1538 when tested in the presence, as well as in the absence, of S9 activation mixture at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Thus, the same concentration produced a mutagenic effect, when incubated with S. typhimurium TA100 in the presence of metabolic activation mixture. In contrast, our results showed a weak antimutagenic potential of the same extract against sodium azide in the presence of S. typhimurium TA100 and S. typhimurium TA1538 without metabolic activation (S9), whereas, in the presence of S. typhimurium TA104, we obtained a significant inhibition percentage (76.39%) toward 3.25 µg/plate of methylmethanesulfonate. Antimutagenicity against aflatoxin B1, 4-nitro-o-phenylene-diamine and 2-aminoanthracène was significant, with an inhibition percentage of, respectively, 70.63, 99.3 and 63.37% in the presence of, respectively, S. typhimurium TA100, S. typhimurium TA1538 and S. typhimurium TA104 strains at a concentration of 250 µg/plate after metabolic activation (S9). Antioxidant capacity of the tested extract was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) and the nonenzymatic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) system. G extract exhibited high antioxidant activity.

  17. Use of mutagenous factors in the breeding of vegetatively propagated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryagina, I.V.; Fomenko, N.N.

    1978-01-01

    Given is a review of the literature and authors data on using mutagenous factors with different nature to breed some new and useful forms of plants reproduced vegetatively. The problem history and prospects of the practical application of the method are stated. In particular the data on ionizing radiation use in fruit crop selection to breed mutation forms (effect on buds, pollen, seeds etc.) are presented

  18. Induction of somatic mutations in ornamental plants by ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.M.; Abraham, V.

    1980-01-01

    Improvement in some ornamental plants through induction of somatic mutations by ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens viz. colchicine, EMS and DS has been attempted. Mutants of high ornamental value have been evolved, isolated and multiplied in canna, perennial portulaca, tuberose, bougainvillea, hibiscus, daisy, lilies. These pertain to changes in colour, shape and size of flower and foliage. Procedural details on induction, isolation, stabilisation of the mutants and description of the new characteristics are presented. (author)

  19. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  20. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the food mutagens IQ and methyl-IQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, A.L.; Rapoport, H.

    1985-01-01

    The mutagens found in cooked meat, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (Methyl-IQ), have been synthesized by unambiguous methods that allow for the preparation of sufficient quantities of material for biological studies. These methods avoid difficult separations of regioisomeric mixtures of products and incorporate specific high level tritium labeling, effected by hydrogenolysis of the appropriately substituted 5-bromo precursors. (author)

  1. Mutation of HIV-1 Genomes in a Clinical Population Treated with the Mutagenic Nucleoside KP1461

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, James I.; Heath, Laura; Hughes, James P.; Kicha, Jessica; Styrchak, Sheila; Wong, Kim G.; Rao, Ushnal; Hansen, Alexis; Harris, Kevin S.; Laurent, Jean-Pierre; Li, Deyu; Simpson, Jeffrey H.; Essigmann, John M.; Loeb, Lawrence A.; Parkins, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The deoxycytidine analog KP1212, and its prodrug KP1461, are prototypes of a new class of antiretroviral drugs designed to increase viral mutation rates, with the goal of eventually causing the collapse of the viral population. Here we present an extensive analysis of viral sequences from HIV-1 infected volunteers from the first "mechanism validation" phase II clinical trial of a mutagenic base analog in which individuals previously treated with antiviral drugs received 1600 mg of KP1461 twic...

  2. Evaluation of 10 Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli Mutagenicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. This work was funded by work unit number 60769 and the Defense Logistics Agency (provided to Dr...mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay using Salmonella and E. coli strains. Based on the parameters used in this in vitro study, Citgo JP8 (POSF...471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Health Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 870.5100 (Bacterial

  3. Characterization of Novel Sorghum brown midrib Mutants from an EMS-Mutagenized Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously describe...

  4. Toxicity and mutagenicity of low-metallic automotive brake pad materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachova, Katerina; Kukutschova, Jana; Rybkova, Zuzana; Sezimova, Hana; Placha, Daniela; Cabanova, Kristina; Filip, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Organic friction materials are standardly used in brakes of small planes, railroad vehicles, trucks and passenger cars. The growing transportation sector requires a better understanding of the negative impact related to the release of potentially hazardous materials into the environment. This includes brakes which can release enormous quantities of wear particulates. This paper addresses in vitro detection of toxic and mutagenic potency of one model and two commercially available low-metallic automotive brake pads used in passenger cars sold in the EU market. The model pad made in the laboratory was also subjected to a standardized brake dynamometer test and the generated non-airborne wear particles were also investigated. Qualitative "organic composition" was determined by GC/MS screening of dichloromethane extracts. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity of four investigated sample types were assessed in vitro by bioluminescence assay using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and by two bacterial bioassays i) Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium His(-) and ii) SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. Screening of organic composition revealed a high variety of organic compounds present in the initial brake pads and also in the generated non-airborne wear debris. Several detected compounds are classified by IARC as possibly carcinogenic to humans, e. g. benzene derivatives. Acute toxicity bioassay revealed a response of bacterial cells after exposure to all samples used. Phenolic resin and wear debris were found to be acutely toxic; however in term of mutagenicity the response was negative. All non-friction exposed brake pad samples (a model pad and two commercial pad samples) were mutagenic with metabolic activation in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmaceutical wastewater being composite mixture of environmental pollutants may be associated with mutagenicity and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Ali; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmed; Javeed, Aqeel; Altaf, Imran; Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Abbas, Mateen; Akhtar, Bushra; Saleem, Ammara

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical industries are amongst the foremost contributor to industrial waste. Ecological well-being is endangered owing to its facile discharge. In the present study, heavy metals and organic contaminants in waste water were characterized using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and GC-MS, respectively. Mutagenicity and genotoxic potential of pharmaceutical waste water were investigated through bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro comet assay, respectively. Ames test and comet assay of first sample were carried out at concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 % v/v effluent with distilled water. Chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd) were found in high concentrations as compared to WHO- and EPA-recommended maximum limits. Arsenic was found to be the most abundant metal and its maximum concentration was 0.8 mg.L(-1). GC-MS revealed the presence of lignocaine, digitoxin, trimethoprim, caffeine, and vitamin E in waste water. Dose-dependent decrease in mutagenic index was observed in both strains. Substantial increase in mutagenicity was observed for TA-100, when assay was done by incorporating an enzyme activation system, whereas a slight increase was detected for TA-102. In vitro comet assay of waste water exhibited decrease in damage index and percentage fragmentation with the increase in dilution of waste water. Tail length also decreased with an increase in the dilution factor of waste water. These findings suggest that pharmaceutical waste water being a mix of different heavy metals and organic contaminants may have a potent mutagenic and genotoxic effect on exposed living organisms.

  6. A methodology for assessing the impact of mutagens on aquatic ecosystems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Assessments of impacts of hazardous agents (i.e., chemical and physical mutagens) on human health have focused on defining the effects of chronic exposure on individuals, with cancer being the main effect of concern. In contrast, impacts on ecosystems have traditionally been gauged by the assessment of near-term organism mortality, which is clearly not a useful endpoint for assessing the long-term effects of chronic exposures. Impacts on individual organisms that affect the long-term survival of populations are much more important but are also more difficult to define. Therefore, methods that provide accurate measures of sub-lethal effects that are linked to population survival are required so that accurate assessments of environmental damage can be made and remediation efforts, if required, can be initiated. Radioactive substances have entered aquatic environments as a result of research and production activities, intentional disposal, and accidental discharges. At several DOE sites, surface waters and sediments are contaminated with radioactive and mutagenic materials. The accident at the Chernobyl power station in the former Soviet Union (FSU) has resulted in the contamination of biota present in the Kiev Reservoir. This documents presents a methodology which addresses the effects of a direct-acting mutagen (radiation) on aquantic organisms by applying sensitive techniques for assessing damage to genetic material

  7. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.

  8. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Ames tester strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mutation and killing induced by X radiation and 60 Co γ radiation were studied in six different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. Strain TA100, which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions, and strains TA2637 and TA98, which are sensitive to frameshifts, carry the pKM101 plasmid and exhibit significantly higher radiation-induced mutations compared to their plasmidless parent strains TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538, respectively. Among the plasmid-containing strains, TA98 and TA2637 are much more sensitive to the mutagenic action of radiation than is TA100 based on a comparison with their respective spontaneous mutation rates; however, no uniformity was observed in the responses of the strains to the lethal action of ionizing radiation. The following conclusions are consistent with these observations: (1) the standard Ames Salmonella assay correctly identifies ionizing radiation as a mutagenic agent; (2) frameshift-sensitive parent strains are more sensitive to the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation than is the only strain studied that is sensitive to base-pair substitutions; and (3) enhancement of mutagenesis and survival is related to plasmid-mediated repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and does not involve damage induced by Cerenkov-generated uv radiation which is negligible for our irradiation conditions

  9. In vivo evaluation of the mutagenic potential and phytochemical characterization of oleoresin from Copaifera duckei Dwyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis Maistro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the chemical constituents of Copaifera duckei oleoresin and used dermal application to Wistar rats to evaluated its possible mutagenic and cytotoxic activities on peripheral blood reticulocytes and bone marrow cells. Chemical characterization of the oleoresin revealed the presence of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, an unidentified neutral diterpene and diterpene acids. To evaluate mutagenicity evaluation the rats were treated with 10, 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin for three consecutive days and peripheral blood collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h for micronucleus analysis. The rats were humanly sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment and chromosome preparations made using standard techniques. At the three concentrations and the three time intervals tested we found that there were no statistically significant differences in either the mean number of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs or the number of chromosomal aberrations as to the negative control. However, at 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin there was a significant decrease in the mitotic index (MI as compared to the negative control. Under our experimental conditions, C. duckei V11 oleoresin produced no mutagenic effects on bone marrow cells or in peripheral reticulocytes as assessed by chromosome aberrations and the micronucleus test respectively, but showed cytotoxic activity at high doses.

  10. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Balasubramanian, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. PMID:24455673

  11. Bystander effect of alpha-particle irradiation on mutagenicity and its associated mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ying; Yang Zhihua; Cao Zhenshan; Fan Feiyue; Zhu Maoxiang

    2004-01-01

    The work is to investigate α-particle irradiation-induced bystander effects on the mutagenicity in human chromosome 11 in the human-hamster hybrid (A L cells) and its possible mechanism. A L cells were used for assaying mutation rates of human chromosome 11 through screening mutants in the presence of anti-CD59 surface antigen antibody (S1) and complement. A grid was interposed between α-particle source and the cells being irradiated, so as to fix proportion of the irradiated cells (15%) and the bystander effects on the mutagenicity were detected. Free radical scavenger DMSO and intercellular communication inhibitor Lindane were selected to investigate the potential mechanism of α-particle induced bystander effect. There was clear dose-dependent relationship between mutation rate and the dose of alpha particle radiation. However, the mutant fractions of cell population shielded by the grid in α-particle irradiation system were much higher than the expected levels of irradiated cells. Lindane, but not DMSO, could obviously decrease this bystander effect induced by α-particle irradiation. Alpha-particle irradiation can induce bystander effect on the mutagenicity, in which intercellular communication may play important roles

  12. Evaluating the mutagenic potential of aerosol organic compounds using informatics-based screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, Stefano; Kovarich, Simona; Pavan, Manuela; Bassan, Arianna; Ciacci, Andrea; Topping, David

    2018-02-01

    Whilst general policy objectives to reduce airborne particulate matter (PM) health effects are to reduce exposure to PM as a whole, emerging evidence suggests that more detailed metrics associating impacts with different aerosol components might be needed. Since it is impossible to conduct toxicological screening on all possible molecular species expected to occur in aerosol, in this study we perform a proof-of-concept evaluation on the information retrieved from in silico toxicological predictions, in which a subset (N = 104) of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compounds were screened for their mutagenicity potential. An extensive database search showed that experimental data are available for 13 % of the compounds, while reliable predictions were obtained for 82 %. A multivariate statistical analysis of the compounds based on their physico-chemical, structural, and mechanistic properties showed that 80 % of the compounds predicted as mutagenic were grouped into six clusters, three of which (five-membered lactones from monoterpene oxidation, oxygenated multifunctional compounds from substituted benzene oxidation, and hydroperoxides from several precursors) represent new candidate groups of compounds for future toxicological screenings. These results demonstrate that coupling model-generated compositions to in silico toxicological screening might enable more comprehensive exploration of the mutagenic potential of specific SOA components.

  13. Assessment of predictivity of volatile organic compounds carcinogenicity and mutagenicity by freeware in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Lília Ribeiro; de Souza, Alessandra Mendonça Teles; Côrtes, Juliana Alves; Lione, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas; Castro, Helena Carla; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-12-01

    The application of in silico methods is increasing on toxicological risk prediction for human and environmental health. This work aimed to evaluate the performance of three in silico freeware models (OSIRIS v.2.0, LAZAR, and Toxtree) on the prediction of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of thirty-eight volatile organic compounds (VOC) related to chemical risk assessment for occupational exposure. Theoretical data were compared with assessments available in international databases. Confusion matrices and ROC curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each model. All three models (OSIRIS, LAZAR and Toxtree) were able to identify VOC with a potential carcinogenicity or mutagenicity risk for humans, however presenting differences concerning the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The best predictive performances were found for OSIRIS and LAZAR for carcinogenicity and OSIRIS for mutagenicity, as these softwares presented a combination of negative predictive power and lower risk of false positives (high specificity) for those endpoints. The heterogeneity of results found with different softwares reinforce the importance of using a combination of in silico models to occupational toxicological risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of physical and chemical mutagens on various quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, Aijaz A.; Anis, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of two chickpea varieties viz., Pusa-212 and Pusa-372 were subjected to 15, 20, 30 and 40 Kr doses of gamma rays and 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 per cent EMS treatment. A set of seeds of both the varieties irradiated at 20 Kr and 30 Kr was also subjected to treatment with EMS at 0.2, and 0.3 per cent. Data on eight quantitative traits viz., days taken to flowering and maturity, plant height (em), number of primary branches plant -1 , number of pods plant -1 , number of seeds pod -1 , 100-seed weight (g) and total seed yield plant -1 (g) were recorded for all the mutagenic treatments. The lower dose treatments in general, showed stimulatory effect whereas, higher treatments showed inhibitory effects on the mean performance of all the polygenic traits. Increase in C.V. in the mutagen treated population indicated that significant spectrum of phenotypic variability was created in all the polygenic traits in both the varieties. A comparison of the pooled effect of different levels of a particular mutagen on the mean value of various traits revealed that combination treatments proved to be most effective followed by EMS and gamma rays in inducing the magnitude of variability. The Var. Pusa 372 was comparatively more sensitive than the Var. Pusa-212. (author)

  15. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Lai, C.-H.; Cheng, Y.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test

  16. Mutagenic effect of sewage waters of the Ignalina NPP on the cells of sea-trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiunaite, P.

    1996-01-01

    Using a developing embryos of sea-trout as a test-object, the mutagenicity of water in the first biotope of Lake Drukshiai as well as in industrial and rain water sewer pipe was evaluated. Artesian water was used as a control one. The mutagenic potential of water in station 1 of Lake Drukshiai approximately made up 8.1% and statistically did not differ from the control (7.0%). The effect of water of station 7 upon the inherited embryonic cells was significantly greater, average frequency of chromosome aberration reaching 27.3%. The analysis of the obtained data showed that industrial - rain sewage water constantly penetrating into Lake Drukshiai may significantly worsen its ecological situation, i.e. to increase the accumulation of mutations in the communities and their amount in the succeeding generations. The genotoxicity of water of the 1 st biotope of Lake Drukshiai, which is the farthest point from the Ignalina NPP, may be used as a control when investigating the mutagenic impact of water of other biotopes in the lake, especially in the stations located at the shortest distance from the energetic objects. 8 refs., 1 tab

  17. Toxicity, mutagenicity and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of three popular DNA intercalating fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayas, Enric; García-López, Federico; Serrano, Ramón

    2015-09-01

    We have compared the toxicity, mutagenicity and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of three DNA-intercalating fluorescent dyes widely used to stain DNA in gels. Safety data about ethidium bromide (EtBr) are contradictory, and two compounds of undisclosed structure (Redsafe and Gelred) have been proposed as safe alternatives. Our results indicate that all three compounds inhibit yeast growth, with Gelred being the most inhibitory and also the only one causing cell death. EtBr and Gelred, but not Redsafe, induce massive formation of petite (non-respiratory) mutants, but only EtBr induces massive loss of mitochondrial DNA. All three compounds increase reversion of a chromosomal point mutation (lys2-801(amber) ), with Gelred being the most mutagenic and Redsafe the least. These dyes are all cationic and are probably taken by cells through non-selective cation channels. We could measure the glucose-energized transport of EtBr and Gelred inside the cells, while uptake of Redsafe was below our detection limit. We conclude that although all three compounds are toxic and mutagenic in the yeast system, Redsafe is the safest for yeast, probably because of very limited uptake by these cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideropoulos, A.S.; Specht, S.M.; Jones, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenictity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr + and hcr - are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm 2 , chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed mutational synergism. We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for mutational synergism between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 μg/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 μg/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 μg/ml), chloroquine (50μg/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 μg/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effets with UV light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of UV than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideropoulos, A S; Specht, S M; Jones, M T [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1980-04-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenictity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/ are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm/sup 2/, chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed mutational synergism. We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for mutational synergism between ultraviolet (uv) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 ..mu..g/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 ..mu..g/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 ..mu..g/ml), chloroquine (50..mu..g/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 ..mu..g/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effects with uv light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of uv than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed.

  20. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  1. Cytological studies of sterility in male progeny of mutagen-exposed male parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Cornett, C.V.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic male sterility results primarily from certain types of balanced reciprocal translocations, and, more rarely, from certain numerical sex-chromosome anomalies. Sterile male offspring sired following exposure of male meiotic or postmeiotic stages to radiation or chemical mutagens are not uncommon and are predominantly carriers of balanced translocations. The chromosome breakpoints of these translocations are generally located near the ends of autosomes or anywhere in the sex chromosomes. Sterile offspring from mutagen-treated spermatogonial stem cells, on the other hand, are not only rare but most of them have no readily detectable chromosomal anomalies. Those that have are either carriers of balanced translocations, or are sex-chromosome trisomics or mosaics (XYY, XXY, XY//XYY, XO//XY, etc.). The nature of the exchange in spermatogonia-derived sterile translocations is not clear and awaits detailed study. In addition, the data base is not yet sufficient for determining the role of induced nondisjunction in the production of genetic male sterility. Accordingly, they have an ongoing project that attempts to study associations between the nature of genetic fertility impairments and the detailed chromosomal genotype, and between chromosomal causes of sterility and the nature of mutagenic treatments that produce them

  2. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamayanthi, K.P.M.; Reddy, V.R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of chilli variety CO-2 (Coimbatore-2) were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 kR to 35 kR at an interval of 5 kR and the effect on seed germination, seedling survival, percent lethality and seedling injury were studied. Lower doses were stimulative, while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling survival. The highest percentage of seed germination (37.5) and seedling survival (31.3) was recorded at 10 kR as compared to 28 percent of germination and 3.3 percent seedling survival in control. Percent lethality (9.6%) and seedling injury (6.5%) were comparatively low than the lethality percentage and seedling injury of the higher dose treatments. In chemical mutagen treatments, the maximum seed germination (54.5%) and seedling survival (51.2%), seedling lethality (0.97%) and seedling injury (1.37%) were obtained in the treated seeds of EMS at 0.5% concentration followed by 39.5% seed germination and 30.0% seedling survival, seedling lethality (3.8%) and seedling injury (3.06%) of MMS. The stimulative effect of seed germination is more in chemical mutagens than the physical mutagen. There was a proportionate decrease in germination percentage and seedling survival with an increase in dose/concentration of both the chemicals. (author)

  3. Induction of transposon TN1 translocation under the action of different mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubanejshvili, M.G.; Smirnov, S.P.; Tarasov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Migration of ampicillin transposon Tn1 under normal conditions in Escherichia coli cells proceeds with low frequency (10 -4 transpositions for cell). The low transposition frequency is conditioned by the transposition repression, realized by the gene-repressor in transposon structure and, probably, by other regulating genes of the bacterium-host. E. coli cell treatment by physical and chemical mutagens resulted in induction of translocation of ampicillin transposon Tn1 from plasmid RP4 into other replicons. Mitomycin C and ultraviolet radiation produced stronger inducing effect as compared to nitroso-guanidine (NG). The effect of the given mutagens on transposition Tn1 correlated with their activating capacity with respect to inducible SOS-functions of E coli. The mutation of rec A didn't influence on spontaneous Tn1 transposition, but blocked completely the induction of transposition process under mutagen effect. The relationship of inducible transposition with SOS-functions in E. coli cells, controlled by recA and lexA genes, as well as the possible role of the process in genetic microorganism variability are discussed in the paper

  4. Evaluation of genotoxic and anti-mutagenic properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthoside A tetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himakoun, Lakana; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Puchadapirom, Pranom; Tammasakchai, Ratigon; Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra

    2011-01-01

    Cleistanthin A (CleinA) and cleistanthoside A (CleisA) isolated from plant Phyllanthus taxodiifolius Beille have previously shown potent anticancer effects. To promote their medicinal benefits, CleisA was modified to cleistanthoside A tetraacetate (CleisTA) and evaluated for genotoxic and anti-mutagenic properties in comparison with CleinA. Both compounds showed no significant mutagenic activity to S. typhimulium bacteria and no cytotoxic effect to normal mammalian cells. The non genotoxic effect of CleinA was further confirmed by un-alteration of cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) and micronucleus (MN) frequency assays in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells, and of CleisTA was confirmed by un-changes of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) chromosomal structure assay. Moreover, the metabolic form of CleinA efficiently demonstrated cytostasis effect to V79 cell and prevented mutagen induced Salmonella TA98 and TA100 reversion, whereas both metabolic and non-metabolic forms of CleisTA reduced HPBL mitotic index (%M.I) in a concentration-dependent relationship. The results support CleinA and CleisTA as the new lead compounds for anti-cancer drug development.

  5. [Feasibility, in general practice, to give to the patients clear, loyal and appropriate information about the undesirable side effects of the medicines prescribed. EICLAT study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Pascale; Raineri, François; Hebbrecht, Gilles; Duhot, Didier

    2011-12-01

    Drug prescription in general practice is present in 78 to 83% of consultations; practitioners must give to their patient clear loyal and appropriate information about the undesirable side effects of the medicines prescribed. The object of the EICLAT study was to give some light on the feasibility to respect this obligation. To that effect the study evaluates, for a normal prescription activity, the average number of potential undesirable side effects (USE) in relation with the number of lines of different medicines prescribed in each doctor's prescription. A total of 8,382 doctor's prescriptions, generating 34,427 lines of prescriptions given by 175 general practitioners, were analysed. Amongst these prescriptions, 11% included only one line, 55% from 2 to 4 lines and 34% 5 lines or more. The average doctor's prescription was of 4 lines of medicines generating 407 potential USE, of which 194 were different (the same undesirable effect may be present twice or more in the same doctor's prescription), and 293 frequent or serious potential USE, of which 166 were different. The patent medicines with a major or important added medical value (AMV), present in 7,840 doctor's prescriptions for a total of 24,127 lines exposed the patient, in the average, to 151 frequent or serious USE different. The patent medicines with an insufficient AMV, present in 2,292 prescriptions for a total of 3,887 lines, exposed the patient to 37 frequent and/or serious potential USE. Supposing that the information provided by the legal authority is sufficiently adequate, precise and exhaustive, the volume of information that must be given to the patient is not compatible with the present conditions of exercise of the profession.

  6. Induction of mutagenized tomato populations for investigation on agronomic traits and mutant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiul Amin Laskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for tomato production increased tremendously due to its diverse utility in raw, cooked and processed form of food. This necessitates the continued supply of highly nutritious and better yielding improved cultivars to the producers, considering the rapid changing agro-climatic condition. In this study, induced mutant tomato populations of widely recommended tomato genotype Arka Vikas (Sel-22 were generated using chemical mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS, hydrazine hydrates (HZ and their combined treatments. In the in vitro study, a gradual reduction in germination percentage and seedling height occurred with the increasing concentrations of mutagens. Combination of EMS and HZ caused maximum biological inhibition followed by EMS and HZ treatments alone in M1 generation. The rate of survival and fertility in M1 plants of tomato was found highly affected due to mutagenic treatment, in which sensitivity toward combined treatment was found highest followed by EMS and HZ. Inspection on induced phenotypic variations in individual plants of M2 population resulted in identification and isolation of wide range of mutants with altered phenotypes. Highest mutation frequency was resulted by combined mutagens followed by the EMS and HZ treatment. Agronomic trait analyses showed intra and inter treatment variations in three quantitative traits (Plant height, fertile branch per plant and fruits per plant of M2 mutagenized population. Assessment on rate of mutant recovery in M2 population showed highest mutant recovery is possible with combination treatments and then 0.02% HZ followed by 0.02% EMS. In the present study, phenotyping of the mutants revealed that vegetative organs (‘plant size’, ‘plant habit’ and ‘leaf morphology’ was the most sensitive category (69.33% to which most of the mutant belongs, followed by ‘fruit color and size’ (20.27% and ‘germination’ (9.79%. Comparative investigation on number of mutants and

  7. On the mutagenicity of homologous recombination and double-strand break repair in bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P; Plugina, Lidiya; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Sizova, Svetlana; Kudryashova, Elena

    2011-01-02

    The double-strand break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination is generally construed as a high-fidelity process. However, some molecular genetic observations show that the recombination and the recombinational DSB repair may be mutagenic and even highly mutagenic. Here we developed an effective and precise method for studying the fidelity of DSB repair in vivo by combining DSBs produced site-specifically by the SegC endonuclease with the famous advantages of the recombination analysis of bacteriophage T4 rII mutants. The method is based on the comparison of the rate of reversion of rII mutation in the presence and in the absence of a DSB repair event initiated in the proximity of the mutation. We observed that DSB repair may moderately (up to 6-fold) increase the apparent reversion frequency, the effect of being dependent on the mutation structure. We also studied the effect of the T4 recombinase deficiency (amber mutation in the uvsX gene) on the fidelity of DSB repair. We observed that DSBs are still repaired via homologous recombination in the uvsX mutants, and the apparent fidelity of this repair is higher than that seen in the wild-type background. The mutator effect of the DSB repair may look unexpected given that most of the normal DNA synthesis in bacteriophage T4 is performed via a recombination-dependent replication (RDR) pathway, which is thought to be indistinguishable from DSB repair. There are three possible explanations for the observed mutagenicity of DSB repair: (1) the origin-dependent (early) DNA replication may be more accurate than the RDR; (2) the step of replication initiation may be more mutagenic than the process of elongation; and (3) the apparent mutagenicity may just reflect some non-randomness in the pool of replicating DNA, i.e., preferential replication of the sequences already involved in replication. We discuss the DSB repair pathway in the absence of UvsX recombinase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Commercial Bank Efficiency Evaluation in Consideration of the Undesirable Output and Its Link with Stakeholders Relationship: An Application of China’s Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyue Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the modern contract theory, expectancy theory, and stakeholder theory, this paper analyzes how stakeholders relationship influences the efficiency of commercial banks and finds that the efficiency is a function of stakeholders relationship. A DEA model with Seiford's linear transformation function is developed to evaluate the efficiency in consideration of the undesirable output. The panel Tobit model is established to conduct empirical research with data of 14 Chinese commercial banks from 2004 to 2012. The study finds that except for business customer relation, stakeholder relationship is the key variable that influences comprehensive efficiency of commercial banks.

  9. Dietary phenolics as anti-mutagens and inhibitors of tobacco-related DNA adduction in the urothelium of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1996-10-01

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. Urinary anti-mutagenicity in vitro appears thus to be a good indicator of the anti-genotoxicity exerted by substances excreted in urine, that protect the bladder mucosal cells (and possibly other cells) against DNA damage. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n = 18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (quercetin, isorhamnetin and naringenin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited noncompetitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Several structural features of the flavonoids were identified as necessary for the inhibition of PhIP and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxiline mutagenicity. Fractionation by reverse-phase HPLC and subsequent analysis of two urinary extracts, showed the presence of several anti-mutagenic

  10. The effective use of physical and chemical mutagen in the induction of mutation for crop improvement in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun

    2001-01-01

    The earliest work of induced mutations breeding program in Malaysia was reported in 1967. The project was carried out by Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia using x-radiation in an attempt to improve rubber trees for dwarfism and disease resistance. Subsequently, more efforts were taken up by the universities to promote the technology for genetic changes and creation of new genetic resources, particularly in crops that are not easily achievable through conventional techniques. Gamma radiation is always been used as physical mutagen, while ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) was a popular chemical mutagen used in induced mutation breeding in the country. Gamma rays is an effective mutagen to which more than 30 potential mutants were produced up to now through mutagenesis of several important food crops and ornamental plants. Although chemical mutagen such as EMS were reported being used, the result is not so convincing as compared to gamma radiation. Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has initiated and promoted nuclear technique in mutation breeding for the improvement of importance food crops such as rice, legume and other potential crops for export, like fruit trees and ornamentals. Gamma radiation is the main source of mutagen used in mutation-breeding programme at MINT. The effectiveness of these two mutagens were verified with mutants derived through induced mutation breeding in the country which some mutant has shown outstanding improvement and released as new varieties and cultivars. This paper summarises and discuss the effects as well as achievement attained through the use of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagen in plant mutation breeding in Malaysia. (author)

  11. Circular dichroism study of the interaction between mutagens and bilirubin bound to different binding sites of serum albumins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Sergey; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanová, Marie

    Although recent investigations have shown that bilirubin not only has a negative role in the organism but also exhibits significant antimutagenic properties, the mechanisms of interactions between bilirubin and mutagens are not clear. In this study, interaction between bilirubin bound to different binding sites of mammalian serum albumins with structural analogues of the mutagens 2-aminofluorene, 2,7-diaminofluorene and mutagen 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone were investigated by circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. Homological human and bovine serum albumins were used as chiral matrices, which preferentially bind different conformers of bilirubin in the primary binding sites and make it observable by circular dichroism. These molecular systems approximated a real system for the study of mutagens in blood serum. Differences between the interaction of bilirubin bound to primary and to secondary binding sites of serum albumins with mutagens were shown. For bilirubin bound to secondary binding sites with low affinity, partial displacement and the formation of self-associates were observed in all studied mutagens. The associates of bilirubin bound to primary binding sites of serum albumins are formed with 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone. It was proposed that 2,7-diaminofluorene does not interact with bilirubin bound to primary sites of human and bovine serum albumins due to the spatial hindrance of the albumins binding domains. The spatial arrangement of the bilirubin bound to serum albumin along with the studied mutagens was modelled using ligand docking, which revealed a possibility of an arrangement of the both bilirubin and 2-aminofluorene and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone in the primary binding site of human serum albumin.

  12. The effective use of physical and chemical mutagen in the induction of mutation for crop improvement in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahim Harun [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2001-03-01

    The earliest work of induced mutations breeding program in Malaysia was reported in 1967. The project was carried out by Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia using x-radiation in an attempt to improve rubber trees for dwarfism and disease resistance. Subsequently, more efforts were taken up by the universities to promote the technology for genetic changes and creation of new genetic resources, particularly in crops that are not easily achievable through conventional techniques. Gamma radiation is always been used as physical mutagen, while ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) was a popular chemical mutagen used in induced mutation breeding in the country. Gamma rays is an effective mutagen to which more than 30 potential mutants were produced up to now through mutagenesis of several important food crops and ornamental plants. Although chemical mutagen such as EMS were reported being used, the result is not so convincing as compared to gamma radiation. Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has initiated and promoted nuclear technique in mutation breeding for the improvement of importance food crops such as rice, legume and other potential crops for export, like fruit trees and ornamentals. Gamma radiation is the main source of mutagen used in mutation-breeding programme at MINT. The effectiveness of these two mutagens were verified with mutants derived through induced mutation breeding in the country which some mutant has shown outstanding improvement and released as new varieties and cultivars. This paper summarises and discuss the effects as well as achievement attained through the use of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagen in plant mutation breeding in Malaysia. (author)

  13. Nitrite and hypochlorite treatments in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type heterocyclic amines to the mutagenicities in crude pyrolyzed materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, M.; Negishi, C.; Makino, R.; Sato, S.; Yamaizumi, Z.; Hirayama, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1985-12-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines Glu-P-2, MeA alpha C and Phe-P-1, which possess a 2-aminopyridine structure in their molecule (non-IQ-type mutagens), were found to be inactivated by nitrite treatment under acidic conditions, as observed previously with Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and A alpha C. In contrast, MeIQx, 4,8- and 7,8-DiMeIQx, which were originally isolated from fried beef or heated model mixtures of creatinine, amino acids and glucose, and which have a 2-aminoimidazole moiety in their molecules (IQ-type mutagens), were very resistant to nitrite treatment like IQ and MeIQ. Both types of mutagenic heterocyclic amines were completely inactivated by treatment with hypochlorite. This differential inactivation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines by nitrite and hypochlorite was used in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type mutagens to the total mutagenicities of various pyrolyzed materials. The percentage contributions of IQ-type mutagens to the mutagenicities of broiled sardine, fried beef, broiled horse mackerel, cigarette smoke condensate and albumin tar were 88, 75, 48, 6 and 4, respectively.

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Wallin, Håkan; Binderup, Mona Lise; Dybdahl, Marianne; Autrup, Herman; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2004-01-10

    Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage. The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations and mutagenic activity in urine as biomarkers of exposure in non-smoking bus drivers in city and rural areas on a work day and a day off and in non-smoking mail carriers working outdoors (in the streets) and indoors (in the office). Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on a working day and a day off from 60 non-smoking bus drivers in city and rural areas and from 88 non-smoking mail carriers working outdoors (in the streets) and indoors (in the office). The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene was measured by means of HPLC and the mutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames assay with Salmonella tester strain YG1021 and S9 mix. The N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) phenotype was used as a biomarker for susceptibility to mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds. Bus drivers excreted more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine than did mail carriers. The differences were slightly smaller when NAT2 phenotype, cooking at home, exposure to vehicle exhaust, and performing physical exercise after work were included. The NAT2 slow acetylators had 29% (1.29 [CI: 1.15-1.98]) higher 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in urine than the fast acetylators. Male bus drivers had 0.92 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 0.37-1.47] and female bus drivers 1.90 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 1.01-2.79] higher mutagenic activity in urine than mail carriers. The present study indicates that bus drivers are more exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mutagens than mail carriers. Mail carriers who worked outdoors had higher urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene, a marker of exposure to PAH, than those working indoors. The individual levels of urinary mutagenic activity were not correlated to excretion of 1

  15. FTIR analysis and evaluation of carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ismael Luís; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Silva E Silva, Gabriel; Balzaretti, Naira; Braga, Marcel Ferreira; Oliveira, Luís Felipe Silva

    2016-01-15

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) represent a group of organic compounds of significant interest due to their presence in airborne particulates of urban centers, wide distribution in the environment, and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds, associated with atmospheric particles of size PM1.0) using infrared spectrometry. Carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of the studied NPAHs associated with PM1.0 samples were also determined for two sampling sites: Canoas and Sapucaia do Sul. The results showed that NPAH standard spectra can effectively identify NPAHs in PM1.0 samples. The transmittance and emissivity sample spectra showed broader bands and lower relative intensity than the standard NPAH spectra. The carcinogenic risk and the total mutagenic risk were calculated using the toxic equivalent factors and mutagenic potency factors, respectively. Canoas showed the highest total carcinogenic risk, while Sapucaia do Sul had the highest mutagenic risk. The seasonal analysis suggested that in the study area the ambient air is more toxic during the cold periods. These findings might of significant importance for the decision and policy making authorities.

  16. Using the Salmonella assay to delineate the dispersion routes of mutagenic compounds from coal wastes in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Flavio Manoel Rodrigues; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2009-03-17

    The mutagenicity of acidic and organic extracts of surface soil under the influence of a coal-fired power plant was evaluated by Salmonella/microsome assay using strains TA97a, TA98 and TA100 in the absence and presence of exogenous metabolic systems (S9 mix). Additionally, strains YG1041 and YG1042 (sensitive to nitroderivatives) were used for the organic extracts. In general, the responses were higher in the organic extracts in the presence of S9 mix. The comparison between strains TA98 and TA100 and their derived strains YG1041 and YG1042, respectively, allowed the detection of the presence of nitro-aromatic compounds in some sampling areas, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. The interpretation of the set of mutagenesis data suggests that there are two important mutagenic compound dispersion routes in the area of study: frameshift mutagens were dispersed predominantly by runoff and leaching, while base-pair substitution mutagens were dispersed mainly by the atmosphere. This mutagenic damage might be attributed to the effects of several substances detected in the area, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons and the metals aluminum, cadmium, lead and iron.

  17. Mutagenicity and estrogenicity of raw water and drinking water in an industrialized city in the Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sanhua; Lv, Xuemin; Zeng, Yifan; Jin, Tao; Luo, Lan; Zhang, Binbin; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yanhui; Feng, Lin; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Public concern was aroused by frequently reported water pollution incidents in Taihu Lake and the Yangtze River. The pollution also caught and sustained the attention of the scientific community. From 2010 to 2016, raw water and drinking water samples were continually collected at Waterworks A and B (Taihu Lake) and Waterworks C (Yangtze River). The non-volatile organic pollutants in the water samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Ames tests and yeast estrogen screen (YES) assays were conducted to evaluate the respective mutagenic and estrogenic effects. Water samples from the Yangtze River-based Waterworks C possessed higher mutagenicity than those from Taihu Lake-based Waterworks A (P<0.001) and Waterworks B (P = 0.026). Water treatment enhanced the direct mutagenicity (P = 0.022), and weakened the estrogenicity of the raw water (P<0.001) with a median removal rate of 100%. In fact, very few of the finished samples showed estrogenic activity. Raw water samples from Waterworks A showed weaker estrogenicity than those from Waterworks B (P = 0.034) and Waterworks C (P = 0.006). In summary, mutagenic effects in drinking water and estrogenic effects in raw water merited sustained attention. The Yangtze River was more seriously polluted by mutagenic and estrogenic chemicals than Taihu Lake was. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutagenicity assessment of two herbal medicines, Urtan and Carmint in human leukocytes by single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Hatami, A.; Kalantari, H.; Kalantar, E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of herbal medicine is an old and still widespread particle, which makes studies their genotoxicity essential. Urtan and Carmint are examples of herbal medicines used in Iran which used for the treatment of hyperplasia, diuretic, urinary diffusion and antispasmodic action, carminative gastrointestinal disfunction respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of these herbal medicines in human leukocytes by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE). Both the herbal medicines were used at four concentrations (0.046, 0.092, 0.138 and 0.184/ 100 ml). The results were compared against positive (Cr VI) and negative (no mutagen) control groups. Fluorescence microscope was used to observe the DNA damage in randomly selected cells, which were stained with ethidium bromide. Microscopic observation of the affected cells due to Urtan and Carmint was encouraging as compared to previous studies using SCGE. Both Urtan and Carmint exhibited considerable DNA damage to the blood cells. For example, Urtan at o.184 g/100ml concentration had almost 23% mutagenic effect and as the concentration increased the mutagenic effect also increased. Similarly Carmint exhibited considerable DNA damage on blood cells. Therefore, both the herbal medicines may have some mutagenic effect. (author)

  19. Effect of mutagens on the quality characters and disease resistant genes of diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, S.; Khan, I.A.; Mansoor, S.

    2002-01-01

    In both M1 and M2 plant height decreased with the increase in dose for both the mutagens. The 15 Krad and 0.15M EMS doses increased 122.7 and 128.3 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control respectively while all other doses of both mutagens decreased the yield of seed cotton. The EMS dose 0.10 M drastically decreased 184 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control. There was no larger effect of both mutagens on GOT % whereas staple length was slightly increased and micronaire value decreased as compared to control for all the doses of both mutagens. It was observed in M2 that mutation dose 10 Krad increased 165.6 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control but slight reduction in GOT % was observed. In M2 GOT were increased 3.5 % with 15 Krad and 3.6 % with EMS 0.10 M as compared to control. There were no larger effects for both mutagens in case of staple length, micronaire and uniformity ratio for all the doses as compared to control. respectively. In both M1 and M2 no plant was observed susceptible to cotton leaf curl virus and bacterial blight diseases of cotton

  20. Tissue-specific metabolic activation and mutagenicity of 3-nitrobenzanthrone in MutaMouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guosheng; Gingerich, John; Soper, Lynda; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A

    2008-10-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagen and suspected human carcinogen detected in diesel exhaust, airborne particulate matter, and urban soil. We investigated the tissue specific mutagenicity of 3-NBA at the lacZ locus of transgenic MutaMouse following acute single dose or 28-day repeated-dose oral administration. In the acute high dose (50 mg/kg) exposure, increased lacZ mutant frequency was observed in bone marrow and colonic epithelium, but not in liver and bladder. In the repeated-dose study, a dose-dependent increase in lacZ mutant frequency was observed in bone marrow and liver (2- and 4-fold increase above control), but not in lung or intestinal epithelium. In addition, a concentration-dependent increase in mutant frequency (8.5-fold above control) was observed for MutaMouse FE1 lung epithelial cells exposed in vitro. 1-Nitropyrene reductase, 3-NBA reductase, and acetyltransferase activities were measured in a variety of MutaMouse specimens in an effort to link metabolic activation and mutagenicity. High 3-NBA nitroreductase activities were observed in lung, liver, colon and bladder, and detectable N-acetyltransferase activities were found in all tissues except bone marrow. The relatively high 3-NBA nitroreductase activity in MutaMouse tissues, as compared with those in Salmonella TA98 and TA100, suggests that 3-NBA is readily reduced and activated in vivo. High 3-NBA nitroreductase levels in liver and colon are consistent with the elevated lacZ mutant frequency values, and previously noted inductions of hepatic DNA adducts. Despite an absence of induced lacZ mutations, the highest 3-NBA reductase activity was detected in lung. Further studies are warranted, especially following inhalation or intratracheal exposures. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletions: mechanistic studies in Salmonella tester strain TA102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.E.; Marnett, L.J.; Ames, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella tester strain TA102 carries the hisG428 ochre mutation on the multicopy plasmid pAQ1. DNA sequence analysis of 45 spontaneous revertants of hisG428 on the chromosome in the presence of pKM101 (strain TA103) indicates that hisG428 revertants fall into three major categories: (i) small, in-frame deletions (3 or 6 base pairs) that remove part or all of the ochre triplet; (ii) base substitution mutations at the ochre site; (iii) extragenic ochre suppressors. Deletion revertants are identified in a simple phenotypic screen by their resistance to the inhibitory histidine analog thiazolealanine, which feedback inhibits the wild-type hisG enzyme but not the enzyme resulting from the deletions. The effect of various genetic backgrounds on the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants was examined. The presence of a uvrB mutation or a recA mutation suppressed the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants to approximately 1/2.5. When hisG428 was in multiple copies on pAQ1, the frequency of spontaneous deletion revertants increased by 40-fold, which is the approximate copy number of pAQ1. Mutagenic agents that induce single-strand breaks in DNA (e.g., x-rays, bleomycin, and nalidixic acid) induced deletion revertants in TA102. These agents induced deletion revertants only in hisG428 on pAQ1 and only in the presence of pKM101. Deletion revertants were not induced by frameshift mutagens (i.e., ICR-191 and 9aminoacridine). These results indicate that different pathways exist for the generation of spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletion revertants of hisG428. 41 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  2. Trichloroethylene Biotransformation and its Role in Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity and Target Organ Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism is critical for the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other adverse health effects of trichloroethylene (TCE). Despite the relatively small size and simple chemical structure of TCE, its metabolism is quite complex, yielding multiple intermediates and end-products. Experimental animal and human data indicate that TCE metabolism occurs through two major pathways: cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent oxidation and glutathione (GSH) conjugation catalyzed by GSH S-transferases (GSTs). Herein we review recent data characterizing TCE processing and flux through these pathways. We describe the catalytic enzymes, their regulation and tissue localization, as well as the evidence for transport and inter-organ processing of metabolites. We address the chemical reactivity of TCE metabolites, highlighting data on mutagenicity of these end-products. Identification in urine of key metabolites, particularly trichloroacetate (TCA), dichloroacetate (DCA), trichloroethanol and its glucuronide (TCOH and TCOG), and N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NAcDCVC), in exposed humans and other species (mostly rats and mice) demonstrates function of the two metabolic pathways in vivo. The CYP pathway primarily yields chemically stable end-products. However, the GST pathway conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) is further processed to multiple highly reactive species that are known to be mutagenic, especially in kidney where in situ metabolism occurs. TCE metabolism is highly variable across sexes, species, tissues and individuals. Genetic polymorphisms in several of the key enzymes metabolizing TCE and its intermediates contribute to variability in metabolic profiles and rates. In all, the evidence characterizing the complex metabolism of TCE can inform predictions of adverse responses including mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and acute and chronic organ-specific toxicity. PMID:25484616

  3. Topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojosnegros, Samuel; Agudo, Rubén; Sierra, Macarena; Briones, Carlos; Sierra, Saleta; González-López, Claudia; Domingo, Esteban; Cristina, Juan

    2008-07-17

    The molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations) are not well understood. Here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ) to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues. Phylogenetic and PAQ analyses have revealed a highly dynamic variation of intrapopulation diversity of FMDV quasispecies. The population diversity first suffers striking expansions in the presence of mutagens and then compressions either when the presence of the mutagenic analogue was discontinued or when a mutation that decreased sensitivity to a mutagen was selected. The pattern of mutations found in the populations was in agreement with the behavior of the corresponding nucleotide analogues with FMDV in vitro. Mutations accumulated at preferred genomic sites, and dn/ds ratios indicate the operation of negative (or purifying) selection in populations subjected to mutagenesis. No evidence of unusually elevated genetic distances has been obtained for FMDV populations approaching extinction. Phylogenetic and PAQ analysis provide adequate procedures to describe the evolution of viral sequences subjected to lethal mutagenesis. These methods define the changes of intra-population structure more precisely than mutation frequencies and Shannon entropies. PAQ is very sensitive to variations of intrapopulation genetic distances. Strong negative (or purifying) selection operates in FMDV populations subjected to enhanced mutagenesis. The quantifications provide evidence that extinction does not imply unusual increases of intrapopulation complexity, in support of the lethal defection model of virus extinction.

  4. Topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Saleta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations are not well understood. Here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues. Results Phylogenetic and PAQ analyses have revealed a highly dynamic variation of intrapopulation diversity of FMDV quasispecies. The population diversity first suffers striking expansions in the presence of mutagens and then compressions either when the presence of the mutagenic analogue was discontinued or when a mutation that decreased sensitivity to a mutagen was selected. The pattern of mutations found in the populations was in agreement with the behavior of the corresponding nucleotide analogues with FMDV in vitro. Mutations accumulated at preferred genomic sites, and dn/ds ratios indicate the operation of negative (or purifying selection in populations subjected to mutagenesis. No evidence of unusually elevated genetic distances has been obtained for FMDV populations approaching extinction. Conclusion Phylogenetic and PAQ analysis provide adequate procedures to describe the evolution of viral sequences subjected to lethal mutagenesis. These methods define the changes of intra-population structure more precisely than mutation frequencies and Shannon entropies. PAQ is very sensitive to variations of intrapopulation genetic distances. Strong negative (or purifying selection operates in FMDV populations subjected to enhanced mutagenesis. The quantifications provide evidence that extinction does not imply unusual increases of intrapopulation complexity, in support of the lethal defection model of virus extinction.

  5. Feature combination networks for the interpretation of statistical machine learning models: application to Ames mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Samuel J; Hanser, Thierry; Howlin, Brendan; Krause, Paul; Vessey, Jonathan D

    2014-03-25

    A new algorithm has been developed to enable the interpretation of black box models. The developed algorithm is agnostic to learning algorithm and open to all structural based descriptors such as fragments, keys and hashed fingerprints. The algorithm has provided meaningful interpretation of Ames mutagenicity predictions from both random forest and support vector machine models built on a variety of structural fingerprints.A fragmentation algorithm is utilised to investigate the model's behaviour on specific substructures present in the query. An output is formulated summarising causes of activation and deactivation. The algorithm is able to identify multiple causes of activation or deactivation in addition to identifying localised deactivations where the prediction for the query is active overall. No loss in performance is seen as there is no change in the prediction; the interpretation is produced directly on the model's behaviour for the specific query. Models have been built using multiple learning algorithms including support vector machine and random forest. The models were built on public Ames mutagenicity data and a variety of fingerprint descriptors were used. These models produced a good performance in both internal and external validation with accuracies around 82%. The models were used to evaluate the interpretation algorithm. Interpretation was revealed that links closely with understood mechanisms for Ames mutagenicity. This methodology allows for a greater utilisation of the predictions made by black box models and can expedite further study based on the output for a (quantitative) structure activity model. Additionally the algorithm could be utilised for chemical dataset investigation and knowledge extraction/human SAR development.

  6. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on research in the following areas: determination of mutagenic effects of tritium incorporated into DNA using 32 P, 33 P, and 14 C; dosimetry studies using number of disintegrations per minute per sperm cell; effect of the 5-position of the label of the cytosine moiety on mutation frequency; distribution of labeled thymine and comparison with labeled cytosine and a non-DNA labeled arginine-rich protein; detection of temperature sensitive mutants; induction of mosaics by x radiation; and methods for determining quantitatively the location of tritium in the deoxycytidine moiety

  7. Environmental tobacco smoking, mutagen sensitivity, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Morgenstern, H; Spitz, M R; Tashkin, D P; Yu, G P; Hsu, T C; Schantz, S P

    2000-10-01

    Although active tobacco smoking has been considered a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, few studies have evaluated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its interaction with mutagen sensitivity on the risk of head and neck cancer. We investigated the relationship between ETS and head and neck cancer in a case-control study of 173 previously untreated cases with pathologically confirmed diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and 176 cancer-free controls at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1992 and 1994. A structured questionnaire was used to collect ETS exposure and other covariates including a history of active tobacco smoking and alcohol use. ETS measures include a history of ETS exposure at home and at workplace. The associations between passive smoking and head and neck cancer were analyzed by Mantel-Haenszel methods and logistic regression models. Additive and multiplicative models were used to evaluate effect modifications between ETS and mutagen sensitivity. The crude odds ratio (OR) for ETS exposure was 2.8 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.3-6.0]. Controlling for age, sex, race, education, alcohol consumption, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and marijuana use, the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was increased with ETS (adjusted OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.9-6.8). Dose-response relationships were observed for the degree of ETS exposure; the adjusted ORs were 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7-6.1) for those with moderate exposure and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-11.5) for individuals with heavy exposure (P for trend = 0.025), in comparison with those who never had ETS exposures. These associations and the dose-response relationships were still present when the analysis was restricted to nonactive smoking cases and controls (crude OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.6-8.4). Crude odds ratios were 1.8 for those with moderate ETS exposure and 4.3 for individuals with heavy ETS exposure among nonsmoking cases and controls (P for trend = 0.008). More

  8. The use of a mutationally unstable X-chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster for mutagenicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, B.; Svahlin, H.; Rasmuson, A.; Montell, I.; Olofsson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Somatic eye-colour mutations in an unstable genetic system, caused by a transposable element in the white locus of the X-chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, is suggested as an assay system for mutagenicity testing. The system is evaluated by comparison with a corresponding system in a stable X-chromosome. Its sensitivity is confirmed with X-ray and EMS treatment, and it is found to be confined to the specific segment of the X-chromosome where the transposable element is localized. (Auth.)

  9. Mutagenic action of radiation with different LET on Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, A.V.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The induction of the his - →his + mutants in vegetative and spores of Bacillus subtilis wild type cells irradiated with γ-rays and helium ions (LET=20-80 keV/μm has been investigated. It was shown that the dose dependence of the mutation induction in vegetative cells is described by a linear-quadratic function of dose in case of both γ-rays and helium ions. RBE (LET) dependence on the mutagenic assay is shifted at the low region of LET. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs

  10. Analysis of mutagenic and carcinogenic risks: nitrates, nitrites, N-Nitroso compounds. Comparison with radioactive risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1987-07-01

    This report comes within the scope of the general studies on mutagenic and carcinogenic agents other than ionizing radiations. Through feeding, way of life and working activities, man is exposed to genotoxic risks of N-nitroso compounds (NNC). In spite of differences in the molecular modes of action, there exists some analogy between the effects of radiation exposures and those of NNC: DNA is the target in either instance. Unlike radiations, NNC are alkylating agents. The whole activation process of carcinogens arises from mechanisms leading to DNA repair [fr

  11. Urine recovery experiments with quercetin and other mutagens using the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, D.B.; Hatcher, J.F.; Bryan, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    Recovery from urine of the mutagenic activity of 2-anthramine, cyclophosphamide, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 6-chloro-9-((3-(2-chloroethylamino)-propyl)amino)-2-methoxyacridine dihydrochloride (ICR-191), mitomycin-C, nitrofurantoin, and quercetin was studied with several of the Ames tester strains using acetone-extracted XAD-2 columns with yields ranging from 27% to 79%. Dose responses of the pure chemicals were also studied, and results showed TA 97 to be far more susceptible to quercetin mutagenesis than TA 1537. Reducing pour plate agar volume enhanced mutagenesis.

  12. Development of resistance to Puccinia graminis avenae in Avena sativa by mutagen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Harder, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of over seven million M 2 oat plants derived from irradiated and chemical mutagen treated seeds (about 50,000) or low-level chronically irradiated growing plants produced no new sources of useful resistance. However, preliminary results indicate that the gene Pg-16 has been transferred from the tetraploid Avena barbata L. to the hexaploid A. sativa L. by irradiation of disomic alien addition lines and monosomic alien substitution lines. This gene is highly effective and confers resistance to all but two of the known races of stem rust occurring in North America. (author)

  13. Cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and mutagenic appraisal to ascertain toxicological potential of particulate matter emitted from automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Altaf, Imran; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    Vehicular air pollution is a mounting health issue of the modern age, particularly in urban populations of the developing nations. Auto-rickshaws are not considered eco-friendly as to their inefficient engines producing large amount of particulate matter (PM), thus posing significant environmental threat. The present study was conducted to ascertain the cytotoxic, phytotoxic, and mutagenic potential of PM from gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA). Based on the increased amount of aluminum quantified during proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of PM from TSA and FSA, different concentrations of aluminum sulfate were also tested to determine its eco-toxicological potential. The MTT assay demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of TSA, FSA, and aluminum sulfate on BHK-21 cell line. LC50 of TSA, FSA, and aluminum sulfate was quantified at 16, 11, and 23.8 μg/ml, respectively, establishing PM from FSA, a highly cytotoxic material. In case of phytotoxicity screening using Zea mays, the results demonstrated that all three tested materials were equally phytotoxic at higher concentrations producing significant reduction (p < 0.001) in seed germination. Aluminum sulfate proved to be a highly phytotoxic agent even at its lowest concentration. Mutagenicity was assessed by fluctuation Salmonella reverse mutation assay adopting TA100 and TA98 mutant strains with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Despite the fact that different concentrations of PM from both sources, i.e., TSA and FSA were highly mutagenic (p < 0.001) even at lower concentrations, the mutagenic index was higher in TSA. Data advocate that all tested materials are equally ecotoxic, and if the existing trend of atmospheric pollution by auto-rickshaws is continued, airborne heavy metals will seriously affect the normal growth of local inhabitants and

  14. Lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on Streptomyces griseus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorskaya, M.E.; Tulina, G.G.; Serdechnaya, A.I.; Matselyukh, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of lethal and mutagenic effects of fast neutrons of different energy on spores of prototrophic and auxotrophic strains of Streptomyces griseus. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons is higher than that of γ-rays and depends on beam energy. Neutrons of 22-50 MeV induce Streptomyces griseus mutations more frequently (by one order of magnitude) than neutrons of 1.4-1.6 MeV do. The obtained mutants can be used in studying Streptomyces griseus genetics

  15. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Nagao, Minako

    2004-04-01

    Research leading to the discovery of a series of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) was inspired by the idea that smoke produced during cooking of food, especially meat or fish, might be carcinogenic. More than ten kinds of HCAs, actually produced by cooking or heating of meat or fish, have now been isolated and their structures determined, most being previously unregistered compounds. They are highly mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9 mix and are also mutagenic in vitro and in vivo toward mammalian cells. HCAs have now been chemically synthesized in quantity and subjected to long-term animal testing. When HCAs were fed in the diet, rodents developed cancers in many organs, including the colon, breast and prostate, and one HCA produced hepatomas in monkeys. The lesions exhibited alteration in genes including Apc, beta-catenin and Ha-ras, and these changes provide clues to the induction mechanisms. The HCAs are oxidized to hydroxyamino derivatives by cytochrome P450s, and further converted to ester forms by acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase. Eventually, they produce DNA adducts through the formation of N-C bonds at guanine bases. There are HCA-sensitive and resistant strains of rodents and a search for the responsible genes is now under way. While the content of HCAs in dishes consumed in ordinary life is low and not sufficient in itself to explain human cancer, the coexistence of many other mutagens/carcinogens of either autobiotic or xenobiotic type and the possibility that HCAs induce genomic instability and heightened sensitivity to tumor promoters suggest that avoidance of exposure to HCAs or reduction of HCAs' biological effects as far as possible are to be highly recommended. Usage of microwave ovens for cooking and supplementation of the diet, for example with soy-isoflavones, which have been found to suppress the occurrence of HCA-induced breast cancers, should be encouraged. Advice to the general public

  16. Mutagenic and DNA damaging activity in muscle of trout exposed in vivo to nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Flora, S; Arillo, A

    1983-09-01

    Muscle ether extracts of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to lake water enriched with nitrite (450 micrograms/l) reverted plasmid-containing his- strains of Salmonella typhimurium, mainly eliciting frameshift mutations, and induced a DNA damage in Escherichia coli reparable through the recA/lexA-dependent SOS functions. The number of revertants was related to their content in nitroso-derivatives and to the physiological condition of the fish. Mutagenicity was efficiently decreased, through NADPH-requiring pathways, by liver S-9 fractions from rats or rainbow trout, while it was not affected by preliminary heating nor by pre-incubation with human gastric juice.

  17. Effect of combined mutagenic treatments on sensitivity and mutation frequency in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1977-01-01

    Rice seeds were subjected to two sets of combination treatments of radiations and NMH. The effects of mutagenic treatments in the M 1 and M 2 generations were recorded and discussed. Mutation frequencies estimated as number of mutations per 100 M 1 years were not higher than the values expected on the basis of additive effects. When estimated as number of mutants per 100 M 2 plants, the frequencies revealed more than additive effects. The synergistic effect on mutant frequencies was due to increase in the segregation ratio of mutants. This effect was more pronounced at the higher dose combinations of fast neutrons and NMH. (author)

  18. Comparison of BTX Profiles and Their Mutagenicity Assessment at Two Sites of Agra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyoma Singla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the concentrations of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs, namely, acronym for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX were assessed because of their role in the tropospheric chemistry. Two representative sites, a roadside and a petrol pump, were chosen for sample collection. VOCs were collected using SKC-activated charcoal tubes and SKC personal sampler and characterized by gas chromatograph using flame ionization detector. Among BTX, benzene had the highest concentration. At the roadside, mean concentration of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene, and p-xylene were 14.7 ± 2.4 μgm−3, 8.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, 2.1 ± 0.8 μgm−3, and 5.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, respectively. At the petrol pump, the mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene and p-xylene were 19.5 ± 3.7 μgm−3, 12.9 ± 1.1 μgm−3, 3.6 ± 0.5 μgm−3 and 11.1 ± 1.5 μgm−3, respectively, and were numerically higher by a fraction of 2. Monthly variation of BTX showed maximum concentration in winter. Inter-species ratios and inter-species correlation indicated traffic as the major source of BTX. Extracts of samples were positive in both Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation suggesting the presence of direct mutagens in ambient air that can cause both frame-shift and base-pair mutation. The mutagenic response was greater for TA100 than TA98 suggesting greater activity for base-pair mutagenicity than frame-shift mutagenicity and was found to be statistically significant.

  19. Study of the mutagenic potential of low power microwaves by direct DNA analyzis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Ali, S.; Thelma, B.K.; Behari, J.

    1996-01-01

    Man is constantly exposed to electromagnetic radiation which is a constituent part of the biosphere. Due to the technological progress and numerous man-made sources such as those used in industry, traffic, medicine, defence, communication network as well as some home appliances, the character of the natural electromagnetic field has altered significantly. These sources of nonionizing radiation cause atmospheric pollution similar to the pollution from various industrial sources. Unambiguous detection of the mutagenic potential of these radiations is necessary for genetic well being of future generations. (author)

  20. Repair in unicellular green algae under the chronic action of mutagenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeeva, S.A.; Ptitsina, S.N.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Repair of single-standed DNA breaks in different strains of unicellular green Chlamidomonas reinhardii algae under the chronic action of mutagenic factors after γ-radiation was studied. It is shown, that the highest DNA break repair efficiency is observed in M γ mt++ strain, resistant to radiation. Strains, sensitive to UV-rays, possess the same repair efficiency as a wild type strain. UVS-1 strain demonstrated a higher repair efficiency, than a wild type strain. All that gives evidence of the difference in Chlamidomonas reinhardii of repair ways, leading to repair of damages, induced by γ-radiation and UV-rays

  1. Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A.; Beh, C.W.; Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B.; Liow, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

  2. Separate and combined application of mutagens in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, E.

    1989-01-01

    The study included gamma rays (3, 6, 9, 12 kR) and EMS (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2% solutions), independently and in combination. Seeds of the cultivar ''Prelom'' were treated and the effects assessed in terms of plant survival. The doses of 6 kR gamma rays; 0.2% EMS and 6 kR + 0.2% EMS were found to be optimal (LD 50%). Mutations of interest for breeding were obtained. Although the survival rate after combined mutagen treatment was the same, the number of morphological variants in M 2 was much higher

  3. [Evaluation of the mutagenicity of detergents by tests on bacteria, plant cells and human leucocytes.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feretti, Donatella; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zerbini, Ilaria; Gozio, Eleonora; Belotti, Caterina; Alias, Carlotta; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of several traditional detergents and that of newer more biodegradable detergents, by using a bacterial test (Ames test), a plant cell test (Allium cepa micronuclei test) and a human leucocyte test (Comet test). All tests were conducted using a wide range of doses (1-2000 mg/l). None of the examined detergents induced mutations in S.typhimurium. One traditional detergent showed a genotoxic effect with the A. cepa test, while all newer detergents and one traditional detergent were shown by the Comet test to be capable of inducing DNA damage.

  4. Peptide bond-forming reagents HOAt and HATU are not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolette, John; Neft, Robin E; Vanosdol, Jessica; Murray, Joel

    2016-04-01

    The peptide bond-forming reagents 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt, CAS 39968-33-7) and O-(7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU, CAS 148893-10-1) either have structural alerts, unclassified features or are considered out of domain when evaluated for potential mutagenicity with in silico programs DEREK and CaseUltra. Since they are commonly used reagents in pharmaceutical drug syntheses, they may become drug substance or drug product impurities and would need to be either controlled to appropriately safe levels or tested for mutagenicity. Both reagents were tested in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test at Covance, under GLP conditions, following the OECD test guideline and ICH S2(R1) recommendations and found to be negative. Our data show that HOAt and HATU-common pharmaceutical synthesis reagents-are not mutagenic, and can be treated as ordinary drug impurities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Studies on chlorophyll and viable mutations in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) II: Response to mutagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1980-09-01

    The frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations in relation to type and dose of mutagen and cluster progenies were studied in four green gram cultivars viz., Kopergaon, Pusa Baisakhi, L. 24/2 and Sel. 122 subjected to two levels of EMS and gamma irradiation, severally and in conjunction. While chlorophyll mutations did not vary with the mutagen dose, viable mutations exhibited a direct relationship. Combinations of the mutagens were more effective in mutation induction. While no difference was manifested between the cluster families in respect of chlorophyll mutations, progenies of the second cluster recorded less viable mutations than either the first or the third. Viridis and xanthoviridis among chlorophyll mutations, and those affecting plant duration and stature among viable were more predominant.

  6. Role of certain plant natural products or gamma radiation in the control of mutagenic activity of some heterocyclic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Ghadeer, A.R.M.; El-Sedeek, A.B.A.; Salem, A.M.; Abu Zaid, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to use ames test to evaluate the antimutagenic effect of some natural products on the lever microsomes extracted from rats and incubated with some chemical mutagens (heterocyclic compounds). Male swiss albino rats (120-140 g) were used as the source of liver microsomes. Three natural products (Nigella extract, garlic powder and sesame oil) were used to evaluate their antimutagenic activities on six heterocyclic amines. All the tested natural products exhibited their antimutagenic activities when added to the investigated heterocyclic compounds and the most effective product was nigella sativa. another group of rats was exposed to gamma-radiation (6.5 Gy) for testing the validity of ames test in quantitating mutagenicity using liver microsomes of irradiated rats. Liver microsomes from irradiated rats showed to lose ability for metabolic activation needed for heterocyclic amines to exert their mutagenic effect on salmonella typhimurium

  7. Antimutagenic effects of betel leaf extract against the mutagenicity of two tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated chewing tobacco alone to be more hazardous than chewing tobacco with betel quid. Experimental studies have shown that betel leaf is antimutagenic against standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) are the only carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, including chewing tobacco, we tested the effect of an extract of betel leaf against the mutagenicity of the two important TSNA, viz., N'-nitrosonornicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay with TA100 +S9 and the in vivo micronucleus test. In both the test systems it was observed that betel leaf extract suppressed the mutagenic effects of both the nitrosamines to a significant extent.

  8. Mutagenicity in salmonella of nitro-organic compounds in extracts of fly ash of a fluidized-bed combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsen, J.F.; Harris, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of a crude benzene/methanol extract of fly ash from an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor was tested in Salmonella. Six strains were used including three which were mutants in a nitroreductase gene locus. The numbers of revertants from his- to his+ as a function of the amount of fly ash extracted were determined. The results showed that the major mutagens in the crude extract were nitro compounds from the fact that reversion rates in the nitro-reductase-deficient strains were significantly lower than in the parent strains from which they were derived. The responses of three parental strains, TA1538, TA98, and TA100, were quite similar, thus no conclusions could be made about frameshift versus base-substitution mutagens. No identification of specific nitro-organic compounds has been made

  9. Analysis of regional total factor energy efficiency in China under environmental constraints: based on undesirable-minds and DEA window model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Li, Deshan; Li, Shuangqiang; Jiang, Hanyu; Shen, Yuqing

    2017-06-01

    With China’s entrance into the new economy, the improvement of energy efficiency has become an important indicator to measure the quality of ecological civilization construction and economic development. According to the panel data of Chinese regions in 1996-2014, the nearest distance to the efficient frontier of Undesirable-MinDS Xeon model and DEA window model have been used to calculate the total factor energy efficiency of China’s regions. Study found that: Under environmental constraints, China’s total factor energy efficiency has increased after the first drop in the overall 1996-2014, and then increases again. And the difference between the regions is very large, showing a characteristic of “the east is the highest, the west is lower, and lowest is in the central” finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy suggestions.

  10. Improvement of mutation rate and reduction of somatic effects by double treatment of chemical mutagens in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, B.C.; Maluszynski, M.

    1996-01-01

    Mutation techniques inducing more useful mutations and reducing somatic effects need to be improved for crop breeding. Seeds of barley varieties; Dema, Grosso were treated with two types of mutagens; 1) chemical treatment: single treatment or double treatment of two mutagens (N-nitroso-N-methylurea ; MNH, Sodium Azide; NaN 3 ) 2) gamma ray irradiation treatment. After treatment, half of seeds were used for germination test and half of seeds were sown to the field. With the higher dose of mutagen both chemical and gamma ray were plants treated, the higher rate of growth reduction rate was in M 1 seedling. In chemical treatment, germination rate of seeds, growth rate of coleoptile and root in double treatment of chemical mutagens were better than single treatments, especially in same dose. Growth inhibition rate of plant in double treatment of 1.0 mM MNH (0.5 mM MNH + 0.5 mM MNH), for example, were less than one of plants of single treatment of 1.0 mM MNH in pot and petri dish test. Growth reduction rate of culm and fertility rate in M 1 plants double treated in same dose of single treatment were also less than single one. With the higher dose of mutagen both chemical and gamma ray were plants treated, the higher frequency of chlorophyll mutants was in M 2 seedling. The rate of chlorophyll mutants in double treatment of chemical mutagens were higher than single treatment. Double treatment methods can be a improved method for induction of new good mutants, which were induced more useful mutations and reduced harmful somatic effects

  11. Test of mutagenicity of an irradiated standard diet for laboratory animals in the host-mediated assay with salmonella typhimurium TA 1530

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzner, R.; Renner, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Feed irradiated at a dose of 3 Mrad was tested for mutagenic activity in the host-mediated assay with the mouse as host and Salmonella typhimurium TA 1530 as indicator organism. In the in vivo and in the in vitro comparative test the irradiated feed showed no mutagenic effect. (orig.) [de

  12. Stimulation of germination of conidium Aspergillus niger, a citric acid producer, under the action of mutagenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubtsova, V.M.; Shcherbakova, E.Ya.; Smirnov, V.A.; Runkovskaya, L.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The action of low doses of various mutagens, namely, 2% cyclophosphane solution (30 min), 1% thiophosphamide solution (30 min), 0.05% nitrosomethylurea solution (30 and 60 min), γ-rays (10 krads) and UV-rays (10000 erg/mm 2 ) stimulates germination of conidium Aspergillus niger, a citric acid producer. At the above-mentioned doses of mutagens, a minor quantity of morphological varieties are formed, and the variability value of acid production by Asp. niger is maintained at the spontaneous level

  13. Mutagenicity of 1-Ethyl-2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazole and Six Derivatives in Salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Ferhan; Korkmaz, Ferhan; MERCANGOZ, Ayse

    2010-01-01

     Newly synthesized 1-Ethyl-2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazole and its six derivatives were tested by Ames assay. In order to reveal the mutagenic activities of the compounds, two different mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) were used in an Ames assay with/without S9 microsomal fraction from rat liver. It was found that the compounds have no mutagenic activities.          &nb...

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Wallin, Håkan; Binderup, Mona Lise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage.AIMS: The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene....../mol creatinine [CI: 0.37-1.47] and female bus drivers 1.90 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 1.01-2.79] higher mutagenic activity in urine than mail carriers. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that bus drivers are more exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mutagens than mail carriers. Mail...

  15. Effects of chemical and physical mutagens on the frequency of a large genetic duplication in Salmonella typhimurium. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, G.R.; Morgan, R.W.; Kirven, R.

    1978-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella typhimurium which contain a duplication of approximately 30% of the genome may be obtained by a simple selective procedure. These strains are highly unstable, losing the duplication when grown on non-selective medium. In this paper the authors report that treatment of merodiploid bacteria with mutagenic agents stimulates the rate at which haploid segregants are obtained from merodiploid strains. The mutagens which have been tested for this effect are X-rays, ultraviolet light (UV), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), and the azaacridine half-mustard ICR-372. (Auth.)

  16. Chemical characterization and cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic properties of Baccharis trinervis (Lam, Persoon) from Colombia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-García, Victoria; Trindade, Cristiano; Lima, Elisiane; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Villela, Izabel; Martinez-Lopez, Wilner; Corrêa, Dione S; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F; Moura, Sidnei; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas

    2018-03-01

    Baccharis trinervis (Lam, Persoon) leaves are used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of high fevers, edema, inflammation, sores and muscle cramps, snakebites and as antiseptic. To investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of extracts and fractions of B. trinervis from Brazil and Colombia in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, and to examine the mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium. Aqueous extracts (AE) of aerial parts of B. trinervis from Brazil (B) and Colombia (C) were fractioned in ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), butanol extract (BF), and aqueous residue fraction (ARF). Qualitative chemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content were made. Identification of chemical constituents was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). For the in vitro tests, CHO cells were treated for 3h with extracts and fractions. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by clonal survival and 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2.5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay (MTT). Genotoxic and mutagenic effects were evaluated by the alkaline comet assay and Cytokinesis-blockage micronucleus test (CBMN), respectively. Additionally, Salmonella/microsome assay was carried out to determinate the mutagenic effects in EAF from Brazil and Colombia. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of saponins and flavonoids. AE and EAF were the samples with the highest quantity of total flavonoids. HPLC showed the presence of luteolin only in AEC, and caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rosmarinic acid, and rutin were identified in AEB and AEC (AEC>AEB). The HRMS in positive mode of EAFB and EAFC showed presence of two carboxylic acids, coumarin, and two terpenoids. In addition, were identified one terpenoid and two carboxylic acids in AE, BF and ARF of B. trinervis from both countries in negative mode. Dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed in CHO cells treated with B. trinervis extracts

  17. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of specific carcinogen-DNA adducts in diploid human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.J.; Maher, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of a series of carcinogens in normal diploid human fibroblasts and in cells deficient in one or more DNA repair processes has provided insight into the specific DNA adduct(s) responsible for these biological effects. The carcinogens tested include ultraviolet radiation; reactive derivatives of structurally related aromatic amides; metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene; the simple alkylating agents N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea; and aflatoxin B 1 dichloride, a model for the reactive 2,3-epoxide of aflatoxin B 1 . Exponentially growing cells were exposed to agents and assayed for mutations and cell killing. Cells deficient in repair of particular DNA adducts or lesions proved more sensitive to the agent causing those lesions than did normally repairing cells. Many of the carcinogens were compared for their mutagenic and/or cytotoxic effect, not only as a function of dose administered, but also as a function of the initial number of adducts or photoproducts induced in DNA and the number remaining at critical times posttreatment. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the number of DNA lesions remaining unexcised at the time the DNA was replicated and frequency of mutations induced. Comparative studies of the frequency of UV-induced transformation of normal and repair-deficient cells showed this also to be true for transformation

  18. Non-random alkylation of DNA sequences induced in vivo by chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, M.; Geri, C.; Bonatti, S.; Parenti, R. (Universita di Pisa (Italy))

    1989-08-01

    Previous studies of the interaction of alkylating agents on the eukaryotic genome support the idea that induction of DNA adducts is at specific genomic sites. Here we show molecular and cytological evidence that alkylation is rather specific. Mammalian cell cultures were exposed to different doses of mutagens and the DNA was analyzed by density gradient ultracentrifugation, hydroxylapatite fractionation, and by restriction enzyme analysis. Studies with the labelled mutagens N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine show that there is a non-random distribution of the adducts. The adducts are found more frequently in A-T, G-C rich satellite DNA and highly repetitive sequences. Analysis with restriction enzymes shows that both methyl and ethyl groups influence the restriction patterns of the enzymes HpaII and MspI that recognize specific endogenous DNA methylation. These data suggest, as a subsequent mechanism, a modification in the pattern of the normal endogenous methylation of 5-methylcytosine.

  19. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nDiet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01 Apoptosis was induced suitably after 48 hours by flow cytometry assay. In Ames test apigenin prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of apigenin was 98.17%.These results have revealed apigenin induced apoptosis in human lymphoma B cells in vitro.

  20. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P

  1. Radiation-induced mutagenicity in repair deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesmer, J.G.; Saunders, E.H.; Chen, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    To determine if there is a relationship between DNA double-strand break repair and mutagenicity the authors utilized two x-ray sensitive mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells along with the parental line K1. The two mutant lines xrs-5 and xrs-6, which have different DSB repair capabilities, were used to determine cell killing and 6-thioguanine resistance (6TG/sup r/) mutation frequencies induced by either x-rays of α-particles, x-ray survival data indicated the two mutant lines have similar sensitivity and are 5-7 fold more sensitive than the parental line K1. The mutant lines are also sensitive to α-particles but to a lesser extent. The authors' 6TG mutation data indicated that the two mutant lines are hypermutable. When mutation frequencies were plotted against the log of survival, mutation frequency at a given survival level was greater in mutant cell population than in parental K1 cells. Their results support the notion that repair of DSB play an important role in the expression of radiation-induced cell killing and mutagenicity

  2. Induction of two mutants in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) by x-rays and chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therrien, M.C.; Grant, W.F. (McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada). Macdonald Coll.)

    1982-10-01

    The mutagenic effects of X-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), 8-ethoxycaffeine (EOC), N-hydroxyurea (HU) and 2-aminopurine (2AP) on seed treatment of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. 'Mirabel') were assessed over four generations. Mutants were recovered in the M/sub 2/, M/sub 3/ and M/sub 4/ generations from selfed lines, from crosses derived form selfed lines and from open pollination lines. Mutant plants exhibiting vestigial floret character were recovered from X-rays, EMS, EOC and HU treatments. Mutant chlorotica plants were obtained from EMS treatment only. No mutants were recovered from 2AP treatment, EMS, the most effective mutagen, produced nine vestigial floret and 12 chlorotica mutants. Mutants were obtained from only one exposure of X-rays (12 krad). There was evidence for preferential elimination of gametes. The chlorotica and vestigial floret mutants were inherited as tetrasomic recessives. Mutation frequencies of 0.4 - 3.1% in a tetrasomic background are indicative of the effectiveness of EMS in birdsfoot trefoil.

  3. Induction of two mutants in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) by x-rays and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, M.C.; Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of X-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), 8-ethoxycaffeine (EOC), N-hydroxyurea (HU) and 2-aminopurine (2AP) on seed treatment of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. 'Mirabel') were assessed over four generations. Mutants were recovered in the M 2 , M 3 and M 4 generations from selfed lines, from crosses derived form selfed lines and from open pollination lines. Mutant plants exhibiting vestigial floret character were recovered from X-rays, EMS, EOC and HU treatments. Mutant chlorotica plants were obtained from EMS treatment only. No mutants were recovered from 2AP treatment, EMS, the most effective mutagen, produced nine vestigial floret and 12 chlorotica mutants. Mutants were obtained from only one exposure of X-rays (12 krad). There was evidence for preferential elimination of gametes. The chlorotica and vestigial floret mutants were inherited as tetrasomic recessives. Mutation frequencies of 0.4 - 3.1% in a tetrasomic background are indicative of the effectiveness of EMS in birdsfoot trefoil

  4. Mutagenic hazards of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, C.L.; Lambert, A.B.; Lundstedt, S.; Tysklind, M.; White, P.A. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Safe Environment Program

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate hazard/risk assessment methods for complex environmental mixtures that involve a targeted, priority chemical approach based on the cumulative hazard/risk of known mixture components or analyses of sufficiently similar mixtures. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils were separated into nonpolar and semipolar fractions, and both fractions elicited positive responses on the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Targeted and nontargeted methods of hazard prediction routinely overestimated mutagenic activities for the nonpolar soil fractions, suggesting nonadditive interactions of PAHs in complex mixtures. This suggests that current risk assessment methods for complex mixtures may provide conservative estimates regarding soils contaminated with priority PAHs alone. Significant underestimations of total risk, however, will be obtained if the soils also contain unidentified PAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds and related compounds that contribute to the total mutagenic activity. Furthermore, estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk associated with the nondietary ingestion of the PAH-contaminated soils studied here indicate that a traditional risk assessment model based on identified priority PAHs and an assumption of additivity generally underestimates the risk associated with the nonpolar soil fractions (in comparison to bioassay-derived risk estimates). Additional cancer risk may be associated with the more polar compounds that also are found at these contaminated sites and that rarely are included in the standard risk assessment methodology.

  5. The Mutagenic Potential Caused by the Emissions from Combustion of Crude Glycerin and Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Terruggi Mazak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of crude glycerin as an alternative of energy generation to replace the traditional fuels. The Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH was applied to study the mutagenic effects caused by the emissions generated in the direct combustion of diesel oil and glycerin in a flame tube furnace. Tradescantia inflorescences were exposed to gaseous emissions from the combustion tests in a fumigation chamber for 30-40 min. The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were applied to compare the differences between six test groups (intoxicated with emissions from glycerin and diesel oil combustion and a control group. Only one glycerin group showed statistical differences (0.05, possibly due to the complexity of the burning process and impurities, besides the acrolein present in its emissions. The high heating value (HHV of crude glycerin (25.5 MJ/kg was lower than diesel oil (45.19 MJ/kg, but it was comparable to other fuels. Although the use of glycerin as a biofuel could be an important aspect to be considered, the results showed that the glycerin had a substantial mutagenic potential similar to that of diesel oil.

  6. Oncogenesis of melanoma B16 cell clones mutagenized by space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yupeng; Yang Hongsheng; Tang Jingtian; Xu Mei; Geng Chuanying; Fang Qing; Xu Bo; Li Hongyan; Xiang Xing; Pan Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oncogenesis of the melanoma B16 cell clones mutagenized by space environment, and find the B16 cell clones with remarkably mutated immunogenicity. Methods: B16 cells were carried by the Chinese 20th recoverable satellite to the outer space, and were harvested after 18 days' spaceflight and then monocloned. Four cell clones, which were randomly selected from the total 110 clones obtained , and the control clone were routinely cultured. The cultured cells were injected to 10 groups of C57BL/6J mice, 82.1 mice in each group. Five groups of mice received hypodermic injection and another 5 groups of mice received abdominal injection. The survival time was observed in abdominal injection groups. The mice in hypodermic injection groups were sacrificed after 14 days, the tumor, spleen and thymus were weighted, and the serum IL-2 concentration was determined. Moreover, the melanoma tumor tissues were examined histopathologically. Results: An experiment program suitable to screening space mutagenesis of B16 tumor cell clones in vivo and the observation indices were basically established. One clone was found out which was remarkably different from the control clone in latent period of tumor formation, tumor weight, survival time of the tumor-bearing mice and the expression of IL-2. Conclusions: Cultured melanoma B16 cells could be mutated by outer space environment. The further study will be focused on the influence of space environment on immunogenicity of mutagenized B16 cells. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of Antitrypanosomal Dihydroquinolines for Hepatotoxicity, Mutagenicity, and Methemoglobin Formation In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbovetz, Karl A; Riccio, Edward S; Furimsky, Anna; Richard, Julian V; He, Shanshan; Iyer, Lalitha; Mirsalis, Jon

    2014-07-01

    N1-Benzylated dihydroquinolin-6-ols and their corresponding esters display exceptional activity against African trypanosomes in vitro, and administration of members of this class of compounds to trypanosome-infected mice results in cures in a first-stage African trypanosomiasis model. Since a quinone imine intermediate has been implicated in the antiparasitic mechanism of action of these compounds, evaluation of the hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and methemoglobin-promoting effects of these agents was performed. 1-Benzyl-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinolin-6-ol hydrochloride and 1-benzyl-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinolin-6-yl acetate showed outstanding in vitro selectivity for Trypanosoma brucei compared to the HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, and PLC5 hepatocyte cell lines. 1-Benzyl-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinolin-6-ol hydrochloride and 1-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinolin-6-yl acetate were not mutagenic when screened in the Ames assay, with or without metabolic activation. The latter 2 compounds promoted time- and dose-dependent formation of methemoglobin when incubated in whole human blood, but such levels were below those typically required to produce symptoms of methemoglobinemia in humans. Although compounds capable of quinone imine formation require careful evaluation, these in vitro studies indicate that antitrypanosomal dihydroquinolines merit further study as drug candidates against the neglected tropical disease human African trypanosomiasis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as mutagen on morphology of Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, S. I.; Susilowati, A.; Yunus, A.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains colchicine in all parts of organs, especially in the seeds. Its extract is as a mutagen to produce plants with polyploid cells. Artemisia annua is a plant that produces active ingredients artemisinin as malarial drugs, hemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-bacterial. The aims of this research was to determine the effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as a mutagen to Artemisia annua morphology. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained from Sukoharjo using maceration method with aquadest solvent (1: 1). The extracts were diluted (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for Artemisia annua sprinkling with different times (0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Observations of morphology Artemisia annua included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width and leaf length. The treatments did not affect plant morphology observation included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width, and leaf length. The EB treatment (100%, 30 minutes) was higher (120 cm) than other. In all treatments stem circumference about 2.5 cm, number of branches ranged between 40-50, leaves width ranged 9-16c m, and leaf length ranged 8-15 cm.

  9. Miscoding and mutagenic properties of 8-oxoguanine and abasic sites: Ubiquitous lesions in damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grollman, A.P.; Takeshita, Masaru

    1995-01-01

    More than twenty oxidatively-damaged bases, including 8-oxoguanine, have been found to occur in genomic DNA. Some of these lesions block DNA replication and are potentially lethal; others generate mutations which can initiate carcinogenesis and promote cellular aging. In this report, the authors focus attention on the mutagenicity and repair of 8-oxoguanine. Kasai and Nishimura's discovery that hydroxyl radicals react with guanine residues in DNA to form 8-oxoguanine and the development of sensitive methods for the detection and quantitation of this modified base led to the observation that approximately 1 in 10 5 guanine residues in mammalian DNA are oxidized at the C-8 position. DNA containing 8-oxoguanine and synthetic analogs of the abasic site have been used to investigate the miscoding and mutagenic potential of these ubiquitous lesions. Studies in the laboratory were facilitated by the development of solid state synthetic methods by which these lesions could be introduced at defined positions in DNA. In this paper, the authors review studies in which 8-oxoguanine and abasic sites have been used in model systems to explore various early events in the replication of selectively damaged DNA

  10. Protective Effect of Prolactin against Methylmercury-Induced Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity on Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Carmem Silva-Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exhibits cytotoxic and mutagenic properties as a result of its effect on tubulin. This toxicity mechanism is related to the production of free radicals that can cause DNA damage. Methylmercury (MeHg is one of the most toxic of the mercury compounds. It accumulates in the aquatic food chain, eventually reaching the human diet. Several studies have demonstrated that prolactin (PRL may be differently affected by inorganic and organic mercury based on interference with various neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of PRL secretion. This study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of PRL on human lymphocytes exposed to MeHg in vitro, including observation of the kinetics of HL-60 cells (an acute myeloid leukemia lineage treated with MeHg and PRL at different concentrations, with both treatments with the individual compounds and combined treatments. All treatments with MeHg produced a significant increase in the frequency of chromatid gaps, however, no significant difference was observed in the chromosomal breaks with any treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the mitotic index was observed for treatments with PRL, which also acts as a co-mitogenic factor, regulating proliferation by modulating the expression of genes that are essential for cell cycle progression and cytoskeleton organization. These properties contribute to the protective action of PRL against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of MeHg.

  11. Induction of bacterial antibiotic resistance by mutagenic halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Lu; Yu, Xin; Xu, Qian; Ye, Chengsong

    2015-01-01

    Halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) raise concerns regarding their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity threatening public health. However, environmental consequence of their mutagenicity has received less attention. In this study, the effect of halogenated N-DBPs on bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) was investigated. After exposure to bromoacetamide (BAcAm), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) or tribromonitromethane (TBNM), the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to both individual and multiple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, rifampin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin + gentamicin and ciprofloxacin + tetracycline) was increased, which was predominantly ascribed to the overexpression of efflux pumps. The mechanism of this effect was demonstrated to be mutagenesis through sequencing and analyzing antibiotic resistance genes. The same induction phenomena also appeared in Escherichia coli, suggesting this effect may be universal to waterborne pathogens. Therefore, more attention should be given to halogenated N-DBPs, as they could increase not only genotoxicological risks but also epidemiological risks of drinking water. - Highlights: • The halogenated N-DBPs could induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. • Both individual and multiple resistances could be induced. • Efflux mechanism played an important role in the induced antibiotic resistance. • The halogenated N-DBPs induced bacterial antibiotic resistance via mutagenesis. • Effects of N-DBPs on antibiotic resistance may be universal to waterborne pathogens. - Halogenated N-DBPs could increase antibiotic resistance, even multidrug resistance via mutagenesis, contributing to the enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria in drinking water

  12. Verification of mutagen function of Zeocin in Nannochloropsis oceanica through transcriptome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Genmei; Wang, Yamei; Guo, Li; Ding, Haiyan; Hu, Yongmei; Liang, Sijie; Zhang, Zhongyi; Yang, Guanpin

    2017-06-01

    Zeocin can cause double strand breaks of DNA and thus is frequently used as a selective antibiotic of eukaryotic Sh ble transformants. In non-transformation system, Zeocin may function as a mutagen if not totally lethal. To verify such function of Zeocin, we mutated Nannochloropsis oceanica by increasing the concentration of Zeocin in medium gradually, and isolated a N. oceanica strain (single cell culture) which survived Zeocin up to 10.0 μg mL-1. The Zeocin-tolerant strain entered the exponential growth phase later and grew slower than the wild strain. Transcriptome profiling showed that the Zeocin-tolerant N. oceanica strain survived Zeocin mainly by adapting (heritable), rather than acclimating (plastic) to Zeocin. Hence mutating N. oceanica with Zeocin was approved effective. Meanwhile, the physiological characteristics of this Zeocin-tolerant strain were demonstrated. As we proposed, N. oceanica tolerated Zeocin by strengthening its protein degradation and antioxidation. The genes controlling cell division and cellular response to stimuli may also have played important roles in the reduction of growth and the tolerance to Zeocin. Our findings evidenced that Zeocin can serve as an appropriate mutagen of microalgae. Creating variations through mutation with Zeocin may help to study the genetic basis of the traits of this monoploidy and asexual microalga, as well as improve its production.

  13. Examination of Mutagenic Effects of GAL-57 Herbicide (Bentazone+Dicamba Using Mouse Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Karan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A micronucleus test was run to investigate mutagenic potential of the herbicide GAL-57, a formulated mixture of bentazone and dicamba.The test was applied to mice of both sexes (strain: CRL: NMRI BR and the herbicide (product was administered by gavage at 2000 mg/kg rate, twice within 24 hs. Cyclophosphamide (positive control was administered at 60 mg/kg, while distilled water as a solvent was negative control. The animals were sacrificed 24 hs after second treatment, their bone marrow cells isolated from femur, and effects evaluated.The data acquired showed that repeated treatment of mice with GAL-57 caused neither biological nor significant statistical increase in the number of micronuclei in treated animals. At the same time, the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of animals treated with cyclophosphamide (positive control showed a significant statistical increase. The results suggest that the herbicide product tested did not show any mutagenic activity under the conditions of mouse micronucleus test.

  14. Recent perspectives on the relations between faecal mutagenicity, genotoxicity and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eGratz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is an essential component of the genesis of colonic cancer. Gut microbial products and food components are thought to be principally responsible for the damage that initiates disease progression. Modified Ames tests and Comet assays have been developed for measuring mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Their relevance to oncogenesis remains to be confirmed, as does the relative importance of different mutagenic and genotoxic compounds present in faecal water and the bacteria involved in their metabolism. Dietary intervention studies provide clues to the likely risks of oncogenesis. High-protein diets lead to increases in N-nitroso compounds in faecal water and greater DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay, for example. Other dietary interventions, such as non-digestible carbohydrates and probiotics, may lead to lower faecal genotoxicity. In order to make recommendations to the general public, we must develop a better understanding of how genotoxic compounds are formed in the colon, how accurate the Ames and Comet assays are, and how diet affects genotoxicity.

  15. Protective Effect of Prolactin against Methylmercury-Induced Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity on Human Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pereira, Liz Carmem; da Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado; Cunha, Luiz Raimundo Campos da Silva e; da Costa, Edmar Tavares; Guimarães, Ana Paula Araújo; Pontes, Thais Brilhante; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exhibits cytotoxic and mutagenic properties as a result of its effect on tubulin. This toxicity mechanism is related to the production of free radicals that can cause DNA damage. Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most toxic of the mercury compounds. It accumulates in the aquatic food chain, eventually reaching the human diet. Several studies have demonstrated that prolactin (PRL) may be differently affected by inorganic and organic mercury based on interference with various neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of PRL secretion. This study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of PRL on human lymphocytes exposed to MeHg in vitro, including observation of the kinetics of HL-60 cells (an acute myeloid leukemia lineage) treated with MeHg and PRL at different concentrations, with both treatments with the individual compounds and combined treatments. All treatments with MeHg produced a significant increase in the frequency of chromatid gaps, however, no significant difference was observed in the chromosomal breaks with any treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the mitotic index was observed for treatments with PRL, which also acts as a co-mitogenic factor, regulating proliferation by modulating the expression of genes that are essential for cell cycle progression and cytoskeleton organization. These properties contribute to the protective action of PRL against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of MeHg. PMID:25247425

  16. Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C U B; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Animals were treated orally with three different concentrations of the extract (1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight). Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test. The results showed that the two higher doses of the extract of M. paradisiaca induced statistically significant increases in the average numbers of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes for the two higher doses and a significant increase in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the three doses tested. The polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio scored in the treated groups was not statistically different from the negative control. The data obtained indicate that fruit peel extract from M. paradisiaca showed mutagenic effect in the peripheral blood cells of Swiss albino mice.

  17. Effects of mutagen application of sodium azide and gamma radiation in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of mutagen application of sodium azide and gamma radiation in rice seeds. Upland rice seeds, variety Dourado Precoce, were treated with gamma-rays and sodium azide(SA). Biological effects of these treatments were studied in the M 1 and M 2 generations. Survival number, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophyill mutation frequencies based on mutations per 100 M 1 panicles and mutants per 100 M 2 seedlings were analysed. Among these characters, plant fertility was the most sensitive for mutagen treatments, and higher doses of gamma-rays or higher concentrations of sodium azide reduced significantly fertility of M 1 plants. The same effect as increase of concentration of sodium azide was observed when the acidity of buffer solution was increased, or when seeds were pre-treated in distilled water. The maximum chlorophyll mutation frequencies were obtained in sodium azide treatments: 40.74% in the M 1 panicles and 10.67% in the M 2 seedlings, in comparison with the maximum frequenies in gamma-irradiation of 10.39% in the M 1 panicles and 1.73% in the M 2 seedlings. (Author) [pt

  18. Utilization of Mutagenic Treatments for Improving Barley Disease Resistance to Powdery Mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.; Fahim, M.M.; Moustafa, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    This program aims to improve barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordi) using mutation induction technique via physical and chemical mutagens. Grains of two local cultivars were treated with gamma rays (150, 250 GY) at a dose rate of 9.02 Rad/ Sec alone or with the concentrations of chemical mutagens, i.e.,EMS (4 and 8 mM), MH (10 and 20 mM) for two hours. After mass selection for the resistance in M2, the two cultivars were varied in their responses to the fifteen treatments. In M3 generation, the frequencies of plant resistance were increased at 20 mM of MH, 8 mM of EMS or 250 GY with either of them for the cultivar G124. However, the same trend was also found at 10 mM of MH, 250GY alone and with 4 or 8 mM EMS for cultivar G125. Moreover, eight mutants were selected from the progenies of M4 plants and evaluated in M5 generation. These mutants are characterized by highly disease resistance and high yield components, one of them has been characterized by non crytics and awnless .The desirable mutants should go to further evaluation for grain yield and grain quality in subsequent generations. (author)

  19. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of conventionally processed foods in comparison with irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohyuddin, M.

    1975-05-01

    Several kinds of spices and processed food namely onion, garlic, turmeric, red chillies, black pepper, cloves, cinnamon, simple curry, meat curry, curry prepared from irradiated onions and potatoes and curry from irradiated fish were tested for cytotoxocity and mutagenicity. Onion root tips were used in the studies of cytotoxicity. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain NCTC-9428, a streptomycin-sensitive strain, was used as the test organism in mutagenicity studies. Wide range of cytoxicity was observed in all spices and food tested, varying from 48% abnormality in root tips in black pepper to 97.7% in garlic extract. The degrees of cytotoxic abnormality of irradiated potatoes and onions appeared to be lower than in their control counterparts. The average percentages of cytotoxic abnormality in curry prepared from irradiated fish and the one prepared from irradiated potatoes and onions, at their original concentration, were 95.92% and 99.5% resp. Digesting curry prepared from irradiated potatoes and onions with bile salts appeared to show some detoxification characteristics. The mutation rate of Pseudomonas fluorescens grown in media containing unirradiated spice extract was significantly higher than in the control (media without spice extract). However, the mutation rate of an extract of irradiated onions (10 krad) showed no difference from the control. There was no difference in the mutation rate on extracts of curry prepared from irradiated onions and potatoes from the one prepared from unirradiated onions and potatoes

  20. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous IN vivo Grouping (MORPHING) for directed enzyme evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, David; Molina-Espeja, Patricia; Garcia-Ruiz, Eva; Alcalde, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Approaches that depend on directed evolution require reliable methods to generate DNA diversity so that mutant libraries can focus on specific target regions. We took advantage of the high frequency of homologous DNA recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to develop a strategy for domain mutagenesis aimed at introducing and in vivo recombining random mutations in defined segments of DNA. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous IN vivo Grouping (MORPHING) is a one-pot random mutagenic method for short protein regions that harnesses the in vivo recombination apparatus of yeast. Using this approach, libraries can be prepared with different mutational loads in DNA segments of less than 30 amino acids so that they can be assembled into the remaining unaltered DNA regions in vivo with high fidelity. As a proof of concept, we present two eukaryotic-ligninolytic enzyme case studies: i) the enhancement of the oxidative stability of a H2O2-sensitive versatile peroxidase by independent evolution of three distinct protein segments (Leu28-Gly57, Leu149-Ala174 and Ile199-Leu268); and ii) the heterologous functional expression of an unspecific peroxygenase by exclusive evolution of its native 43-residue signal sequence.

  1. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Echinodorus macrophyllus (chapéu-de-couro extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S. Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinodorus macrophyllus, commonly known as chapéu-de-couro, is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatic diseases. In this work, we used short-term bacterial assays based on the induction of SOS functions to examine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of an aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus leaves. Whole extract and an ethyl acetate fraction showed similar genotoxicity and caused an ~70-fold increase in lysogenic induction. The extract also gave a positive result in the SOS chromotest with an increase of 12-fold in β-Galactosidase enzymatic units. There was a strong trend towards base substitutions and frameshifts at purine sites in the mutations induced by the extract in Escherichia coli (CC103 and CC104 strains and Salmonella typhimurium test strains (22-fold increase in histidine revertants in TA98 strain. Since reactive oxygen species may be implicated in aging process and in degenerative diseases, we used antioxidant compounds as catalase, thiourea and dipyridyl in the lysogenic induction test. All this compounds were able to reduce the induction factor observed in the treatment with chapéu-de-couro, thus suggesting that the genotoxicity and mutagenicity were attributable to the production of reactive oxygen species that targeted DNA purines.

  2. Potential use of DNA adducts to detect mutagenic compounds in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Guoxiong; Lyons, Brett; Killham, Ken; Singleton, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In this study, three different soils with contrasting features, spiked with 300 mg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/kg dry soil, were incubated at 20 deg. C and 60% water holding capacity for 540 days. At different time points, BaP and DNA were extracted and quantified, and DNA adducts were quantified by 32 P-postlabelling. After 540 days incubation, 69.3, 81.6 and 83.2% of initial BaP added remained in Cruden Bay, Boyndie and Insch soils, respectively. Meanwhile, a significantly different amount of DNA-BaP adducts were found in the three soils exposed to BaP over time. The work demonstrates the concept that DNA adducts can be detected on DNA extracted from soil. Results suggest the technique is not able to directly reflect bioavailability of BaP transformation products. However, this new method provides a potential way to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil and to assess the outcomes of soil remediation. - A novel DNA adduct assay may provide a potential technique to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil

  3. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during pan frying of beefsteak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Svendsen, Kristin

    2010-04-01

    Cooking with gas or electric stoves produces fumes, especially during frying, that contain a range of harmful and potentially mutagenic compounds as well as high levels of fine and ultrafine particles. The aim of this study was to see if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher mutagenic aldehydes which were collected in the breathing zone of the cook, could be detected in fumes from the frying of beefsteak. The frying was performed in a model kitchen in conditions similar to those in a Western European restaurant kitchen. The levels of PAHs (16 EPA standard) and higher aldehydes (trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, 2,4-decadienal, trans-trans-2,4-nonadienal, trans-2-decenal, cis-2-decenal, trans-2-undecenal, 2-undecenal) were measured during frying on an electric or gas stove with margarine or soya bean oil as the frying fat. The number concentration of particles electric stove causes increased occupational exposure to some of the components in cooking fumes which may cause adverse health effects.

  4. A high-throughput and quantitative method to assess the mutagenic potential of translesion DNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, David J.; Camerlengo, Terry L.; Harrison, Jason K.; Sherrer, Shanen M.; Kshetry, Ajay K.; Taylor, John-Stephen; Huang, Kun; Suo, Zucai

    2013-01-01

    Cellular genomes are constantly damaged by endogenous and exogenous agents that covalently and structurally modify DNA to produce DNA lesions. Although most lesions are mended by various DNA repair pathways in vivo, a significant number of damage sites persist during genomic replication. Our understanding of the mutagenic outcomes derived from these unrepaired DNA lesions has been hindered by the low throughput of existing sequencing methods. Therefore, we have developed a cost-effective high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay that uses next-generation DNA sequencing technology for the assessment of the mutagenic profiles of translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by any error-prone DNA polymerase. The vast amount of sequencing data produced were aligned and quantified by using our novel software. As an example, the high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay was used to analyze the types and frequencies of mutations upstream, downstream and at a site-specifically placed cis–syn thymidine–thymidine dimer generated individually by three lesion-bypass human Y-family DNA polymerases. PMID:23470999

  5. Undesirable behavior in forest campgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger N. Clark

    1971-01-01

    A 3-year study indicates that nuisance behaviors, law violations, vandalism, and littering in forest campgrounds are more extensive than is generally believed. All campers share responsibility for the problems. Violations occur because of ignorance of, lack of understanding, or a willingness to disregard rules. Control measures are discussed, including an incentive...

  6. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Artemisia absinthium volatile oil by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Artemisia absinthium L. (A. absinthium essential oil by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium strains. Methods: Water-distilled essential oil of A. absinthium collected from Ardabil, NorthWestern Iran, was investigated for mutagenic and antimutagenic activities. In present study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of A. absinthium oil were investigated by the bacterial revere mutation assay in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with and without S9 (microsomal mutagenesis assay. Results: The comparative mutagenicity effect was seen in 1.5 mg/plate by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in S. typhimurium TA98 strains, without S9 and the excellent antimutagenicity effect was seen in 1.5 mg/plate against S. typhimurium TA100, without S9. Conclusions: The mutagenicity and antimutagenicity effects of the volatile oil of A. absinthium were seen without the presence of metabolic activation.

  7. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  8. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P.; Millsap, Amy D.; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Basu, Ashis K.

    2015-01-01

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5′-G1G2CG3CC-3′) were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38–67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10–24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass. PMID:26220181

  9. Reduction of undesired lateral forces acting on the flapper of a flapper–nozzle pilot valve by using an innovative flapper shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengzhuo; Aung, Nay Zar; Li, Songjing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The simulated flow rate and main flow force show a good agreement with experiments. • The innovative flapper has little influence on the flow-pressure characteristics. • The innovative flapper can greatly reduce the Y direction force on the upper part. • The innovative flapper reduces both the X and Z direction forces on the lower part. - Abstract: The stability and dynamic performance of a flapper–nozzle pilot valve significantly depend on the flow forces acting on the flapper. Due to the shape of the flapper and flow structure in the flapper–nozzle pilot valve there are undesired lateral forces acting on the flapper, which are very potential to interfere with the stability of the flapper. Aiming to reduce these undesired lateral forces, an innovative flapper shape is proposed and a comparative study of flow forces acting on the two different flapper shapes is conducted. A simple rectangle shape is selected as the innovative flapper shape. The flow forces acting on the traditional flapper shape and innovative flapper shape are evaluated by means of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations and verified with the results from the semi-experimental approach. The evaluation of the flow forces is performed for each flapper shape with two different flapper–nozzle clearances of 0.10 mm and 0.05 mm under seven different flow conditions with the variation of inlet pressures from 1 MPa to 7 MPa. A good agreement between CFD results and semi-experimental results shows that the proposed innovative flapper shape has no effect on flow control characteristics since it is giving approximately the same flow rate and main flow force as the traditional flapper shape at every flow condition. Meanwhile the innovative flapper shape effectively reduces the undesired lateral forces acting on the flapper by altering the flow structure and reducing the strength of the jet flow and cavitation occurred in the flow field of flapper–nozzle pilot valve. At the

  10. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to test the mutagenicity of household compounds: an open ended hypothesis-driven teaching lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela A

    2007-01-01

    In our Fundamentals of Genetics lab, students perform a wide variety of labs to reinforce and extend the topics covered in lecture. I developed an active-learning lab to augment the lecture topic of mutagenesis. In this lab exercise, students determine if a compound they bring from home is a mutagen. Students are required to read extensive background material, perform research to find a potential mutagen to test, develop a hypothesis, and bring to the lab their own suspected mutagen. This lab uses a specially developed strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, D7, to determine if a compound is a mutagen. Mutagenesis of the D7 genome can lead to a scorable alteration in the phenotypes of this strain. Students outline and carry out a protocol for treatment of the yeast tester strain, utilizing the concept of dose/response and positive and negative controls. Students report on their results using a PowerPoint presentation to simulate giving a scientific presentation. The students' self-assessment of their knowledge indicated that, in all cases, the students felt that they knew more about the assay, mutagenesis, and the relationship between genotype and phenotype (P exercise.

  11. Comparative study of the mutagenic and genotoxic activity associated with inhalable particulate matter in Rio de Janeiro air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, A.G.; Daisey, J.M.; Sousa, J.A. (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the genotoxic and mutagenic activities associated with inhalable particulate matter (IPM) collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Camden, NJ, and Caldecott Tunnel, CA, and used these results to compare three different bioassays. Samples collected every 12 hr (Rio) or every 24 hr (Camden) were extracted sequentially with cyclohexane (CX), dichloromethane (DCM), and acetone (ACE), for a rough fractionation by polarity, and composites of the extracts were tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella frame shift (TA98) and base substitution (TA100) tester strains, as well as for genotoxicity using the Rossman Microscreen bioassay based on the induction of lambda-prophage in a lysogenic Escherichia coli strain. All samples were tested without and with S9 metabolic activation. Maximum mutagenic and genotoxic activities were in the nonpolar (CX) and polar (ACE) fractions, respectively, indicating that these two assays detect different classes of compounds with different efficiencies. Oxidative aging of the Rio aerosol is indicated by a shift in activities in both tests from the less polar fractions in the day to the polar (ACE) fraction at night. The Rio TA98 mutagenic (18 rev/m3) and genotoxic (1.4 x 10(5) PFU/m3) activities were higher than those for Camden, an Eastern U.S. city, by factors of 1.4 and 2.8, respectively.

  12. Low dose intoxication and a crisis of regulatory models. Chemical mutagens in the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), 1963-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwerin, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Regulation and the prevention of danger are among the main characteristics of the modern state. However, the idea and the conceptualization of what danger is have changed over time. The genealogy of these changes shows that the history of social change and the history of knowledge are well connected. The 1970s marked the start of a social transformation of Western industrialized societies. This article proposes that this transformation was connected with basic epistemic reconfigurations and that the genealogy of risk played a significant role. This thesis is explored through the example of DFG advisory politics. Beginning in the 1960s, the DFG expert commissions that had been established to make policy and regulation recommendations began to focus more and more on the health effects of environmental pollution. The Commission for Questions of Mutagenicity played a particularly interesting role because its recommendations resulted in the foundation of a research institution run by the DFG, the Central Laboratory for Mutagenicity Testing (CML). The challenges faced by the CML in mutagenic research and testing effected a crisis of the expert-based advisory politics of the Mutagenicity Commission and a fundamental shift in the way scientific (regulatory) knowledge was perceived and valued politically. The pattern of this crisis calls to mind the constellation of the "risk society", but as will be shown, the (re)balancing of science and politics/society presented here is more adequately understood within the framework of political epistemology.

  13. Application of effect-directed analysis to identify mutagenic nitrogenous disinfection by-products of advanced oxidation drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vughs, D.; Baken, K.A.; Kolkman, A.; Martijn, A.J.; de Voogt, P.

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants in (drinking) water treatment. It is however known that medium pressure UV/H2O2 treatment may lead to mutagenicity in the Ames test, which is no longer present after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Many

  14. Toxicity, mutagenicity, and behavioral effects of β-CIT, a ligand for dopamine transporter exploration by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emond, P.; Farde, L.; Chalon, S.; Belzung, C.; Mauclaire, V.; Chiron, J. P.; Halldin, C.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.

    1998-01-01

    The cocaine analog β-CIT is one of the most used compounds for SPET examination of the dopamine transporter in drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. However, the toxicity of this agent has not yet been studied. We report here acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and effect on locomotor activity of β-CIT. Acute toxicity experiments were performed in mice and rats. The LD50 values were about 20 mg and 5 mg for mice and rats, respectively. There was no sex difference. The mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames' test. No mutagenic effect was observed for β-CIT. Effects on locomotor activity were measured in mice using the open-field test. β-CIT increased locomotion (+65%) when injected at a dose of 0.312 mg/kg; the maximal increase (+205%) was observed at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg; at higher doses, the effect was decreased slightly. These pharmacological findings are in agreement with an inhibitory effect of β-CIT at the dopamine transporter. We conclude that with no mutagenic effects and LD50 more than 6 orders of magnitude higher than the routinely used doses in PET or SPET, it can be assumed that β-CIT can be safely used as a radioligand in humans

  15. Toxicity, mutagenicity, and behavioral effects of {beta}-CIT, a ligand for dopamine transporter exploration by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, P.; Farde, L.; Chalon, S.; Belzung, C.; Mauclaire, V.; Chiron, J. P.; Halldin, C.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D

    1998-05-01

    The cocaine analog {beta}-CIT is one of the most used compounds for SPET examination of the dopamine transporter in drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. However, the toxicity of this agent has not yet been studied. We report here acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and effect on locomotor activity of {beta}-CIT. Acute toxicity experiments were performed in mice and rats. The LD50 values were about 20 mg and 5 mg for mice and rats, respectively. There was no sex difference. The mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames' test. No mutagenic effect was observed for {beta}-CIT. Effects on locomotor activity were measured in mice using the open-field test. {beta}-CIT increased locomotion (+65%) when injected at a dose of 0.312 mg/kg; the maximal increase (+205%) was observed at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg; at higher doses, the effect was decreased slightly. These pharmacological findings are in agreement with an inhibitory effect of {beta}-CIT at the dopamine transporter. We conclude that with no mutagenic effects and LD50 more than 6 orders of magnitude higher than the routinely used doses in PET or SPET, it can be assumed that {beta}-CIT can be safely used as a radioligand in humans.

  16. Using "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" to Test the Mutagenicity of Household Compounds: An Open Ended Hypothesis-Driven Teaching Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In our Fundamentals of Genetics lab, students perform a wide variety of labs to reinforce and extend the topics covered in lecture. I developed an active-learning lab to augment the lecture topic of mutagenesis. In this lab exercise, students determine if a compound they bring from home is a mutagen. Students are required to read extensive…

  17. Exposure to mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during panfrying of beefsteak with margarine, rapeseed oil, olive oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Svendsen, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to see if a cook could be exposed to mutagenic aldehydes in fumes from frying of beefsteak using margarine, rapeseed oil, soybean oil or virgin olive oil as frying fat. In addition, levels of particle exposure were measured to make the results comparable to other studies. The levels of higher aldehydes and total particles were measured in the breathing zone of the cook during the panfrying of beefsteak with the four different frying fats. In addition, the number of particles in the size intervals 0.3-0.5, 0.5-0.7 and 0.7-1.0 microm in the kitchen was registered. Measured levels of mutagenic aldehydes were between non-detectable and 25.33 microg m(-3) air. The exposure level of total aerosol was between 1.0 and 11.6 mg m(-3). Higher aldehydes were detected in all samples from this study, and mutagenic aldehydes were detected in most of the samples. Frying with margarine gave statistically significantly higher levels of mutagenic aldehydes and particles in all three size fractions than frying with the three different kinds of oil.

  18. Application of chemical mutagens and radiation in breeding buckwheat for larger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: In 1974, seeds of the Viktoriya variety of buckwheat were treated with 20-30 krad gamma radiation and chemical mutagens in the Biophysics Department of the Kishinev Agricultural Institute. For the chemical mutagen treatment, we used N-ethylnitroso-urea NEH (0.025 and 0.012%), N-methylnitroso-urea NMH (0.01 and 0.005%), ethylenimine EI (0.01 and 0.005%), dimethyl sulphate DMS (0.01 and 0.005%) and 1.4-bis-diazoacetyl butane DAB (0.01 and 0.05%). Since some investigators think that different results are produced by changing the order of the treatment, we treated seeds with chemical mutagens before and after irradiation and this was followed by drying. A total of 2400 seeds were treated. Selection started with M 2 seeds produced by M 1 plants. The thousand seed weight of the best ones ranged from 40.7 to 47.8 g, which was 11.9-18.7 g heavier than the control. The large seed size thus selected was heritable. Since larger seeds are very important for the creation of high yielding varieties buckwheat, only families with these characteristics were selected for further work. We observed even some further increase in seed weight in the next generation. It was observed that when planting large seeds, after six days of growth the cotyledons were significantly larger than in the control plants. This characteristic was used in selecting for a high yielding large-seed variety of buckwheat. The plants were selected twice: once for development of large cotyledon leaves and the second time for plant yield. In the fourth generation, the families thus obtained continued to be studied in greenhouse experiments and the same time be propagated under field conditions. The seeds of these families were then combined and under the name Podolyanka in 1976 were subjected to competitive variety testing. Following the competitive variety testing the mutant variety Podolyanka was released in 1984. It is high yielding (2950 kg/ha), has a short vegetation period (matures 17-18 days

  19. A novel QSAR model of Salmonella mutagenicity and its application in the safety assessment of drug impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Antoni; Prous, Josep; Mora, Oscar [Prous Institute for Biomedical Research, Rambla de Catalunya, 135, 3-2, Barcelona 08008 (Spain); Sadrieh, Nakissa [Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States); Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov [Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    As indicated in ICH M7 draft guidance, in silico predictive tools including statistically-based QSARs and expert analysis may be used as a computational assessment for bacterial mutagenicity for the qualification of impurities in pharmaceuticals. To address this need, we developed and validated a QSAR model to predict Salmonella t. mutagenicity (Ames assay outcome) of pharmaceutical impurities using Prous Institute's Symmetry℠, a new in silico solution for drug discovery and toxicity screening, and the Mold2 molecular descriptor package (FDA/NCTR). Data was sourced from public benchmark databases with known Ames assay mutagenicity outcomes for 7300 chemicals (57% mutagens). Of these data, 90% was used to train the model and the remaining 10% was set aside as a holdout set for validation. The model's applicability to drug impurities was tested using a FDA/CDER database of 951 structures, of which 94% were found within the model's applicability domain. The predictive performance of the model is acceptable for supporting regulatory decision-making with 84 ± 1% sensitivity, 81 ± 1% specificity, 83 ± 1% concordance and 79 ± 1% negative predictivity based on internal cross-validation, while the holdout dataset yielded 83% sensitivity, 77% specificity, 80% concordance and 78% negative predictivity. Given the importance of having confidence in negative predictions, an additional external validation of the model was also carried out, using marketed drugs known to be Ames-negative, and obtained 98% coverage and 81% specificity. Additionally, Ames mutagenicity data from FDA/CFSAN was used to create another data set of 1535 chemicals for external validation of the model, yielding 98% coverage, 73% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 81% concordance and 84% negative predictivity. - Highlights: • A new in silico QSAR model to predict Ames mutagenicity is described. • The model is extensively validated with chemicals from the FDA and the public domain.

  20. A novel QSAR model of Salmonella mutagenicity and its application in the safety assessment of drug impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Antoni; Prous, Josep; Mora, Oscar; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Valerio, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    As indicated in ICH M7 draft guidance, in silico predictive tools including statistically-based QSARs and expert analysis may be used as a computational assessment for bacterial mutagenicity for the qualification of impurities in pharmaceuticals. To address this need, we developed and validated a QSAR model to predict Salmonella t. mutagenicity (Ames assay outcome) of pharmaceutical impurities using Prous Institute's Symmetry℠, a new in silico solution for drug discovery and toxicity screening, and the Mold2 molecular descriptor package (FDA/NCTR). Data was sourced from public benchmark databases with known Ames assay mutagenicity outcomes for 7300 chemicals (57% mutagens). Of these data, 90% was used to train the model and the remaining 10% was set aside as a holdout set for validation. The model's applicability to drug impurities was tested using a FDA/CDER database of 951 structures, of which 94% were found within the model's applicability domain. The predictive performance of the model is acceptable for supporting regulatory decision-making with 84 ± 1% sensitivity, 81 ± 1% specificity, 83 ± 1% concordance and 79 ± 1% negative predictivity based on internal cross-validation, while the holdout dataset yielded 83% sensitivity, 77% specificity, 80% concordance and 78% negative predictivity. Given the importance of having confidence in negative predictions, an additional external validation of the model was also carried out, using marketed drugs known to be Ames-negative, and obtained 98% coverage and 81% specificity. Additionally, Ames mutagenicity data from FDA/CFSAN was used to create another data set of 1535 chemicals for external validation of the model, yielding 98% coverage, 73% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 81% concordance and 84% negative predictivity. - Highlights: • A new in silico QSAR model to predict Ames mutagenicity is described. • The model is extensively validated with chemicals from the FDA and the public domain. • Validation tests