WorldWideScience

Sample records for undesirable higher harmonics

  1. Higher order harmonics of reactor neutron equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fu; Hu Yongming; Luo Zhengpei

    1996-01-01

    The flux mapping method using the higher order harmonics of the neutron equation is proposed. Based on the bi-orthogonality of the higher order harmonics, the process and formulas for higher order harmonics calculation are derived via the source iteration method with source correction. For the first time, not only any order harmonics for up-to-3-dimensional geometry are achieved, but also the preliminary verification to the capability for flux mapping have been carried out

  2. Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

    2004-01-01

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v 4 ) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v 4 is about a factor of 10 smaller than v 2 . For the sixth (v 6 ) and eighth (v 8 ) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported

  3. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity.

  4. Benefits from the BESSY FEL Higher Harmonic Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Goldammer, K

    2005-01-01

    In the FEL process, bunching and coherent radiation is produced at the fundamental frequency as well as its higher harmonics. BESSY proposes a linac-based cascaded High-Gain Harmonic-Generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL) multi-user facility. The BESSY soft X-ray FEL will be seeded by three lasers spanning the spectral range of 230nm to 460nm. Two to four HGHG stages downconvert the seed wavelength to the desired radiation range of 1.24nm to 51nm using higher harmonic bunching. As a surplus, higher harmonic radiation is intrinsically produced in each FEL stage. Radiation on a higher harmonic of the FEL frequency is of high interest because it yields the possibility to reduce the number of FEL stages. This paper details extensive studies of the higher harmonic content of the BESSY FEL radiation. Important aspects of FEL interaction on higher harmonics as resulting from theory and from numerical simulations are discussed. For the case of the BESSY FEL, methods for improving the harmonic content are present...

  5. Higher-order harmonics of general limited diffraction Bessel beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding De-Sheng; Huang Jin-Huang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we extensively study the higher-order harmonic generation of the general limited diffraction m -th-order Bessel beam. The analysis is based on successive approximations of the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. Asymptotic expansions are presented for higher-order harmonic Bessel beams in near and far fields. The validity of asymptotic approximation is also analyzed. The higher-order harmonic of the Bessel beam with the lowest zero-order is taken as a special example. (special topic)

  6. Higher-order harmonics of general limited diffraction Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, De-Sheng; Huang, Jin-Huang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we extensively study the higher-order harmonic generation of the general limited diffraction m-th-order Bessel beam. The analysis is based on successive approximations of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. Asymptotic expansions are presented for higher-order harmonic Bessel beams in near and far fields. The validity of asymptotic approximation is also analyzed. The higher-order harmonic of the Bessel beam with the lowest zero-order is taken as a special example. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11074038 and 11374051).

  7. Acceleration test with mixed higher harmonics in HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sugiura, A.; Misu, T.

    2004-01-01

    In HIMAC synchrotron, beam tests with a magnetic ally loaded cavity have been performed. This cavity has very low Q-value of about 0.5, and can be added higher harmonics with fundamental acceleration frequency. In our tested system for higher harmonics, wave form of a DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) can be rewrite, and arbitrary wave form can be used for beam acceleration. In the beam test, second and third harmonic wave were added on the fundamental acceleration frequency, and increases of the accelerated beam intensity have been achieved. In this paper, results of the beam test and the acceleration system are presented. (author)

  8. Modeling of higher harmonics formation in medical ultrasound systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Louise Kold; Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    a valuable tool for simulating ultrasound harmonic imaging. An extended version of Field II is obtained by means of operator splitting. The pressure eld is calculated by propagation of the eld from the transducer through a number of planes. Every plane serves as a virtual aperture for the next plane...... of the approach is demonstrated by comparing results from simulations and measurements from a convex array transducer. The new simulation tool is capable of simulating the formation of higher harmonics in water on the acoustical axis. The generation of nonlinear higher harmonic components can be predicted...

  9. The Role of Higher Harmonics In Musical Interval Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Using an alternative parameterization of the roughness curve we make direct use of critical band results to investigate the role of higher harmonics on the perception of tonal consonance. We scale the spectral amplitudes in the complex home tone and complex interval tone to simulate acoustic signals of constant energy. Our analysis reveals that even with a relatively small addition of higher harmonics the perfect fifth emerges as a consonant interval with more, musically important, just intervals emerging as consonant as more and more energy is shifted into higher frequencies.

  10. Analysis of higher order harmonics with holographic reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Abellan, P.; Madrigal, R.; Fimia, A.

    2017-05-01

    Silver halide emulsions have been considered one of the most energetic sensitive materials for holographic applications. Nonlinear recording effects on holographic reflection gratings recorded on silver halide emulsions have been studied by different authors obtaining excellent experimental results. In this communication specifically we focused our investigation on the effects of refractive index modulation, trying to get high levels of overmodulation that will produce high order harmonics. We studied the influence of the overmodulation and its effects on the transmission spectra for a wide exposure range by use of 9 μm thickness films of ultrafine grain emulsion BB640, exposed to single collimated beams using a red He-Ne laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) with Denisyuk configuration obtaining a spatial frequency of 4990 l/mm recorded on the emulsion. The experimental results show that high overmodulation levels of refractive index produce second order harmonics with high diffraction efficiency (higher than 75%) and a narrow grating bandwidth (12.5 nm). Results also show that overmodulation produce diffraction spectra deformation of the second order harmonic, transforming the spectrum from sinusoidal to approximation of square shape due to very high overmodulation. Increasing the levels of overmodulation of refractive index, we have obtained higher order harmonics, obtaining third order harmonic with diffraction efficiency (up to 23%) and narrowing grating bandwidth (5 nm). This study is the first step to develop a new easy technique to obtain narrow spectral filters based on the use of high index modulation reflection gratings.

  11. Nondestructive materials evaluation and imaging by higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Nondestructive detection of material anormalities, degradation and tight cracks, in which the acoustic impedance mismatch is low, is rather difficult by conventional ultrasonic testing. A novel nonlinear ultrasonic technique, in particular, higher harmonic technique, utilizes the waveform distortion, which results from the interaction between anormalities and large amplitude tone-burst waves. This technique is not affected by acoustic impedance mismatch, therefore, it has possibility to detect such anormalities, degradation and tight cracks. A novel higher harmonic imaging technique is proposed and applied to detect and visualize local plastic deformation of SUS 304 plates, plastic zone in front of crack tip, weld bond contour of carbon steel, small inclusions in ODS steel fuel tubes, pitting damage of SUS 316 plates in mercury, shallow fatigue cracks of SUS 316 plates introduced by thermal fatigue, and inter-granular stress corrosion cracking, IGSCC, in welded plates simulated safe-ends for bonding dissimilar metals. (author)

  12. Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkin, S. A., E-mail: KurkinSA@gmail.com; Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E. [Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028, Russia and Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaja 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.

  13. Some implications of the higher harmonics of galatic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, J.

    1979-06-01

    It is suggested that higher harmonics of the galactic cosmic ray anisotropy detected in the 1-100 TeV range may be attributed to anisotropic pitch angle scattering. The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is applied to obtain the ratio of various harmonics as function of the declination of pitch angle axis. It is found that, to match the observations, the axis should point toward moderate declination (20 deg - 40 deg) while the power spectrum of the interstellar magnetic field fluctuations should have a slope steeper than - 1.5. This latter finding is also consistent with the near constant amplitude of anisotropy over two decades of energy. (author)

  14. Higher order mode damping of a higher harmonic superconducting cavity for SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haibo; Liu Jianfei; Hou Hongtao; Ma Zhenyu; Feng Xiqiang; Mao Dongqing

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a higher harmonic cavity on a synchrotron radiation facility can increase the beam lifetime and suppress the beam instability. In this paper, we report the simulation and preliminary design on higher order modes (HOMs) damping of the designed and fabricated higher harmonic superconducting cavity for Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The requirements for the HOM damping are analyzed, and the length and location of the HOM damper are optimized by using the SEAFISH code. The results show that the design can provide heavy damping for harmful HOMs with decreased impedance, and the beam instability requirement of SSRF can be satisfied. By using the ABCI code, the loss factor is obtained and the HOM power is estimated. (authors)

  15. Higher-order harmonics of limited diffraction Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding; Lu

    2000-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the nonlinear propagation of the limited diffraction Bessel beam in nonlinear media, under the successive approximation of the KZK equation. The result shows that the nth-order harmonic of the Bessel beam, like its fundamental component, is radially limited diffracting, and that the main beamwidth of the nth-order harmonic is exactly 1/n times that of the fundamental.

  16. Linearization of the longitudinal phase space without higher harmonic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Zeitler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator applications like free-electron lasers, time-resolved electron diffraction, and advanced accelerator concepts like plasma acceleration desire bunches of ever shorter longitudinal extent. However, apart from space charge repulsion, the internal bunch structure and its development along the beam line can limit the achievable compression due to nonlinear phase space correlations. In order to improve such a limited longitudinal focus, a correction by properly linearizing the phase space is required. At large scale facilities like Flash at Desy or the European Xfel, a higher harmonic cavity is installed for this purpose. In this paper, another method is described and evaluated: Expanding the beam after the electron source enables a higher order correction of the longitudinal focus by a subsequent accelerating cavity which is operated at the same frequency as the electron gun. The elaboration of this idea presented here is based on a ballistic bunching scheme, but can be extended to bunch compression based on magnetic chicanes. The core of this article is an analytic model describing this approach, which is verified by simulations, predicting possible bunch length below 1 fs at low bunch charge. Minimizing the energy spread down to σ_{E}/E<10^{-5} while keeping the bunch long is another interesting possibility, which finds applications, e.g., in time resolved transmission electron microscopy concepts.

  17. Higher order harmonic generation in the intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvizi, R.; Bahrampour, A.; Karimi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The high intensity pulse of laser field ionizes the atoms and electrons are going to the continuum states of atoms. electrons absorb energy from the strong laser field. The back ground electromagnetic field causes to come back the electrons to ground states of atoms and the absorbed energy is emitted as a high order odd harmonics of incident light. The intensity of emitted harmonics depends on the material atoms and the laser pulse shape. I this paper the effects of step pulse duration on the high order harmonic radiated by the Argon, Helium, and Hydrogen atoms are reported.

  18. Higher harmonics suppression in Fe/Si polarizing neutron monochromators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, D.G., E-mail: merkel.daniel@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, B.; Sajti, Sz.; Szilágyi, E. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Kovács-Mezei, R. [Mirrotron Ltd. Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Bottyán, L. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-03-11

    The reflected neutron beam originating from a crystal monochromator contains higher order wavelength contributions. Multilayer mirror structures with various custom reflectivity curves including monochromatization and/or polarization of the neutron beam constitute a challenge in modern neutron optics. In this work, we present the study of three types of magnetron-sputtered Fe/Si layer structures with the purpose of higher harmonic suppression. First, an approximately sinusoidal profile was achieved directly by carefully controlling the evaporation parameters during sputtering that leads to first-Bragg-peak reflectivity and polarizing efficiency of R{sub c}=82% and P=97%, respectively. Second, a random, quasi-periodic distribution of the layer thicknesses was implemented, in which the layer structure of the structure was derived from a fit to a prescribed simulated spectrum. This solution resulted in R{sub c}=92% and P=88%. Third, a structure of Fe/Si layers with rounded scattering length profile was constructed starting with a step-like profile and applying 350 keV Ne{sup +} irradiation of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.7 and 27×10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2} fluence. Disregarding the highest fluence, the increasing fluence improved the monochromatization (decreasing the intensity of higher order reflections from a total of 11.1% to 2.2% and that of the first Bragg peak from 80% to 70%) and increased the polarizing efficiency from P=79% to 91%). In none of the above structures was a contrast matching agent added to the constituents.

  19. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  20. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.S.; Sharaby, Y.A.; Ali, M.F.M.; Joshi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  1. A study on boiling water reactor regional stability from the viewpoint of higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Yutaka; Takigawa, Yukio; Uematsu, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative study on a mechanism for boiling water reactor regional stability has been carried out from the viewpoint of higher harmonics. In the mechanism, the gain decrease in the void-to-power transfer function can be explained by the higher harmonics mode subcriticality. It is shown that the thermal-hydraulic feedback effect can compensate for the gain decrease, and regional oscillation can be sustained that way. For quantitative evaluations, a three-dimensional higher harmonics analysis model has been developed. The results show that the first azimuthal harmonics subcriticality has a relatively small value under a regionally unstable condition. Comparing the subcriticality and the steady-state power distribution, it is shown that the distribution exists whose first azimuthal harmonics subcriticality takes a small value. A method of decomposition for the oscillated power responses into the harmonics modes is presented. The results show that the corewide oscillation power response consists almost entirely of the fundamental mode, and the regional oscillation power response consists almost entirely of the first azimuthal harmonics mode. This indicates that regional oscillation is a phenomenon in which the first azimuthal harmonics mode oscillates on the basis of the fundamental mode

  2. Eigenstates of the higher power of the annihilation operator of two-parameter deformed harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jisuo; Sun Changyong; He Jinyu

    1996-01-01

    The eigenstates of the higher power of the annihilation operator a qs k (k≥3) of the two-parameter deformed harmonic oscillator are constructed. Their completeness is demonstrated in terms of the qs-integration

  3. Utility of Higher Harmonics in Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Electrostatic Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekonski, Eric T; Johnson, Joshua T; McLuckey, Scott A

    2017-04-18

    Mass resolution (M/ΔM fwhm) is observed to linearly increase with harmonic order in a Fourier transform electrostatic linear ion trap (ELIT) mass spectrometer. This behavior was predicted by Grosshans and Marshall for frequency-multiple detection in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer only for situations when the prominent mechanism for signal decay is ion ejection from the trap. As the analyzer pressure in our ELIT chamber is relatively high, such that collisional scattering and collision-induced dissociation are expected to underlie much of the ion loss, we sought to explore the relationship between harmonic order and mass resolution. Mass resolutions of 36 900 (fundamental), 75 850 (2nd harmonic), and 108 200 (3rd harmonic) were obtained for GdO + (avg. m/z 173.919) with a transient length of 300 ms. To demonstrate that the mass resolution was truly increasing with harmonic order, the unresolved isotopes at the fundamental distribution of cytochrome c +8 (m/z ∼ 1549) were nearly baseline, resolved at the third harmonic (mass resolution ≈ 23 000) with a transient length of only 200 ms. This experiment demonstrates that, when the ion density is sufficiently low, ions with frequency differences of less than 4 Hz remain uncoalesced. Higher harmonics can be used to increase the effective mass resolution for a fixed transient length and thereby may enable the resolution of closely spaced masses, determination of a protein ion's charge state, and study of the onset of peak coalescence when the resolution at the fundamental frequency is insufficient.

  4. Higher harmonic imaging of tensile plastic deformation in loading and reloading processes by local resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Yasui, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    We have imaged plastically deformed region in a 5052 aluminum plate under tensile loading, unloading and reloading processes by using an immersion local resonance method. By transmitting large-amplitude burst wave of which frequency is a through-thickness resonant frequency of the plate, dislocation loops in plastic zone are forced to vibrate. The higher harmonic amplitude excited by the dislocation movement is mapped for the transducer position. The extension of plastic zone under monotonically increased loading, decrease in harmonic amplitude under unloading process and marked extension of plastic zone in reloading up to 0.4% plastic strain are clearly imaged. (author)

  5. Effect of electromagnetic waves and higher harmonics in capacitively coupled plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R R; Sawada, I; Ventzek, P L G; Raja, L L

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution self-consistent numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave phenomena in an axisymmetric capacitively coupled plasma reactor is reported. A prominent centre-peaked plasma density profile is observed for driving frequencies of 60 MHz and is consistent with observations in the literature and accompanying experimental studies. A power spectrum of the simulated wave electric field reveals the presence of well-resolved high frequency harmonic content up to the 20th harmonic of the excitation frequency; an observation that has also been reported in experiments. Importantly, the simulation results reveal that the occurrence of higher harmonics is strongly correlated with the occurrence of a centre-peaked plasma density profile. (fast track communication)

  6. Higher-order harmonics coupling in different free-electron laser codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannessi, L.; Freund, H. P.; Musumeci, P.; Reiche, S.

    2008-08-01

    The capability for simulation of the dynamics of a free-electron laser including the higher-order harmonics in linear undulators exists in several existing codes as MEDUSA [H.P. Freund, S.G. Biedron, and S.V. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27 (2000) 243; H.P. Freund, Phys. Rev. ST-AB 8 (2005) 110701] and PERSEO [L. Giannessi, Overview of Perseo, a system for simulating FEL dynamics in Mathcad, , in: Proceedings of FEL 2006 Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, p. 91], and has been recently implemented in GENESIS 1.3 [See ]. MEDUSA and GENESIS also include the dynamics of even harmonics induced by the coupling through the betatron motion. In addition MEDUSA, which is based on a non-wiggler averaged model, is capable of simulating the generation of even harmonics in the transversally cold beam regime, i.e. when the even harmonic coupling arises from non-linear effects associated with longitudinal particle dynamics and not to a finite beam emittance. In this paper a comparison between the predictions of the codes in different conditions is given.

  7. A concept of a new undulator that will generate irrational higher harmonics in synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Sasaki, Shigemi

    1994-03-01

    A preliminary consideration has been made on an undulator with magnetic poles quasi-periodically aligned along the path of electron beams to discriminate the rational higher harmonics of radiation that are harmful in some synchrotron radiation experiments. The harmonics with irrational ratios in energy generated by the undulator is never simultaneously reflected by a crystal monochromator in the same orientation. A combination of the new undulator and high-resolution crystal monochromator is expected to be very useful on beamlines of high energy radiation in which X-ray mirrors are useless because of too small critical angles of total reflection. Further, a possibility of manufacturing the new undulator has been discussed. (author)

  8. Internal-wave reflection from uniform slopes: higher harmonics and Coriolis effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerkema

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weakly nonlinear reflection of internal waves from uniform slopes produces higher harmonics and mean fields; the expressions are here derived for constant stratification and with Coriolis effects fully included, i.e. the horizontal component of the earth rotation vector (referred to as 'non-traditional'' is taken into account. Uniformity in one of the horizontal directions is assumed. It is shown that solutions can be as readily derived with as without ; hence there is no need to make the so-called Traditional Approximation. Examples of reflecting internal-wave beams are presented for super-inertial, inertial and sub-inertial frequencies. The problem of resonant and non-resonant forcing of the second harmonic is studied for single plane waves; unlike under the Traditional Approximation, the problem of reflection from a horizontal bottom no longer forms a singular case. Non-traditional effects are favourable to resonant forcing at near-tidal rather than near-inertial frequencies, and generally increase the intensity of the second harmonic. Strong stratification tends to suppress non-traditional effects, but a near-total suppression is only attained for high values of stratification that are characteristic of the seasonal thermocline; in most parts of the ocean, non-traditional effects can therefore be expected to be important.

  9. Mozart K.448 and epileptiform discharges: effect of ratio of lower to higher harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Certain music has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. This study measured the impact of Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448, on different epileptic foci of epileptiform discharge in Taiwanese children (n=58) with seizure disorders and investigated the characteristics of the musical stimulus presented that resulted in epileptiform discharge reduction. We examined the relationship between the number of discharges with the foci of epileptiform discharge (n=6), sleep state, gender, and mentality. A continuous electroencephalogram was recorded before, during and after exposure to Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (piano K.448), and the frequencies of discharges were compared. The study was repeated a week later using digitally computerized string version of the same musical stimulus (string K.448), in patients who responded to piano K.448 with the largest reduction in interictal discharges (n=11). Interictal discharges were reduced in most (81.0%) patients and varied greatly (33.10+/-28.33%) as they listened to the piano K.448 (more fundamental tones and lower harmonics). Patients with generalized or central discharge showed the most improvement. In most patients (76.1%), the decrease in epileptiform discharges continued after the music ended. The state of wakefulness, gender and mentality did not affect the results. Although the string K.448 had a larger number of higher harmonics in the spectrogram analysis, the discharges were not reduced at all when listening to this music. These results suggest that listening to Mozart K.448 for two pianos reduced epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the number of epileptiform discharges in some patients by optimizing the fundamental tones and minimizing the higher frequency harmonics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rotating-coil calibration in a reference quadrupole, considering roll-angle misalignment and higher-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075492; Buzio, Marco; Köster, Oliver; Russenschuck, Stephan; Severino, Giordana

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for calibrating the radius of a rotating coil sensor by relaxing the metrological constraints on alignment and field errors of the reference quadrupole. A coil radius calibration considering a roll-angle misalignment of the measurement bench, the magnet, and the motor-drive unit is analyzed. Then, the error arising from higher-order harmonic field imperfections in the reference quadrupole is assessed. The method is validated by numerical field computation for both the higher-order harmonic errors and the roll-angle misalignment. Finally, an experimental proof-of-principle demonstration is car-ried out in a calibration magnet with sextupole harmonic.

  11. Measurement of optical-beat frequency in a photoconductive terahertz-wave generator using microwave higher harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Kengo; Sato, Koki; Hidaka, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    A new method for measuring optical-beat frequencies in the terahertz (THz) region using microwave higher harmonics is presented. A microwave signal was applied to the antenna gap of a photoconductive (PC) device emitting a continuous electromagnetic wave at about 1 THz by the photomixing technique. The microwave higher harmonics with THz frequencies are generated in the PC device owing to the nonlinearity of the biased photoconductance, which is briefly described in this article. Thirteen nearly periodic peaks in the photocurrent were observed when the microwave was swept from 16 to 20 GHz at a power of -48 dBm. The nearly periodic peaks are generated by the homodyne detection of the optical beat with the microwave higher harmonics when the frequency of the harmonics coincides with the optical-beat frequency. Each peak frequency and its peak width were determined by fitting a Gaussian function, and the order of microwave harmonics was determined using a coarse (i.e., lower resolution) measurement of the optical-beat frequency. By applying the Kalman algorithm to the peak frequencies of the higher harmonics and their standard deviations, the optical-beat frequency near 1 THz was estimated to be 1029.81 GHz with the standard deviation of 0.82 GHz. The proposed method is applicable to a conventional THz-wave generator with a photomixer.

  12. Measurement of electrodynamics characteristics of higher order modes for harmonic cavity at 2400 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Ya V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Gusarova, M. A.; Lalayan, M. V.; Bazyl, D. S.; Donetskiy, R. V.; Orlov, A. I.; Zobov, M. M.; Zavadtsev, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the frameworks of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade program an application of additional superconducting harmonic cavities operating at 800 MHz is currently under discussion. As a possible candidate, an assembly of two cavities with grooved beam pipes connected by a drift tube and housed in a common cryomodule, was proposed. In this article we discuss measurements of loaded Q-factors of higher order modes (HOM) performed on a scaled aluminium single cell cavity prototype with the fundamental frequency of 2400 MHz and on an array of two such cavities connected by a narrow beam pipe. The measurements were performed for the system with and without the matching load in the drift tube..

  13. Crypto-harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions: classical and quantum aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    We study complexified harmonic oscillator models in two and three dimensions. Our work is a generalization of the work of Smilga (2007 Preprint 0706.4064 (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. at press)) who initiated the study of these Crypto-gauge invariant models that can be related to PT-symmetric models. We show that rotational symmetry in higher spatial dimensions naturally introduces more constraints (in contrast to Smilga (2007 Preprint 0706.4064 (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. at press)) where one deals with a single constraint) with a much richer constraint structure. Some common as well as distinct features in the study of the same Crypto-oscillator in different dimensions are revealed. We also quantize the two dimensional Crypto-oscillator

  14. A research technique for the effect of higher harmonic voltages on the operating parameters of a permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanova L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays permanent magnet synchronous machines those frequency-controlled from stator side with frequency inverters made on the basis of power transistors or fully controlled thyristors, are widely used as motors and generators. In future they are also promising a good application in transport, including marine. Modern frequency inverters are equipped with a control system based on sine-shaped pulse width modulation. While shaping the voltage in the output of the inverter, in addition to the fundamental harmonic, higher harmonic components are also included in the voltage shape, which certainly affect the operating parameters of the generator (electromagnetic torque, power, currents. To determine this effect the modeling and investigation technique of higher harmonic voltages in the "electric network – frequency converter – synchronous machine with permanent magnets" system has been developed. The proposed equations of a frequency-controlled permanent magnet synchronous machine allow relatively simply reproduce the harmonic composition of the voltage in the output of a frequency inverter equipped with the control system based on a sinusoidal pulse width modulation. The developed research technique can be used for inverters with any number and composition of voltage harmonic components feeding a stator winding of a permanent magnet synchronous machine. On a particular case, the efficiency of the research technique of the higher harmonics influence on the operating parameters of the generator has been demonstrated. At the same time, the study has been carried out taking into account the shape of the voltage curve feeding the windings of the synchronous machine containing in addition to the fundamental harmonic the 8, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 16-th harmonic components, and the rated active power of the synchronous machine has been equal to 1 500 kW.

  15. Filtering Undesirable Flows in Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Gao, X.; Du, H.; Han, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of fully mitigating the effects of denial of service by filtering the minimum necessary set of the undesirable flows. First, we model this problem and then we concentrate on a subproblem where every good flow has a bottleneck. We prove that unless P=NP, this subproblem is

  16. Characterization of oral precancerous lesions based on higher-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Yu; Lin, Chih-Feng; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    It is generally accepted that oral cancer arises in the presence of oral precancerous lesions. However, the clinical courses of these lesions are quite unpredictable, and a fundamental enigma remains that when and how these lesions turn to malignant growth. Characterization of these potentially malignant lesions is thus important and could serve as early indicators of this neoplastic transformation process, potentially facilitates the treatment outcome and improves the survival rate. Higher harmonic generation microscope (HGM), providing images with a leaving photodamages in the tissues, was used for this purpose. Oral cavity biopsies were obtained from 18 patients with clinical suspected oral precancerous lesions scheduled for surgical biopsy. HGM images were compared with histological images to determine the results. By visualization of subtle cellular and morphological changes, the preliminary result of this HGM image discloses excellent consistency with traditional histolopathology studies, without the need for fixation, sectioning and staining. More specifically speaking, the keratin thickness was found to be increased comparing with normal adjacent controls. In some cases, variations in cell size, nuclear size and increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, and increased size of nucleoli were identified, indicating different stages of malignant transformation. These results together indicated that HGM provides the capability to characterize features of oral precancerous lesions as well as oral cancer progression, and holds the greatest potential as an ideal tool for clinical screening and surveillance of suspicious oral lesions.

  17. Design of a higher harmonic RF system for the Advanced Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, J M; De Santis, S; Kosta, S; Lo, C C; Plate, D; Rimmer, R A; Franks, M

    2000-01-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a third harmonic radiofrequency (RF) system for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to be used for lengthening the bunch and increasing the Touschek-dominated beam lifetime. We plan to install five single-cell 1.5 GHz copper RF cavities in one-half of an ALS straight section with a predicted increase in the lifetime by a factor of 3. Each RF cell is designed to sustain a maximum voltage of 125 kV with a power dissipation of 5 kW. We present measurements made on an aluminum cavity model characterizing the RF properties of cavity such as the cavity R/Q and higher-order modes (HOMs). In particular, resonances in the cavity tuners were studied in order to avoid heating of the tuner bellows. Initial measurements of the copper cavities indicate a Q value of 21 000, resulting in a shunt impedance of 1.69 M OMEGA per cell

  18. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pei

    2013-02-01

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of

  19. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei

    2013-02-15

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of

  20. Influence of higher harmonics of the undulator in X-ray polarimetry and crystal monochromator design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Glowna, Berit; Schulze, Kai S; Uschmann, Ingo; Kämpfer, Tino; Weber, Günter; Hahn, Christoph; Wille, Hans Christian; Schlage, Kai; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Förster, Eckhart; Stöhlker, Thomas; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2015-09-01

    The spectrum of the undulator radiation of beamline P01 at Petra III has been measured after passing a multiple reflection channel-cut polarimeter. Odd and even harmonics up to the 15th order, as well as Compton peaks which were produced by the high harmonics in the spectrum, could been measured. These additional contributions can have a tremendous influence on the performance of the polarimeter and have to be taken into account for further polarimeter designs.

  1. DO LITHUANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS REFLECT ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION IN THE EU?

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia Kaupelyte; Renata Legenzova

    2014-01-01

    Financial accounting is undergoing major changes in the EU and worldwide.  Great efforts are placed on adoption of high quality accounting standards for listed companies, public sector organizations as well as small and medium business entities.  Being a member of the EU Lithuania is in compliance with the EU incentives in de jure accounting harmonization; however de facto situation in Lithuania is not adequately assessed.  One of accounting harmonization related questions is whether Lithuani...

  2. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiun-Fan; Bikson, Marom; Chou, Li-Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Khadka, Niranjan; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-03-03

    It is well established that electrical-stimulation frequency is crucial to determining the scale of induced neuromodulation, particularly when attempting to modulate corticospinal excitability. However, the modulatory effects of stimulation frequency are not only determined by its absolute value but also by other parameters such as power at harmonics. The stimulus pulse shape further influences parameters such as excitation threshold and fiber selectivity. The explicit role of the power in these harmonics in determining the outcome of stimulation has not previously been analyzed. In this study, we adopted an animal model of peripheral electrical stimulation that includes an amplitude-adapted pulse train which induces force enhancements with a corticospinal contribution. We report that the electrical-stimulation-induced force enhancements were correlated with the amplitude of stimulation power harmonics during the amplitude-adapted pulse train. In an exploratory analysis, different levels of correlation were observed between force enhancement and power harmonics of 20-80 Hz (r = 0.4247, p = 0.0243), 100-180 Hz (r = 0.5894, p = 0.0001), 200-280 Hz (r = 0.7002, p harmonics. This is a pilot, but important first demonstration that power at high order harmonics in the frequency spectrum of electrical stimulation pulses may contribute to neuromodulation, thus warrant explicit attention in therapy design and analysis.

  3. Computation of higher spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux for neutron transport problems in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.; Sharma, A.

    2000-01-01

    The integral form of one-speed, spherically symmetric neutron transport equation with isotropic scattering is considered. Two standard problems are solved using normal mode expansion technique. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving their singular integral equations. It is shown that these expansion coefficients provide a representation of all spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux as a superposition of Bessel functions. It is seen that large errors occur in the computation of higher moments unless we take certain precautions. The reasons for this phenomenon are explained. They throw some light on the failure of spherical harmonics method in treating spherical geometry problems as observed by Aronsson

  4. Higher-order approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators by modified He's homotopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Fernandez, E; Neipp, C; Belendez, T

    2008-01-01

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate higher-order analytical approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators. The He's homotopy perturbation method is modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution before introducing this solution in the second-order linear differential equation, and so on. We find this modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. The approximate formulae obtained show excellent agreement with the exact solutions, and are valid for small as well as large amplitudes of oscillation, including the limiting cases of amplitude approaching zero and infinity. For the relativistic oscillator, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate frequency of less than 1.6% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.65% for two iterations with two harmonics and as low as 0.18% when three harmonics are considered in the second approximation. For the Duffing-harmonic oscillator the relative error is as low as 0.078% when the second approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by the harmonic balance methods reveals that the former is very effective and convenient

  5. Interventional radiology and undesirable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, M.

    2009-01-01

    As some procedures of interventional radiology are complex and long, doses received by patients can be high and cause undesired effects, notably on the skin or in underlying tissues (particularly in the brain as far as interventional neuroradiology is concerned and in lungs in the case of interventional cardiology). The author briefly discusses some deterministic effects in interventional radiology (influence of dose level, delay of appearance of effects, number of accidents). He briefly comments the diagnosis and treatment of severe radiological burns

  6. Mapping Electrostatic Forces Using Higher Harmonics Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, S.J.T.; Willemsen, O.H.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A simple model of a damped, harmonic oscillator is used to describe the motion of an atomic force microscope cantilever tapping in fluid. By use of experimentally obtained parameters, excellent agreement is found between theory and experimental results. From the model we estimate that the force

  7. Effect of beam density and of higher harmonics on beam-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacina, J.; Krlin, L.; Koerbel, S.

    1974-10-01

    The interaction in a cold electron beam-plasma system is investigated numerically in a density ratio region of nsub(B)/nsub(P) = 2 x 10 -3 to 2 x 10 -2 . The one-dimensional model of a collisionless plasma is used. The time development of the wave with maximal growing rate and its spatial harmonics is studied. The plasma effect is simulated by direct computation of plasma particle trajectories (this being different from the usual plasma simulation by means of a dielectric). The calculations show the following effects of the finite parameter (nsub(B)/nsub(P))sup(1/3): the ratio of the plasma energy to the electric field energy is increased, the damping character of the field and macroscopic amplitudes reveals, and the influence of the second harmonic is not negligible for nsub(B)/nsub(P) >= 10 -2 . (author)

  8. Controllable excitation of higher-order rogue waves in nonautonomous systems with both varying linear and harmonic external potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Heping; Yang, Rongcao; Tian, Jinping; Zhang, Wenmei

    2018-05-01

    The nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with both varying linear and harmonic external potentials is investigated and the semirational rogue wave (RW) solution is presented by similarity transformation. Based on the solution, the interactions between Peregrine soliton and breathers, and the controllability of the semirational RWs in periodic distribution and exponential decreasing nonautonomous systems with both linear and harmonic potentials are studied. It is found that the harmonic potential only influences the constraint condition of the semirational solution, the linear potential is related to the trajectory of the semirational RWs, while dispersion and nonlinearity determine the excitation position of the higher-order RWs. The higher-order RWs can be partly, completely and biperiodically excited in periodic distribution system and the diverse excited patterns can be generated for different parameter relations in exponential decreasing system. The results reveal that the excitation of the higher-order RWs can be controlled in the nonautonomous system by choosing dispersion, nonlinearity and external potentials.

  9. Time-resolved photoemission micro-spectrometer using higher-order harmonics of Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, J.; Kamada, M.; Kondo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new photoemission spectrometer is under construction for the photoemission microscopy and the time-resolved pump- probe experiment. The higher order harmonics of the Ti:sapphire laser is used as the light source of the VUV region in this system. Because the fundamental laser is focused tightly into the rare gas jet to generate the higher order harmonics, the spot size of the laser, in other words, the spot size of the VUV light source is smaller than a few tens of micrometer. This smallness of the spot size has advantage for the microscopy. In order to compensate the low flux of the laser harmonics, a multilayer-coated schwaltzshild optics was designed. The multilayers play also as the monochromatic filter. The spatial resolution of this schwaltzshild system is found to be less than 1 micrometer by the ray-tracing calculations. A main chamber of the system is equipped with a time-of-flight energy analyzer to improve the efficiency of the electron detection. The main chamber and the gas chamber are separated by a differential pumping chamber and a thin Al foil. The system is designed for the study of the clean surface. It will be capable to perform the sub-micron photoemission microscopy and the femto-second pump-probe photoemission study for the various photo-excited dynamics on clean surfaces

  10. Approach for discrimination and quantification of electroactive species: kinetics difference revealed by higher harmonics of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi

    2015-01-06

    Discrimination and quantification of electroactive species are traditionally realized by a potential difference which is mainly determined by thermodynamics. However, the resolution of this approach is limited to tens of millivolts. In this paper, we described an application of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry (FT-SV) that provides a new approach for discrimination and quantitative evaluation of electroactive species, especially thermodynamic similar ones. Numerical simulation indicates that electron transfer kinetics difference between electroactive species can be revealed by the phase angle of higher order harmonics of FT-SV, and the difference can be amplified order by order. Thus, even a very subtle kinetics difference can be amplified to be distinguishable at a certain order of harmonics. This method was verified with structurally similar ferrocene derivatives which were chosen as the model systems. Although these molecules have very close redox potential (harmonics. The results demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of the method. It was also implied that the combination of the traditional thermodynamic method and this kinetics method can form a two-dimension resolved detection method, and it has the potential to extend the resolution of voltammetric techniques to a new level.

  11. The HART-II Test: Rotor Wakes and Aeroacoustics with Higher-Harmonic Pitch Control (HHC) Inputs - The Joint German/French/Dutch/US Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Yung H; Tung, Chee; van der Wall, Berend; Pausder, Heinz-Juergen; Burley, Casey; Brooks, Thomas; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Mercker, Edzard; Pengel, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    ...). The main objective of the program is to improve the basic understanding and the analytical modeling capabilities of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise with and without higher harmonic pitch control (HHC...

  12. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  13. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Baboi, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrum...

  14. Analysis of Expediency to Apply LCL Model with Source of Higher Harmonics of Current While Investigating Resonance Condition of Power Supply Network

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pavlovsky; A. Shimansky; Z. Fialkovsky

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.

  15. Analysis of Expediency to Apply LCL Model with Source of Higher Harmonics of Current While Investigating Resonance Condition of Power Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavlovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.

  16. Expansion in higher harmonics of boson stars using a generalized Ruffini-Bonazzola approach. Part 1. Bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-04-01

    The method pioneered by Ruffini and Bonazzola (RB) to describe boson stars involves an expansion of the boson field which is linear in creation and annihilation operators. This expansion constitutes an exact solution to a non-interacting field theory, and has been used as a reasonable ansatz for an interacting one. In this work, we show how one can go beyond the RB ansatz towards an exact solution of the interacting operator Klein-Gordon equation, which can be solved iteratively to ever higher precision. Our Generalized Ruffini-Bonazzola approach takes into account contributions from nontrivial harmonic dependence of the wavefunction, using a sum of terms with energy $k\\,E_0$, where $k\\geq1$ and $E_0$ is the chemical potential of a single bound axion. The method critically depends on an expansion in a parameter $\\Delta \\equiv \\sqrt{1-E_0{}^2/m^2}<1$, where $m$ is the mass of the boson. In the case of the axion potential, we calculate corrections which are relevant for axion stars in the transition or dense branches. We find with high precision the local minimum of the mass, $M_{min}\\approx 463\\,f^2/m$, at $\\Delta\\approx0.27$, where $f$ is the axion decay constant. This point marks the crossover from transition to dense branches of solutions, and a corresponding crossover from structural instability to stability.

  17. Role of the higher harmonics in the launched LH spectrum in the ponderomotive effects at the plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preinhaelter, J [Akademie Ved Ceske Republiky, Prague (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu; Vahala, L [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Vahala, G [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-01

    The ponderomotive effects of higher harmonic waves in the lower hybrid waveguide grill power spectrum were investigated. Although possessing a few percent of the coupled power, these short-wavelength modes play an important part in the inhomogeneous scrape-off layer in tokamak plasma. Using a barometric representation of the ponderomotive potential for the electron density, the full wave coupled theory was solved self-consistently for 4 modes using a shooting-and-matching method to satisfy the surface impedance boundary conditions determined from infinite grill theory. For a symmetric LH spectrum and below a threshold power, the total reflection coefficient is independent of the coupled power. Isolated plasma density depressions (cavitons) are formed in regions of constructive superposition of short and long wavelength modes. Intense mode conversion also occurs in these regions. For power levels above the threshold, the reflection coefficient increases with power and eventually saturates. Numerical results are presented for the ASDEX tokamak and its 24 waveguide grill. 19 figs., 20 refs.

  18. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  19. Ion heating up to 1 MeV range with higher harmonic ICRF wave on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, M.; Kusama, Y.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kimura, H.; Fujii, T.; Moriyama, S.; Saigusa, M.; Afanassiev, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of protons under accleration by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves with the second to fourth hydrogen harmonics have been investigated in the JT-60U tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Protons have been accelerated up to 1 MeV in the presence of an ICRF wave of fixed frequency, neutral beams (NB), and a fixed toroidal magnetic field which is scanned through several plasma discharges. The tail temperature of the protons, which is evaluated in the range 0.32-0.86 MeV, has been observed to increase in the second to third harmonics, however increase of the tail temperature in the third to fourth harmonics has not been observed clearly. Furthermore, the dependence of tail temperature on the harmonic number has been found to be in qualitative agreement with results from a simulation code analysis based upon the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation coupled with the kinetic wave equation. Experimental values for the stored energy of the accelerated ions have shown, however, that the response of stored energy to changes in absorbed ICRF power is much stronger than the response to changes in harmonic number. Also, the incremental energy confinement times for heating discharges matching the third and fourth harmonics (3 ω CH) and 4 ω CH) of hydrogen have been observed to be less than half that for those matching the second harmonic. It has been found that suppression of the absorbed ICRF power accompanied with the occurence of cavity resonance in the 3ω CH and 4ω CH heating discharges reduces the stored energy of the accelerated ions and the incremental energy confinement time. (Author)

  20. Risk sectors for undesirable behaviour and mobbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubert, A.B.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this short note was to get an impression of risk sectors for the prevalence of undesirable behaviour and mobbing in The Netherlands. Data were collected from 1995 to 1999 with the Questionnaire on The Assessment and Experience of Work (Vragenlijst Beleving en Beoordeling van de Arbeid;

  1. Measurements of higher order flow harmonics in Au + Au collisions at √ sNN=200 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Mikeš, P.; Růžička, Pavel; Tomášek, Lukáš; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 25 (2011), "252301-1"-"252301-7" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : PHENIX detector * Au + Au collisions * nuclear collisions * flow harmonics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011

  2. Effect of higher spatial harmonics on properties of six-phase induction machine fed by unbalanced voltages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří; Chomát, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 2 (2015), s. 155-164 ISSN 0948-7921 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-35370S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : six-phase induction machine * symmetrical components * spatial harmonics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.662, year: 2015

  3. Coherent harmonics generated by a super-short electron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wu

    1996-01-01

    A novel mechanism generating superradiance harmonics is found. In this superradiance harmonics, the temporal width of harmonics is extremely short, the ratio of high harmonic fundamental wave is much higher than the known superradiance harmonics

  4. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  5. Measurement of higher-order harmonic azimuthal anisotropy in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Goebel, Kristin; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Topsis-giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Saxena, Pooja; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; 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D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; 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Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; 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Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; 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Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2014-04-11

    Measurements are presented by the CMS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the higher-order harmonic coefficients that describe the azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles emitted in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions. Expressed in terms of the Fourier components of the azimuthal distribution, the n = 3-6 harmonic coefficients are presented for charged particles as a function of their transverse momentum ($0.3 \\lt p_T \\lt 8.0$ GeV/c), collision centrality (0-70%), and pseudorapidity (abs(eta) $\\lt$ 2.0). The data are analyzed using the event plane, multi-particle cumulant, and Lee-Yang zeros methods, which provide different sensitivities to initial state fluctuations. Taken together with earlier LHC measurements of elliptic flow (n=2), the results on higher-order harmonic coefficients develop a more complete picture of the collective motion in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and shed light on the properties of the produced medium.

  6. Measurement of higher-order harmonic azimuthal anisotropy in PbPb collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.,

    2014-04-01

    Measurements are presented by the CMS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the higher-order harmonic coefficients that describe the azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles emitted in sqrt(s[NN]) = 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions. Expressed in terms of the Fourier components of the azimuthal distribution, the n = 3-6 harmonic coefficients are presented for charged particles as a function of their transverse momentum (0.3 < pt < 8.0 GeV), collision centrality (0-70%), and pseudorapidity (abs(eta) < 2.0). The data are analyzed using the event plane, multiparticle cumulant, and Lee-Yang zeros methods, which provide different sensitivities to initial-state fluctuations. Taken together with earlier LHC measurements of elliptic flow (n = 2), the results on higher-order harmonic coefficients develop a more complete picture of the collective motion in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and shed light on the properties of the produced medium.

  7. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  8. Higher-order quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation in periodically poled MgO-doped stoichiometric LiTaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Nan Ei; Kurimura, Sunao; Kitamura, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    A periodically poled device was investigated by using fourth-order quasi-phase-matched (QPM) second harmonic generation (SHG) in MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate (LiTaO 3 ). The effective nonlinear coefficient was found be 2.4 pm/V by using fourth-order QPM SHG at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. For first-order QPM SHG, the effective value of d 33 could be 9.2 pm/V. Using the sensitive higher-order QPM SHG method, we investigated the relationship between the domain duty ratio and the conversion efficiency.

  9. Tolerance study for the components of the probe-type and hook-type Higher Order Mode couplers for the HL-LHC 800 MHz harmonic system

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    A superconducting 800 MHz second harmonic RF system is one of the considered options as a Landau damping mechanism for HiLumi LHC. The Higher Order Mode (HOM) coupler designs require tight manufacturing tolerances in order to operate at the design specifications. The project consists of defining the mechanical tolerances for the different components of both the probe-type and hook-type HOM coupler. With the use of electromagnetic field simulation software it is possible to identify the critical components of the HOM coupler and to quantify their respective tolerances. The obtained results are discussed in this paper.

  10. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo- Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam position diagnostics. These modes, together with some propagating, strong coupling modes, have been considered in the design of a dedicated electronics for beam diagnostics with HOMs for the third harmonic cavities.

  11. Harmonic oscillator on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ader, J.P.; Bonnier, B.; Hontebeyrie, M.; Meyers, C.

    1983-01-01

    The continuum limit of the ground state energy for the harmonic oscillator with discrete time is derived for all possible choices of the lattice derivative. The occurrence of unphysical values is shown to arise whenever the lattice laplacian is not strictly positive on its Brillouin zone. These undesirable limits can either be finite and arbitrary (multiple spectrum) or infinite (overlapping sublattices with multiple spectrum). (orig.)

  12. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  13. Harmonic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  14. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico [THORAXCENTER, Department of Biomedical Engineering Ee2302, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier, E-mail: mirza.pasovic@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [CREATIS-LRMN, Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Inserm U630, CNRS UMR 5220 (France)

    2011-06-07

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f{sub 0} and the same amplitude P{sub 0} to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  15. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico; Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f 0 and the same amplitude P 0 to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  16. An Exact Method to Determine the Photonic Resonances of Quasicrystals Based on Discrete Fourier Harmonics of Higher-Dimensional Atomic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad A. Namin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous method for obtaining the diffraction patterns of quasicrystals is presented. Diffraction patterns are an essential analytical tool in the study of quasicrystals, since they can be used to determine their photonic resonances. Previous methods for approximating the diffraction patterns of quasicrystals have relied on evaluating the Fourier transform of finite-sized super-lattices. Our approach, on the other hand, is exact in the sense that it is based on a technique that embeds quasicrystals into higher dimensional periodic hyper-lattices, thereby completely capturing the properties of the infinite structure. The periodicity of the unit cell in the higher dimensional space can be exploited to obtain the Fourier series expansion in closed-form of the corresponding atomic surfaces. The utility of the method is demonstrated by applying it to one-dimensional Fibonacci and two-dimensional Penrose quasicrystals. The results are verified by comparing them to those obtained by using the conventional super-lattice method. It is shown that the conventional super-cell approach can lead to inaccurate results due to the continuous nature of the Fourier transform, since quasicrystals have a discrete spectrum, whereas the approach introduced in this paper generates discrete Fourier harmonics. Furthermore, the conventional approach requires very large super-cells and high-resolution sampling of the reciprocal space in order to produce accurate results leading to a very large computational burden, whereas the proposed method generates accurate results with a relatively small number of terms. Finally, we propose how this approach can be generalized from the vertex model, which assumes identical particles at all vertices, to a more realistic case where the quasicrystal is composed of different atoms.

  17. Multiparticle correlations and higher order harmonics in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\text{NN}}} = 8.16~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The second- and third-order azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics are studied in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\text{NN}}}=8.16~\\mathrm{TeV}$ over a wide range of event multiplicities. The second-order, ``elliptic'' harmonic moment is obtained through four-, six-, and eight-particle correlations and the third-order, ``triangular'' harmonic moment is studied using four-particle correlations. The data were collected by the CMS experiment during the 2016 LHC run. A sample of peripheral PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\text{NN}}}}=5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$, covering a similar range of event multiplicities to the pPb results, is also analyzed. Theoretical predictions that assume a hydrodynamic evolution of the created medium with initial-state density fluctuations are compared to the experimental results.

  18. Undesirable compounds in oils and fats: analysis and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, for some undesirable compounds representative of the major origins, a comparison between the efficiency of the analytical methods used (sensitivity, precision and existing regulations. An idea of the different origins of the presence of undesirable compounds in oils and fats is given. Then a focus is done on guidelines on contaminant analysis provided by European directives or Codex Alimentarius. The reliability of some existing test methods compared to regulations is also examined: lead, hexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticide residues.

  19. A safety control device for detecting undesirable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-26

    The invention relates to safety control devices. It deals with a device adapted to transmit a warning signal and to the detection of an undesirable condition in an associated apparatus, said device comprising switching means comprising transistors mounted in a reaction path, feeding means for opening the switching means whenever an undesirable condition has been detected by sensors, whereby an oscillator is caused to stop oscillating, and an outlet device controlled by the oscillator stoppage. This can be applied to the supervision of nuclear reactor.

  20. Harmonic supergraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper completes a descrption of the quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach. The Feynman rules for N=2 matter and Yang-Mills theories are derived and the various examples of harmonic supergraph calculations are given. Calculations appear to be not more difficult than those in the N=1 case. The integration over harmonic variables does not lead to any troubles, a non-locality in these disappears on-shell. The important property is that the quantum corrections are always writen as integrals over the full harmonic superspace even though the initial action is an integral over the analytic subspace. As a by-product our results imply a very simple proof of finiteness of a wide class of the N=4, d=2 non-linear Σ-models. The most general self-couplings of hypermultiplets including those with broken SU(2) are considered.The duality relations among the N=2 linear multiplet and both kinds of hypermultiplet are established

  1. Free-Will and the Undesirability of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David

    1975-01-01

    This paper makes two arguments: (1) that education does not imply determinism; and (2) that if one takes the libertarian position with regard to the free-will/determinism issue, one is forced to the conclusion that moral education is undesirable. (RC)

  2. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  3. A Case of Undesired Bleb Developed After Penetrating Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Ozgonul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-year-old male patient was admitted to our policlinic with stinging, burning and itching in both eyes. Ophthalmological examination revealed avascular undesired bleb that releated with anterior chamber at 2-3 hour quadrant nasal limbus with the surrounding corneal and conjunctival epithelium was vascularized and the dimension was 3x3x3 mm. Towards these findings, we questioned the patient again and we found that, 40 years ago, a broken part of the shaving razor had injured his eye. After penetrating injury of the eye, because of the sutured wound leakage, undesired bleb formations can be seen. We suggest that kind of patient shold be followed up to prevent late complications of penetrating injury.

  4. Worry and perceived threat of proximal and distal undesirable outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Berenbaum, Howard; Spielberg, Jeffrey M

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who are prone to worry tend to overestimate the likelihoods and costs of future undesirable outcomes. However, it is unclear whether these relations vary as a function of the timeframe of the event in question. In the present study, 342 undergraduate students completed a self-report measure of worry and rated the perceived probabilities and costs of 40 undesirable outcomes. Specifically, each participant estimated the probability that each of these outcomes would occur within three different timeframes: the next month, the next year, and the next 10 years. We found that the strength of the association between worry and probability estimates was strongest for the most proximal timeframe. Probability estimates were more strongly associated with worry for participants with elevated cost estimates, and this interactive effect was strongest for the most distal timeframe. Implications of these findings for understanding the etiology and treatment of excessive worry are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [de

  6. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  7. Higher harmonic flow coefficients of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crkovska, J.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. D.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Mishra, T.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vickovic, L.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-09-01

    The elliptic, triangular, quadrangular and pentagonal anisotropic flow coefficients for π±, K± and p+overline{p} in Pb-Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV were measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, correlating the identified hadrons with reference particles from a different pseudorapidity region. Effects not related to the common event symmetry planes (non-flow) were estimated using correlations in pp collisions and were subtracted from the measurement. The obtained flow coefficients exhibit a clear mass ordering for transverse momentum ( p T) values below ≈ 3 GeV/ c. In the intermediate p T region (3 fairly well by a hydrodynamical model (iEBE-VISHNU) that uses initial conditions generated by A Multi-Phase Transport model (AMPT) and describes the expansion of the fireball using a value of 0.08 for the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ( η/s), coupled to a hadronic cascade model (UrQMD). Finally, expectations from AMPT alone fail to quantitatively describe the measurements for all harmonics throughout the measured transverse momentum region. However, the comparison to the AMPT model highlights the importance of the late hadronic rescattering stage to the development of the observed mass ordering at low values of p T and of coalescence as a particle production mechanism for the particle type grouping at intermediate values of p T for all harmonics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Determining Energies and Cross Sections of Individual Ions Using Higher-Order Harmonics in Fourier Transform Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry (FT-CDMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Conner C; Elliott, Andrew G; Lin, Haw-Wei; Williams, Evan R

    2018-06-02

    A general method for in situ measurements of the energy of individual ions trapped and weighed using charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is described. Highly charged (> 300 e), individual polyethylene glycol (PEG) ions are trapped and oscillate within an electrostatic trap, producing a time domain signal. A segmented Fourier transform (FT) of this signal yields the temporal evolution of the fundamental and harmonic frequencies of ion motion throughout the 500-ms trap time. The ratio of the fundamental frequency and second harmonic (HAR) depends on the ion energy, which is an essential parameter for measuring ion mass in CDMS. This relationship is calibrated using simulated ion signals, and the calibration is compared to the HAR values measured for PEG ion signals where the ion energy was also determined using an independent method that requires that the ions be highly charged (> 300 e). The mean error of 0.6% between the two measurements indicates that the HAR method is an accurate means of ion energy determination that does not depend on ion size or charge. The HAR is determined dynamically over the entire trapping period, making it possible to observe the change in ion energy that takes place as solvent evaporates from the ion and collisions with background gas occur. This method makes it possible to measure mass changes, either from solvent evaporation or from molecular fragmentation (MS n ), as well as the cross sections of ions measured using CDMS. Graphical Abstract.

  9. In situ removal of carbon contamination from a chromium-coated mirror: ideal optics to suppress higher-order harmonics in the carbon K-edge region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Mase, Kazuhiko; Amemiya, Kenta

    2015-11-01

    Carbon-free chromium-coated optics are ideal in the carbon K-edge region (280-330 eV) because the reflectivity of first-order light is larger than that of gold-coated optics while the second-order harmonics (560-660 eV) are significantly suppressed by chromium L-edge and oxygen K-edge absorption. Here, chromium-, gold- and nickel-coated mirrors have been adopted in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray branch beamline BL-13B at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, Japan. Carbon contamination on the chromium-coated mirror was almost completely removed by exposure to oxygen at a pressure of 8 × 10(-2) Pa for 1 h under irradiation of non-monochromated synchrotron radiation. The pressure in the chamber recovered to the order of 10(-7) Pa within a few hours. The reflectivity of the chromium-coated mirror of the second-order harmonics in the carbon K-edge region (560-660 eV) was found to be a factor of 0.1-0.48 smaller than that of the gold-coated mirror.

  10. Rice growing farmers efficiency measurement using a slack based interval DEA model with undesirable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2017-11-01

    In recent years eco-efficiency which considers the effect of production process on environment in determining the efficiency of firms have gained traction and a lot of attention. Rice farming is one of such production processes which typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable. In efficiency analysis, these undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in the model to obtain the actual estimation of firm's efficiency. There are numerous approaches that have been used in data envelopment analysis (DEA) literature to account for undesirable outputs of which directional distance function (DDF) approach is the most widely used as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, slack based DDF DEA approaches considers the output shortfalls and input excess in determining efficiency. In situations when data uncertainty is present, the deterministic DEA model is not suitable to be used as the effects of uncertain data will not be considered. In this case, it has been found that interval data approach is suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding the underlying data distribution and membership function. The proposed model uses an enhanced DEA model which is based on DDF approach and incorporates slack based measure to determine efficiency in the presence of undesirable factors and data uncertainty. Interval data approach was used to estimate the values of inputs, undesirable outputs and desirable outputs. Two separate slack based interval DEA models were constructed for optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The developed model was used to determine rice farmers efficiency from Kepala Batas, Kedah. The obtained results were later compared to the results obtained using a deterministic DDF DEA model. The study found that 15 out of 30 farmers are efficient in all cases. It

  11. One dimension harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr

  12. Undesirable Effects of Media on Children: Why Limitation is Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen

    2015-06-01

    Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance to developing countries.

  13. Harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Helson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This second edition has been enlarged and considerably rewritten. Among the new topics are infinite product spaces with applications to probability, disintegration of measures on product spaces, positive definite functions on the line, and additional information about Weyl's theorems on equidistribution. Topics that have continued from the first edition include Minkowski's theorem, measures with bounded powers, idempotent measures, spectral sets of bounded functions and a theorem of Szego, and the Wiener Tauberian theorem. Readers of the book should have studied the Lebesgue integral, the elementary theory of analytic and harmonic functions, and the basic theory of Banach spaces. The treatment is classical and as simple as possible. This is an instructional book, not a treatise. Mathematics students interested in analysis will find here what they need to know about Fourier analysis. Physicists and others can use the book as a reference for more advanced topics.

  14. Adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate undesirable light in holographic projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Li, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-08

    In this paper, we propose an adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate the undesirable light in a holographic projection. The aperture is based on hydrodynamic actuation. A chamber is formed with a cylindrical tube. A black droplet is filled in the sidewall of the cylinder tube and the outside space is the transparent oil which is immiscible with the black droplet. An ultrathin glass sheet is attached on the bottom substrate of the device and a black shading film is secured to the central area of the glass sheet. By changing the volume of the black droplet, the black droplet will move to the middle or sidewall due to hydrodynamic actuation, so the device can be used as an adjustable aperture. A divergent spherical wave and a solid lens are used to separate the focus planes of the reconstructed image and diffraction beams induced by the liquid crystal on silicon in the holographic projection. Then the aperture is used to eliminate the diffraction beams by adjusting the size of the liquid aperture and the holographic projection does not have undesirable light.

  15. Undesirable substances in vegetable oils: anything to declare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of undesirable compounds in vegetable and animal oils and fats may have many different origins. Although the potential toxicity of most of these undesirable compounds is real, poisoning risks are rather limited due to the efficient elimination during oil-refining steps, careful conditioning, choice of efficient packaging and industrial quality control management. However the research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations such as the European commission regulation EC No. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for some contaminants in food as lead, some mycotoxins, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, benzo[a]pyrene. In the absence of regulation, the detection of contaminants must be addressed in partnership with authorities according to the toxicity of molecules. The controls are not confined to environmental contaminants. They also include compounds that can be formed during the production process of vegetable oils such as esters of 3-monochloropropanediol. This article focuses more particularly on heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, phthalates and 3-MCPD or glycidyl esters. Aspects such as methods for analysis, limits fixed by EC regulation and occurrence in vegetable oils are discussed.

  16. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper

  17. Geometrically nonlinear resonance of higher-order shear deformable functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite annular sector plates excited by harmonic transverse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an attempt to study the nonlinear resonance of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) annular sector plates excited by a uniformly distributed harmonic transverse load. To this purpose, first, the extended rule of mixture including the efficiency parameters is employed to approximately obtain the effective material properties of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates. Then, the focus is on presenting the weak form of discretized mathematical formulation of governing equations based on the variational differential quadrature (VDQ) method and Hamilton's principle. The geometric nonlinearity and shear deformation effects are considered based on the von Kármán assumptions and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory, respectively. The discretization process is performed via the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method together with numerical differential and integral operators. Then, an efficient multi-step numerical scheme is used to obtain the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the FG-CNTRC annular sector plates near their primary resonance as the frequency-response curve. The accuracy of the present results is first verified and then a parametric study is presented to show the impacts of CNT volume fraction, CNT distribution pattern, geometry of annular sector plate and sector angle on the nonlinear frequency-response curve of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates with different edge supports.

  18. Harmonic Analyzing of the Double PWM Converter in DFIG Based on Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic pollution of double fed induction generators (DFIGs has become a vital concern for its undesirable effects on power quality issues of wind generation systems and grid-connected system, and the double pulse width modulation (PWMconverter is one of the main harmonic sources in DFIGs. Thus the harmonic analysis of the converter in DFIGs is a necessary step to evaluate their harmonic pollution of DFIGs. This paper proposes a detailed harmonic modeling method to discuss the main harmonic components in a converter. In general the harmonic modeling could be divided into the low-order harmonic part (up to 30th order and the high-order harmonic part (greater than order 30 parts in general. The low-order harmonics are produced by the circuit topology and control algorithm, and the harmonic component will be different if the control strategy changes. The high-order harmonics are produced by the modulation of the switching function to the dc variable. In this paper, the low-order harmonic modeling is established according to the directions of power flow under the vector control (VC, and the high-order harmonic modeling is established by the switching function of space vector PWM and dc currents. Meanwhile, the simulations of harmonic a components in a converter are accomplished in a real time digital simulation system. The results indicate that the proposed modeling could effectively show the harmonics distribution of the converter in DFIGs.

  19. [Undesired treatment effects in behavior group therapy: Frequency and spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Walter, M; Fritz, K; Muschalla, B

    2015-11-01

    Psychotherapy not only has positive but also negative effects, which is especially true for group psychotherapy due to psychodynamic and interactional processes. Using the UE-G questionnaire 71 patients who participated in cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy reported on negative experiences in the context of the group therapy. The answers were then validated in a qualitative interview. Of the patients 98.6% reported about at least one negative experience and 43.7% about severe or extremely severe negative experiences. Most prominent was the induction of hopelessness and demoralization by what patients saw and heard from other patients in the group. Burdensome and therefore undesired treatment effects are regularly seen in group psychotherapy, because of treatment or patient related factors. In any case they must be taken into account during treatment, in the training of group psychotherapists and in quality control.

  20. Pig herd monitoring and undesirable tripping and stepping prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hviid, Marchen Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Humane handling and slaughter of livestock are of major concern in modern societies. Monitoring animal wellbeing in slaughterhouses is critical in preventing unnecessary stress and physical damage to livestock, which can also affect the meat quality. The goal of this study is to monitor pig herds...... at the slaughterhouse and identify undesirable events such as pigs tripping or stepping on each other. In this paper, we monitor pig behavior in color videos recorded during unloading from transportation trucks. We monitor the movement of a pig herd where the pigs enter and leave a surveyed area. The method is based...... on optical flow, which is not well explored for monitoring all types of animals, but is the method of choice for human crowd monitoring. We recommend using modified angular histograms to summarize the optical flow vectors. We show that the classification rate based on support vector machines is 93% of all...

  1. Classical and multilinear harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Muscalu, Camil

    2013-01-01

    This two-volume text in harmonic analysis introduces a wealth of analytical results and techniques. It is largely self-contained and useful to graduates and researchers in pure and applied analysis. Numerous exercises and problems make the text suitable for self-study and the classroom alike. The first volume starts with classical one-dimensional topics: Fourier series; harmonic functions; Hilbert transform. Then the higher-dimensional Calderón-Zygmund and Littlewood-Paley theories are developed. Probabilistic methods and their applications are discussed, as are applications of harmonic analysis to partial differential equations. The volume concludes with an introduction to the Weyl calculus. The second volume goes beyond the classical to the highly contemporary and focuses on multilinear aspects of harmonic analysis: the bilinear Hilbert transform; Coifman-Meyer theory; Carleson's resolution of the Lusin conjecture; Calderón's commutators and the Cauchy integral on Lipschitz curves. The material in this vo...

  2. Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Renner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.

  3. The presence of undesirable mould species on the surface of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from manufacture to the industrial way of meat production and processing, as well as contemporary concept of food quality and safety, have led to the application of starter cultures. Their application leads towards the streamlining of the production process in the desired direction, quality improvement and its harmonization, and thereby to its standardization. Application of moulds in the meat industry is based on positive effects of their proteolytic and lipolytic egzoenzymes which, as a consequence, leads to the creation of characteristic sensory properties ('flavor' of fermented products. Penicillium nalgiovense is a typical representative of moulds used in the production of fermented sausages-salamis from our region. Samples of 'zimska salama' (dry sausage, produced with Penicillium nalgiovense, were evaluated as hygienically unacceptable. Their sensory properties changed due to contamination of this mould during the ripening process. Micological analysis discovered the presence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, which is a frequent mould contaminant in the meat industry. At the same time, thin layer chromatography revealed no possibility of metabolic activity of this mould in the creation of mycotoxins. However, the presence of this mould on the surface of 'zimska salama' is considered as undesirable due to formation of 'off flavor' in products. Such product is considered as hygienically unacceptable and cannot be used for the human consumption.

  4. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  5. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  6. Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1994-06-01

    A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs

  7. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei, E-mail: pei.zhang@desy.de [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Cockcroft Institute of Science and Technology, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Science and Technology, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-11

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 μm can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 μm.

  8. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M

    2014-01-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 micron can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 micron.

  9. A 43-level filterless CMLI with very low harmonics values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Bakry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a 43-level asymmetric uniform step cascaded multilevel inverter (CMLI that consists of four H-bridges per phase, with different dc sources of values E, 2E, 7E and 11E. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP optimization model is applied to determine the switching angles of the CMLI power switches that can minimize the values of any undesired harmonics. Single phase and three phase cases are considered. The results show very low values of all the undesired harmonics over wide voltage ranges, which agree with the IEEE standards 519-1992 for voltage distortion limits for both the values of %THDE and %VHmax so that no output filters are needed.

  10. Harmonics and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, M.

    1993-01-01

    To summarize what this paper has presented: Voltage and current non-sinusoidal wave shapes exist in our power system. These harmonics result from the prolific use of non-linear loads. The use of these types of loads is increasing dramatically, partly due to the push to implement energy management techniques involving harmonic generating equipment. Harmonic analysis can identify specific harmonics, their frequency, magnitude, and phase shift referenced to the fundamental. Harmonic distortion forces the use of true RMS multimeters for measurement accuracy. High levels of neutral current and N-G voltages are now possible. Transformers may overheat and fail even though they are below rated capacity. Low power factors due to harmonics cannot be corrected by the installation of capacitors, and knowledge of the fundamental VARs or the displacement power factor is needed to use capacitors alone for power factor correction. The harmonic related problems presented are by no means an exhaustive list. Many other concerns arise when harmonics are involved in the power system. The critical issue behind these problems is that many of the devices being recommended from an energy management point of view are contributing to the harmonic levels, and thus to the potential for harmonic problems. We can no longer live in the sinusoidal mentality if we are to be effective in saving energy and reducing costs

  11. BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE COMMON. HOW GROUPS REACT TO SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komendant-Brodowska Agata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm, but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph. The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.

  12. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.; Jones, R.M.

    2012-08-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  13. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  14. Measurement of the correlation between elliptic flow and higher-order flow harmonics in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}}$=2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between the elliptic flow coefficient, $v_2$, and higher-order flow harmonics, $v_3$, $v_4$ and $v_5$ are measured using 7 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb collision data at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}}=2.76$ TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The $v_2$-$v_n$ correlations are measured as a function of centrality, and, for events within the same centrality interval, also as a function of event ellipticity. The results are compared to initial-state eccentricities calculated from initial geometry models. The $v_2$-$v_n$ correlations within a given centrality interval are very different from the $v_2$-$v_n$ correlations as a function of centrality. For events within the same centrality interval, $v_3$ is found to be anti-correlated with $v_2$ and this anti-correlation is compatible with similar anti-correlations between the corresponding eccentricities $\\epsilon_2$ and $\\epsilon_3$. On the other hand, the $v_4$ and $v_5$ are found to increase strongly with $v_2$. The trend and strength of the $v_2...

  15. Undesired Behaviors Faced in Classroom by Physics Teachers in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define undesired behaviors in the classroom, to better understand the reasons of these undesired behaviors, and to offer strategies to overcome these behaviors. The researchers have used a qualitative research approach in this study. For this aim, the researchers have purposefully selected 12 physics teachers who work…

  16. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  17. Harmonic Content of the BESSY FEL Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Meseck, Atoosa

    2005-01-01

    BESSY proposes a linac-based cascaded High-Gain Harmonic-Generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL) multi-user facility. The BESSY soft X-ray FEL will consist of three undulator lines. The associated tunable lasers will cover the spectral range of 230nm to 460nm. Two to four HGHG stages reduce the seed wavelength to the desired radiation range of 1.24nm < λ < 51nm. The harmonic content of the high-intensity radiator output can be used to reduce the number of necessary HGHG stages. Moreover the higher harmonic content of the final output extends the offered spectral range and thus is of high interest for the user community. In this paper, the higher harmonic content of the final output as well as of the output of several radiators are investigated. The main parameters such as output power, pulse duration and bandwidth as well as their suitability for seeding are discussed.

  18. "Should I or shouldn't I?" Imitation of undesired versus allowed actions from peer and adult models by 18- and 24-month-old toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehagen, Sabine; Schneider, Silvia; Miebach, Kristin; Frigge, Katharina; Zmyj, Norbert

    2017-11-01

    Imitation is a common way of acquiring novel behaviors in toddlers. However, little is known about toddlers' imitation of undesired actions. Here we investigated 18- and 24-month-olds' (N=110) imitation of undesired and allowed actions from televised peer and adult models. Permissiveness of the demonstrated actions was indicated by the experimenter's response to their execution (angry or neutral). Analyses revealed that toddlers' imitation scores were higher after demonstrations of allowed versus undesired actions, regardless of the age of the model. In agreement with prior research, these results suggest that third-party reactions to a model's actions can be a powerful cue for toddlers to engage in or refrain from imitation. In the context of the present study, third-party reactions were more influential on imitation than the model's age. Considering the relative influence of different social cues for imitation can help to gain a fuller understanding of early observational learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar, E-mail: sahubar@uum.edu.my; Ramli, Razamin, E-mail: razamin@uum.edu.my; Baten, M. D. Azizul, E-mail: baten-math@yahoo.com [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency.

  20. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency

  1. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers' efficiency.

  2. A pretandem harmonic buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qui-xun; Van Wechel, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A single gap harmonic buncher has been constructed as a pretandem buncher. Over 85% of a proton dc beam has been bunched into pulses. The width (fwhm) of the pulses is 0.7 ns. The buncher is based on that built at Argonne. Changes were made to the buncher's configuration so that the buncher could be tuned to the desired four harmonic frequencies. A method of calibrating and setting the relative phases and amplitudes of the four harmonic frequencies has been used to obtain an optimum sawtooth-like bunching waveform

  3. Harmonic supergraphs. Green functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Gievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    The quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach is worked out. Harmonic distributions are introduced and are used to construct the analytic superspace delta-functions and the Green functions for the hypermultiplet and the N=2 Yang-Mills superfields. The gauge fixing is described and the relevant Faddeev-Popov ghosts are defined. The corresponding BRST transformations are found. The harmonic superspace quantization of the N=2 gauge theory turns out to be rather simple and has many parallels with that for the standard (N=0) Yang-Mills theory. In particular, no ghosts-forghosts are needed

  4. Superstrings and harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, R.E.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1987-01-01

    The paper on superstrings and harmonic superspace is a contribution to the book dedicated to E.S. Fradkin on his sixtieth birthday. The purpose of the paper is to propose a description of N = 2,3 superspace which could be used for the investigation of the effective d = 10 harmonic superspace corresponding to the heterotic superstring. A description is given of the structure of semi-simple Lie algebras in the Cartan-Weyl basis, as well as the general properties of the even, compact part of harmonic superspace. The main properties of the four-dimensional N = 2 SYM theory are discussed, along with the N = 3, d = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. Finally the relation between the harmonic superspace and the heterotic E 8 x E 8 superstring is examined. (U.K.)

  5. Harmonic excitations in quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The harmonic excitations (phonons) of quasicrystals are studied in a simple one-dimensional model. The spectrum is a Cantor set, which exhibits selfsimilarity properties. The eigenstates are generically ''critical'', i.e. neither extended nor localized

  6. Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Barry D; Soifer, Hadas; Shafir, Dror; Dudovich, Nirit; Serbinenko, Valeria; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science where attosecond time resolution and Angstrom spatial resolution are accessible in a single measurement. However, reconstructing the dynamics under study is limited by the multiple degrees of freedom involved in strong field interactions. In this paper we describe a new class of measurement schemes for resolving attosecond dynamics, integrating perturbative nonlinear optics with strong-field physics. These approaches serve as a basis for multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy. Specifically, we show that multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy can measure tunnel ionization dynamics with high precision, and resolves the interference between multiple ionization channels. In addition, we show how multidimensional HHG can function as a type of lock-in amplifier measurement. Similar to multi-dimensional approaches in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that have resolved correlated femtosecond dynamics, multi-dimensional high harmonic spectroscopy reveals the underlying complex dynamics behind attosecond scale phenomena. (paper)

  7. Harmonic d-tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, Manuel [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-07-01

    Tensor harmonics are a useful mathematical tool for finding solutions to differential equations which transform under a particular representation of the rotation group SO(3). In order to make use of this tool also in the setting of Finsler geometry, where the objects of relevance are d-tensors instead of tensors, we construct a set of d-tensor harmonics for both SO(3) and SO(4) symmetries and show how these can be used for calculations in Finsler geometry and gravity.

  8. Stability and nonlinear dynamics of gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrotrons operating at higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequency can overcome the frequency limitations caused by achievable strength of the magnetic field. However, the excitation of modes at the fundamental frequency exhibit a major problem for stable operation of harmonic gyrotron at high power with high efficiency. Therefore the issues of stability of gyrotron operation at the cyclotron harmonics and nonlinear dynamics of mode interaction are of great importance. The results of the authors stability analysis and multimode simulation are presented here. A detailed nonlinear theory of steady state single mode operation at cyclotron harmonics has been presented previously, taking into account beam-wave coupling and nonlinear gain function at cyclotron harmonics. A set of equations describing low gain regime interaction of modes resonant at different cyclotron harmonics was studied before. The multifrequency time-dependent nonlinear analysis presented here is based on previous gyrotron studies and beam-wave interaction at cyclotron harmonics. The authors have determined the parameter space for stable single mode operation at the second harmonic. The nonlinear dynamics of mode evolution and mode interaction for a harmonic gyrotron is presented. A new nonlinear effect in which the parasite at the fundamental harmonic helps excite the operating mode at the second harmonic has been demonstrated

  9. Energy efficiency of selected OECD countries: A slacks based model with undesirable outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Aye, Goodness C.; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Gupta, Rangan; Wanke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency assessment of selected OECD countries using a Slacks Based Model with undesirable or bad outputs (SBM-Undesirable). In this research, SBM-Undesirable is used first in a two-stage approach to assess the relative efficiency of OECD countries using the most frequent indicators adopted by the literature on energy efficiency. Besides, in the second stage, GLMM–MCMC methods are combined with SBM-Undesirable results as part of an attempt to produce a model for energy performance with effective predictive ability. The results reveal different impacts of contextual variables, such as economic blocks and capital–labor ratio, on energy efficiency levels. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency of selected OECD countries. • SBM-Undesirable and MCMC–GLMM are combined for this purpose. • Find that efficiency levels are high but declining over time. • Analysis with contextual variables shows varying efficiency levels across groups. • Capital-intensive countries are more energy efficient than labor-intensive countries.

  10. Desirable and undesirable future thoughts call for different scene construction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, S; Neroni, M A; Gamboz, N; Della Sala, S; Brandimonte, M A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the ability of foreseeing (episodic future thinking), it is still unclear how healthy people construct possible future scenarios. We suggest that different future thoughts require different processes of scene construction. Thirty-five participants were asked to imagine desirable and less desirable future events. Imagining desirable events increased the ease of scene construction, the frequency of life scripts, the number of internal details, and the clarity of sensorial and spatial temporal information. The initial description of general personal knowledge lasted longer in undesirable than in desirable anticipations. Finally, participants were more prone to explicitly indicate autobiographical memory as the main source of their simulations of undesirable episodes, whereas they equally related the simulations of desirable events to autobiographical events or semantic knowledge. These findings show that desirable and undesirable scenarios call for different mechanisms of scene construction. The present study emphasizes that future thinking cannot be considered as a monolithic entity.

  11. Ranking of bank branches with undesirable and fuzzy data: A DEA-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Kordrostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks are one of the most important financial sectors in order to the economic development of each country. Certainly, efficiency scores and ranks of banks are significant and effective aspects towards future planning. Sometimes the performance of banks must be measured in the presence of undesirable and vague factors. For these reasons in the current paper a procedure based on data envelopment analysis (DEA is introduced for evaluating the efficiency and complete ranking of decision making units (DMUs where undesirable and fuzzy measures exist. To illustrate, in the presence of undesirable and fuzzy measures, DMUs are evaluated by using a fuzzy expected value approach and DMUs with similar efficiency scores are ranked by using constraints and the Maximal Balance Index based on the optimal shadow prices. Afterwards, the efficiency scores of 25 branches of an Iranian commercial bank are evaluated using the proposed method. Also, a complete ranking of bank branches is presented to discriminate branches.

  12. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G; Andreev, A; Gautier, J; Giannessi, L; Malka, V; Petralia, A; Sebban, S; Stremoukhov, S; Tissandier, F; Vodungbo, B; Zeitoun, Ph

    2015-01-14

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation.

  13. Size exclusion chromatography of lignin: The mechanistic aspects and elimination of undesired secondary interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, Anastasia A; Yeudakimenka, Natallia A; Lilak, Samuel L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Ugrinov, Angel; Sibi, Mukund P; Kubátová, Alena

    2018-01-26

    Characterization of lignin and its degradation products, more specifically determination of their molecular weight (MW) distribution, is essential for assessment and applications of these potentially renewable phenolics. Several representative gel filtration and gel permeation systems were evaluated in this work focusing on understanding of undesired secondary non-SEC interactions while utilizing four sets of commercially available polymeric standards as well as low-MW lignin model compounds including diarene standards synthesized in-house. The gel permeation column with a nonpolar highly cross-linked porous polystyrene/divinylbenzene-based stationary phase provided the most effective separation by MW for both low and high MW model compounds. Notably, the column with a higher pore and lower particle size provided a better resolution towards polymeric standards, even though the particle size effect was downplayed in the earlier SEC studies of lignin. For two other evaluated gel filtration and gel permeation columns, the separation was strongly affected by functionalities of the analytes and correlated with the compounds' pK a rather than MW. We showed that the separation on the stationary phases featuring polar hydroxyl groups led to specific column-analyte secondary interactions, perhaps based on their hydrogen bonding with lignin. Further, the SEC column evaluation yielded similar results with two sets of chemically different standards. This setup may be used as a general approach to selecting an applicable column for lignin SEC analysis. We confirmed the obtained results with a different independent method implementing a novel approach for lignin number-average MW (M n ) calculation based on laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF-MS) data. The determined M n corroborated the SEC results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk management of undesirable substances in feed following updated risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed is the framework for the EU action on undesirable substances in feed. This framework Directive provides: ⁎that products intended for animal feed may enter for use in the Union from third countries, be put into circulation and/or used in the Union only if they are sound, genuine and of merchantable quality and therefore when correctly used do not represent any danger to human health, animal health or to the environment or could adversely affect livestock production. ⁎that in order to protect animal and public health and the environment, maximum levels for specific undesirable substances shall be established where necessary. ⁎for mandatory consultation of a scientific body (EFSA) for all provisions which may have an effect upon public health or animal health or on the environment. ⁎that products intended for animal feed containing levels of an undesirable substance that exceed the established maximum level may not be mixed for dilution purposes with the same, or other, products intended for animal feed and may not be used for the production of compound feed. Based on the provisions and principles laid down in this framework Directive, maximum levels for a whole range of undesirable substances have been established at EU level. During the discussions in view of the adoption of Directive 2002/32/EC, the European Commission made the commitment to review all existing provisions on undesirable substances on the basis of updated scientific risk assessments. Following requests of the European Commission, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed a series of 30 risk assessments undertaken over the last 5 years on undesirable substances in animal feed reviewing the possible risks for animal and human health due to the presence of these substances in animal feed. EU legislation

  15. Risk management of undesirable substances in feed following updated risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, Frans, E-mail: Frans.Verstraete@ec.europa.eu

    2013-08-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed is the framework for the EU action on undesirable substances in feed. This framework Directive provides: ⁎that products intended for animal feed may enter for use in the Union from third countries, be put into circulation and/or used in the Union only if they are sound, genuine and of merchantable quality and therefore when correctly used do not represent any danger to human health, animal health or to the environment or could adversely affect livestock production. ⁎that in order to protect animal and public health and the environment, maximum levels for specific undesirable substances shall be established where necessary. ⁎for mandatory consultation of a scientific body (EFSA) for all provisions which may have an effect upon public health or animal health or on the environment. ⁎that products intended for animal feed containing levels of an undesirable substance that exceed the established maximum level may not be mixed for dilution purposes with the same, or other, products intended for animal feed and may not be used for the production of compound feed. Based on the provisions and principles laid down in this framework Directive, maximum levels for a whole range of undesirable substances have been established at EU level. During the discussions in view of the adoption of Directive 2002/32/EC, the European Commission made the commitment to review all existing provisions on undesirable substances on the basis of updated scientific risk assessments. Following requests of the European Commission, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed a series of 30 risk assessments undertaken over the last 5 years on undesirable substances in animal feed reviewing the possible risks for animal and human health due to the presence of these substances in animal feed. EU legislation

  16. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  17. Second harmonic generation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...

  18. Harmonic uniflow engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  19. Fast harmonic field mapper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, R.; Fowler, M.; Hanawa, H.; Riedel, J.; Qua, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    In early 1983 it was decided to mount coils on arms separated by 120 degrees and buck them out so that the third harmonic dphi/dt component would be cancelled and thus the first and second field harmonics could be very accurately measured. The original intention was to do as others had done, namely, use fast ADC's to read the voltages, and computer process the result to get the Fourier components. However, because of the 100 to 1 dynamic range of the fast ADC's and the likelihood that noise would be a problem, the authors decided to do things differently. Using a fast Fourier transform analyzer was considered, but this instrument is very expensive, so they decided to use a completely electronic analog approach: The authors decided to use active bandpass filters to render the harmonic components

  20. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  1. General Criterion for Harmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

  2. A case-controlled study comparing harmonic versus electrosurgery in laparoscopic myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hong Kuo

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Harmonic scalpel is as safe and effective as conventional electrosurgery, and may offer an alternative option for patients undergoing LM. Harmonic scalpel has advantage over conventional electrosurgery in less postoperative hospital stay but disadvantage in higher cost.

  3. Array diagnostics, spatial resolution, and filtering of undesired radiation with the 3D reconstruction algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Jørgensen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three important features of the 3D reconstruction algorithm of DIATOOL: the identification of array elements improper functioning and failure, the obtainable spatial resolution of the reconstructed fields and currents, and the filtering of undesired radiation and scattering...

  4. Relationships between College Students' Credit Card Debt, Undesirable Academic Behaviors and Cognitions, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…

  5. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual

  6. School Social Workers' Perceived Efficacy at Tasks Related to Curbing Suspension and Undesirable Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell L.; Miller, Christina R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores school social workers' perceptions of their ability to successfully engage in practice tasks that reduce the likelihood of school suspension and undesirable behaviors among racial and ethnic groups within diverse geographical locations (urban, suburban, and rural). Using survey research methods with a convenience sample, 201…

  7. High-order harmonic generation with short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1992-12-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of high-order harmonic conversion from atoms and ions exposed to high-intensity, short-pulse optical lasers is reviewed. We find that ions can produce harmonics comparable in strength to those obtained from neutral atoms, and that the emission extends to much higher order. Simple scaling laws for the strength of the harmonic emission and the maximium observable harmonic are suggested. These results imply that the photoemission observed in recent experiments in helium and neon contains contributions from ions as well as neutrals

  8. Diffractive-refractive optics: (+,-,-,+) X-ray crystal monochromator with harmonics separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jaromír; Mikulík, Petr; Oberta, Peter

    2011-03-01

    A new kind of two channel-cut crystals X-ray monochromator in dispersive (+,-,-,+) position which spatially separates harmonics is proposed. The diffracting surfaces are oriented so that the diffraction is inclined. Owing to refraction the diffracted beam is sagittally deviated. The deviation depends on wavelength and is much higher for the first harmonics than for higher harmonics. This leads to spatial harmonics separation. The idea is supported by ray-tracing simulation.

  9. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  10. Fast Harmonic Chirp Summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    -robust to noise, or very computationally inten- sive. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for the harmonic chirp summation method which has been demonstrated in the liter- ature to be accurate and robust to noise. The proposed algorithm is orders of magnitudes faster than previous algorithms which is also...

  11. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  12. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  13. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  14. Single-gap multi-harmonic buncher for NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, A.; Ghosh, S.; Barua, P.

    1998-01-01

    A single gap multi harmonic buncher has been installed in the pre-acceleration region of the NSC pelletron. For the operation of the booster LINAC, presently under construction, a pre-tandem buncher is required with higher efficiency and producing beam bunches of smaller time spread. The multi harmonic buncher meets all these requirements

  15. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  16. Symmetries in physics and harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)

  17. Spatial mode discrimination using second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Pulford, David

    2007-01-01

    Second harmonic generation can be used as a technique for controlling the spatial mode structure of optical beams. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of higher order spatial modes, and that it is possible to use nonlinear phase matching as a predictable and robust technique for the conv...

  18. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  19. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E

    2005-01-01

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  20. Atto second high harmonic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Chang Hee

    2008-01-01

    High harmonic generation is a powerful method to produce attosecond pulses. The high harmonics, emitted from atoms driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses, can from an attosecond pulse train with equally spaced harmonic spectrum or an isolated single attosecond pulse with broad continuum spectrum. Using high power femtosecond laser technology developed at CXRC, we have investigated the spectral and temporal characteristics of high harmonics obtained from gaseous atoms. The spectral structure of harmonics could be manipulated by controlling laser chirp, and continuous tuning of harmonic wavelengths was achieved. For rigorous temporal characterization of attosecond harmonic pulses a cross correlation technique was applied to the photoionization process by harmonic and IR femtosecond pulses and achieved the complete temporal reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains, revealing the detailed temporal structure of the attosecond chirp by material dispersion. The duration of attosecond high harmonic pulses is usually much longer than that of transform limited pulses due to the inherent chirp originating from the harmonic generation process. The attosecond chirp compensation in the harmonic generation medium itself was demonstrated, thereby realizing the generation of near transform limited attosecond pulses. The interference of attosecond electron wave packets, generated from an atom by attosecond harmonic pulses, will be also presented

  1. Harmonics analysis of the photonic time stretch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yuan; Xu, Boyu; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-09-10

    Photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in recent decades due to its potential application to ultra-wideband analog-to-digital conversion. A high-speed analog signal can be captured by an electronic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with the help of the PTS technique, which slows down the speed of signal in the photonic domain. Unfortunately, the process of the time stretch is not linear due to the nonlinear modulation of the electro-optic intensity modulator in the PTS system, which means the undesired harmonics distortion. In this paper, we present an exact analytical model to fully characterize the harmonics generation in the PTS systems for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We obtain concise and closed-form expressions for all harmonics of the PTS system with either a single-arm Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) or a push-pull MZM. The presented model can largely simplify the PTS system design and the system parameters estimation, such as system bandwidth, harmonics power, time-bandwidth product, and dynamic range. The correctness of the mathematic model is verified by the numerical and experimental results.

  2. Harmonic analysis in integrated energy system based on compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ting; Pen, Haibo; Wang, Dan; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a harmonic/inter-harmonic analysis scheme with compressed sensing theory. • Property of sparseness of harmonic signal in electrical power system is proved. • The ratio formula of fundamental and harmonic components sparsity is presented. • Spectral Projected Gradient-Fundamental Filter reconstruction algorithm is proposed. • SPG-FF enhances the precision of harmonic detection and signal reconstruction. - Abstract: The advent of Integrated Energy Systems enabled various distributed energy to access the system through different power electronic devices. The development of this has made the harmonic environment more complex. It needs low complexity and high precision of harmonic detection and analysis methods to improve power quality. To solve the shortages of large data storage capacities and high complexity of compression in sampling under the Nyquist sampling framework, this research paper presents a harmonic analysis scheme based on compressed sensing theory. The proposed scheme enables the performance of the functions of compressive sampling, signal reconstruction and harmonic detection simultaneously. In the proposed scheme, the sparsity of the harmonic signals in the base of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is numerically calculated first. This is followed by providing a proof of the matching satisfaction of the necessary conditions for compressed sensing. The binary sparse measurement is then leveraged to reduce the storage space in the sampling unit in the proposed scheme. In the recovery process, the scheme proposed a novel reconstruction algorithm called the Spectral Projected Gradient with Fundamental Filter (SPG-FF) algorithm to enhance the reconstruction precision. One of the actual microgrid systems is used as simulation example. The results of the experiment shows that the proposed scheme effectively enhances the precision of harmonic and inter-harmonic detection with low computing complexity, and has good

  3. Data Envelopment Analysis with Fixed Inputs, Undesirable Outputs and Negative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Seyed Esmaeili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, different models have been measured to evaluate the performance of decision making units with multiple inputs and outputs. Revised model of Slack-based measures known as MBSM of collective models family has been introduced by Sharp et al. Slack-based measure has been introduced by Ton. In this study, a model is proposed that is able to estimate the efficiency when a number of outputs of decision making units are undesirable, inputs are fixed and some of outputs and inputs are negative. So that, level of undesirable output is reduced at the constant level of inputs in the evaluation unit and by conserving the efficiency.

  4. Lectures on harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Thomas H; Shubin, Carol

    2003-01-01

    This book demonstrates how harmonic analysis can provide penetrating insights into deep aspects of modern analysis. It is both an introduction to the subject as a whole and an overview of those branches of harmonic analysis that are relevant to the Kakeya conjecture. The usual background material is covered in the first few chapters: the Fourier transform, convolution, the inversion theorem, the uncertainty principle and the method of stationary phase. However, the choice of topics is highly selective, with emphasis on those frequently used in research inspired by the problems discussed in the later chapters. These include questions related to the restriction conjecture and the Kakeya conjecture, distance sets, and Fourier transforms of singular measures. These problems are diverse, but often interconnected; they all combine sophisticated Fourier analysis with intriguing links to other areas of mathematics and they continue to stimulate first-rate work. The book focuses on laying out a solid foundation for fu...

  5. The Harmonization of Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal Noémi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development and configuration of the regulatory framework of the accounting systems in Romania and Hungary took place in different ways. Among the reasons for the diversities in these countries’ accounting systems, the following can be certainly mentioned: different purposes of taxation, legal structure, the accountancy’s connection with the corporate law and family law, diversification on corporate financing policy, and cultural heterogeneity. Both countries quickly caught up with the international accounting harmonization standards. The adaptation of the international accounting standards has many advantages and disadvantages; these have been discussed in several previous researches. This paper aims at comparing the Romanian and Hungarian states’ accounting regulations from the early 1990s, which were implemented in order to harmonize the states’ accountancy regulations with the international standards, and their impact on the economy, based on secondary analysis.

  6. Undesirable Behaviors Elementary School Classroom Teachers Encounter in the Classroom and Their Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    E.G. Balcik; S. Gulec

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine how often elementary school teachers encounter undesirable behaviors in the classroom and what their thoughts regarding possible reasons of these behaviors are. The teachers’ opininon about the prevalence of these behaviors and their possible reasons were evaluated according to gender, marital status, level of class being taught, size of class being taught and it was tried to be determined if there were significant differences between variables. The measure...

  7. DEREGULATION, FINANCIAL CRISIS, AND BANK EFFICIENCY IN TAIWAN: AN ESTIMATION OF UNDESIRABLE OUTPUTS

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chang-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose- This study investigates the undesirable impacts of outputson bank efficiency and contributes to the literature by assessing howregulation policies and other events impact bank efficiency in Taiwan inregards to deregulation, financial crisis, and financial reform from 1993 to2011. Methodology- In order to effectively deal with both undesirableand desirable outputs, this study follows Seiford and Zhu (2002), who recommendusing the standard data envelopment analysis model to measure per...

  8. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  9. [Harmonization of TSH Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Keiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hishinuma, Akira; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Furuta, Koh; Hotta, Taeko; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Maekawa, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The measured concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) differs depending on the reagents used. Harmonization of TSH is crucial because the decision limits are described in current clinical practice guide- lines as absolute values, e.g. 2.5 mIU/L in early pregnancy. In this study, we tried to harmonize the report- ed concentrations of TSH using the all-procedure trimmed mean. TSH was measured in 146 serum samples, with values ranging from 0.01 to 18.8 mIU/L, using 4 immunoassays. The concentration of TSH was highest with E test TOSOH and lowest with LUMIPULSE. The concentrations with each reagent were recalculated with the following formulas: E test TOSOH 0.855x-0.014; ECLusys 0.993x+0.079; ARCHITECT 1.041x- 0.010; and LUMIPULSE 1.096x-0.015. Recalculation eliminated the between-assay discrepancy. These formulas may be used until harmonization of TSH is achieved by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).

  10. Development of Data Envelopment Analysis for the Performance Evaluation of Green Supply Chain with Undesirable Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alinezhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem is the use of DEA in multistep or multilevel processes such as supply chain, lack of attention to processes’ internal communications in a way that the recent studies on DEA in the context of serial processes have focused on closed systems that the outputs of one level become the inputs of the next level and none of the inputs enter the mediator process. The present study aimed to examine the general dimensions of an open multilevel process. Here, some of the data such as inputs and outputs are supposed to leave the system while other outputs turn into the inputs of the next level. The new inputs can enter the next level as well. We expand this mode for network structures. The overall performance of such a structure is considered as a weighted average of sectors’ performance or distinct steps. Therefore, this suggested model in this study, not only provides the possibility to evaluate the performance of the entire network, but creates the performance analysis for each of the sub-processes. On the other hand, considering the data with undesirable structure leads to more correct performance estimation. In the real world, all productive processes do not comprise desirable factors. Therefore, presenting a structure that is capable of taking into account the undesirable structure is of crucial importance. In this study, a new model in the DEA by network structure is offered that can analyze the performance considering undesirable factors.

  11. Transfer functions of US transducers for harmonic imaging and bubble respons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Neer, Paul L.M.J.; Matte, Guillaume; Sijl, J.; Borsboom, Jerome M.G.; de Jong, N.

    2007-01-01

    Current medical diagnostic echo systems are mostly using harmonic imaging. This means that a fundamental frequency (e.g., 2 MHz) is transmitted and the reflected and scattered higher harmonics (e.g., 4 and 6 MHz), produced by nonlinear propagation, are recorded. The signal level of these harmonics

  12. Harmonic sums and polylogarithms generated by cyclotomic polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The computation of Feynman integrals in massive higher order perturbative calculations in renormalizable Quantum Field Theories requires extensions of multiply nested harmonic sums, which can be generated as real representations by Mellin transforms of Poincare-iterated integrals including denominators of higher cyclotomic polynomials. We derive the cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms and harmonic sums and study their algebraic and structural relations. The analytic continuation of cyclotomic harmonic sums to complex values of N is performed using analytic representations. We also consider special values of the cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms at argument x=1, resp., for the cyclotomic harmonic sums at N{yields}{infinity}, which are related to colored multiple zeta values, deriving various of their relations, based on the stuffle and shuffle algebras and three multiple argument relations. We also consider infinite generalized nested harmonic sums at roots of unity which are related to the infinite cyclotomic harmonic sums. Basis representations are derived for weight w=1,2 sums up to cyclotomy l=20. (orig.)

  13. 32 CFR 887.7 - Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. 887.7 Section 887.7 National Defense... honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. Those persons whose character...

  14. Optical klystron and harmonic generation free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The optical field evolution of an optical klystron free electron laser is analytically described for both low gain and high gain cases. The harmonic optical klystron (HOK in which the second undulator is resonant on the higher harmonic of the first undulator is analyzed as a harmonic amplifier. The optical field evolution equation of the HOK is derived analytically for both the CHG mode (coherent harmonic generation, the quadratic gain regime and the HGHG mode (high gain harmonic generation, the exponential gain regime, the effects of energy spread, energy modulation, and dispersion in the whole process are taken into account. The linear theory is given and discussed for the HGHG mode. The analytical formula is given for the CHG mode.

  15. A simulation study of harmonics regeneration in noise reduction for electric and acoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi

    2010-05-01

    Recent research results show that combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) significantly improves speech recognition in noise, and it is generally established that access to the improved F0 representation of target speech, along with the glimpse cues, provide the EAS benefits. Under noisy listening conditions, noise signals degrade these important cues by introducing undesired temporal-frequency components and corrupting harmonics structure. In this study, the potential of combining noise reduction and harmonics regeneration techniques was investigated to further improve speech intelligibility in noise by providing improved beneficial cues for EAS. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) noise reduction methods can improve speech intelligibility in noise for EAS; (2) harmonics regeneration after noise reduction can further improve speech intelligibility in noise for EAS; and (3) harmonics sideband constraints in frequency domain (or equivalently, amplitude modulation in temporal domain), even deterministic ones, can provide additional benefits. Test results demonstrate that combining noise reduction and harmonics regeneration can significantly improve speech recognition in noise for EAS, and it is also beneficial to preserve the harmonics sidebands under adverse listening conditions. This finding warrants further work into the development of algorithms that regenerate harmonics and the related sidebands for EAS processing under noisy conditions.

  16. Next generation data harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.

  17. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raamsdonk LWD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual status of enforcement and of the present occurrence of these botanical substances, a survey was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to 103 laboratories, including official control labs from all member states of the European Union. The results, indicating the frequency of occurrence as far as reported, are compared to the publications of the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF. A total of 44 questionnaires was returned (42.7% from 22 member states. Ten member states predominantly from north-western Europe appeared to have an active monitoring of botanical undesirable substances. The questionnaire results did not indicate that the other member states enforce this part of Directive 2002/32/EC. Reports on the frequency of occurrence include: a few to 25-50% of the samples contain traces of ergot (8 member states, a few to 24% contain at least some traces of thorn apple (6 member states, zero to 17% contain some castor oil plant seeds (3 member states, zero to a few samples contain Crotalaria seeds (3 member states, and zero to 6% contain traces of Sareptian mustard (4 member states. One member state conducted extra surveillance since several cases of animal intoxications have been reported. In some cases a coincidence with undesirable botanical substances was found.

  18. Undesirable Behaviors Elementary School Classroom Teachers Encounter in the Classroom and Their Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Balcik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine how often elementary school teachers encounter undesirable behaviors in the classroom and what their thoughts regarding possible reasons of these behaviors are. The teachers’ opininon about the prevalence of these behaviors and their possible reasons were evaluated according to gender, marital status, level of class being taught, size of class being taught and it was tried to be determined if there were significant differences between variables. The measurement tool was applied to a total of 54 teachers at 5 schools in Gölcük district of the Kocaeli province. The data collection tool is composed of three sections. The first section is for establishing teachers’ personal information. In this study, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire was used. When preparing questions for the questionnaire, following the examination of resources available, the questionnaire prepared by Aksoy (1999 and used in the thesis study entitled “Classroom Management and Student Discipline in Elementary Schools of Ankara” and also used in the thesis study by Boyraz (2007 entitled “Discipline Problems that Candidate Teachers Servicing at Elementary Schools Encounter in the Classroom” was employed. Although the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was tested by Aksoy (1999 and Boyraz (2007, the reliability study for the questionnaire was retested and found to be 0,9. The questionnaire include 42 items. 19 of them are related to the reasons of undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom and 23 of them are related to undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom.

  19. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  20. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  1. Productivity Growth-Accounting for Undesirable Outputs and Its Influencing Factors: The Case of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, China’s social development is facing the dilemma of supporting economic growth and reducing emissions. Therefore, it is crucial to analyse productivity growth and examine its relationship with influencing factors in China. This study evaluated the total factor productivity (TFP growth of 30 provinces in China by adopting the Malmquist-Luenberger (ML productivity index and incorporating undesirable outputs from 2011–2014. Then, a Tobit regression model was employed to explore the factors that influence China’s TFP growth. The results show that the average annual growth of the Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index was lower than that of the traditional Malmquist (M productivity index growth during the research period. The findings reveal several key conclusions: First, the true TFP growth in China will be overestimated if undesirable outputs are ignored. Second, technical changes are the main contributor to TFP growth. Third, there are huge regional disparities of productivity growth in China. Fourth, coal intensity, environmental regulations, and industrial structure have significantly negative effects on productivity growth, while real per capita gross domestic product (GDP and foreign direct investment (FDI have strongly positive effects on productivity growth.

  2. A toolbox for Harmonic Sums and their analytic continuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [RISC, J. Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Bluemlein, Johannes [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The package HarmonicSums implemented in the computer algebra system Mathematica is presented. It supports higher loop calculations in QCD and QED to represent single-scale quantities like anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients. The package allows to reduce general harmonic sums due to their algebraic and different structural relations. We provide a general framework for these reductions and the explicit representations up to weight w=8. For the use in experimental analyzes we also provide an analytic formalism to continue the harmonic sums form their integer arguments into the complex plane, which includes their recursions and asymptotic representations. The main ideas are illustrated by specific examples.

  3. Second harmonic generation microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Risbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Myofibers and collagen show non-linear optical properties enabling imaging using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The technique is evaluated for use as a tool for real-time studies of thermally induced changes in thin samples of unfixed and unstained pork. The forward and the backward...... scattered SHG light reveal complementary features of the structures of myofibers and collagen fibers. Upon heating the myofibers show no structural changes before reaching a temperature of 53 °C. At this temperature the SHG signal becomes extinct. The extinction of the SHG at 53 °C coincides with a low......-temperature endotherm peak observable in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. DSC analysis of epimysium, the connective tissue layer that enfold skeletal muscles, produces one large endotherm starting at 57 °C and peaking at 59.5 °C. SHG microscopy of collagen fibers reveals a variability of thermal...

  4. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  5. Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-01-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the…

  6. Physics of tissue harmonic imaging by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan

    Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) is an imaging modality that is currently deployed on diagnostic ultrasound scanners. In THI the amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse that is used to probe the tissue is large enough that the pulse undergoes nonlinear distortion as it propagates into the tissue. One result of the distortion is that as the pulse propagates energy is shifted from the fundamental frequency of the source pulse into its higher harmonics. These harmonics will scatter off objects in the tissue and images formed from the scattered higher harmonics are considered to have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Processes that have been suggested as possibly responsible for the improved imaging in THI include: (1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, (2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and (3) reduction in side lobes. By using a combination of controlled experiments and numerical simulations, these three reasons have been investigated. A single element transducer and a clinical ultrasound scanner with a phased array transducer were used to image a commercial tissue-mimicking phantom with calibrated targets. The higher image quality achieved with THI was quantified in terms of spatial resolution and "clutter" signals. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed. A time-domain code for solving the KZK equation was validated with measurements of the acoustic field generated by the single element transducer and the phased array transducer. The code was used to investigate the impact of aberration using tissue-like media with three-dimensional variations in all acoustic properties. The three-dimensional maps of tissue properties were derived from the datasets available through the Visible Female project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging (1) suffers less clutter associated with

  7. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    . The comparison shows that results obtained used both types of the cores are the same, so it is concluded that both cores can be used for harmonic measurements. Low-inductance resistors are introduced in the secondary circuits, in series with the metering and protective relaying. On those resistors, the harmonic......Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... end only so the ground is not used as a return path. A way to reduce the capacitive coupling is to provide shielding. Harmonic currents are measured using the conventional inductive voltage transformers. Both protective and metering cores were compared if they could be used for harmonic measurements...

  8. Tuvan throat singing and harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-05-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the listener hears two pitches simultaneously. Harmonics such as H8, H9, H10, and H12 form part of a pentatonic scale and are commonly selected for melody tones by Tuvan singers. A real-time spectrogram is provided in a video (Ruiz M J 2018 Video: Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics http://mjtruiz.com/ped/tuva/) so that Tuvan harmonics can be visualized as they are heard.

  9. Ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics from stretched molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiyan; Dong, Fulong; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-11-30

    We study the ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics (NTH) from aligned molecules with large internuclear distances numerically and analytically. The calculated harmonic spectra show a broad plateau for NTH which is several orders of magnitude higher than that for high-order harmonics. In particular, the NTH plateau shows high ellipticity at small and intermediate orientation angles. Our analyses reveal that the main contributions to the NTH plateau come from the transition of the electron from continuum states to these two lowest bound states of the system, which are strongly coupled together by the laser field. Besides continuum states, higher excited states also play a role in the NTH plateau, resulting in a large phase difference between parallel and perpendicular harmonics and accordingly high ellipticity of the NTH plateau. The NTH plateau with high intensity and large ellipticity provides a promising manner for generating strong elliptically-polarized extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses.

  10. Spectrum of harmonic emission by inhomogeneous plasma in intense electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum and angular distribution of the harmonics of arbitrary index emitted by a cold, inhomogeneous electron plasma subjected to a p-polarized electromagnetic wave have been studied analytically. The results are shown in graphical form. The intensity of the wave was varied over a wide range. At energy flux densities of the electromagnetic wave at which the inverse effect of the higher harmonics on the lower harmonics becomes appreciable, it becomes possible to observe a decay of the absolute value of the complex amplitude of a harmonic with increasing harmonic index in vacuum which is substantially slower than that predicted by the theory for a weak nonlinearity

  11. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain; Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe ''Carry over unerwuenschter Stoffe in Futtermitteln'' beim Bundesministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (BMELV) hat in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut fuer Tierernaehrung des Friedrich-Loeffler-Instituts (FLI) am 27. und 28. Oktober 2011 in Braunschweig einen Workshop zum Thema ''Kreislaeufe unerwuenschter Stoffe in der Lebensmittelkette'' durchgefuehrt. Ziel des Workshops war es, die aktuellen Erkenntnisse der Carry over Forschung und die Empfehlungen der Carry over - Arbeitsgruppe zu unerwuenschten Stoffen in Futtermitteln und Produktionsverfahren in

  12. Transient beam loading in the ALS harmonic RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Georgsson, M.; Stover, G.; Fox, J.; Prabhakar, S.; Teytelman, D.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the commissioning of a higher harmonic radiofrequency system at the Advanced Light Source, designed to improve the beam lifetime. We have achieved an increase above a factor of two in our best results up to now. Transient beam loading of the harmonic cavities, due to the unequal fill patterns, creates the greatest limitation on lifetime improvement. We also describe several interesting effects on the operation of the longitudinal and transverse multibunch feedback system

  13. Operation condition for continuous anti-solvent crystallization of CBZ-SAC cocrystal considering deposition risk of undesired crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaru, Momoko; Nakasa, Miku; Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Crystallization operation of cocrystal production has deposition risk of undesired crystals. Simultaneously, continuous manufacturing processes are focused on. In this study, conditions for continuous cocrystallization considering risk reduction of undesired crystals deposition were investigated on the view point of thermodynamics and kinetics. The anti-solvent cocrystallization was carried out in four-component system of carbamazepine, saccharin, methanol and water. From the preliminary batch experiment, the relationships among undesired crystal deposition, solution composition decided by mixing ratio of solutions, and residence time for the crystals were considered, and then the conditions of continuous experiment were decided. Under these conditions, the continuous experiment was carried out. The XRD patterns of obtained crystals in the continuous experiment showed that desired cocrystals were obtained without undesired crystals. This experimental result was evaluated by using multi-component phase diagrams from the view point of the operation point's movement. From the evaluation, it was found that there is a certain operation condition which the operation point is fixed with time in the specific domain without the deposition risk of undesired single component crystals. It means the possibility of continuous production of cocrystals without deposition risk of undesired crystals was confirmed by using multi-component phase diagrams.

  14. The application of game theory and cognitive economy to analyze the problem of undesired location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, S.

    2008-01-01

    The analysts of the processes of public bodies decision - taking have long been discussing on the establishment of proper strategies to manage environmental conflicts - above all the so-called problems of undesired location of public works and facilities - efficiently (i.e. on a short-period basis so as to grant decision and agreement stability) and fairly (the parties' satisfaction is itself a further guarantee of decision and agreement stability). Each strategy, anyway, is still in progress, like a universe to create and explore. Therefore, in this paper, we will focus on the analysis of the problem and provide as well some theoretical proposals to arrange a new interpreting model of public bodies decision-taking processes based on the achievements of two new subject-matters: evolutionary game theory and cognitive economy. Both sciences share their investigation field with law and economic science. [it

  15. Method of eliminating undesirable gaseous products resulting in underground uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, J.; Dedic, K.; Johann, J.; Haas, F.; Sokola, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method described is characteristic of the fact that gases being formed or dissolved are oxidized using a combined oxidation-reduction system consisting of airborne oxygen, oxygen carriers and a strong irreversible oxidant. The oxygen carrier system consists of a mixture of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations or of Cu + and Cu 2+ cations introduced in solutions in form of iron salts at a concentration of 0.0001 to 0.003 M, or copper salts maximally of 0.0003 M. The irreversible oxidant shows a standard redox potential of at least +1.0 V. In addition to undesirable product elimination, the method allows increasing the leaching process yield. (J.B.)

  16. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  17. Qualitative screening of undesirable compounds from feeds to fish by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Ibáñez, María; Serrano, Roque; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Hernández, Félix

    2013-03-06

    This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a rapid screening method for the detection and identification of undesirable organic compounds in aquaculture products. A generic sample treatment was applied without any purification or preconcentration step. After extraction of the samples with acetonitrile/water 80:20 (0.1% formic acid), the extracts were centrifuged and directly injected in the LC-HRMS system, consisting of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). A qualitative validation was carried out for over 70 representative compounds, including antibiotics, pesticides, and mycotoxins, in fish feed and fish fillets spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg. At the highest level, the great majority of compounds were detected (using the most abundant ion, typically the protonated molecule) and unequivocally identified (on the basis of the presence of two accurate-mass measured ions). At the 20 μg/kg level, many contaminants could already be detected, although identification using two ions was not fully reached for some of them, mainly in fish feed due to the complexity of this matrix. Subsequent application of this screening methodology to aquaculture samples made it possible to find several compounds from the target list, such as the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, the insecticide pirimiphos-methyl, and the mycotoxins fumonisin B2 and zearalenone. A retrospective analysis of accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition data provided by QTOF MS was also made, without either reprocessing or injecting the samples. This allowed the detection and tentative identification of other organic undesirables different from those included in the validated list.

  18. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  19. High-order harmonics generation from overdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, F.; Thaury, C.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Geindre, J.P.; Audebert, P.; Marjoribanks, R.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. When an intense laser beam reflects on an overdense plasma generated on a solid target, high-order harmonics of the incident laser frequency are observed in the reflected beam. This process provides a way to produce XUV femtosecond and attosecond pulses in the μJ range from ultrafast ultraintense lasers. Studying the mechanisms responsible for this harmonic emission is also of strong fundamental interest: just as HHG in gases has been instrumental in providing a comprehensive understanding of basic intense laser-atom interactions, HHG from solid-density plasmas is likely to become a unique tool to investigate many key features of laser-plasma interactions at high intensities. We will present both experimental and theoretical evidence that two mechanisms contribute to this harmonic emission: - Coherent Wake Emission: in this process, harmonics are emitted by plasma oscillations in te overdense plasma, triggered in the wake of jets of Brunel electrons generated by the laser field. - The relativistic oscillating mirror: in this process, the intense laser field drives a relativistic oscillation of the plasma surface, which in turn gives rise to a periodic phase modulation of the reflected beam, and hence to the generation of harmonics of the incident frequency. Left graph: experimental harmonic spectrum from a polypropylene target, obtained with 60 fs laser pulses at 10 19 W/cm 2 , with a very high temporal contrast (10 10 ). The plasma frequency of this target corresponds to harmonics 15-16, thus excluding the CWE mechanism for the generation of harmonics of higher orders. Images on the right: harmonic spectra from orders 13 et 18, for different distances z between the target and the best focus. At the highest intensity (z=0), harmonics emitted by the ROM mechanism are observed above the 15th order. These harmonics have a much smaller spectral width then those due to CWE (below the 15th order). These ROM harmonics vanish as soon

  20. Harmonic operation of high gain harmonic generation free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Haixiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Dai Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    In high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL), with the right choice of parameters of the modulator undulator, the dispersive section and the seed laser, one may make the spatial bunching of the electron beam density distribution correspond to one of the harmonic frequencies of the radiator radiation, instead of the fundamental frequency of the radiator radiation in conventional HGHG, thus the radiator undulator is in harmonic operation (HO) mode. In this paper, we investigate HO of HGHG FEL. Theoretical analyses with universal method are derived and numerical simulations in ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet spectral regions are given. It shows that the power of the 3rd harmonic radiation in the HO of HGHG may be as high as 18.5% of the fundamental power level. Thus HO of HGHG FEL may obtain short wavelength by using lower beam energy. (authors)

  1. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  2. Human sperm steer with second harmonics of the flagellar beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiorato, Guglielmo; Alvarez, Luis; Jikeli, Jan F; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2017-11-10

    Sperm are propelled by bending waves traveling along their flagellum. For steering in gradients of sensory cues, sperm adjust the flagellar waveform. Symmetric and asymmetric waveforms result in straight and curved swimming paths, respectively. Two mechanisms causing spatially asymmetric waveforms have been proposed: an average flagellar curvature and buckling. We image flagella of human sperm tethered with the head to a surface. The waveform is characterized by a fundamental beat frequency and its second harmonic. The superposition of harmonics breaks the beat symmetry temporally rather than spatially. As a result, sperm rotate around the tethering point. The rotation velocity is determined by the second-harmonic amplitude and phase. Stimulation with the female sex hormone progesterone enhances the second-harmonic contribution and, thereby, modulates sperm rotation. Higher beat frequency components exist in other flagellated cells; therefore, this steering mechanism might be widespread and could inspire the design of synthetic microswimmers.

  3. Electric shock and elevated EMF levels due to triplen harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, T.Q.; Conrad, L.E.; Stallman, B.K.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of single phase rectifiers for electric power conversion in residential applications increases harmonic load on utility systems. Many papers have analyzed the effect of these loads on power quality and equipment loadability. However, there are two more critical concerns for harmonic loads served phase to neutral on multi-grounded wye systems. Triplen harmonics, particularly the third, add in the neutral and have little diversity between loads. The higher neutral currents may cause significant problems. Neutral to earth voltages will increase near the substations which could increase stray voltage complaints. The additional neutral current on three phase lines will elevate EMF levels especially in the fringe areas. This paper provides fundamental understanding of triplen harmonic influence on stray voltage and EMF related to multi-grounded wye electric distribution systems

  4. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Introduction to abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Lynn H

    2011-01-01

    Written by a prominent figure in the field of harmonic analysis, this classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and focuses on methods related to Gelfand's theory of Banach algebra. 1953 edition.

  6. Cohabiting with the harmonic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, Antonio A

    1999-01-01

    The Norm IEEE 519 tries of the permissible limits of harmonic distortion in the point of common joining between the energy supplier company and the industry. However fulfilling these limits of distortion doesn't guarantee that the problem for the company has finished, on the contrary will have to counteract the effects created by the harmonic distortion toward the interior of its electric system and to cohabit with this distortion

  7. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    Full Text Available Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1, based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of ami

  8. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulong; Han, Yao; Ma, Jing; Wang, Huiping; Sang, Xianchun; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1), based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of amiRNAs in gene

  9. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic. Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the L p- harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general. L p-harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its ...

  10. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties.

  11. Audibility of harmonics in 'periodic white noise'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.; Tomesen, H.H.

    1970-01-01

    In a previous article (Duifhuis, 1970) results' concerning the audibility of harmonics in a periodic pulse have been presented. Each of the lower harmonics could be perceived separately, whereas the high harmonics were heard together as one complex signal. High harmonics, however, appeared to be

  12. Field tests of an acephate baiting system designed for eradicating undesirable honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, R G; Williams, J L; Sugden, E A; Rivera, R

    1992-08-01

    Field evaluations were made of a baiting system designed for use by regulatory agencies in suppressing populations of undesirable feral honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (e.g., bees posing hazards [especially Africanized bees] and colonies infested with parasitic mites). Bees from feral or simulated feral (hived) colonies were lured with honey and Nasonov pheromone components to feeders dispensing sucrose-honey syrup. After 1-3 wk of passive training to feeders, colonies were treated during active foraging by replacing untreated syrup with syrup containing 500 ppm (mg/liter) acephate (Orthene 75 S). In four trials using hived colonies on Grant Terre Island, LA., 21 of 29 colonies foraged actively enough at baits to be treated, and 20 of the 22 treated were destroyed. In the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (two trials at each of two trials), treatments killed 11 of 16 colonies (6 of 10 hived; 50 of 6 feral). Overall results showed that all 11 colonies that collected greater than 25 mg acephate died, whereas 3 of 10 colonies receiving less than 25 mg survived. Delivering adequate doses required a minimum of approximately 100 bees per target colony simultaneously collecting treated syrup. The system destroyed target colonies located up to nearly 700 m away from baits. Major factors limiting efficacy were conditions inhibiting foraging at baits (e.g., competing natural nectar sources and temperatures and winds that restricted bee flight).

  13. Tracking Progress in Improving Diagnosis: A Framework for Defining Undesirable Diagnostic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Andrew P J; Graber, Mark L; Singh, Hardeep

    2018-01-29

    Diagnostic error is a prevalent, harmful, and costly phenomenon. Multiple national health care and governmental organizations have recently identified the need to improve diagnostic safety as a high priority. A major barrier, however, is the lack of standardized, reliable methods for measuring diagnostic safety. Given the absence of reliable and valid measures for diagnostic errors, we need methods to help establish some type of baseline diagnostic performance across health systems, as well as to enable researchers and health systems to determine the impact of interventions for improving the diagnostic process. Multiple approaches have been suggested but none widely adopted. We propose a new framework for identifying "undesirable diagnostic events" (UDEs) that health systems, professional organizations, and researchers could further define and develop to enable standardized measurement and reporting related to diagnostic safety. We propose an outline for UDEs that identifies both conditions prone to diagnostic error and the contexts of care in which these errors are likely to occur. Refinement and adoption of this framework across health systems can facilitate standardized measurement and reporting of diagnostic safety.

  14. On the undesired frequency chirping in photonic time-stretch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxiao; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2017-12-01

    The technique of photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in the past decade due to its potential in the acquisition of ultra-high speed signals. The frequency-related RF power fading in the PTS systems with double sideband (DSB) modulation has been well-known, which limits the maximum modulation frequency. Some solutions have been proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, we report another effect, i.e., undesired frequency chirping, which also relates to the performance degradation of PTS systems with DSB modulation, for the first time to our knowledge. Distinct from the nonlinearities caused by nonlinear modulation and square-law photodetection, which is common in radio frequency analog optical links, this frequency chirping originates from the addition of two beating signals with a relative delay after photodetection. A theoretical model for exactly describing the frequency chirping is presented, and is then verified by simulations. Discussion on the method to avoid the frequency chirping is also presented.

  15. Study on Operator Actions during the Occurrences of Undesirable Events in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, P.P.; Nurul Husna Zainal Abidin; Lanyau, T.A.; Zaredah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent Fukushima accident, the potential risks at one and only nuclear research reactor in the country, which is the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP), has increasingly gain concerns and an attempt on the development of Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for this reactor has been commenced. The preliminary scope of the PSA is to analyse the risk of core degradation during normal daily operation due to the random component failure and human error. SPAR-H and THERP method is used for quantifying human error probability (HEP). However, the scopes of this study only cover the qualitative parts that use interview/questionnaire method. The objectives of the questionnaire are to identify the main action for RTP operators when any undesired incident occurs during full power operation that might be caused by random component failures. From the questionnaires that have been conducted, the respondents consisted of 4 licensed operators and 9 trainee operators. All licensed operators have experience of operating reactor for more than 15 years while the trainee operator have been operate the reactor with experience of less than 10 years. Generally, in the event of an abnormal condition involving the reactor, an operator whether a licensed operator or the trainee does not have to ask permission in advance from the top individuals to carry out scram. This is to prevent the situation becoming increasingly severe if the reactor is still operating. With complete training and knowledge derived from the management, an operator can act efficiently in any emergency case. (author)

  16. When carbon nanotubes encounter the immune system: desirable and undesirable effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Hélène

    2013-12-01

    The role of our immune system is to bring efficient protection against invasion by foreign elements, not only pathogens but also any material it may be in contact with. Nanoparticles may enter the body and encounter the immune system either intentionally (e.g. administration for biomedical application) or not (e.g. respiratory occupational exposure). Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to get a thorough knowledge of the way they interact with immune cells and all related consequences. Among nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of special interest because of their tremendous field of applications. Consequently, their increasing production, processing and eventual incorporation into new types of composites and/or into biological systems have raised fundamental issues regarding their potential impact on health. This review aims at giving an overview of the known desirable and undesirable effects of CNTs on the immune system, i.e. beneficial modulation of immune cells by CNTs engineered for biomedical applications versus toxicity, inflammation and unwanted immune reactions triggered by CNTs themselves. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of Fault Attributions and Other Factors in Adults' Attitudes Toward Hypothetical Children With an Undesirable Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadian, Taylor W; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Jones, Tucker L; Barnett, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 184 adults read descriptions of six hypothetical children with various undesirable characteristics (i.e., being extremely overweight, extremely aggressive, extremely shy, a poor student, a poor athlete, displaying symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Following each description, the participants were asked to rate how much they disagree or agree that the child, the child's parents, and the child's biological condition (i.e., "something wrong inside the child's body or brain") are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the undesirable characteristic. In addition, the participants were asked to rate their attitude toward each child using a 100-point "feeling thermometer." Analyses of the participants' various fault attribution ratings revealed that they tended to agree more strongly that a child's parents and his/her biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic than is the child him/herself. Despite the participants' reluctance to blame a hypothetical child for his/her undesirable characteristic, regression analyses revealed that, in general, the more they blamed the child for the onset of his/her undesirable characteristic, the more negative their attitude was toward the child. However, the participants' ratings of the extent to which the child's parents or biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic were not found to be associated with their attitude toward any of the children. Similarities and differences between the present findings and those reported in prior studies involving younger individuals are addressed.

  18. Relativistic harmonic content of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.B.; Decker, C.D.; Leemans, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The relativistic harmonic content of large amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in underdense plasmas is investigated. The steady state harmonic content of nonlinear linearly polarized waves is calculated for both the very underdense (w p /w o ) much-lt 1 and critical density (w p /w o ) ≅ 1 limits. For weak nonlinearities, eE o /mcw o p /w o . Arguments are given for extending these results for arbitrary wave amplitudes. The authors also show that the use of the variable x-ct and the quasi-static approximation leads to errors in both magnitude and sign when calculating the third harmonic. In the absence of damping or density gradients the third harmonic's amplitude is found to oscillate between zero and twice the steady state value. Preliminary PIC simulation results are presented. The simulation results are in basic agreement with the uniform plasma predictions for the third harmonic amplitude. However, the higher harmonics are orders of magnitude larger than expected and the presence of density ramps significantly modifies the results

  19. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced the formation of other by-products. With alumina ethene showed a lower tendency to form HCN as compared to propene and water addition further suppressed by-product formation. This contrasts the findings with Cu/ZSM-5, where HCN production was not significantly altered by the presence of water. On this catalyst HNCO was found additionally for dry feeds, whereas ammonia appeared in the presence of water in the same temperature range. Under special feed gas compositions further by-products, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons, were found over Cu/ZSM-5, whereas none of these compounds were observed over {gamma}-alumina

  20. The analysis of harmonic generation coefficients in the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Fan, Zhengfeng; Lu, Xinpei; Ye, Wenhua; Zou, Changlin; Zhang, Ziyun; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-01

    In this research, we use the numerical simulation method to investigate the generation coefficients of the first three harmonics and the zeroth harmonic in the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability. It is shown that the interface shifts to the low temperature side during the ablation process. In consideration of the third-order perturbation theory, the first three harmonic amplitudes of the weakly nonlinear regime are calculated and then the harmonic generation coefficients are obtained by curve fitting. The simulation results show that the harmonic generation coefficients changed with time and wavelength. Using the higher-order perturbation theory, we find that more and more harmonics are generated in the later weakly nonlinear stage, which is caused by the negative feedback of the later higher harmonics. Furthermore, extending the third-order theory to the fifth-order theory, we find that the second and the third harmonics coefficients linearly depend on the wavelength, while the feedback coefficients are almost constant. Further analysis also shows that when the fifth-order theory is considered, the normalized effective amplitudes of second and third harmonics can reach about 25%-40%, which are only 15%-25% in the frame of the previous third-order theory. Therefore, the third order perturbation theory is needed to be modified by the higher-order theory when ηL reaches about 20% of the perturbation wavelength.

  1. Banking Audit - Towards a Higher Degree of Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Socol

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the role and nature of the statutory audit of credit institutions have became controversial, on the base of reconsidering the importance of audit of credit institutions in prevention, detection and managing of the financial crisis. The aim of the study is critical analysis of key aspects regarding the contemporary banking audit, with an emphasis on aspects that affect the quality of banking audit (normative, procedural and organisational aspects of banking audit, the “auditable” character of some banking elements etc. and on the tipology of audit reports of credit institutions (Audit Report to the General Meeting of Shareholders, Additional Report to the Audit Committee of the credit institution, Reports to banking supervisors and Transparency report of auditor. The paper analyses for 27 European states the way in which banking auditors report on the conformity of the credit institution with organisational regulatory rules, regulatory requirements, financial reports to supervisors or special reports to supervisors. The conclusions bring to the foreground major normative changes in the area of the European credit institutions, through reforming strategies of banking audit, through a gradual and an inscreasingly restrictive progress of audit activities and of independence requirements, rotation of auditors, reporting and transparency of credit institutions.

  2. Flow shapes and higher harmonics in anisotropic transverse collective flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argintaru, Danut; Baban, Valerica [Constanta Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation and Naval Transport, Constanta (Romania); Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Grossu, Valeriu [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Esanu, Tiberiu; Cherciu, Madalin [Institute of Space Sciences Bucharest-Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper we show that by using a jet-finder algorithm (the Anti-k{sub T} one) on UrQMD/C simulated (Au+Au at 4, 10 and 15A GeV) collisions, we can identify different flow shape structures (single flow stream events, two flow streams events, three flow streams events, etc.) and order the bulk of events in equivalence flow shape classes. Considering these flow streams as the main directions of anisotropic transverse flow, we show that the Fourier coefficients v{sub n} of anisotropic flow are better emphasized when we analyze the different event flow shape classes than when the events are mixed. Also, if we do not know the real orientation of the reaction plane, we can use as reference the Flow stream 1 - the main particle flow stream - orientation (Ψ{sub Flowstream} {sub 1}) to highlight the initial shape of the participant nuclear matter in a central to peripheral collision, and the orientation of the participant plane of order n. (orig.)

  3. A Higher Harmonic Optimal Controller to Optimise Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Jane Anne

    1996-01-01

    Three methods to optimize rotorcraft aeromechanical behavior for those cases where the rotorcraft plant can be adequately represented by a linear model system matrix were identified and implemented in a stand-alone code. These methods determine the optimal control vector which minimizes the vibration metric subject to constraints at discrete time points, and differ from the commonly used non-optimal constraint penalty methods such as those employed by conventional controllers in that the constraints are handled as actual constraints to an optimization problem rather than as just additional terms in the performance index. The first method is to use a Non-linear Programming algorithm to solve the problem directly. The second method is to solve the full set of non-linear equations which define the necessary conditions for optimality. The third method is to solve each of the possible reduced sets of equations defining the necessary conditions for optimality when the constraints are pre-selected to be either active or inactive, and then to simply select the best solution. The effects of maneuvers and aeroelasticity on the systems matrix are modelled by using a pseudo-random pseudo-row-dependency scheme to define the systems matrix. Cases run to date indicate that the first method of solution is reliable, robust, and easiest to use, and that it was superior to the conventional controllers which were considered.

  4. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  5. Harmonic superspaces of extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Kalitzin, S.; Nguyen Ai Viet; Ogievetsky, V.

    1984-01-01

    The main technical apparatus of the harmonic superspace approach to extended SUSY, the calculus of harmonic variables on homogeneous spaces of the SUSY automorphism groups, is presented in detail for N=2, 3, 4. The basic harmonics for the coset manifolds G/H with G=SU(2), H=U(1); G=SU(3), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1); G=SU(4), H=SU(3)xU(1), H=SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), H=SU(2)xU(1)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1)xU(1); G=USp(2), H=SU(2)xSU(2), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1) are tabulated a number of useful relations among them

  6. Optimization of high harmonic generation by genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constance Valentin; Olga Boyko; Gilles Rey; Brigitte Mercier; Evaggelos Papalazarou; Laure Antonucci; Philippe Balcou

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. High Harmonic Generation (HHG) is very sensitive to pulse shape of the fundamental laser. We have first used an Acousto-Optic Programmable Dispersive Filter (AOPDF) in order to modify the spectral phase and second, a deformable mirror in order to modify the wavefront. We have optimized harmonic signal using a genetic algorithm coupled with both setups. We show the influence of macroscopic parameters for optimization process. Genetic algorithms have been already used to modify pulse shapes of the fundamental laser in order to optimize high harmonic signals, in order to change the emission wavelength of one harmonic or to modify the fundamental wavefront to optimize harmonic signals. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the optimization of harmonic signals using the AOPDF. Signal optimizations by a factor 2 to 10 have been measured depending of parameters of generation. For instance, one of the interesting result concerns the effect of macroscopic parameters as position of the entrance of the cell with respect to the focus of the IR laser when we change the pulse shapes. For instance, the optimization is higher when the cell entrance is above the focus where the intensity gradients are higher. Although the spectral phase of the IR laser is important for the response of one atom, the optimization depends also of phase-matching and especially of the effect intensity gradients. Other systematic studies have been performed as well as measurements of temporal profiles and wavefronts of the IR beam. These studies allow bringing out the behaviour of high harmonic generation with respect to the optimization process.

  7. Superharmonic imaging with chirp coded excitation: filtering spectrally overlapped harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Sevan; McLaughlan, James; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Superharmonic imaging improves the spatial resolution by using the higher order harmonics generated in tissue. The superharmonic component is formed by combining the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics, which have low energy content and therefore poor SNR. This study uses coded excitation to increase the excitation energy. The SNR improvement is achieved on the receiver side by performing pulse compression with harmonic matched filters. The use of coded signals also introduces new filtering capabilities that are not possible with pulsed excitation. This is especially important when using wideband signals. For narrowband signals, the spectral boundaries of the harmonics are clearly separated and thus easy to filter; however, the available imaging bandwidth is underused. Wideband excitation is preferable for harmonic imaging applications to preserve axial resolution, but it generates spectrally overlapping harmonics that are not possible to filter in time and frequency domains. After pulse compression, this overlap increases the range side lobes, which appear as imaging artifacts and reduce the Bmode image quality. In this study, the isolation of higher order harmonics was achieved in another domain by using the fan chirp transform (FChT). To show the effect of excitation bandwidth in superharmonic imaging, measurements were performed by using linear frequency modulated chirp excitation with varying bandwidths of 10% to 50%. Superharmonic imaging was performed on a wire phantom using a wideband chirp excitation. Results were presented with and without applying the FChT filtering technique by comparing the spatial resolution and side lobe levels. Wideband excitation signals achieved a better resolution as expected, however range side lobes as high as -23 dB were observed for the superharmonic component of chirp excitation with 50% fractional bandwidth. The proposed filtering technique achieved >50 dB range side lobe suppression and improved the image quality without

  8. The Emperor’s New Clothing: National Responses to “Undesirable and Unreturnable” Aliens under Asylum and Immigration Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantor, David James; van Wijk, J.; Singer, Sarah; Bolhuis, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    The “scandal” of foreign criminals whom our governments cannot send back to their own countries has become something of a tabloid obsession. Yet, while suspected or convicted of serious crimes or considered to pose a danger to society, such “undesirable and unreturnable” aliens equally often

  9. Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper we show how the N = 2 superconformal group is realised in harmonic superspace and examine conformal invariance of N = 2 off-shell theories. We believe that the example of N = O self-dual Yang-Mills equations can serve as an instructive introduction to the subject of harmonic superspace and this is examined. The rigid N = 2 conformal supersymmetry and its local version, i.e. N = 2 conformal supergravity is also discussed. The paper is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. (author)

  10. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  11. Harmonic modeling of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, J.; Sainz, L.; Corcoles, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The paper proposes an induction motor model for the study of harmonic load flow in balanced and unbalanced conditions. The parameters of this model are obtained from motor manufacturer data and the positive- and negative-sequence equivalent circuits of the single- and double-cage models. An approximate harmonic model based on motor manufacturer data only is also proposed. In addition, the paper includes manufacturer data and the calculated parameters of 36 induction motors of different rated powers. This database is used to analyze the proposed models. (author)

  12. High-brightness high-order harmonic generation at 13 nm with a long gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Kim, I Jong; Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Jong Ju; Hong, Kyung Han; Nam, Chang Hee

    2002-01-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics is well-known method producing coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation with pulse duration in the femtosecond regime. High-order harmonics have attracted much attention due to their unique features such as coherence, ultrashort pulse duration, and table-top scale system. Due to these unique properties, high-order harmonics have many applications of atomic and molecular spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics and solid-state physics. Bright generation of high-order harmonics is important for actual applications. Especially, the generation of strong well-collimated harmonics at 13 nm can be useful for the metrology of EUV lithography optics because of the high reflectivity of Mo-Si mirrors at this wavelength. The generation of bright high-order harmonics is rather difficult in the wavelength region below 15nm. Though argon and xenon gases have large conversion efficiency, harmonic generation from these gases is restricted to wavelengths over 20 nm due to low ionization potential. Hence, we choose neon for the harmonic generation around 13 nm; it has larger conversion efficiency than helium and higher ionization potential than argon. In this experiment, we have observed enhanced harmonic generation efficiency and low beam divergence of high-order harmonics from a elongated neon gas jet by the enhancement of laser propagation in an elongated gas jet. A uniform plasma column was produced when the gas jet was exposed to converging laser pulses.

  13. Optimal Selective Harmonic Control for Power Harmonics Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    of power harmonics. The proposed optimal SHC is of hybrid structure: all recursive SHC modules with weighted gains are connected in parallel. It bridges the real “nk+-m order RC” and the complex “parallel structure RC”. Compared to other IMP based control solutions, it offers an optimal trade-off among...

  14. Probabilistic Harmonic Modeling of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim H.; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic sequence domain (SD) harmonic model of a grid-connected voltage-source converter is used to estimate harmonic emissions in a wind power plant (WPP) comprised of Type-IV wind turbines. The SD representation naturally partitioned converter generated voltage harmonics into those...... with deterministic phase and those with probabilistic phase. A case study performed on a string of ten 3MW, Type-IV wind turbines implemented in PSCAD was used to verify the probabilistic SD harmonic model. The probabilistic SD harmonic model can be employed in the planning phase of WPP projects to assess harmonic...

  15. Imaging theory of nonlinear second harmonic and third harmonic generations in confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhilie; XING Da; LIU Songhao

    2004-01-01

    The imaging theory of nonlinear second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. The nonlinear effect of SHG and THG on the imaging properties of confocal microscopy has been analyzed in detail by the imaging theory. It is proved that the imaging process of SHG and THG in confocal microscopy, which is different from conventional coherent imaging or incoherent imaging, can be divided into two different processes of coherent imaging. The three-dimensional point spread functions (3D-PSF) of SHG and THG confocal microscopy are derived based on the nonlinear principles of SHG and THG. The imaging properties of SHG and THG confocal microscopy are discussed in detail according to its 3D-PSF. It is shown that the resolution of SHG and THG confocal microscopy is higher than that of single-and two-photon confocal microscopy.

  16. Harmonic mode-locking using the double interval technique in quantum dot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chiragh, Furqan L; Xin, Yong-Chun; Lin, Chang-Yi; Kim, Junghoon; Christodoulou, Christos G; Lester, Luke F

    2010-07-05

    Passive harmonic mode-locking in a quantum dot laser is realized using the double interval technique, which uses two separate absorbers to stimulate a specific higher-order repetition rate compared to the fundamental. Operating alone these absorbers would otherwise reinforce lower harmonic frequencies, but by operating together they produce the harmonic corresponding to their least common multiple. Mode-locking at a nominal 60 GHz repetition rate, which is the 10(th) harmonic of the fundamental frequency of the device, is achieved unambiguously despite the constraint of a uniformly-segmented, multi-section device layout. The diversity of repetition rates available with this method is also discussed.

  17. Self excitation of second harmonic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukabayashi, I.; Yagishita, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in a weakly magnetized plasma are investigated experimentally. It is observed that finite amplitudes ion acoustic waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves excite a new second harmonic wave train behind the initial ion waves in a parallel magnetic field. The excitation of higher harmonic waves can be explained by non-linearity of finite amplitude ion-acoustic waves. The newly excited second harmonics waves satisfy a dispersion relation of the ion-acoustic waves. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs

  18. Dependence of high order harmonics intensity on laser focal spot position in preformed plasma plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, H.; Ganeev, R.; Naik, P. A.; Arora, V.; Chakravarty, U.; Gupta, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of the high-order harmonic intensity on the laser focal spot position in laser produced plasma plumes is experimentally studied. High order harmonics up to the 59th order (λ∼13.5 nm) were generated by focusing 48 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system in silver plasma plume produced using 300 ps uncompressed laser radiation as the prepulse. The intensity of harmonics nearly vanished when the best focus was located in the plume center, whereas it peaked on either side with unequal intensity. The focal spot position corresponding to the peak harmonic intensity moved away from the plume center for higher order harmonics. The results are explained in terms of the variation of phase mismatch between the driving laser beam and harmonics radiation produced, relativistic drift of electrons, and defocusing effect due to radial ionization gradient in the plasma for different focal spot positions

  19. Red Shift and Broadening of Backward Harmonic Radiation from Electron Oscillations Driven by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Youwei; Yu Wei; Lu Peixiang; Senecha, Vinod K; Han, Xu; Deng Degang; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of backward harmonic radiation due to electron oscillations driven by a linearly polarized fs laser pulse are analysed considering a single electron model. The spectral distributions of the electron's backward harmonic radiation are investigated in detail for different parameters of the driver laser pulse. Higher order harmonic radiations are possible for a sufficiently intense driving laser pulse. We have shown that for a realistic pulsed photon beam, the spectrum of the radiation is red shifted as well as broadened because of changes in the longitudinal velocity of the electrons during the laser pulse. These effects are more pronounced at higher laser intensities giving rise to higher order harmonics that eventually leads to a continuous spectrum. Numerical simulations have further shown that by increasing the laser pulse width the broadening of the high harmonic radiations can be controlled

  20. Studies of harmonic generation in free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear harmonic generation is one of the most interesting aspects of Free Electron Lasers under study today. It provides for coherent, high intensity radiation at higher harmonics of the FEL resonant frequency. The sources, numerical simulation and applications of harmonic radiation in cascaded High Gain Harmonic Generation FELs were the subject of this thesis. Harmonic emission in FELs originates from harmonic microbunching of the particles and the particular electron trajectory during FEL interaction. Numerical FEL simulation codes model these analytical equations and predict the performance of Free Electron Lasers with good accuracy. This thesis has relied heavily upon the FEL simulation code Genesis 1.3 which has been upgraded in the framework of this thesis to compute harmonic generation in a self-consistent manner. Tests against analytical predictions suggest that the harmonic power levels as well as harmonic gain lengths are simulated correctly. A benchmark with the FEL simulation code GINGER yields excellent agreement of the harmonic saturation length and saturation power. The new version of the simulation code Genesis was also tested against measurements from the VUV-FEL FLASH at DESY. The spectral power distributions of fundamental and third harmonic radiation were recorded at 25.9 nm and 8.6 nm, respectively. The relative bandwidths (FWHM) were in the range of 2 % for both the fundamental as well as the third harmonic, which was accurately reproduced by time-dependent simulations with Genesis. The new code was also used to propose and evaluate a new design for the BESSY Soft X-Ray FEL, a cascaded High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL proposed by BESSY in Berlin. The original design for the BESSY High Energy FEL line requires four HGHG stages to convert the initial seed laser wavelength of 297.5 nm down to 1.24 nm. A new scheme is proposed that makes use of fifth harmonic radiation from the first stage and reduces the number of HGHG stages to three. It

  1. Studies of harmonic generation in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, K.

    2007-11-12

    Nonlinear harmonic generation is one of the most interesting aspects of Free Electron Lasers under study today. It provides for coherent, high intensity radiation at higher harmonics of the FEL resonant frequency. The sources, numerical simulation and applications of harmonic radiation in cascaded High Gain Harmonic Generation FELs were the subject of this thesis. Harmonic emission in FELs originates from harmonic microbunching of the particles and the particular electron trajectory during FEL interaction. Numerical FEL simulation codes model these analytical equations and predict the performance of Free Electron Lasers with good accuracy. This thesis has relied heavily upon the FEL simulation code Genesis 1.3 which has been upgraded in the framework of this thesis to compute harmonic generation in a self-consistent manner. Tests against analytical predictions suggest that the harmonic power levels as well as harmonic gain lengths are simulated correctly. A benchmark with the FEL simulation code GINGER yields excellent agreement of the harmonic saturation length and saturation power. The new version of the simulation code Genesis was also tested against measurements from the VUV-FEL FLASH at DESY. The spectral power distributions of fundamental and third harmonic radiation were recorded at 25.9 nm and 8.6 nm, respectively. The relative bandwidths (FWHM) were in the range of 2 % for both the fundamental as well as the third harmonic, which was accurately reproduced by time-dependent simulations with Genesis. The new code was also used to propose and evaluate a new design for the BESSY Soft X-Ray FEL, a cascaded High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL proposed by BESSY in Berlin. The original design for the BESSY High Energy FEL line requires four HGHG stages to convert the initial seed laser wavelength of 297.5 nm down to 1.24 nm. A new scheme is proposed that makes use of fifth harmonic radiation from the first stage and reduces the number of HGHG stages to three. It

  2. The Harmonically Coupled 2-Beam FEL

    CERN Document Server

    McNeil, Brian W J

    2004-01-01

    A 1-D model of a 2-beam Free Electron Laser amplifier is presented. The two co-propagating electron beams have different energies, chosen so that the fundamental resonant FEL interaction of the higher energy beam is at an harmonic of the lower energy beam. In this way, a coupling between the FEL interactions of the two beams occurs via the harmonic components of the electron bunching and radiation emission of the lower energy interaction. Such resonantly coupled FEL interactions may offer potential benefits over existing single beam FEL schemes. A simple example is presented where the lower energy FEL interaction only is seeded with radiation at its fundamental resonant wavelength. It is predicted that the coherence properties of this seed field are transfered via the resonantly coupled FEL interaction to the un-seeded higher energy FEL interaction, thereby improving its coherence properties over that of a SASE interaction alone. This method may offer an alternative seeding scheme for FELs operating in the XU...

  3. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough...

  4. Harmonic oscillator in Snyder space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The harmonic oscillator in Snyder space is investigated in its classical and quantum versions. The classical trajectory is obtained and the semiclassical quantization from the phase space trajectories is discussed. An effective cut-off to high frequencies is found. The quantum version is developed and an equivalent usual ...

  5. The relativistic harmonic oscillator reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofsaess, T.

    1978-01-01

    The bound states of scalar quarks interacting through a scalar harmonic oscillator are investigated. In the presence of this interaction the dressed quark propagator differs substantially from the free one. This leads to a Bethe Salpeter equation which does not allow for any stable bound states of positive mass. (orig.) [de

  6. Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    N=2 conformal supersymmetry is realized in harmonic superspace, its peculiarities are analyzed. The coordinate group and analytical prepotentials for N=2 conformal supergravity are found. A new version of the N=2 Einstein supergravity with infinite number of auxiliary fields is suggested. A hypermultiplet without central charges and constraints is used as a compensator

  7. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Narrowband-to-Narrowband Frequency Reconfiguration with Harmonic Suppression Using Fractal Dipole Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hamzah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic suppressed fractal antenna with switches named TMFDB25 is developed to select desired frequency band from 400 MHz to 3.5 GHz. The radiating element length is changed to tune the operating frequency while the stub is used to eliminate the undesired harmonic frequency. The balun circuit is reduced by 75% from the original size. The antenna is built on a low loss material. It has the ability to select a single frequency out of fifteen different bands and maintain the omnidirectional radiation pattern properties. Furthermore, the antenna is designed, built, and tested. Simulation and measurement results show that the antenna operates well at the specific frequency range. Therefore, the antenna is suitable to be used for switching frequencies in the band of TV, GSM900/1800, 3G, ISM 2.4 GHz, and above.

  9. Lenore White Harmon: One Woman's Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents biographical information on Lenore White Harmon, noted professor, counselor, and researcher. In a question-and-answer section, Harmon describes her early career decisions, work history, research efforts, professional contributions, important influences and reflections on her career development. (KW)

  10. Tides and tidal harmonics at Umbharat, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.

    A part of the data on tides recorded at Machiwada near Umbharat, Gulf of Cambay during April 1978 was subjected to harmonic analysis following the Admiralty procedure. The general tidal characteristics and the value of four major harmonic...

  11. Application of potential harmonic expansion method to BEC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We adopt the potential harmonics expansion method for an ab initio solution of the many-body system in a Bose condensate containing interacting bosons. Unlike commonly adopted mean-field theories, our method is capable of handling two-body correlation properly. We disregard three- and higher-body correlations.

  12. Harmonic disturbance location by applying Bayesian inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, G.; Xiang, Y.; Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic pollution is one of the most important power quality issues in electric power systems. Correct location of the main harmonic disturbance source is a key step to solve the problem. This paper presents a method to detect the location of harmonic disturbance source in low voltage network

  13. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    /current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  14. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  15. High-order harmonic conversion efficiency in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Calculated results are presented for the energy, number of photons, and conversion efficiency for high-order harmonic generation in helium. The results show the maximum values that we should expect to achieve experimentally with our current apparatus and the important parameters for scaling this source to higher output. In the desired operating regime where the coherence length, given by L coh =πb/(q-1), is greater than the gas column length, l, the harmonic output can be summarized by a single equation: N q =[(π z n z b 3 τ q |d q | z )/4h]{(p/q)(2l/b) z }. N q - numbers of photons of q-th harmonic; n - atom density; b - laser confocal parameter; τ q - pulse width of harmonic radiation; q - harmonic order; p - effective order of nonlinearity. (Note the term in brackets, the phase-matching function, has been separated from the rest of the expression in order to be consistent with the relevant literature)

  16. Degenerate Fermi gas in a combined harmonic-lattice potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakie, P. B.; Bezett, A.; Buonsante, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we derive an analytic approximation to the density of states for atoms in a combined optical lattice and harmonic trap potential as used in current experiments with quantum degenerate gases. We compare this analytic density of states to numerical solutions and demonstrate its validity regime. Our work explicitly considers the role of higher bands and when they are important in quantitative analysis of this system. Applying our density of states to a degenerate Fermi gas, we consider how adiabatic loading from a harmonic trap into the combined harmonic-lattice potential affects the degeneracy temperature. Our results suggest that occupation of excited bands during loading should lead to more favorable conditions for realizing degenerate Fermi gases in optical lattices

  17. UNDESIRED REACTIONS AT THE UROGRAPHY IN THE CORRELATION OF THE IODIC AND THE NON-TODIC CONTRAST MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babić

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the undesired reactions at 6053 urographies (IVU in thecorrelation of the iodic and the non-iodic contrast media (ICM.Depending on the allergological status the ICM (iodic or non-iodic is chosenfor the sake of carrying out an urographic examination as well as the necessarypremedication measures.The undesired reactions to the TCM are registered in 4,87% (1:20 TVU,namely in 5,6% (1:17 TVU to the iodic and in 2,39% (1:41 IVU to the non-iodicICM.At the intravenous application of the iodic ICM at the IVU the undesiredreactions are registered for2,4 times more often than at the application of the non-iodicICM.

  18. A Method for Harmonic Sources Detection based on Harmonic Distortion Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruixing; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Xian

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic sources detection at the point of common coupling is an essential step for harmonic contribution determination and harmonic mitigation. The harmonic distortion power rate index is proposed for harmonic source location based on IEEE Std 1459-2010 in the paper. The method only based on harmonic distortion power is not suitable when the background harmonic is large. To solve this problem, a threshold is determined by the prior information, when the harmonic distortion power is larger than the threshold, the customer side is considered as the main harmonic source, otherwise, the utility side is. A simple model of public power system was built in MATLAB/Simulink and field test results of typical harmonic loads verified the effectiveness of proposed method.

  19. Second harmonics HOE recording in Bayfol HX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2015-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) provide superior optical properties over DOEs (surface gratings) due to high diffraction efficiencies in the -1st order and their excellent Bragg selectivity. Bayer MaterialScience is offering a variety of customized instant-developing photopolymer films to meet requirements for a specific optics design of a phase hologram. For instance, the photopolymer film thickness is an ideal means to adjust the angular and the spectral selectivity while the index modulation can be adopted with the film thickness to achieve a specific required dynamic range. This is especially helpful for transmission type holograms and in multiplex recordings. The selection of different substrates is helpful to achieve the overall optical properties for a targeted application that we support in B2B-focused developments. To provide further guidance on how to record volume holograms in Bayfol HX, we describe in this paper a new route towards the recording of substrate guided vHOEs by using optimized photopolymer films. Furthermore, we discuss special writing conditions that are suitable to create higher 2nd harmonic intensities and their useful applications. Due to total internal reflection (TIR) at the photopolymer-air interface in substrate guided vHOEs, hologram recording with those large diffraction angles cannot usually be done with two free-space beams. Edge-lit recording setups are used to circumvent this limitation. However, such setups require bulky recording blocks or liquid bathes and are complex and hard to align. A different approach that we present in this paper is to exploit 2nd harmonic grating generation in a freespace recording scheme. Those 2nd harmonic components allow the replay of diffraction angles that are normally only accessible with edge-lit writing configurations. Therefore, this approach significantly simplifies master recordings for vHOEs with edge-lit functionalities, which later can be used in contact copy schemes for

  20. Characterization of Harmonic Signal Acquisition with Parallel Dipole and Multipole Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Gun; Anderson, Gordon A.; Bruce, James E.

    2018-04-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is a powerful instrument for the study of complex biological samples due to its high resolution and mass measurement accuracy. However, the relatively long signal acquisition periods needed to achieve high resolution can serve to limit applications of FTICR-MS. The use of multiple pairs of detector electrodes enables detection of harmonic frequencies present at integer multiples of the fundamental cyclotron frequency, and the obtained resolving power for a given acquisition period increases linearly with the order of harmonic signal. However, harmonic signal detection also increases spectral complexity and presents challenges for interpretation. In the present work, ICR cells with independent dipole and harmonic detection electrodes and preamplifiers are demonstrated. A benefit of this approach is the ability to independently acquire fundamental and multiple harmonic signals in parallel using the same ions under identical conditions, enabling direct comparison of achieved performance as parameters are varied. Spectra from harmonic signals showed generally higher resolving power than spectra acquired with fundamental signals and equal signal duration. In addition, the maximum observed signal to noise (S/N) ratio from harmonic signals exceeded that of fundamental signals by 50 to 100%. Finally, parallel detection of fundamental and harmonic signals enables deconvolution of overlapping harmonic signals since observed fundamental frequencies can be used to unambiguously calculate all possible harmonic frequencies. Thus, the present application of parallel fundamental and harmonic signal acquisition offers a general approach to improve utilization of harmonic signals to yield high-resolution spectra with decreased acquisition time. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  2. Nonlinear coupling of flow harmonics: Hexagonal flow and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Yan, Li; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2018-05-01

    Higher Fourier harmonics of anisotropic flow (v4 and beyond) get large contributions induced by elliptic and triangular flow through nonlinear response. We present a general framework of nonlinear hydrodynamic response which encompasses the existing one and allows us to take into account the mutual correlation between the nonlinear couplings affecting Fourier harmonics of any order. Using Large Hadron Collider data on Pb+Pb collisions at s =2.76 TeV, we perform an application of our formalism to hexagonal flow, v6, a coefficient affected by several nonlinear contributions which are of the same order of magnitude. We obtain the first experimental measure of the coefficient χ624, which couples v6 to v2 and v4. This is achieved by putting together the information from several analyses: event-plane correlations, symmetric cumulants, and higher order moments recently analyzed by the ALICE Collaboration. The value of χ624 extracted from data is in fair agreement with hydrodynamic calculations, although with large error bars, which would be dramatically reduced by a dedicated analysis. We argue that within our formalism the nonlinear structure of a given higher order harmonic can be determined more accurately than the harmonic itself, and we emphasize potential applications to future measurements of v7 and v8.

  3. Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Most power electronic equipment these days generate harmonic disturbances, these devices hold nonlinear voltage/current characteristic. The harmonics generated can potentially be harmful to the consumer supply. Typically, filters are integrated at the power source or utility location to filter out...... the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized...

  4. Harmonic space and quaternionic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ogievetsky, O.; Ivanov, E.

    1992-10-01

    A principle of harmonic analyticity underlying the quaternionic (quaternion-Kaehler) geometry is found, and the differential constraints which define this geometry are solved. To this end the original 4n-dimensional quaternionic manifold is extended to a biharmonic space. The latter includes additional harmonic coordinates associated with both the tangent local Sp(1) group and an extra rigid SU(2) group rotating the complex structures. An one-to-one correspondence is established between the quaternionic spaces and off-shell N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models coupled to N=2 supergravity. Coordinates of the analytic subspace are identified with superfields describing N=2 matter hypermultiplets and a compensating hypermultiplet of N=2 supergravity. As an illustration the potentials for the symmetric quaternionic spaces are presented. (K.A.) 22 refs

  5. Data harmonization and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Committee on Urban Storm Drainage of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC) was formed in 1982. The current committee members are (no more than two from a country): B. C. Yen, Chairman (USA); P. Harremoes, Vice Chairman (Denmark); R. K. Price, Secretary (UK); P. J. Colyer (UK), M. Desbordes (France), W. C. Huber (USA), K. Krauth (FRG), A. Sjoberg (Sweden), and T. Sueishi (Japan).The IAHR/IAWPRC Joint Committee is forming a Task Group on Data Harmonization and Model Performance. One objective is to promote international urban drainage data harmonization for easy data and information exchange. Another objective is to publicize available models and data internationally. Comments and suggestions concerning the formation and charge of the Task Group are welcome and should be sent to: B. C. Yen, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, 208 N. Romine St., Urbana, IL 61801.

  6. Effect of self-focusing on resonant third harmonic generation of laser in a rippled density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K.; Yadav, Sushila

    2010-01-01

    Resonant third harmonic generation by a Gaussian laser beam in a rippled density plasma is studied. The laser ponderomotive force induces second harmonic longitudinal velocity on electrons that couples with the static density ripple to produce a density perturbation at 2ω,2k+q, where ω and k are the frequency and wave number of the laser and q is the ripple wave number of the laser. This density perturbation beats with electron oscillatory velocity at ω,k-vector to produce a nonlinear current driving the third harmonic generation. In the regime of quadratic nonlinearity, the self-focusing of the laser enhances the third harmonic power. However, at higher intensity, plasma density is significantly reduced on the axis, detuning the third harmonic resonance and weakening the harmonic yield. Self-focusing causes enhancement in the efficiency of harmonic generation.

  7. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N.; Brennan, J. M.; Peggs, S.

    2014-04-01

    A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6) is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the "Q-loss" and "f-dot" loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a "harmonic ratcheting" acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details are taken into consideration.

  8. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G

    1974-07-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.

  9. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelin, G.

    1974-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the Δ-, Λ-, and Σ-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field

  10. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  11. Expansion into lattice harmonics in cubic symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontrym-Sznajd, G.

    2018-05-01

    On the example of a few sets of sampling directions in the Brillouin zone, this work shows how important the choice of the cubic harmonics is on the quality of approximation of some quantities by a series of such harmonics. These studies led to the following questions: (1) In the case that for a given l there are several independent harmonics, can one use in the expansion only one harmonic with a given l?; (2) How should harmonics be ordered: according to l or, after writing them in terms of (x4 + y4 + z4)n (x2y2z2)m, according to their degree q = n + m? To enable practical applications of such harmonics, they are constructed in terms of the associated Legendre polynomials up to l = 26. It is shown that electron momentum densities, reconstructed from experimental data for ErGa3 and InGa3, are described much better by harmonics ordered with q.

  12. Complex harmonic modal analysis of rotor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong Ju

    2015-01-01

    Complex harmonic analysis for rotor systems has been proposed from the strict complex modal analysis based upon Floquet theory. In this process the harmonic balance method is adopted, effectively associated with conventional eigenvalue analysis. Also, the harmonic coefficients equivalent to dFRFs in harmonic mode has been derived in practice. The modes are classified from identifying the modal characteristics, and the adaptation of harmonic balance method has been proven by comparing the results of the stability analyses from Floque theory and the eigen analysis. The modal features of each critical speed are depicted in quantitatively and qualitatively by showing that the strengths of each component of the harmonic coefficients are estimated from the order of magnitude analysis according to their harmonic patterns. This effectiveness has been verified by comparing with the numerical solutions

  13. Turbulence Scattering of High Harmonic Fast Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Ono; J. Hosea; B. LeBlanc; J. Menard; C.K. Phillips; R. Wilson; P. Ryan; D. Swain; J. Wilgen; S. Kubota; and T.K. Mau

    2001-01-01

    Effect of scattering of high-harmonic fast-magnetosonic waves (HHFW) by low-frequency plasma turbulence is investigated. Due to the similarity of the wavelength of HHFW to that of the expected low-frequency turbulence in the plasma edge region, the scattering of HHFW can become significant under some conditions. The scattering probability increases with the launched wave parallel-phase-velocity as the location of the wave cut-off layer shifts toward the lower density edge. The scattering probability can be reduced significantly with higher edge plasma temperature, steeper edge density gradient, and magnetic field. The theoretical model could explain some of the HHFW heating observations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

  14. Harmonic states for the free particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J; López-Ruiz, F F; Aldaya, V; Cossío, F

    2011-01-01

    Different families of states, which are solutions of the time-dependent free Schrödinger equation, are imported from the harmonic oscillator using the quantum Arnold transformation introduced in Aldaya et al (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.44 065302). Among them, infinite series of states are given that are normalizable, expand the whole space of solutions, are spatially multi-localized and are eigenstates of a suitably defined number operator. Associated with these states new sets of coherent and squeezed states for the free particle are defined representing traveling, squeezed, multi-localized wave packets. These states are also constructed in higher dimensions, leading to the quantum mechanical version of the Hermite–Gauss and Laguerre–Gauss states of paraxial wave optics. Some applications of these new families of states and procedures to experimentally realize and manipulate them are outlined. (paper)

  15. Second harmonic generation in a bounded magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of second harmonic generation in a magnetized plasma contained in a cylindrical cavity resonator shows how the harmonic power varies with fundamental power, background gas pressure, and magnetization. Two cavities were designed. For each the TM010 resonance was in the S-band and the TM011 resonance in the C-band. Both frequencies were harmonically related when the d.c. discharge sustaining the plasma was adjusted to give plasma frequencies of approximately 0.7 GHz and 1.53 GHz. The experimental results show the harmonic power approximately proportional to the square of the fundamental power from 5 to 100 mw, and a decreasing function of pressure from 10 to 150 millitorr. Experiments at constant plasma frequency and varying magnetic field from 0 to 3000 Gauss show a sharp drop in harmonic power to undetectable levels when the electron cyclotron frequency approximates either the fundamental or second harmonic frequencies. These effects are attributed, respectively, to the coupling of fundamental power to other modes and to cavity detuning away from the harmonic. With the plasma frequency adjusted to maintain simultaneous resonance of fundamental and harmonic, a harmonic signal maximum occurred when the upper hybrid frequency approximated the harmonic frequency. Several anomalies, apparently related to the magnetization, background gas, and electron density distribution were observed. Otherwise, the results are qualitatively consistent with the first order theory for a cold, collisional plasma

  16. Decrease of energy and emission prices undesired. Unfair attack on CO2-levies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; De Keizer, I.; Benner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in the Netherlands, fuel taxes and prices for CO2 emission are criticised. High energy prices are used to suggest other forms of pricing regulations. However, the higher energy prices and CO2-levies are very useful in realizing a sustainable energy supply. More transparency in the market for emissions trading is required to prevent unfair on-charge expenses of CO2-charges [nl

  17. Exact diagonalization of the D-dimensional spatially confined quantum harmonic oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunle Adegoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the existing literature various numerical techniques have been developed to quantize the confined harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions. In obtaining the energy eigenvalues, such methods often involve indirect approaches such as searching for the roots of hypergeometric functions or numerically solving a differential equation. In this paper, however, we derive an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of a confined quantum harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions, thus facilitating direct diagonalization.

  18. Effects of external magnetic field on harmonics generated in laser interaction with underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Nik, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.; Shokri, B.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Generation of harmonic radiation is an important subject of laser plasma interaction and attracts great attention due to a wide range of applications. It has been seen that intense electromagnetic and quasi-static transverse magnetic fields are generated in laser plasma interaction. An extremely intense magnetic field (up to hundreds of MG) has been observed by experimental measurements in interaction of short laser pulses with plasma. These self-generated or applied magnetic fields affect the propagation of the laser pulses. In most laser interactions with homogeneous plasma, odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated. In this paper, we point out the possibility of even harmonics generation when a linearly polarized laser beam propagates in homogeneous plasma in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. It is shown that applying external field induces a transverse current density oscillating twice of the laser field which leds to generation of second harmonic radiation. This current density is derived using the perturbation method, and the steady state amplitude of the second harmonic obtained by solution of the wave equation. By the same procedure the current density and then the steady state amplitude of higher order harmonics are calculated. The efficiency of harmonic generation (the ratio of harmonic power to incident power) is a drastically function of the strength of external magnetic field. It is found that the efficiency of even harmonics is zero in the absence of magnetic field and increases as the magnetic field is increased. For odd harmonics, applying the external magnetic field enhances the generated harmonics as well. The conversion efficiency also increases with increase in plasma density and intensity of the laser beam.

  19. Effect of Context on the Contribution of Individual Harmonics to Residue Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Hedwig E; Alsindi, Sami; Hardy, Charles; Carlyon, Robert P

    2017-12-01

    There is evidence that the contribution of a given harmonic in a complex tone to residue pitch is influenced by the accuracy with which the frequency of that harmonic is encoded. The present study investigated whether listeners adjust the weights assigned to individual harmonics based on acquired knowledge of the reliability of the frequency estimates of those harmonics. In a two-interval forced-choice task, seven listeners indicated which of two 12-harmonic complex tones had the higher overall pitch. In context trials (60 % of all trials), the fundamental frequency (F0) was 200 Hz in one interval and 200 + ΔF0 Hz in the other. In different (blocked) conditions, either the 3rd or the 4th harmonic (plus the 7th, 9th, and 12th harmonics), were replaced by narrowband noises that were identical in the two intervals. Feedback was provided. In randomly interspersed test trials (40 % of all trials), the fundamental frequency was 200 + ΔF0/2 Hz in both intervals; in the second interval, either the third or the fourth harmonic was shifted slightly up or down in frequency with equal probability. There were no narrowband noises. Feedback was not provided. The results showed that substitution of a harmonic by noise in context trials reduced the contribution of that harmonic to pitch judgements in the test trials by a small but significant amount. This is consistent with the notion that listeners give smaller weight to a harmonic or frequency region when they have learned that this frequency region does not provide reliable information for a given task.

  20. Efficient second- and third-harmonic radiation generation from relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N., E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, H. [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case.

  1. Efficient second- and third-harmonic radiation generation from relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case

  2. Theory of nonlinear harmonic generation in free-electron lasers with helical wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-05-01

    CoherentHarmonicGeneration (CHG), and in particularNonlinearHarmonicGeneration (NHG), is of importance for both short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), in relation with the achievement of shorter wavelengths with a fixed electron-beam energy, and high-average power FEL resonators, in relation with destructive effects of higher harmonics radiation on mirrors. In this paper we present a treatment of NHG from helical wigglers with particular emphasis on the second harmonic. Our study is based on an exact analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, derived with the help of a Green's function method. In particular, we demonstrate that nonlinear harmonic generation (NHG) fromhelicalwigglers vanishes on axis. Our conclusion is in open contrast with results in literature, that include a kinematical mistake in the description of the electron motion. (orig.)

  3. High-order harmonic generation in clusters irradiated by an infrared laser field of moderate intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaretsky, D F; Korneev, Ph; Becker, W

    2010-01-01

    Extending the Lewenstein model of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a laser-irradiated atom, a model of HHG in a cluster is formulated. The constituent atoms of the cluster are assumed to be partly ionized. An electron freed through tunnelling may recombine either with its parent ion or with another ion in the vicinity. Harmonics due to the former process are coherent within the same cluster and may be coherent between different clusters, while harmonics due to the latter process are incoherent. Depending on the density of available ions, the incoherent mechanism may dominate the total harmonic yield, and the harmonic spectrum, which extends to higher energies, has a less distinct cutoff and an enhanced low-energy part.

  4. Are undesirable contact kinematics minimized after kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty? An intersurgeon analysis of consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Hodapp, Esther E; Vernace, Joseph V; Hull, Maury L; Meade, Thomas D

    2013-10-01

    Tibiofemoral contact kinematics or knee implant motions have a direct influence on patient function and implant longevity and should be evaluated for any new alignment technique such as kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Edge loading of the tibial liner and external rotation (reverse of normal) and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component are undesirable contact kinematics that should be minimized. Accordingly, this study determined whether the overall prevalence of undesirable contact kinematics during standing, mid kneeling near 90 degrees and full kneeling with kinematically aligned TKA are minimal and not different between groups of consecutive patients treated by different surgeons. Three surgeons were asked to perform cemented, kinematically aligned TKA with patient-specific guides in a consecutive series of patients with their preferred cruciate-retaining (CR) implant. In vivo tibiofemoral contact positions were obtained using a 3- to 2-dimensional image registration technique in 69 subjects (Vanguard CR-TKA N = 22, and Triathlon CR-TKA N = 47). Anterior or posterior edge loading of the tibial liner was not observed. The overall prevalence of external rotation of the tibial component on the femoral component of 6 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). The overall prevalence of adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component of 4 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). Kinematically aligned TKA minimized the undesirable contact kinematics of edge loading of the tibial liner, and external rotation and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component during standing and kneeling, which suggests an optimistic prognosis for durable long-term function. III.

  5. Nuclear pharmacy education: international harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.M.; Cox, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was

  6. The Harmonics of Kansei Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Jianning; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2008-01-01

    sensibility it elicits on a person (kansei), is a key factor in the design of tools to support designers in delivering the right product’s appearance. This paper presents an approach to mathematically represent a product’s kansei based on the frequency signature (harmonics) of a shape. This mathematical...... representation should allow the automatic indexing and retrieval of images from a repository of design precedents. This is done through a series of experiments aiming at determining the relation between images, kansei words and the frequency signatures of those images. Tests suggest the method is promising...... and can be used for indexing images in Content Based Image Retrieval Systems....

  7. Second harmonic generation at fatigue cracks by low-frequency Lamb waves: Experimental and numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Ng, Ching-Tai; Kotousov, Andrei; Sohn, Hoon; Lim, Hyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical analyses of the second harmonic generation due to non-linear interaction of Lamb waves with a fatigue crack. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) simulations and experimental studies are carried out to provide physical insight into the mechanism of second harmonic generation. The results demonstrate that the 3D FE simulations can provide a reasonable prediction on the second harmonic generated due to the contact nonlinearity at the fatigue crack. The effect of the wave modes on the second harmonic generation is also investigated in detail. It is found that the magnitude of the second harmonic induced by the interaction of the fundamental symmetric mode (S0) of Lamb wave with the fatigue crack is much higher than that by the fundamental anti-symmetric mode (A0) of Lamb wave. In addition, a series of parametric studies using 3D FE simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the fatigue crack length to incident wave wavelength ratio, and the influence of the excitation frequency on the second harmonic generation. The outcomes show that the magnitude and directivity pattern of the generated second harmonic depend on the fatigue crack length to incident wave wavelength ratio as well as the ratio of S0 to A0 incident Lamb wave amplitude. In summary, the findings of this study can further advance the use of second harmonic generation in damage detection.

  8. Hermitian harmonic maps into convex balls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenyang; Xi Zhang

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we consider Hermitian harmonic maps from Hermitian manifolds into convex balls. We prove that there exist no non-trivial Hermitian harmonic maps from closed Hermitian manifolds into convex balls, and we use the heat flow method to solve the Dirichlet problem for Hermitian harmonic maps when the domain is compact Hermitian manifold with non-empty boundary. The case where the domain manifold is complete(noncompact) is also studied. (author)

  9. Harmonic mappings into manifolds with boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunmei; Musina, R.

    1989-08-01

    In this paper we deal with harmonic maps from a compact Riemannian manifold into a manifold with boundary. In this case, a weak harmonic map is by definition a solution to a differential inclusion. In the first part of the paper we investigate the general properties of weak harmonic maps, which can be seen as solutions to a system of elliptic differential equations. In the second part we concentrate our attention on the heat flow method for harmonic maps. The result we achieve in this context extends a result by Chen and Struwe. (author). 21 refs

  10. Introduction to classical and quantum harmonic oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Sylvan C

    2013-01-01

    From conch shells to lasers . harmonic oscillators, the timeless scientific phenomenon As intriguing to Galileo as they are to scientists today, harmonic oscillators have provided a simple and compelling paradigm for understanding the complexities that underlie some of nature's and mankind's most fascinating creations. From early string and wind instruments fashioned from bows and seashells to the intense precision of lasers, harmonic oscillators have existed in various forms, as objects of beauty and scientific use. And harmonic oscillation has endured as one of science's most fascinating con

  11. Regulation of Nanorefrigerant Use: A Proactive Measure Against Possible Undesirable Health and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi V. Ogueke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies have shown the very high potentials nanotechnology application has in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry for improving the thermophysical properties of refrigerants and lubricants hence leading to systems with higher COP and much reduced size. The successes achieved with nanorefrigerants are connected to the improved technology for the preparation of nanofluids that has led to achieving more homogeneous and stable mixture of the base fluid and nanoparticle. However, available literatures point to the fact that nanoparticles can find its way into the human cells and as such is a potential health risk for humans and animals. At present, emphasis appears to concentrate more on the technological successes achieved with nanorefrigerants, like improved thermal conductivity, nucleate boiling and boiling heat transfer coefficient without factoring in much the potential health implications of adopting it. This paper therefore looked at the potential health consequences of adopting nanotechnology and called for an early regulatory framework to guard against any unforeseen health issues. Areas of future research were also suggested.

  12. Evidence of the 2s2p(1P) doubly excited state in the harmonic generation spectrum of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J. M.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    By solving the two-active-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation in an intense, ultrashort laser field, we investigate evidence of electron correlations in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum of helium. As the frequency of the driving laser pulse varies from 4.6 to 6.6 eV, the 13th, 11th, and 9th harmonics sequentially become resonant with the transition between the ground state and the isolated 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state of helium, which dramatically enhances these harmonics and changes their profiles. When each of the 9th and 13th harmonics are in resonance with this autoionizing state, there is also a low-order multiphoton resonance with a Rydberg state, resulting in a particularly large enhancement of these harmonics relative to neighboring harmonics. When the 11th harmonic is in resonance with the 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state, the 13th harmonic is simultaneously in resonance with numerous higher-energy autoionizing states, resulting in a competition between these two harmonics for intensity. These results demonstrate that even electron correlations occurring over a narrow energy interval can have a significant effect on strong-field processes such as harmonic generation.

  13. Bispectral analysis of harmonic oscillations measured using beam emission spectroscopy and magnetic probes in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Ida, Katsumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Minami, Takashi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Shimizu, Akihiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Kado, Shinichiro

    2008-01-01

    The coherent MHD oscillation, which consists of the fundamental frequency of several kilohertz and its higher harmonics, (harmonic oscillation: HO) has been observed in Compact Helical System. HO consists of two pairs of harmonic series. One is located in the core region near the ι=0.5 rational surface (denoted as 'HO (core)'), the other is located in the edge region near the ι=1.0 rational surface (denoted as 'HO (edge)'). In the present study, bispectral analysis is applied to the fluctuation data, for which HO is measured by beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and using magnetic probes. The analysis has revealed that fundamental mode of HO in both the magnetic and core density fluctuations have phase correlation with the harmonics including fundamental oscillation, while HO in edge density fluctuation does not have such phase correlation. Mode numbers of HOs are identical for harmonic components having different frequencies, i.e., m/n=-2/1 for HO (core) and m/n=-1/1 for HO (edge). It suggests that the generation of harmonics cannot be interpreted simply as mode coupling because the summation rule for the wavenumber is not satisfied, even though the bicoherence value is significant. The bicoherence value and relative amplitude of higher harmonics correlate with each other, which suggests that bicoherence indicates the degree of distortion of the signals. (author)

  14. Acoustic reciprocity: An extension to spherical harmonics domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Prasanga; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Kellermann, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic reciprocity is a fundamental property of acoustic wavefields that is commonly used to simplify the measurement process of many practical applications. Traditionally, the reciprocity theorem is defined between a monopole point source and a point receiver. Intuitively, it must apply to more complex transducers than monopoles. In this paper, the authors formulate the acoustic reciprocity theory in the spherical harmonics domain for directional sources and directional receivers with higher order directivity patterns.

  15. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  16. The Technology of Suppressing Harmonics with Complex Neural Network is Applied to Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhan-Ying; Wang, Yan-ping; Li, Yang; Zong, Ke-yong

    2018-03-01

    According to the traits of harmonics in microgrid, a new CANN controller which combines BP and RBF neural network is proposed to control APF to detect and suppress harmonics. This controller has the function of current prediction. By simulation in Matlab / Simulink, this design can shorten the delay time nearly 0.02s (a power supply current cycle) in comparison with the traditional controller based on ip-iq method. The new controller also has higher compensation accuracy and better dynamic tracking traits, it can greatly suppress the harmonics and improve the power quality.

  17. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  18. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C.R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.; Salonika Univ., Greece)

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts. 31 references

  19. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Hyperspherical Harmonics and Their Physical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales

    Hyperspherical harmonics are extremely useful in nuclear physics and reactive scattering theory. However, their use has been confined to specialists with very strong backgrounds in mathematics. This book aims to change the theory of hyperspherical harmonics from an esoteric field, mastered....... The book is accompanied by programs and exercises designed for teaching and practical use....

  1. determination of determination of total harmonic distortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from previous studies on power flow and harmonic analyses of each time of the 33kV feeder restoration. .... (magnitude and phase) are usually compared with standards ... In USA, IEEE applies whereas in Europe, a different .... The source data were obtained from the real life ... tables 1 to 4 are extracted from the harmonic.

  2. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  3. The Harmonic Series Diverges Again and Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifowit, Steven J.; Stamps, Terra A.

    2006-01-01

    The harmonic series is one of the most celebrated infinite series of mathematics. A quick glance at a variety of modern calculus textbooks reveals that there are two very popular proofs of the divergence of the harmonic series. In this article, the authors survey these popular proofs along with many other proofs that are equally simple and…

  4. Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting ...

  5. Harmonic Manifolds with Minimal Horospheres are Flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting theorem.

  6. Variational problems with obstacles and harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musina, R.

    1990-08-01

    Our first purpose is to find a generalization of the usual definition of a harmonic map between two Riemannian manifolds in order to consider less regular target spaces. Our second aim was to extend a result by Chen and Struwe about the heat flow of harmonic mappings into manifolds with boundary. 19 refs

  7. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  8. Two examples of escaping harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira do Valle, A.; Verjovsky, A.

    1988-12-01

    This paper is part of a study on the existence of special harmonic maps on complete non-compact Riemannian manifolds. We generalize the notion of escaping geodesic and prove some results on the existence of escaping harmonic maps. 11 refs, 6 figs

  9. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  10. Harmonic mitigation in islanded microgrids by inverter-interfaced distributed energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiongfei Wang

    2012-10-15

    presented to confirm the performance of the VHI method for the autonomous sharing of harmonic currents and the effective resonance damping at the Point of Connection (PoC) of DER inverters. Following the research on the autonomous control methods of DER inverters for the harmonic current filtering and resonance damping, the investigations move forward to the harmonic voltage compensation at the microgrid system-level. The shunt-connected capacitors may result in a mismatch between the characteristic impedances of the distribution feeders and the synthesized harmonic resistances in DER inverters. Consequently, a so-called 'whack-a-mole' effect arises which magnifies harmonic voltages at the certain buses even though the harmonic voltages at the PoC of DER inverters have been reduced. Hence, in order to mitigate such undesired harmonic voltage distortion in islanded microgrids, a centralized harmonic voltage compensator is proposed and realized in the secondary control system. Moreover, to overcome the bandwidth limits of communication channels, a Park transformation aided signal processing technique is developed, so that harmonic frequency signals can be demodulated as DC signals by Park transformations in the centralized compensator, and be modulated back to harmonic signals in the primary control systems of DER inverters. Simulation case studies and experimental results have shown that the proposed secondary harmonic voltage compensation schemes perform well with tens of milliseconds communication delay. (Author)

  11. Negative symbolic aspects in destination branding: exploring the role of the 'undesired self' on web-based vacation information search intentions among potential first-time visitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bosnjak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tourist destination choices depend, among other factors, on the match between the destination’s personality image and consumers’ self-concept, in line with self-image congruence theory. Motives also mediate this relationship, yet tourism research largely neglects the influence of avoidance motives. This study applies the product-based construct of undesired congruity, or consumers’ tendency to avoid undesired stereotypical images, to the context of web-based vacation destination information s...

  12. Understanding fifth-harmonic generation in CLBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S.; Yang, S. T.; Moody, J. D.; Bayramian, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Barker, D.; Datte, P.; Mennerat, G.; Norton, M.; Carr, C. W.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Ross, J. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report on results of fifth harmonic generation in Cesium Lithium Borate (CLBO) using a three-crystal cascaded frequency conversion scheme designed to study the energy balance of the final sum frequency generation stage. The experimental setup independently combines the first and fourth harmonic of a Nd:Glass laser in a 5mm thick CLBO crystal. Energy balance between the incoming and output energy is close to unity when the CLBO is out of phase matching and approximately 80% when the crystal is in phase matching. A detailed analysis of the residual fundamental and fourth harmonic energy indicates 5th harmonic light is being generated but only 26% is unaccounted for. We attribute the missing light to linear transmission loss in the CLBO oven. The ratio of the output to input energy is unity when the missing 5th harmonic is incorporated into the calculations. Two-dimensional plane wave mixing simulations show agreement with the results at lower intensities.

  13. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  14. Intense harmonic generation from various ablation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Elouga, L.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.; Ganeev, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which can produce soft x-rays within the spectral 'water-window' (between 2.3 and 4.4 nm), and ultimately short pulses with attosecond duration. However, the intensity of present-day harmonics is still low, and serious applications will need an increase of the conversion efficiency. Instead of using gas media, one can also use ablation material, produced on solid targets using a low-intensity prepulse, as the nonlinear medium to generate high-order harmonics. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated the generation of up to the 63 rd harmonic (λ = 12.6 nm) of a Ti:sapphire laser radiation using boron ablation, and a strong enhancement in the intensity of the 13 th harmonic from indium ablation. These harmonics were generated with a modest laser (10 mJ, 150 fs) and with the pre-pulse to main pulse energy ratio constant. In this paper, we perform systematic investigations of ablation harmonics, using the 200 mJ, 30 fs Ti:sapphire beam line of the Canadian Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS) facility. ALLS allows studying ablation harmonics over wider experimental parameters, and with independent control over the pre-pulse and main pulse energies. The 10 Hz, 200 mJ Ti:sapphire beam line of ALLS is divided into two beams. Each beam has its own energy control system, which allows independent control over the energy of each beam. One of the beams is used as a pre-pulse for creating ablation, which is focused onto the solid target without pulse compression, with pulse duration of 200 ps. The second beam is used as the main pulse for harmonic generation. The main pulse is delayed in time relative to the pre-pulse by propagating through an optical delay line, and then sent through a pulse compressor. The compressed pulse duration have typical pulse duration of 30 fs FWHM, which is then focused onto the ablation medium using MgF 2

  15. Computer model for harmonic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zagzebski, J A

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic ultrasound imaging has received great attention from ultrasound scanner manufacturers and researchers. In this paper, we present a computer model that can generate realistic harmonic images. In this model, the incident ultrasound is modeled after the "KZK" equation, and the echo signal is modeled using linear propagation theory because the echo signal is much weaker than the incident pulse. Both time domain and frequency domain numerical solutions to the "KZK" equation were studied. Realistic harmonic images of spherical lesion phantoms were generated for scans by a circular transducer. This model can be a very useful tool for studying the harmonic buildup and dissipation processes in a nonlinear medium, and it can be used to investigate a wide variety of topics related to B-mode harmonic imaging.

  16. Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.

  17. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~1013-1014 W/cm2) is focused into a dense (~1017 particles/cm3) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  18. Diamagnetic composite material structure for reducing undesired electromagnetic interference and eddy currents in dielectric wall accelerators and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Poole, Brian R.; Hawkins, Steven A.

    2015-06-30

    The devices, systems and techniques disclosed here can be used to reduce undesired effects by magnetic field induced eddy currents based on a diamagnetic composite material structure including diamagnetic composite sheets that are separated from one another to provide a high impedance composite material structure. In some implementations, each diamagnetic composite sheet includes patterned conductor layers are separated by a dielectric material and each patterned conductor layer includes voids and conductor areas. The voids in the patterned conductor layers of each diamagnetic composite sheet are arranged to be displaced in position from one patterned conductor layer to an adjacent patterned conductor layer while conductor areas of the patterned conductor layers collectively form a contiguous conductor structure in each diamagnetic composite sheet to prevent penetration by a magnetic field.

  19. Nanofluids and chemical highly retentive hydrogels for controlled and selective removal of overpaintings and undesired graffiti from street art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Michele; Baglioni, Piero

    2017-06-01

    One of the main problems connected to the conservation of street art is the selective removal of overlying undesired graffiti, i.e., drawings and tags. Unfortunately, selective and controlled removal of graffiti and overpaintings from street art is almost unachievable using traditional methodologies. Recently, the use of nanofluids confined in highly retentive pHEMA/PVP semi-interpenetrated polymer networks was proposed. Here, we report on the selective removal of acrylic overpaintings from a layer of acrylic paint on mortar mockups in laboratory tests. The results of the cleaning tests were characterized by visual and photographic observation, optical microscopy, and FT-IR microreflectance investigation. It was shown that this methodology represents a major advancement with respect to the use of nonconfined neat solvents.

  20. Rapid detection of undesired cosmetic ingredients by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; An, Dongli; Chen, Tengteng; Lin, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, cosmetic industry profits soared due to the widespread use of cosmetics, which resulted in illicit manufacturers and products of poor quality. Therefore, the rapid and accurate detection of the composition of cosmetics has become crucial. At present, numerous methods, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were available for the analysis of cosmetic ingredients. However, these methods present several limitations, such as failure to perform comprehensive and rapid analysis of the samples. Compared with other techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry offered the advantages of wide detection range, fast speed and high accuracy. In this article, we briefly summarized how to select a suitable matrix and adjust the appropriate laser energy. We also discussed the rapid identification of undesired ingredients, focusing on antibiotics and hormones in cosmetics.

  1. Harmonic emission due to the nonlinear coupling of a Gaussian laser and a plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, R; Jain, R K [Department of Mathematics, SSL Jain College, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India); Parashar, J [Department of Physics, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, MP, 464001 (India)

    2010-04-15

    A high-power Gaussian laser propagating through a plasma couples with a large-amplitude plasma wave and undergoes scattering to produce harmonics. The process is sensitive to the phase matching angle between the laser and plasma wave numbers and the plasma wave frequency. For larger harmonics, the phase matching angle is high. The efficiency of the process is comparatively high at higher plasma wave frequencies.

  2. Cumulative Second Harmonic Generation in Lamb Waves for the Detection of Material Nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermes, Christian; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of the generation of higher harmonics in Lamb waves is of critical importance for applications such as remaining life prediction of plate-like structural components. The objective of this work is to use nonlinear Lamb waves to experimentally investigate inherent material nonlinearities in aluminum plates. These nonlinearities, e.g. lattice anharmonicities, precipitates or vacancies, cause higher harmonics to form in propagating Lamb waves. The amplitudes of the higher harmonics increase with increasing propagation distance due to the accumulation of nonlinearity while the Lamb wave travels along its path. Special focus is laid on the second harmonic, and a relative nonlinearity parameter is defined as a function of the fundamental and second harmonic amplitude. The experimental setup uses an ultrasonic transducer and a wedge for the Lamb wave generation, and laser interferometry for detection. The experimentally measured Lamb wave signals are processed with a short-time Fourier transformation (STFT), which yields the amplitudes at different frequencies as functions of time, allowing the observation of the nonlinear behavior of the material. The increase of the relative nonlinearity parameter with propagation distance as an indicator of cumulative second harmonic generation is shown in the results for the alloy aluminum 1100-H14

  3. Structural relations of harmonic sums and Mellin transforms up to weight w=5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2009-01-15

    We derive the structural relations between the Mellin transforms of weighted Nielsen integrals emerging in the calculation of massless or massive single-scale quantities in QED and QCD, such as anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients, and other hard scattering cross sections depending on a single scale. The set of all multiple harmonic sums up to weight five cover the sums needed in the calculation of the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. The relations extend the set resulting from the quasi-shuffle product between harmonic sums studied earlier. Unlike the shuffle relations, they depend on the value of the quantities considered. Up to weight w=5, 242 nested harmonic sums contribute. In the present physical applications it is sufficient to consider the sub-set of harmonic sums not containing an index i=-1, which consists out of 69 sums. The algebraic relations reduce this set to 30 sums. Due to the structural relations a final reduction of the number of harmonic sums to 15 basic functions is obtained. These functions can be represented in terms of factorial series, supplemented by harmonic sums which are algebraically reducible. Complete analytic representations are given for these 15 meromorphic functions in the complex plane deriving their asymptotic- and recursion relations. A general outline is presented on the way nested harmonic sums and multiple zeta values emerge in higher order calculations of zero- and single scale quantities. (orig.)

  4. Accurate calculation of high harmonics generated by relativistic Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The recent emergence of the field of ultraintense laser pulses, corresponding to beam intensities higher than 10 18 W cm -2 , brings about the problem of the high harmonic generation (HHG) by the relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. Starting from the equations of the relativistic motion of the electron in the electromagnetic field, we give an exact solution of this problem. Taking into account the Lienard-Wiechert equations, we obtain a periodic scattered electromagnetic field. Without loss of generality, the solution is strongly simplified by observing that the electromagnetic field is always normal to the direction electron-detector. The Fourier series expansion of this field leads to accurate expressions of the high harmonics generated by the Thomson scattering. Our calculations lead to a discrete HHG spectrum, whose shape and angular distribution are in agreement with the experimental data from the literature. Since no approximations were made, our approach is also valid in the ultrarelativistic regime, corresponding to intensities higher than 10 23 W cm -2 , where it predicts a strong increase of the HHG intensities and of the order of harmonics. In this domain, the nonlinear Thomson scattering could be an efficient source of hard x-rays

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of tissue harmonic imaging (THI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan; Yang, Xinmai; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-04-01

    In THI the probing ultrasonic pulse has enough amplitude that it undergoes nonlinear distortion and energy shifts from the fundamental frequency of the pulse into its higher harmonics. Images generated from the second harmonic (SH) have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Experiments with a single element focused ultrasound transducer were used to compare a line target embedded in a tissue phantom using either fundamental or SH imaging. SH imaging showed an improvement in both the axial resolution (0.70 mm vs 0.92 mm) and the lateral resolution (1.02 mm vs 2.70 mm) of the target. In addition, the contrast-to-tissue ratio of the target was 2 dB higher with SH imaging. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation has been developed to simulate the experimental system. The model is based on a time-domain code for solving the KZK equation and accounts for arbitrary spatial variations in all tissue properties. The code was used to determine the impact of a nearfield layer of fat on the fundamental and second harmonic signals. For a 15 mm thick layer the SH side-lobes remained the same but the fundamental side-lobes increased by 2 dB. [Work supported by the NSF through the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems.

  6. Single-gap multi-harmonic buncher for NSC pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, A.; Ghosh, S.; Barua, P.

    2001-01-01

    A single-gap multi-harmonic buncher, developed in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, has been installed in the pre-acceleration region of NSC Pelletron. This buncher is required for injecting bunched beam into the booster LINAC, presently under construction. A saw-tooth voltage generated across a single gap formed by a closely spaced pair of grids is used for bunching the dc ion beam produced by the Pelletron accelerator. This saw-tooth voltage is produced by adding a sine wave with its three higher harmonics in proper phase and amplitude. 28 Si beam has been bunched successfully using this buncher. The best FWHM of the bunched beam was 1.5 ns and the maximum efficiency of bunching was 50%. The bunching voltage had no steering effect on the beam. (author)

  7. High-harmonic relativistic gyrotron as an alternative to FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V L; Kalynov, Yu K; Kolganov, N G; Manuilov, V N; Ofitserov, M M; Samsonov, S V; Volkov, A B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applid Physics

    1997-12-31

    A submillimeter wave gyrotron operating at moderately relativistic electron energies of 200-300 keV is proposed as a simple alternative to FEL. It is shown that high pulsed magnetic fields of 20-30 T and selective excitation of separate modes for resonances up to the 5-7 th harmonics will make it possible to obtain in a single device the coherent radiation with broadband frequency step tuning within the whole submillimeter wavelength range. At large pitch angles the coupling of the electron beam with cavity modes at higher harmonics should be as strong as at the fundamental one. In order to check the theoretical predictions, two gyrotrons were designed: LOG-1 (250 kV, 10 A, 10 ms) with a thermionic emission cathode and LOG-2 (350 kV, 35 A, 20 ns) with an explosive emission cathode. (J.U.). 7 refs.

  8. Evaluation of Harmonics Impact on Digital Relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinan Wannous

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of the impact of harmonic distortion on a digital protection relay. The aim is to verify and determine the reasons of a mal-trip or failure to trip the protection relays; the suggested solution of the harmonic distortion is explained by a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment. The digital relays have been tested under harmonic distortions in order to verify the function of the relays algorithm under abnormal conditions. The comparison between the protection relay algorithm under abnormal conditions and a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment based on injected harmonics of high values is provided. The test is separated into different levels; the first level is based on the harmonic effect of an individual harmonic and mixed harmonics. The test includes the effect of the harmonics in the location of the fault point into distance protection zones. This paper is a new proposal in the signal processing of power quality disturbances using Matlab Simulink and the power quality impact on the measurements of the power system quantities; the test simulates the function of protection in power systems in terms of calculating the current and voltage values of short circuits and their faults. The paper includes several tests: frequency variations and decomposition of voltage waveforms with Fourier transforms (model and commercial relay, the effect of the power factor on the location of fault points, the relation between the tripping time and the total harmonic distortion (THD levels in a commercial relay, and a comparison of the THD capture between the commercial relay and the model.

  9. Double Harmonic Transmission (D.H.T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Ianici

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the construction and functioning of a new type of harmonic drive named double harmonic transmission (D.H.T.. In the second part of this paper is presented the dynamic analysis of the double harmonic transmission, which is based on the results of the experimental researches on the D.H.T. This study of the stress status and the forces distribution is necessary for to determine the durability on the portant elements of the D.H.T.

  10. The Virasoro algebra from harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, E.H.; Zakkari, M.

    1990-08-01

    Using harmonic superspace techniques, we construct a new field realization of the Virasoro algebra. The main conformal objects are U(1) Cartan tensors instead of the U(1) Lorentz ones. The new conformal model, which admits moreover a d=2 (4,0) global supersymmetry is constructed out of the infinitely relaxed HST and FS hypermultiplets. The conformal current T 4+ together with the harmonic superspace OPE rules are given. The Virasoro algebra and the harmonic superspace Schwarzian derivative S 4+ are also derived. (author). 14 refs

  11. Pseudo harmonic morphisms on Riemannian polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprodu, M.A.; Bouziane, T.

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to extend the notion of pseudo harmonic morphism (introduced by Loubeau) to the case when the source manifold is an admissible Riemannian polyhedron. We define these maps to be harmonic in the sense of Eells-Fuglede and pseudo-horizontally weakly conformal in our sense. We characterize them by means of germs of harmonic functions on the source polyhedron, in the sense of Korevaar-Schoen, and germs of holomorphic functions on the Kaehler target manifold. (author)

  12. Performance evaluation of fractional-slot tubular permanent magnet machines with low space harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiabin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the perforamnce of fractional-slot per pole winding configurations for tubular permanent magnet (PM machines that can effectively eliminate the most undesirable space harmonics in a simple and cost-effective manner. The benefits of the proposed machine topology winding configurations are illustrated through comparison with 9-slot, 10-pole tubular PM machine developed for a free piston energy converter under the same specification and volumetric constraints. It has been shown that the proposed machine topology results in more than 7 times reduction in the eddy current loss in the mover magnets and supporting tube, and hence avoids potential problem of excessive mover temperature and risk of demagnetization.

  13. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  14. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M C; Le, Khai Q; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule–silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the 'Internet of Nano-Things'.

  15. Generation of µW level plateau harmonics at high repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädrich, S; Krebs, M; Rothhardt, J; Carstens, H; Demmler, S; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2011-09-26

    The process of high harmonic generation allows for coherent transfer of infrared laser light to the extreme ultraviolet spectral range opening a variety of applications. The low conversion efficiency of this process calls for optimization or higher repetition rate intense ultrashort pulse lasers. Here we present state-of-the-art fiber laser systems for the generation of high harmonics up to 1 MHz repetition rate. We perform measurements of the average power with a calibrated spectrometer and achieved µW harmonics between 45 nm and 61 nm (H23-H17) at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. Additionally, we show the potential for few-cycle pulses at high average power and repetition rate that may enable water-window harmonics at unprecedented repetition rate. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-09-25

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule–silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the \\'Internet of Nano-Things\\'.

  17. Using self-generated harmonics as a diagnostic of high intensity laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K; Watts, I; Tatarakis, M; Gopal, A; Wagner, U; Beg, F N; Clark, E L; Clarke, R J; Dangor, A E; Norreys, P A; Wei, M S; Zepf, M

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses (up to I∼10 20 W cm -2 ) with plasmas can generate very high order harmonics of the laser frequency (up to the 75th order have been observed). Measurements of the properties of these harmonics can provide important insights into the plasma conditions which exist during such interactions. For example, observations of the spectrum of the harmonic emission can provide information of the dynamics of the critical surface as well as information on relativistic non-linear optical effects in the plasma. However, most importantly, observations of the polarization properties of the harmonics can provide a method to measure the ultra-strong magnetic fields (greater than 350 MG) which can be generated during these interactions. It is likely that such techniques can be scaled to provide a significant amount of information from experiments at even higher intensities

  18. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M C; Chen, Pai-Yen; Le, Khai Q

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule–silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the ‘Internet of Nano-Things’. (paper)

  19. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  20. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  1. Harmonic detection of magnetic resonance for sensitivity improvement of optical atomic magnetometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbaran, M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehranchi, M.M., E-mail: teranchi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, S.M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalkhali, S.M.H. [Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Highly sensitive atomic magnetometers use optically detected magnetic resonance of atomic spins to measure extremely weak magnetic field changes. The magnetometer sensitivity is directly proportional to the ratio of intensity to line-shape of the resonance signal. To obtain narrower resonance signal, we implemented harmonic detection of magnetic resonance method in M{sub x} configuration. The nonlinear spin polarization dynamics in detection of the higher harmonics were employed in phenomenological Bloch equations. The measured and simulated harmonic components of the resonance signals in frequency domain yielded significantly narrower line-width accompanying much improved sensitivity. Our results confirm the sensitivity improvement by a factor of two in optical atomic magnetometer via second harmonic signal which can open a new insight in the weak magnetic field measurement system design. - Highlights: • Highly sensitive atomic magnetometers have been used to measure weak magentic filed. • To obtain narrower resonance signal, we impalnted harmonic detection of magnetic resonance. • The nonlinear spin polarization dynamics in detetion of the higher harmonics were imployed.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...... increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. Methods: The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Results: Key stakeholders were identified...... as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step...

  3. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. The present study aimed at quantifying such “internal noise” by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required...... to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...... that could be used to quantify the internal noise and provide strong constraints for physiologically inspired models of pitch perception....

  4. Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in.

  5. Reduction of Harmonics by 18-Pulse Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kocman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of such electrical devices as data processing and electronics devices, adjustable speed drives or uninterruptible power supply can cause problems by generating harmonic currents into the network, from which they are supplied. Effects of these harmonic currents are various, they can get worse the quality of supply voltage in the network or to have negative influences on devices connected to this network. There are various technical solutions for reduction of harmonics. One of them is using of multi-pulse rectifiers, whereas the 18-pulse rectifier in the structure of adjustable speed drive is briefly presented in this paper including some results of its behaviour. The examined experimental measurements confirmed its very good efficiency in the harmonic mitigation.

  6. Transformation of Real Spherical Harmonics under Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Z.; Krukowski, St.; Jalbout, A. F.

    2008-08-01

    The algorithm rotating the real spherical harmonics is presented. The convenient and ready to use formulae for l = 0, 1, 2, 3 are listed. The rotation in R3 space is determined by the rotation axis and the rotation angle; the Euler angles are not used. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. (i) Express the real spherical harmonics as the linear combination of canonical polynomials. (ii) Rotate the canonical polynomials. (iii) Express the rotated canonical polynomials as the linear combination of real spherical harmonics. Since the three step procedure can be treated as a superposition of rotations, the searched rotation matrix for real spherical harmonics is a product of three matrices. The explicit formulae of matrix elements are given for l = 0, 1, 2, 3, what corresponds to s, p, d, f atomic orbitals.

  7. Harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The next is the deformation dipole model (DDM) of Karo and Hardy. [19] and rigid shell ... that the most realistic model for complete harmonic dynamical behaviour of the ..... metals, Ph.D. Thesis (Banaras Hindu University, 1971) Unpublished.

  8. Multisite EPR oximetry from multiple quadrature harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R; Som, S; Johnson, D H; Zweier, J L; Kuppusamy, P; Potter, L C

    2012-01-01

    Multisite continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry using multiple quadrature field modulation harmonics is presented. First, a recently developed digital receiver is used to extract multiple harmonics of field modulated projection data. Second, a forward model is presented that relates the projection data to unknown parameters, including linewidth at each site. Third, a maximum likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is reported using an iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing multiple quadrature harmonics. The data modeling and processing are applicable for parametric lineshapes under nonsaturating conditions. Joint processing of multiple harmonics leads to 2-3-fold acceleration of EPR data acquisition. For demonstration in two spatial dimensions, both simulations and phantom studies on an L-band system are reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stable harmonic maps from complete manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    By choosing distinguished cross-sections in the second variational formula for harmonic maps from manifolds with not too fast volume growth into certain submanifolds in the Euclidean space some Liouville type theorems have been proved in this article. (author)

  10. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  11. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-05-15

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned X-ray FEL facilities. In particular, LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multi-gigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other X-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact X-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the

  12. International Harmonization of Reactor Licensing Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, Dietmar.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of a harmonization policy for reactor licensing regulations on the basis of already considerable experience is to attain greater rationalisation in this field, in the interest of economic policy and healthy competition, and most important, radiation protection and safety of installations. This paper considers the legal instruments for such harmonization and the conditions for their implementation, in particular within the Communities framework. (NEA) [fr

  13. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  14. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-15

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  15. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  16. Laser plasma as a source of intense attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The incredible progress in ultrafast laser technology and Ti:sapphire lasers have lead to many important applications, one of them being high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG is a source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which has opened new frontiers in science by extending nonlinear optics and time-resolved spectroscopy to the XUV region, and pushing ultrafast science to the attosecond domain. Progress in attosecond science has revealed many new phenomena that have not been seen with femtosecond pulses. Clearly, the next frontier is to study nonlinear effects at the attosecond timescale and in the XUV. However, a problem with present-day attosecond pulses is that they are just too weak to induce measurable nonlinearities, which severely limits the application of this source. While HHG from solid targets has shown promise for higher conversion efficiency, there is no experiment so far that demonstrates isolated attosecond pulse generation. The generation of isolated, several 100-as pulses with few-µJ energy will enable us to enter a completely new phase in attoscience. In past works, we have demonstrated that high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma is a highly efficient method to generate coherent XUV pulses. For example, indium plasma has been shown to generate intense 13th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser, with conversion efficiency of 10-4. However, the quasi-monochromatic nature of indium harmonics would make it difficult to generate attosecond pulses. We have also demonstrated that one could increase the harmonic yield by using nanoparticle targets. Specifically, we showed that by using indium oxide nanoparticles or C60 film, we could obtain intense harmonics between wavelengths of 50 to 90 nm. The energy in each of these harmonic orders was measured to be a few µJ, which is sufficient for many applications. However, the problem of using nanoparticle or film targets is the rapid decrease in the harmonic intensity, due to the rapid

  17. Linking high harmonics from gases and solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampa, G; Hammond, T J; Thiré, N; Schmidt, B E; Légaré, F; McDonald, C R; Brabec, T; Corkum, P B

    2015-06-25

    When intense light interacts with an atomic gas, recollision between an ionizing electron and its parent ion creates high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser frequency. This sub-cycle effect generates coherent soft X-rays and attosecond pulses, and provides a means to image molecular orbitals. Recently, high harmonics have been generated from bulk crystals, but what mechanism dominates the emission remains uncertain. To resolve this issue, we adapt measurement methods from gas-phase research to solid zinc oxide driven by mid-infrared laser fields of 0.25 volts per ångström. We find that when we alter the generation process with a second-harmonic beam, the modified harmonic spectrum bears the signature of a generalized recollision between an electron and its associated hole. In addition, we find that solid-state high harmonics are perturbed by fields so weak that they are present in conventional electronic circuits, thus opening a route to integrate electronics with attosecond and high-harmonic technology. Future experiments will permit the band structure of a solid to be tomographically reconstructed.

  18. Difference equations in massive higher order calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.; Schneider, C.

    2007-07-01

    The calculation of massive 2-loop operator matrix elements, required for the higher order Wilson coefficients for heavy flavor production in deeply inelastic scattering, leads to new types of multiple infinite sums over harmonic sums and related functions, which depend on the Mellin parameter N. We report on the solution of these sums through higher order difference equations using the summation package Sigma. (orig.)

  19. Potential conflict between TRIPS and GATT concerning parallel importation of drugs and possible solution to prevent undesirable market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-Fa

    2011-01-01

    From international perspective, parallel importation, especially with respect to drugs, has to do with the exhaustion principle in Article 6 of the TRIPS Agreement and the general exception in Article XX of the GATT 1994. Issues concerning the TRIPS Agreement have been constant topics of discussion. However, parallel importation in relation to the general rules of the GATT 1994 as well as to its exceptions provided in Article XX was not seriously discussed. In the view of the paper, there is a conflict between the provisions in these two agreements. The paper explains such conflict and tries to propose a method of interpretation to resolve the conflict between GATT Article XX and TRIPS Article 6 concerning parallel importation for the purpose of reducing the possible undesirable market segmentation in pharmaceutical sector. The method suggested in the paper is a proper application of good faith principle in the Vienna Convention to interpret GATT Article XX, so that there could be some flexibility for those prohibitions of parallel importation which have positive effect on international trade.

  20. Fighting African Capital Flight: Empirics on Benchmarking Policy Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With earthshaking and heartbreaking trends in African capital flight provided by a new database, this paper complements existing literature by answering some key policy questions on the feasibility of and timeframe for policy harmonization in the battle against the economic scourge. The goal of the paper is to study beta-convergence of capital flight across a set of 37 African countries in the period 1980-2010 and to discuss the policy implications. Three main findings are established. (1 African countries with low capital flight rates are catching-up their counterparts with higher rates, implying the feasibility ofpolicy harmonization towards fighting capital flight. (2 Petroleum-exporting and conflict-affected countries significantly play out in absolute and conditional convergences respectively. (3 Regardless of fundamental characteristics, a genuine timeframe for harmonizing policies is within a horizon of 6 to 13 years. Inother words, full (100% convergence within the specifiedhorizon is an indication that policies and regulations can be enforced without distinction of nationality or locality.

  1. Role of tissue harmonic imaging in characterization of cystic renallesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.; Sandhu, Manavjit S.; Lal, A.; Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Sud, K.; Kohli, Harbir S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the utility of tissue harmonic imaging inevaluating cystic renal lesions and to compare these findings withconventional ultrasound guidance (USG) and CT. Thirty patients, detected withcystic renal lesions on routine USG (over a period of 18 months from July2004 to December 2005) at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education andResearch Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India) were included in this study. Allpatients underwent a conventional gray scale ultrasound study (GSI), followedby tissue harmonic imaging (THI) sonography on the same machine (advancetechnology limited high definition imaging 5000). Computed tomography ofabdomen was carried out within one week of the ultrasound examinations. Allimages were evaluated for size, number and location of lesions. The findingsof THI sonography, conventional USG and CT of abdomen were recorded in theirrespective proformas. The images obtained by GSI, THI and contrast enhancedCT were also evaluated for image, quality, lesion conspicuity and fluid-soliddifferentiation. Tissue harmonic imaging showed better image quality in 27 of34 lesions, improvement in lesion conspicuity was found in 27 of 34 cysticlesions and an improved solid-fluid differentiation in 30 of 34 lesions whencompared to GSI. The THI provided additional information as compared to GSIin 8 patients. The grading of CT scan was significantly higher in overallimage quality (p=0.007) and lesion conspicuity (p=0.004), but wasnon-significant for fluid-solid differentiation (p=0.23). Tissue harmonicimaging provides better image quality, lesion delineation and superiorcharacterization than conventional gray scale sonography. (author)

  2. Phase effects in masking by harmonic complexes: speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroche, Mickael L D; Culling, John F; Chatterjee, Monita

    2013-12-01

    Harmonic complexes that generate highly modulated temporal envelopes on the basilar membrane (BM) mask a tone less effectively than complexes that generate relatively flat temporal envelopes, because the non-linear active gain of the BM selectively amplifies a low-level tone in the dips of a modulated masker envelope. The present study examines a similar effect in speech recognition. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for a voice masked by harmonic complexes with partials in sine phase (SP) or in random phase (RP). The masker's fundamental frequency (F0) was 50, 100 or 200 Hz. SRTs were considerably lower for SP than for RP maskers at 50-Hz F0, but the two converged at 100-Hz F0, while at 200-Hz F0, SRTs were a little higher for SP than RP maskers. The results were similar whether the target voice was male or female and whether the masker's spectral profile was flat or speech-shaped. Although listening in the masker dips has been shown to play a large role for artificial stimuli such as Schroeder-phase complexes at high levels, it contributes weakly to speech recognition in the presence of harmonic maskers with different crest factors at more moderate sound levels (65 dB SPL). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  4. Tissue harmonic imaging in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Mandeep; Sandhu, Manavjit; Sood, Bimal; Lal, Anupam; Suri, Sudha; Bhasin, Deepak

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the role of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) in acute pancreatitis, and to compare its findings with conventional grey-scale sonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan, we evaluated 25 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis on clinical examination and laboratory findings. Conventional grey-scale ultrasound followed by tissue harmonic sonography was done on the same machine followed by a CECT within 12 h of the ultrasound examination. The present study showed that sonograms obtained with THI were of much better quality than those obtained conventionally, especially for the pancreatic tail. The benefits of harmonic imaging were more apparent in obese patients and in others whose body habitus was unfavourable for sonography. In the assessment of pancreatic image quality, grey-scale imaging had an accuracy of 60, 80 and 28% in relation to the head, body and tail, respectively. In comparison, THI had a far higher accuracy of 80, 92 and 60% in relation to the head, body and tail, respectively, with the superiority being most obvious in the pancreatic tail region. There were no cases in which tissue harmonic sonography provided less information than conventional sonography. However, CECT scan remained the best modality in all patients for the evaluation of acute pancreatitis. It showed superior demonstration of all the morphological changes, ranging from minimal pancreatic oedema to extensive fluid collections, necrosis and the haemorrhage that developed in fulminant severe pancreatitis. Our experience thus suggests that THI cannot replace CT scan as the gold standard in the assessment of acute pancreatitis, as it is poor in evaluating the pancreatic tail, cannot clearly distinguish phlegmon from necrosis, and is inferior to CT in the assessment of the complications of acute pancreatitis Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  5. Harmonic response of coupled and uncoupled granular YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, Maria Veronica S; Sarmago, Roland V

    2004-01-01

    The harmonic responses of granular YBCO were obtained via mutual inductance measurements. Two samples, one with and another without intergranular coupling, were investigated in terms of the harmonic components of magnetization at various field amplitudes and frequencies. By comparing the behaviour of the features in the harmonics to that of the peaks in the fundamental response, we explicitly identified which features in the harmonics originate from intragranular harmonic generation and which arise due to a contribution of intergranular coupling. Harmonic responses were obtained despite the absence of vortices and even harmonics were detected in a purely AC magnetic field

  6. Quantitative comparison of tumor vascularity of HCC after intravenous contrast Agent: Conventional versus harmonic power Doppler US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Ah Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1999-01-01

    For the quantitative comparison of the degree of enhancement in nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at conventional and harmonic Power Doppler (PD) ultrasound (US). The average of %PDA of ten nodules gradually increased until 60 seconds after contrast injection and then gradually decreased. The average %PDA on conventional and harmonic PD US at 60 seconds were 34.9% and 19.5%, respectively. The average %PDA were significantly higher on conventional PD US than those on harmonic PD US at all times except at 20 seconds. The ratio of average %pda on conventional PD US to those on harmonic PD US became gradually larger after 120 seconds. Although contrast-enhanced harmonic PD US can be an effective method in evaluating the tumor vascularity of HCC because of less PD artifacts, the duration of effective enhancement was shorter and degree of enhancement is less than that of conventional PD US.

  7. On the conformal equivalence of harmonic maps and exponentially harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Minchun.

    1991-06-01

    Suppose that (M,g) and (N,h) are compact smooth Riemannian manifolds without boundaries. For m = dim M ≥3, and Φ: (M,g) → (N,h) is exponentially harmonic, there exists a smooth metric g-tilde conformally equivalent to g such that Φ: (M,g-tilde) → (N,h) is harmonic. (author). 7 refs

  8. Investigation on the relationship between overpressure and sub-harmonic response from encapsulated microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Xu Di; Fan Ting-Bo; Zhang Dong

    2014-01-01

    Sub-harmonic component generated from microbubbles is proven to be potentially used in noninvasive blood pressure measurement. Both theoretical and experimental studies are performed in the present work to investigate the dependence of the sub-harmonic generation on the overpressure with different excitation pressure amplitudes and pulse lengths. With 4-MHz ultrasound excitation at an applied acoustic pressure amplitude of 0.24 MPa, the measured sub-harmonic amplitude exhibits a decreasing change as overpressure increases; while non-monotonic change is observed for the applied acoustic pressures of 0.36 MPa and 0.48 MPa, and the peak position in the curve of the sub-harmonic response versus the overpressure shifts toward higher overpressure as the excitation pressure amplitude increases. Furthermore, the exciting pulse with long duration could lead to a better sensitivity of the sub-harmonic response to overpressure. The measured results are explained by the numerical simulations based on the Marmottant model. The numerical simulations qualitatively accord with the measured results. This work might provide a preliminary proof for the optimization of the noninvasive blood pressure measurement through using sub-harmonic generation from microbubbles. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Investigation on the relationship between overpressure and sub-harmonic response from encapsulated microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Fan, Ting-Bo; Xu, Di; Zhang, Dong

    2014-10-01

    Sub-harmonic component generated from microbubbles is proven to be potentially used in noninvasive blood pressure measurement. Both theoretical and experimental studies are performed in the present work to investigate the dependence of the sub-harmonic generation on the overpressure with different excitation pressure amplitudes and pulse lengths. With 4-MHz ultrasound excitation at an applied acoustic pressure amplitude of 0.24 MPa, the measured sub-harmonic amplitude exhibits a decreasing change as overpressure increases; while non-monotonic change is observed for the applied acoustic pressures of 0.36 MPa and 0.48 MPa, and the peak position in the curve of the sub-harmonic response versus the overpressure shifts toward higher overpressure as the excitation pressure amplitude increases. Furthermore, the exciting pulse with long duration could lead to a better sensitivity of the sub-harmonic response to overpressure. The measured results are explained by the numerical simulations based on the Marmottant model. The numerical simulations qualitatively accord with the measured results. This work might provide a preliminary proof for the optimization of the noninvasive blood pressure measurement through using sub-harmonic generation from microbubbles.

  10. First operation of a harmonic lasing self-seeded free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Faatz, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Roensch-Schulenburg, J.; Schreiber, S.; Tischer, M.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2016-12-01

    Harmonic lasing is a perspective mode of operation of X-ray FEL user facilities that allows to provide brilliant beams of higher energy photons for user experiments. Another useful application of harmonic lasing is so called Harmonic Lasing Self-Seeded Free Electron Laser (HLSS FEL) that allows to improve spectral brightness of these facilities. In the past, harmonic lasing has been demonstrated in the FEL oscillators in infrared and visible wavelength ranges, but not in high-gain FELs and not at short wavelengths. In this paper we report on the first evidence of the harmonic lasing and the first operation of the HLSS FEL at the soft X-ray FEL user facility FLASH in the wavelength range between 4.5 nm and 15 nm. Spectral brightness was improved in comparison with Self-Amplified Spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL by a factor of six in the exponential gain regime. A better performance of HLSS FEL with respect to SASE FEL in the post-saturation regime with a tapered undulator was observed as well. The first demonstration of harmonic lasing in a high-gain FEL and at short wavelengths paves the way for a variety of applications of this new operation mode in X-ray FELs.

  11. Input Harmonic Analysis on the Slim DC-Link Drive Using Harmonic State Space Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic performance of the slim dc-link adjustable speed drives has shown good performance in some studies but poor in some others. The contradiction indicates that a feasible theoretical analysis is still lacking to characterize the harmonic distortion for the slim dc-link drive. Considerin...... results of the slim dc-link drive, loaded up to 2.0 kW, are presented to validate the theoretical analysis....... variation according to the switching instant, the harmonics at the steady-state condition, as well as the coupling between the multiple harmonic impedances. By using this model, the impaction on the harmonics performance by the film capacitor and the grid inductance is derived. Simulation and experimental...

  12. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    -model, are introduced to analyze these problems. However, it is found that Linear Time Invariant (LTI) base model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomenon because of time varying system operation trajectories, varying output impedance seen by grid connected systems and neglected switching component......An increasing number of power electronics based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate coupled harmonic as well as non-characteristic harmonic with each other. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which is derived from conventional small signal- and average...... during the modeling process. This paper investigates grid connected converter by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) small signal model, which is modeled from Linear Time varying Periodically (LTP) system. Further, a grid connected converter harmonic matrix is investigated to analyze the harmonic...

  13. Generation of second harmonic in off-diagonal magneto-impedance in Co-based amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buznikov, N A; Yoon, S S; Jin, L; Kim, C O; Kim, C G

    2006-01-01

    The off-diagonal magneto-impedance in Co-based amorphous ribbons was measured using a pick-up coil wound around the sample. The ribbons were annealed in air or in vacuum in the presence of a weak magnetic field. The evolution of the first and second harmonics in the pick-up coil voltage as a function of the current amplitude was studied. At low current amplitudes, the first harmonic dominates in the frequency spectrum of the voltage, and at sufficiently high current amplitudes, the amplitude of the second harmonic becomes higher than that of the first harmonic. For air-annealed ribbons, the asymmetric two-peak behaviour of the field dependences of the harmonic amplitudes was observed, which is related to the coupling between the amorphous phase and surface crystalline layers appearing after annealing. For vacuum-annealed samples, the first harmonic has a maximum at zero external field, and the field dependence of the second harmonic exhibits symmetric two-peak behaviour. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of a quasi-static rotational model. It is shown that the appearance of the second harmonic in the pick-up coil voltage is related to the anti-symmetrical distribution of the transverse field induced by the current. The calculated dependences are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data

  14. Regulatory harmonization of the Saskatchewan uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.; Moulding, T.; Alderman, G.

    2006-01-01

    The uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan produces approximately 30% of the world's production of uranium. The industry is regulated by federal and provincial regulators. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the principal federal regulator. The principal Saskatchewan provincial regulators are Saskatchewan Environment for provincial environmental regulations and Saskatchewan Labour for occupational health and safety regulations. In the past, mine and mill operators have requested harmonization in areas such as inspections and reporting requirements from the regulators. On February 14, 2003, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan Labour and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission signed a historical agreement for federal/provincial co-operation called the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of Health, Safety and the Environment at Saskatchewan Uranium Mines and Mills. This initiative responds to a recommendation made by the Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining Developments in Northern Saskatchewan in 1997 and lays the groundwork to co-ordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes. The implementation of the Agreement has been very successful. This paper will address the content of the Agreement including the commitments, the deliverables and the expectations for a harmonized compliance program, harmonized reporting, and the review of harmonized assessment and licensing processes as well as possible referencing of Saskatchewan Environment and Saskatchewan Labour regulations in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The management and implementation process will also be discussed including the schedule, stakeholder communication, the results to date and the lessons learned. (author)

  15. Spectra of electron pair under harmonic and Debye potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munjal, D. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi (India); Prasad, V. [Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi (India)

    2017-02-15

    Two electron systems confined by harmonic potential is known as harmonium. Such a system has been studied for many reasons in the literature. In this work we study harmonium under Debye potential. We use higher order finite difference method for the solution of Schrodinger equation. Complete energy spectrum of harmonium and harmonium under Debye potential is studied. Debye screening length shows considerable effect on the energy levels and the radial matrix elements. The results are analysed in the light of existing results and the comparison with available results shows remarkable agreement. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Harmonic and complex analysis in several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2017-01-01

    Authored by a ranking authority in harmonic analysis of several complex variables, this book embodies a state-of-the-art entrée at the intersection of two important fields of research: complex analysis and harmonic analysis. Written with the graduate student in mind, it is assumed that the reader has familiarity with the basics of complex analysis of one and several complex variables as well as with real and functional analysis. The monograph is largely self-contained and develops the harmonic analysis of several complex variables from the first principles. The text includes copious examples, explanations, an exhaustive bibliography for further reading, and figures that illustrate the geometric nature of the subject. Each chapter ends with an exercise set. Additionally, each chapter begins with a prologue, introducing the reader to the subject matter that follows; capsules presented in each section give perspective and a spirited launch to the segment; preludes help put ideas into context. Mathematicians and...

  17. Harmonic analysis from Fourier to wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last 200 years, harmonic analysis has been one of the most influential bodies of mathematical ideas, having been exceptionally significant both in its theoretical implications and in its enormous range of applicability throughout mathematics, science, and engineering. In this book, the authors convey the remarkable beauty and applicability of the ideas that have grown from Fourier theory. They present for an advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate student audience the basics of harmonic analysis, from Fourier's study of the heat equation, and the decomposition of functions into sums of cosines and sines (frequency analysis), to dyadic harmonic analysis, and the decomposition of functions into a Haar basis (time localization). While concentrating on the Fourier and Haar cases, the book touches on aspects of the world that lies between these two different ways of decomposing functions: time-frequency analysis (wavelets). Both finite and continuous perspectives are presented, allowing for the introd...

  18. RESEARCH ON THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Danescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the need of harmonization of the financial reporting frameworks has become more acute, mostly because the capital markets are not restricted anymore by country borders and capital movement has outlined the phenomenon of globalization and internationalism. A significant step in harmonizing the financial reporting was done in the process of normalization through different sets of rules and principles, recognized and applied in many states are the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. The process of international recognition of these standards continues along with conceptual development which is based on epistemological research on specific markets, industries, economies open to international capital flows. In this context it becomes of interest to identify and understand generally accepted and applied accounting elements which carry forward the accounting harmonization process along with factors and circumstances that create diversity in nationally applied financial reporting frameworks.

  19. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  20. Faddeev wave function decomposition using bipolar harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Tomusiak, E.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The standard partial wave (channel) representation for the Faddeev solution to the Schroedinger equation for the ground state of 3 nucleons is written in terms of functions which couple the interacting pair and spectator angular momenta to give S, P, and D waves. For each such coupling there are three terms, one for each of the three cyclic permutations of the nucleon coordinates. A series of spherical harmonic identities is developed which allows writing the Faddeev solution in terms of a basis set of 5 bipolar harmonics: 1 for S waves; 1 for P waves; and 3 for D waves. The choice of a D-wave basis is largely arbitrary, and specific choices correspond to the decomposition schemes of Derrick and Blatt, Sachs, Gibson and Schiff, and Bolsterli and Jezak. The bipolar harmonic form greatly simplifies applications which utilize the wave function, and we specifically discuss the isoscalar charge (or mass) density and the 3 He Coulomb energy

  1. Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Young Hong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report strong third-harmonic generation in monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to an amorphous silica (glass substrate; the photon energy is in three-photon resonance with the exciton-shifted van Hove singularity at the M point of graphene. The polarization selection rules are derived and experimentally verified. In addition, our polarization- and azimuthal-rotation-dependent third-harmonic-generation measurements reveal in-plane isotropy as well as anisotropy between the in-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear optical responses of graphene. Since the third-harmonic signal exceeds that from bulk glass by more than 2 orders of magnitude, the signal contrast permits background-free scanning of graphene and provides insight into the structural properties of graphene.

  2. Laparoscopic nephrectomy using the harmonic scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M; Albertini, J; Lockhart, J; Albrink, M

    1997-08-01

    Laparoscopic nephrectomy is gaining popularity. Improved instrumentation is making surgery easier with fewer complications. Our first three laparoscopic nephrectomies using the Harmonic Scalpel were performed on two women and one man. The surgical indications were nonfunctioning kidneys (two left, one right) with hypertension in one patient and stone disease in two. The three patients had a mean age of 46.3 years. The average hospital stay was 4 days, the average operative time 3.7 hours, and the average blood loss 160 mL. No complications occurred. Patients resumed oral intake within 8 hours postoperatively. We found the Harmonic Scalpel easy and safe to use. It saved time, was cost effective, and was capable of easily controlling small-vessel bleeding. In conclusion, the Harmonic Scalpel could be used effectively for both dissection and bleeding control without suction or other instrumentation.

  3. Optical High Harmonic Generation in C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoping

    2005-03-01

    C60 et al. Physical Review Letters Physical Review B High harmonic generation (HHG) requires a strong laser field, but in a relatively weak laser field is sufficient. Numerical results presented here show while its low order harmonics result from the laser field, its high order ones are mainly from the multiple excitations. Since high order harmonics directly correlate electronic transitions, the HHG spectrum accurately measures transition energies. Therefore, is not only a promising material for HHG, but may also present an opportunity to develop HHG into an electronic structure probing tool. References: G. P. Zhang, 91, 176801 (2003); G. P. Zhang and T. F. George, 68, 165410 (2003); P. B. Corkum, 71, 1994 (1993); G. P. Zhang and Thomas F. George, 93, 147401 (2004); H. Niikura ,ature 417, 917 (2002); ibid. 421, 826 (2003); Y. Mairesse ,cience 302, 1540 (2003); A. Baltuska ,ature 421, 611 (2003).

  4. Harmonics in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    and nature of various harmonic components. A comprehensive comparison of harmonic voltages and currents based on probability distribution estimation and appropriate statistics calculation (mean, variance, probability density function, etc.) is applied. Such approach gives a better overview and comparison...... and analysis, and ϐinally ending up on modelling and models application. Different aspects of validation in time domain, frequency domain, and by application of statistical methods are mentioned in relation to respective problems. Measurements constitute a core part in industry-oriented research. Due...... that it is of great importance to know the nature of generated harmonics in large offshore wind farms in order to apply the most suitable data processing technique. Time-frequency analysis based on multiresolution wavelet transform is used in order to perform time-frequency domain analysis helpful to distinguish...

  5. Three-Phase Harmonic Analysis Method for Unbalanced Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hao Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unbalanced features of distribution systems, a three-phase harmonic analysis method is essential to accurately analyze the harmonic impact on distribution systems. Moreover, harmonic analysis is the basic tool for harmonic filter design and harmonic resonance mitigation; therefore, the computational performance should also be efficient. An accurate and efficient three-phase harmonic analysis method for unbalanced distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The variations of bus voltages, bus current injections and branch currents affected by harmonic current injections can be analyzed by two relationship matrices developed from the topological characteristics of distribution systems. Some useful formulas are then derived to solve the three-phase harmonic propagation problem. After the harmonic propagation for each harmonic order is calculated, the total harmonic distortion (THD for bus voltages can be calculated accordingly. The proposed method has better computational performance, since the time-consuming full admittance matrix inverse employed by the commonly-used harmonic analysis methods is not necessary in the solution procedure. In addition, the proposed method can provide novel viewpoints in calculating the branch currents and bus voltages under harmonic pollution which are vital for harmonic filter design. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. A comparative analysis of China’s regional energy and emission performance: Which is the better way to deal with undesirable outputs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wei Yiming; Zhang Xian

    2012-01-01

    Measuring and improving the energy performance with considering emission constraints is an important issue for China’s energy conservation, pollutant emissions reduction and environment protection. This study utilizes several data envelopment analysis (DEA) based models to evaluate the total-factor energy and emission performance of China’s 30 regions within a joint production framework of considering desirable and undesirable outputs as well as separated energy and non-energy inputs. DEA window analysis is applied in this study to deal with cross-sectional and time-varying data, so as to measure the performance during the period of 2000–2009. Two treatments for undesirable outputs are combined with DEA models and the associated indicators for simplex energy performance and unified energy and emission performance measurement are proposed and compared. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment of undesirable outputs transformation is more appropriate for China’s regional energy and emission performance evaluation because it has stronger discriminating power and can provide more reasonable evaluation results that characterize China’s regions. The empirical result shows that east China has the highest and the most balanced energy and emission performance. The energy and emission performance of China remained stable during 2000–2003, decreased slightly during 2004–2006, and has continuously increased since 2007. - Highlights: ► We evaluate China’s regional energy and emission performance using DEA based models. ► We compare two undesirable outputs treatments according to the evaluation results. ► To treat undesirable outputs as inputs has weaker discriminating power in evaluation. ► Simplex energy performance, without environmental factors, is a biased evaluation. ► China’s energy and emission performance is approximately stable during study period.

  7. Interbasis expansions for isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2012-03-12

    The exact solutions of the isotropic harmonic oscillator are reviewed in Cartesian, cylindrical polar and spherical coordinates. The problem of interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. The explicit expansion coefficients of the basis for given coordinates in terms of other two coordinates are presented for lower excited states. Such a property is occurred only for those degenerated states for given principal quantum number n. -- Highlights: ► Exact solutions of harmonic oscillator are reviewed in three coordinates. ► Interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. ► This is occurred only for those degenerated states for given quantum number n.

  8. Harmonic Cavity Performance for NSLS-II

    CERN Document Server

    Blednykh, Alexei; Podobedov, Boris; Rose, James; Towne, Nathan A; Wang, Jiunn-Ming

    2005-01-01

    NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-high brightness storage ring that is planned to succeed the present NSLS rings at Brookhaven. Ultra-low emittance bunch combined with a short bunch length results in the Touschek lifetime of only a few hours, which strongly advocates including harmonic RF in the baseline design of NSLS-II. This paper describes the required harmonic RF parameters, trade-offs between the possible choices and the expected system performance, including the implications on lifetime and instabilities.

  9. Quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiott@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Fresneda, R., E-mail: fresneda@gmail.co [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2011-04-11

    We return to the description of the damped harmonic oscillator with an assessment of previous works, in particular the Bateman-Caldirola-Kanai model and a new model proposed by one of the authors. We argue the latter has better high energy behavior and is connected to existing open-systems approaches. - Highlights: We prove the local equivalence of two damped harmonic oscillator models. We find different high energy behaviors between the two models. Based on the local equivalence, we make a simple construction of the coherent states.

  10. Quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldiotti, M.C.; Fresneda, R.; Gitman, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We return to the description of the damped harmonic oscillator with an assessment of previous works, in particular the Bateman-Caldirola-Kanai model and a new model proposed by one of the authors. We argue the latter has better high energy behavior and is connected to existing open-systems approaches. - Highlights: → We prove the local equivalence of two damped harmonic oscillator models. → We find different high energy behaviors between the two models. → Based on the local equivalence, we make a simple construction of the coherent states.

  11. Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varju, K.; Johansson, P; L'Huillier, A.L.; Mairesse, Y.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We have explored in detail the first- and second-order variations of the atomic phase as a function of the laser intensity and harmonic order. This unravels the similitudes and differences existing between the chirp of individual harmonic pulses and the chirp of the attosecond pulses. We show that the two techniques XFROG and RABITT used to characterize the two chirps (respectively) converge to give the same information, namely the values of the mixed partial derivatives of the atomic phase. This underlines the common physical origin of all these phenomena and provides a unified frame for their description and understanding. Ref. 1 (author)

  12. Hyperspherical Harmonics and Their Physical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales

    Hyperspherical harmonics are extremely useful in nuclear physics and reactive scattering theory. However, their use has been confined to specialists with very strong backgrounds in mathematics. This book aims to change the theory of hyperspherical harmonics from an esoteric field, mastered...... by specialists, into an easily-used tool with a place in the working kit of all theoretical physicists, theoretical chemists and mathematicians. The theory presented here is accessible without the knowledge of Lie-groups and representation theory, and can be understood with an ordinary knowledge of calculus...

  13. Harmonic synchronization in resistively coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.A.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Smith, H.J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The oscillations of two resistively coupled Josephson junctions biased only by a single dc current source are shown to lock harmonically in a 1:2 mode over a significant range of bias current, even when the junctions are identical. The dependence of this locking on both junction and coupling parameters is examined, and it is found that, for this particular two-junction configuration, 1:1 locking can never occur, and also that a minimum coupling coefficient is needed to support harmonic locking. Some issues related to subharmonic locking are also discussed

  14. Music of the heavens Kepler's harmonic astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Stephenson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Valued today for its development of the third law of planetary motion, Harmonice mundi (1619) was intended by Kepler to expand on ancient efforts to discern a Creator's plan for the planetary system--an arrangement thought to be based on harmonic relationships. Challenging critics who characterize Kepler's theories of harmonic astronomy as ""mystical,"" Bruce Stephenson offers the first thorough technical analysis of the music the astronomer thought the heavens made, and the logic that led him to find musical patterns in his data. In so doing, Stephenson illuminates crucial aspects of Kepler'

  15. Investigation of an Ultrafast Harmonic Resonant RF Kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yulu [Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China)

    2016-10-01

    square pulse, and get a Flat-Top waveform which will give a uniform kick over the bunch length of the kicked electron bunches, thus the transverse emittance of these kicked electron bunches can be maintained. By using two identical kickers with the betatron phase advance of 180 degree or its odd multiples, the residual kick voltage wave slopes at the unkicked bunch position will be totally cancelled out. Flat-Top waveform combined with two kicker scheme, the transverse emittance of the cooling electron bunches will be conserved during the whole injection, recirculation, and ejection processes. In the cavity design part, firstly, the cavity geometry is optimized to get high transverse shunt impedance thus less than 100 W of RF losses on the cavity wall can be achieved for all these 10 harmonic modes. To support all these 10 harmonic modes, group of four QWRs are adopted with the mode distribution of 5:3:1:1. In the multi-frequency cavities such as the five-mode-cavity and the three-mode-cavity, tunings are required to achieve the design frequencies for each mode. Slight segments of taper design on the inner conductor help to get the frequencies to be exactly on the odd harmonic modes. Stub tuners equal to the number of resonant modes are inserted to the outer conductor wall to compensate the frequency shifts due manufacturing errors and other perturbations during the operation such as the change of the cavity temperature. Single loop couple is designed for all harmonic modes in each cavity. By adjusting its loop size, position and rotation, it is possible to get the fundamental mode critical coupled and other higher harmonic modes slightly over coupled. A broadband circulator will be considered for absorbing the reflected power. Finally in this part, multipole field components due to the asymmetric cylindrical structure around the beam axis of the cavity as well as the beam-induced higher order mode (HOM) issues will be analyzed and discussed in this thesis. A half

  16. Artificial optical emissions at HAARP for pump frequencies near the third and second electron gyro-harmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kosch

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available High-power high-frequency radio waves beamed into the ionosphere cause plasma turbulence, which can accelerate electrons. These electrons collide with the F-layer neutral oxygen causing artificial optical emissions identical to natural aurora. Pumping at electron gyro-harmonic frequencies has special significance as many phenomena change their character. In particular, artificial optical emissions become strongly reduced for the third and higher gyro-harmonics. The High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility is unique in that it can select a frequency near the second gyro-harmonic. On 25 February 2004, HAARP was operated near the third and passed through the second gyro-harmonic for the first time in a weakening ionosphere. Two novel observations are: firstly, a strong enhancement of the artificial optical emission intensity near the second gyro-harmonic, which is opposite to higher gyro-harmonics; secondly, the optical enhancement maximum occurs for frequencies just above the second gyro-harmonic. We provide the first experimental evidence for these effects, which have been predicted theoretically. In addition, irregular optical structures were created when the pump frequency was above the ionospheric critical frequency.

    Keywords. Active experiments – Auroral ionosphere – Wave-particle interactions

  17. Artificial optical emissions at HAARP for pump frequencies near the third and second electron gyro-harmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kosch

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available High-power high-frequency radio waves beamed into the ionosphere cause plasma turbulence, which can accelerate electrons. These electrons collide with the F-layer neutral oxygen causing artificial optical emissions identical to natural aurora. Pumping at electron gyro-harmonic frequencies has special significance as many phenomena change their character. In particular, artificial optical emissions become strongly reduced for the third and higher gyro-harmonics. The High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility is unique in that it can select a frequency near the second gyro-harmonic. On 25 February 2004, HAARP was operated near the third and passed through the second gyro-harmonic for the first time in a weakening ionosphere. Two novel observations are: firstly, a strong enhancement of the artificial optical emission intensity near the second gyro-harmonic, which is opposite to higher gyro-harmonics; secondly, the optical enhancement maximum occurs for frequencies just above the second gyro-harmonic. We provide the first experimental evidence for these effects, which have been predicted theoretically. In addition, irregular optical structures were created when the pump frequency was above the ionospheric critical frequency.Keywords. Active experiments – Auroral ionosphere – Wave-particle interactions

  18. Phase-coded multi-pulse technique for ultrasonic high-order harmonic imaging of biological tissues in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qingyu; Zhang Dong; Gong Xiufen; Ma Yong

    2007-01-01

    Second or higher order harmonic imaging shows significant improvement in image clarity but is degraded by low signal-noise ratio (SNR) compared with fundamental imaging. This paper presents a phase-coded multi-pulse technique to provide the enhancement of SNR for the desired high-order harmonic ultrasonic imaging. In this technique, with N phase-coded pulses excitation, the received Nth harmonic signal is enhanced by 20 log 10 N dB compared with that in the single-pulse mode, whereas the fundamental and other order harmonic components are efficiently suppressed to reduce image confusion. The principle of this technique is theoretically discussed based on the theory of the finite amplitude sound waves, and examined by measurements of the axial and lateral beam profiles as well as the phase shift of the harmonics. In the experimental imaging for two biological tissue specimens, a plane piston source at 2 MHz is used to transmit a sequence of multiple pulses with equidistant phase shift. The second to fifth harmonic images are obtained using this technique with N = 2 to 5, and compared with the images obtained at the fundamental frequency. Results demonstrate that this technique of relying on higher order harmonics seems to provide a better resolution and contrast of ultrasonic images

  19. Theoretical description of high-order harmonic generation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, A F; Moritz, B; Devereaux, T P; Freericks, J K

    2013-01-01

    We consider several aspects of high-order harmonic generation in solids: the effects of elastic and inelastic scattering, varying pulse characteristics and inclusion of material-specific parameters through a realistic band structure. We reproduce many observed characteristics of high harmonic generation experiments in solids including the formation of only odd harmonics in inversion-symmetric materials, and the nonlinear formation of high harmonics with increasing field. We find that the harmonic spectra are fairly robust against elastic and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, we find that the pulse characteristics can play an important role in determining the harmonic spectra. (paper)

  20. Temporal characterization of short-pulse third-harmonic generation in an atomic gas by a transmission-grating Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogiannis, N A; Nersisyan, G; Goulielmakis, E; Rakitzis, T P; Hertz, E; Charalambidis, D; Tsakiris, G D; Witte, K

    2002-09-01

    By use of a transmission-grating-based Michelson interferometer, second-order interferometric as well as intensity autocorrelation traces of the third harmonic of a Ti:sapphire 50-fs laser beam produced in Ar have been measured. The duration of the harmonic is found to be that expected from lowest-order perturbation theory. At this wavelength, the performance of the interferometer with respect to pulse-front distortion and dispersion is found to be satisfactory. This result is a first step toward the use of the interferometer for the temporal characterization of higher harmonics or harmonic superposition forming attosecond pulse trains.

  1. Harmonic analysis on symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Terras, Audrey

    This text explores the geometry and analysis of higher rank analogues of the symmetric spaces introduced in volume one. To illuminate both the parallels and differences of the higher rank theory, the space of positive matrices is treated in a manner mirroring that of the upper-half space in volume one. This concrete example furnishes motivation for the general theory of noncompact symmetric spaces, which is outlined in the final chapter. The book emphasizes motivation and comprehensibility, concrete examples and explicit computations (by pen and paper, and by computer), history, and, above all, applications in mathematics, statistics, physics, and engineering. The second edition includes new sections on Donald St. P. Richards’s central limit theorem for O(n)-invariant random variables on the symmetric space of GL(n, R), on random  matrix theory, and on advances in the theory of automorphic forms on arithmetic groups.

  2. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid-connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    research about the harmonic interaction. However, it is found that the Linear Time Invariant (LTI) based model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomena because of the time-varying properties of the power electronic based systems. This paper investigates grid-connected converter by using......An increasing number of power electronic based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate not only characteristic harmonics but also unexpected harmonics. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which are derived from the conventional average model, are introduced to perform...

  3. Synthesis of Variable Harmonic Impedance in Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Generation Unit for Harmonic Damping Throughout a Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverters in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective harmonic load current feedforward loop...... at the dominant harmonic frequencies. Thus, the harmonic voltage drop on the grid-side inductance and the harmonic resonances throughout a distribution feeder with multiple shunt-connected capacitors can be effectively attenuated. Simulation and laboratory test results validate the performance of the proposed...

  4. Modelling the harmonized tertiary Institutions Salary Structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the Harmonized Tertiary Institution Salary Structure (HATISS IV) used in Nigeria. The irregularities in the structure are highlighted. A model that assumes a polynomial trend for the zero step salary, and exponential trend for the incremental rates, is suggested for the regularization of the structure.

  5. Harmonic pulse testing for well performance monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, Peter A.; Salina Borello, Eloisa; Verga, Francesca; Viberti, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Harmonic testing was developed as a form of well testing that can be applied during ongoing production or injection operations, as a pulsed signal is superimposed on the background pressure trend. Thus no interruption of well and reservoir production is needed before and during the test. If the

  6. Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea's bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Tigga; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2004-06-10

    Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating. Horseshoe bats are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the past 5 million years. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the cochlea and inferior colliculus) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and frequency generated when an insect flutters its wings. The emitted signal is the accentuated second harmonic of a series in which the fundamental and remaining harmonics are filtered out. Here we show that three distinct, sympatric size morphs of the large-eared horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus philippinensis) echolocate at different harmonics of the same fundamental frequency. These morphs have undergone recent genetic divergence, and this process has occurred in parallel more than once. We suggest that switching harmonics creates a discontinuity in the bats' perception of available prey that can initiate disruptive selection. Moreover, because call frequency in horseshoe bats has a dual function in resource acquisition and communication, ecological selection on frequency might lead to assortative mating and ultimately reproductive isolation and speciation, regardless of external barriers to gene flow.

  7. 'quantumness' measures in the decohering harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the behaviour under decoherence of four different measures of the distance between quantum states and classical states for the harmonic oscillator coupled to a linear Markovian bath. Three of these are relative measures, using different definitions of the distance between the given quantum states and the set of ...

  8. Sobolev Spaces Associated to the Harmonic Oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We define the Hermite-Sobolev spaces naturally associated to the harmonic oscillator H = − + | x | 2 . Structural properties, relations with the classical Sobolev spaces, boundedness of operators and almost everywhere convergence of solutions of the Schrödinger equation are also considered.

  9. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use ...

  10. Finite mode analysis through harmonic waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Wolf, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode analysis of signals in a multimodal shallow harmonic waveguide whose eigenfrequencies are equally spaced and finite can be performed by an optoelectronic device, of which the optical part uses the guide to sample the wave field at a number of sensors along its axis and the electronic part

  11. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  12. The Harmonic Oscillator–A Simplified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Ganesan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the early problems in quantum chemistry, the one dimensional harmonic oscillator problem is an important one, providing a valuable exercise in the study of quantum mechanical methods. There are several approaches to this problem, the time honoured infinite series method, the ladder operator method etc. A method which is much shorter, mathematically simpler is presented here.

  13. Laguerre polynomials by a harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Melek; Baykal, Ahmet

    2014-09-01

    The study of an isotropic harmonic oscillator, using the factorization method given in Ohanian's textbook on quantum mechanics, is refined and some collateral extensions of the method related to the ladder operators and the associated Laguerre polynomials are presented. In particular, some analytical properties of the associated Laguerre polynomials are derived using the ladder operators.

  14. Laguerre polynomials by a harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baykal, Melek; Baykal, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The study of an isotropic harmonic oscillator, using the factorization method given in Ohanian's textbook on quantum mechanics, is refined and some collateral extensions of the method related to the ladder operators and the associated Laguerre polynomials are presented. In particular, some analytical properties of the associated Laguerre polynomials are derived using the ladder operators. (paper)

  15. achieving sustainable development through tax harmonization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    policies is a great challenge for governments; tax harmonization can be adopted for ... and the development trajectory of taxing state in diverse ways. For ... revenue is lost development opportunity.3 The existence of high corporate tax rate in a .... 26 This is levied pursuant to the Tertiary Education Trust Fund Tax Act 2011.

  16. Harmonicity in supermanifolds and sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Masque, Jaime; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that given an odd metric G on a supermanifold (M, A) and its associated Laplacian Δ, it is possible to interpret harmonic superfunctions (i.e., those f is an element of A such that Δf = 0) as solutions to a variational problem describing a supersymmetric sigma model.

  17. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 1. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies. Yibin Feng Weidong Wang. Volume 124 Issue 1 February 2014 pp ... Author Affiliations. Yibin Feng1 Weidong Wang1. Department of Mathematics, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China ...

  18. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  19. Rotation harmonics for a numerical diatomic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobeissi, H.; Korek, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the determination of the rotation harmonics phi 1 , phi 2 , ... for the case of a numerical diatomic potential is considered. These harmonics defined in a recent work by psisub(vJ) = psisub(vO) + lambda 2 phi 2 + ... (where psisub(vJ) is the wave function of the vibration level v and the rotation level J, and lambda = J(J+1)) are studied for the case of the Dunham potential and for a numerical potential defined by the coordinates of its turning points with polynomial interpolations and extrapolations. It is proved that the analytical expressions of the harmonics phi 1 , phi 2 , ... reduce to polynomials where the coefficients are simply related to those of the potential in the case of the Dunham potential, and to the coordinates of the turning points in the case of the numerical potential. The numerical application is simple. The examples presented show that the vibration-rotation wave function psisub(vJ) calculated by using two harmonics only is ''exact'' up to eight significant figures

  20. Mapping from rectangular to harmonic representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; Bateman, G.

    1986-08-01

    An algorithm is developed to determine the Fourier harmonics representing the level contours of a scalar function given on a rectangular grid. This method is applied to the problem of computing the flux coordinates and flux surface average needed for 1-1/2-D transport codes and MHD stability codes from an equilibrium flux function given on a rectangular grid

  1. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  2. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.

    2008-09-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, its surface is rapidly ionized and forms a dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 15 W/cm 2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as = 10 18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. Because such a plasma mirror can be used with arbitrarily high laser intensities, this process should eventually lead to the production of very intense pulses in the X-ray domain. In this thesis, we demonstrate that for laser intensities about 10 19 W/cm 2 , two mechanisms can contribute to the generation of high order harmonics: the coherent wake emission and the relativistic emission. These two mechanisms are studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, we show that, thanks to very different properties, the harmonics generated by these two processes can be unambiguously distinguished experimentally. We then investigate the phase properties of the harmonic, in the spectral and in the spatial domain. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the coherence of the generation mechanisms to get information on the dynamics of the plasma electrons. (author)

  3. Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P. [Universita degli Studi, Milano (Italy)

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.

  4. Audibility of harmonics in periodic "white noise"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.

    1973-01-01

    The finding that spectrally suppressed high harmonics (n>16) in a periodic pulse are perceptible has been related [H. Duifhuis, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 48, 888–893 (1970); 49, 1155–1163 (1971)] to the ear's limited resolving power in peripheral frequency analysis. The limited frequency resolution

  5. On computing ellipsoidal harmonics using Jekeli's renormalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bouman, J.; Bosch, W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 9 (2012), s. 713-726 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth's gravitational field * spherical and ellipsoidal harmonics * hypergeometric function Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2012

  6. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  7. Shedding new light on Gaussian harmonic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuwen, J.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists out of two rather disjoint parts. One part concerns some results on Gaussian harmonic analysis and the other on an optimization problem in optics. In the first part we study the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process with respect to the Gaussian measure. We focus on two areas. One is

  8. Initial value formulation of higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The initial value problem is considered for the conformally coupled scalar field and higher derivative gravity, by expressing the equations of each theory in harmonic coordinates. For each theory it is shown that the (vacuum) equations can take the form of a diagonal hyperbolic system with constraints on the initial data. Consequently these theories possess well-posed initial value formulations

  9. Symmetries in physics and harmonics; Symmetrien in Physik und Harmonik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, D.

    2006-07-01

    In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)

  10. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented. (paper)

  11. Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonic Emission of Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new probabilistic method of as-sessment of harmonic emission of large offshore wind farms is presented. Based on measurements from the British wind farm Burbo Banks, probability density functions are estimated for the dominating low order harmonic currents injected by a single...... turbine. The degree and type of dependence between the harmonic emission and the operating point of a single turbine is established. A model of Burbo Banks, suitable for harmonic load flow studies, is created in DIgSILENT Power Factory along with a DPL-script that deals with the probabilistic issues...... of the harmonic emission. The simulated harmonic distortion at the PCC is compared to measurement. This reveals some diffi-culties regarding harmonic load flow studies. The harmonic background distortion in the grid to where the wind farm is connected must be included in the study. Furthermore, a very detailed...

  12. Hail, Procrustes! Harmonized accounting standards as a Procrustean bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stecher, J.; Suijs, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article finds that the use of a harmonized accounting standard, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards, increases the information available to markets only if institutional differences across countries using the harmonized standard are insignificant. In all other cases,

  13. Harmonic Damping in DG-Penetrated Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Grid background harmonics may be amplified, propagate through a long distribution feeder and even lead to power system instability. In this paper, harmonic propagation issue is investigated and mitigation of the harmonics is analyzed by using transmission line theory which has already been applied...... in power systems. It is demonstrated that a specific harmonic will not be amplified if the feeder’s length is less than one quarter of the harmonic wavelength meanwhile the terminal impedance is less than characteristic impedance. Besides, three scenarios will be considered in accordance...... with the relationship between the feeder’s length and harmonic wavelength. Harmonic suppression control strategies will be respectively designed considering 5th and 7th harmonics coexisting in the distribution line. Finally, a simulation study has been performed to verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate...

  14. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  15. Multicascade X-Ray Free-Electron Laser with Harmonic Multiplier and Two-Frequency Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K. V.

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of generation of powerful x-ray radiation by a cascade free-electron laser (FEL) with amplification of higher harmonics using a two-frequency undulator is studied. To analyze the FEL operation, a complex phenomenological single-pass FEL model is developed and used. It describes linear and nonlinear generation of harmonics in the FEL with seed laser that takes into account initial electron beam noise and describes all main losses of each harmonic in each FEL cascade. The model is also calibrated against and approved by the experimental FEL data and available results of three-dimensional numerical simulation. The electron beam in the undulator is assumed to be matched and focused, and the dynamics of power in the singlepass FEL with cascade harmonic multipliers is investigated to obtain x-ray laser radiation in the FEL having the shortest length, beam energy, and frequency of the seed laser as low as possible. In this context, the advantages of the two-frequency undulator used for generation of harmonics are demonstrated. The evolution of harmonics in a multicascade FEL with multiplication of harmonics is investigated. The operation of the cascade FEL at the wavelength λ = 1.14 nm, generating 30 MW already on 38 m with the seed laser operating at a wavelength of 11.43 nm corresponding to the maximal reflectivity of the multilayered mirror MoRu/Be coating is investigated. In addition, the operation of the multicascade FEL with accessible seed UVlaser operating at a wavelength of 157 nm (F2 excimer UV-laser) and electron beam with energy of 0.5 GeV is investigated. X-ray radiation simulated in it at the wavelength λ 3.9 nm reaches power of 50 MW already at 27 m, which is by two orders of magnitude shorter than 3.4 km of the x-ray FEL recently put into operation in Europe.

  16. Harmonic scalpel versus electrocautery in breast reduction surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Todd E; Kerrigan, Carolyn L; Homa, Karen; Homa, Karen A

    2011-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the Harmonic Scalpel (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio) might outperform electrocautery in bilateral breast reduction surgery, possibly resulting in (1) shorter operative times, (2) lower postoperative fluid drainage rates, and (3) reduced postoperative pain scores. Thirty-one patients were evaluated in a matched-pair design, with random (blinded) assignment of one side to the Harmonic Scalpel, with the other side defaulting to electrocautery. Main outcome measures were: (1) resection/hemostasis time, (2) drainage volume, and (3) postoperative pain. The authors also compared the learning curves, operative time versus specimen weights, complications, and costs for the devices. There was a statistically significant (but not clinically significant) difference between the median times for the Harmonic Scalpel (33 minutes) and electrocautery (31 minutes) (p=0.02). There was no statistical difference in drainage scores, and pain scores were equivalent. The analysis of specimen weight versus resection/hemostasis time showed no correlation. There were more complications on the breasts reduced with the Harmonic device, but due to the small sample size, the complication results were not statistically significant. Start-up costs for the devices were comparable, but the per-procedure cost for the Harmonic device was considerably higher. The Harmonic Scalpel is roughly equivalent to electrocautery in breast reduction surgery in terms of resection/hemostasis time, serous drainage, and postoperative pain. Though the Harmonic device may be excellent for other surgical procedures, its high cost suggests that surgeons and institutions can confidently forgo its use in breast reduction surgery. Therapeutic, II.

  17. Calibrating the sensing-coil radius by feed-down from a harmonic reference

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Koster, Oliver; Russenschuck, Stephan; Severino, Giordana

    2015-01-01

    a harmonic field error of higher order is present in the calibration magnet. This also yields a calibration whena sextupole magnet is used, for example, when an insitu calibration is required. The proposed calibration method has been validated by simulations with the

  18. RHIC susceptibility to variations in systematic magnetic harmonic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, G.F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Wei, J.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the sensitivity of tune to uncertainties of the systematic magnetic harmonic errors in the 8 cm dipoles of RHIC are reported. Tolerances specified to the manufacturer for tooling and fabrication can result in systematic harmonics different from the expected values. Limits on the range of systematic harmonics have been established from magnet calculations, and the impact on tune from such harmonics has been established

  19. Three-dimensional harmonic control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms for neutron flux control based on harmonic three-dimensional core are considered. The essence of the considered approach includes determination of harmonics amplitudes by signals self-powered detectors placed in reactor channels and reconstruction of neutron field distribution over the reactor core volume using the data obtained. Neutron field harmonic control is shown to be reduced to independent measurement and calculation of height harmonics in channels using techniques developed for channel power control

  20. Calculation of static harmonics of a nuclear reactor using CITATION code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchior Junior, A.; Moreira, J.M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The CITATION code, which solves the multigroup diffusion equation by the finite difference method, calculates the fundamental λ-mode (harmonic) for nuclear reactors. In this work, two fission source correction methods are attempted to obtain higher λ-modes through the CITATION code. The two methods are compared, their advantages and disadvantages analysed and verified against analytical solutions. Two dimensional harmonic modes are calculated for the IEA-R1 research reactor and for the ANGRA-I power reactor. The results are shown in graphics and tables. (author) [pt

  1. Harmonic Calculation Software for Industrial Applications with Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, S.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a new harmonic software. By using a combination of a pre-stored database and new interpolation techniques the software can very fast provide the harmonic data on real applications. The harmonic results obtained with this software have acceptable precision even...

  2. Harmonic calculation software for industrial applications with ASDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, Steffan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of new harmonic calculation software. By using a combination of a prestored database and new interpolation techniques the software can provide the harmonic data on real applications of a very fast speed. The harmonic results obtained with this software have a...

  3. On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...

  4. A Look at Damped Harmonic Oscillators through the Phase Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshbod, Yousef; Latulippe, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Damped harmonic oscillations appear naturally in many applications involving mechanical and electrical systems as well as in biological systems. Most students are introduced to harmonic motion in an elementary ordinary differential equation (ODE) course. Solutions to ODEs that describe simple harmonic motion are usually found by investigating the…

  5. Harmonic Function of Poincare Cone Condition In Solving Dirichlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmonic Function of Poincare Cone Condition In Solving Dirichlet Problem. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... theorem, the dirichlet problem and maximum principle where we conclude that the application of sums , differences and scalar multiples of harmonic functions are again harmonic.

  6. HARMONICS SURFACES OF GRAPHIC TYPE IN R3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carrión Riveros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research we study harmonic surfaces immersed in R3. We dened Harmonic surfaces of graphic type and showed that a harmonious surface graphic type is minimal if and only if it is part of a plane or a helix. Also, we give a characterization of harmonic surfaces graphic type parameterized by asymptotic lines and some examples.

  7. Pitch identification and discrimination for complex tones with many harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.; Smurzyński, J.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing up to 11 successive harmonics. In particular, the question is raised whether the pitch percept of the missing fundamental is mediated only by low-order resolvable harmonics, or whether it can also be

  8. Twenty-Four Tuba Harmonics Using a Single Pipe Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 "YouTube: Tuba Harmonics" (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the…

  9. Audibility of high harmonics in a periodic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.

    1970-01-01

    A periodic pulse consisting of sufficiently narrow pulses has a frequency spectrum which contains all harmonics with equal amplitude. Owing to the limited resolving power of the hearing organ, only the low harmonics can be perceived separately. The high harmonics are heard together as one complex

  10. Computational science and re-discovery: open-source implementation of ellipsoidal harmonics for problems in potential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    We present two open-source (BSD) implementations of ellipsoidal harmonic expansions for solving problems of potential theory using separation of variables. Ellipsoidal harmonics are used surprisingly infrequently, considering their substantial value for problems ranging in scale from molecules to the entire solar system. In this paper, we suggest two possible reasons for the paucity relative to spherical harmonics. The first is essentially historical—ellipsoidal harmonics developed during the late 19th century and early 20th, when it was found that only the lowest-order harmonics are expressible in closed form. Each higher-order term requires the solution of an eigenvalue problem, and tedious manual computation seems to have discouraged applications and theoretical studies. The second explanation is practical: even with modern computers and accurate eigenvalue algorithms, expansions in ellipsoidal harmonics are significantly more challenging to compute than those in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. The present implementations reduce the 'barrier to entry' by providing an easy and free way for the community to begin using ellipsoidal harmonics in actual research. We demonstrate our implementation using the specific and physiologically crucial problem of how charged proteins interact with their environment, and ask: what other analytical tools await re-discovery in an era of inexpensive computation?

  11. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  12. High-order harmonic generation from a two-dimensional band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Zhao; Xiao, Xiang-Ru; Liang, Hao; Wang, Mu-Xue; Chen, Si-Ge; Gong, Qihuang; Peng, Liang-You

    2018-04-01

    In the past few years, harmonic generation in solids has attracted tremendous attention. Recently, some experiments of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer or few-layer materials have been carried out. These studies demonstrated that harmonic generation in the 2D case shows a strong dependence on the laser's orientation and ellipticity, which calls for a quantitative theoretical interpretation. In this work, we carry out a systematic study on the harmonic generation from a 2D band structure based on a numerical solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. By comparing with the 1D case, we find that the generation dynamics can have a significant difference due to the existence of many crossing points in the 2D band structure. In particular, the higher conduction bands can be excited step by step via these crossing points and the total contribution of the harmonic is given by the mixing of transitions between different clusters of conduction bands to the valence band. We also present the orientation dependence of the harmonic yield on the laser polarization direction.

  13. An Enhanced GINGER Simulation Code with Harmonic Emission and HDF5 IO Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William M.

    2006-01-01

    GINGER [1] is an axisymmetric, polychromatic (r-z-t) FEL simulation code originally developed in the mid-1980's to model the performance of single-pass amplifiers. Over the past 15 years GINGER's capabilities have been extended to include more complicated configurations such as undulators with drift spaces, dispersive sections, and vacuum chamber wakefield effects; multi-pass oscillators; and multi-stage harmonic cascades. Its coding base has been tuned to permit running effectively on platforms ranging from desktop PC's to massively parallel processors such as the IBM-SP. Recently, we have made significant changes to GINGER by replacing the original predictor-corrector field solver with a new direct implicit algorithm, adding harmonic emission capability, and switching to the HDF5 IO library [2] for output diagnostics. In this paper, we discuss some details regarding these changes and also present simulation results for LCLS SASE emission at λ = 0.15 nm and higher harmonics

  14. Generation of the second harmonics of Bessel light beams in a KTP crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, V N; Kazak, N S; Kondratyuk, N V; Khilo, N A; Shagov, A A

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made of the characteristic features of doubling the frequency of Bessel light beams by the oe - e interaction in a KTP crystal. All possible and scalar interactions of plane-wave components of Bessel beams were observed experimentally. The spatial structure of the second harmonic in the far zone consisted of a central spot and a concentric ring. The diffraction divergence of the central beam was weak ( ∼ 1.7 mrad). The energy conversion efficiency was ∼ 21% for a Bessel beam, which was three times higher than the efficiency of conversion of the initial laser beam. A theoretical model was based on representation of the field of the second harmonic as a superposition of Bessel beams, which provided a correct description of the observed spatial and energy characteristics of the second harmonic. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  15. Bus Participation Factor Analysis for Harmonic Instability in Power Electronics Based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    Compared with the conventional power systems, large-scale power electronics based power systems present a more complex situation, where harmonic instability may be induced by the mutual interactions between the inner control loops of the converters. This paper presents an approach to locate which...... power converters and buses are more sensitive and have significant contribution to the harmonic instability. In the approach, a power electronics based system is introduced as a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system by means of a dynamic admittance matrix. Bus Participation Factors (PFs......) are calculated by the oscillatory mode sensitivity analysis versus the elements of the MIMO transfer function matrix. The PF analysis detects which power electronic converters or buses have a higher participation in harmonic instability excitation than others or at which buses such instability problems have...

  16. Third harmonic generation of shear horizontal guided waves propagation in plate-like structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei Bin [School of Aerospace Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Xu, Chun Guang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The use of nonlinear ultrasonics wave has been accepted as a promising tool for monitoring material states related to microstructural changes, as it has improved sensitivity compared to conventional non-destructive testing approaches. In this paper, third harmonic generation of shear horizontal guided waves propagating in an isotropic plate is investigated using the perturbation method and modal analysis approach. An experimental procedure is proposed to detect the third harmonics of shear horizontal guided waves by electromagnetic transducers. The strongly nonlinear response of shear horizontal guided waves is measured. The accumulative growth of relative acoustic nonlinear response with an increase of propagation distance is detected in this investigation. The experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction, and thus providing another indication of the feasibility of using higher harmonic generation of electromagnetic shear horizontal guided waves for material characterization.

  17. Exact solution of the time-dependent harmonic plus an inverse harmonic potential with a time-dependent electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuece, Cem

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of the charged harmonic plus an inverse harmonic oscillator with time-dependent mass and frequency in a time-dependent electromagnetic field is investigated. It is reduced to the problem of the inverse harmonic oscillator with time-independent parameters and the exact wave function is obtained

  18. Synthesis of variable harmonic impedance in inverter-interfaced distributed generation unit for harmonic damping throughout a distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverter in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective load harmonic current feedforward loop bas...

  19. International Harmonization and Cooperation in the Validation of Alternative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Ahn, Il Young; Caldeira, Cristiane; Carmichael, Paul L; Casey, Warren; Coecke, Sandra; Curren, Rodger; Desprez, Bertrand; Eskes, Chantra; Griesinger, Claudius; Guo, Jiabin; Hill, Erin; Roi, Annett Janusch; Kojima, Hajime; Li, Jin; Lim, Chae Hyung; Moura, Wlamir; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Park, HyeKyung; Peng, Shuangqing; Presgrave, Octavio; Singer, Tim; Sohn, Soo Jung; Westmoreland, Carl; Whelan, Maurice; Yang, Xingfen; Yang, Ying; Zuang, Valérie

    The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies. Such an approach is critical to achieve harmonized and more transparent approaches to method validation, peer-review and recommendation, which will ultimately expedite the international acceptance of valid alternative methods or strategies by regulatory authorities and their implementation and use by stakeholders. It also allows achieving greater efficiency and effectiveness by avoiding duplication of effort and leveraging limited resources. In view of achieving these goals, the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) was established in 2009 by validation centres from Europe, USA, Canada and Japan. ICATM was later joined by Korea in 2011 and currently also counts with Brazil and China as observers. This chapter describes the existing differences across world regions and major efforts carried out for achieving consistent international cooperation and harmonization in the validation and adoption of alternative approaches to animal testing.

  20. Choice of harmonic number for the ISABELLE accelerating rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, F.

    1977-01-01

    Originally, h = 2 was chosen for the accelerating rf system to avoid growth of coupled bunch mode longitudinal instabilities. The ability to operate ISABELLE in a bunched mode and maintaining six interaction points plus the compatibility with the boxcar transfer scheme suggested for transfer from an eventual future accumulator ring has made it desirable to choose a different harmonic number, namely h = 3. It is shown in the following that the impedance threshold for these instabilities is higher than the impedance limit required during stacking to obtain design performance. The threshold is independent of the harmonic number, so the choice of h is free from an instability point of view, as long as we are below this threshold. For h = 3, the required peak voltage to produce the same acceptance and acceleration rate as the h = 2 system is 35 kV compared to 30 kV for the h = 2 system. The total stored energy in the h = 3 cavities will be less than in h = 2 cavities, so the cost is roughly unchanged. For the above mentioned reasons it is strongly recommended to choose h = 3

  1. Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, H., E-mail: hawal@chalmers.se; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V. [Group for Advanced Receiver Development, Earth and Space Sciences Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 412 96 (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.

  2. Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.

  3. Kerr-like behaviour of second harmonic generation in the far-off resonant regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peřinová, Vlasta; Lukš, Antonín; Křepelka, Jaromír; Leoński, Wiesław; Peřina, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We separate the Kerr-like behaviour of the second-harmonic generation in the far-off resonant regime from the oscillations caused by the time-dependence of the interaction energy. To this purpose, we consider the approximation obtained from the exact dynamics by the method of small rotations. The Floquet-type decomposition of the approximate dynamics comprises the Kerr-like dynamics and oscillations of the same order of magnitude as those assumed for the exact dynamics of the second-harmonic generation. We have found that a superposition of two states of concentrated quantum phase arises in the fundamental mode in the second-harmonic generation in the far-off resonant limit at a later time than a superposition of two coherent states in the corresponding Kerr medium and the difference is larger for higher initial coherent amplitudes. The quantum phase fluctuation is higher for the same initial coherent amplitudes in the fundamental mode in the second-harmonic generation in the far-off resonant limit than in the corresponding Kerr medium and the difference is larger for higher initial coherent amplitudes.

  4. Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    -sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....

  5. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of harmonic resonance problems in Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Firstly, a generic WPP is modeled according to the equivalent circuits of its passive and active components. Main focus is put on modeling active components, i.e. the ones based on power...... converters. Subsequently, pros and cons of frequency and time domain analysis methods are outlined. The next sections are devoted to mitigation methods implemented in the power electronics converters. From the wind turbine perspective, different techniques to enhance the robustness of the controller...... are analyzed. Subsequently, the suitability for active damping of harmonics using STATCOM devices is assessed, with focus both on control techniques and power converter technologies....

  6. Background harmonic superfields in N=2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupnik, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the harmonic superfield formalism in D=4, N=2 supergravity using a subsidiary condition of covariance under the background supersymmetry with a central charge (B-covariance) is considered. Conservation of analyticity together with the B-covariance leads to the appearance of linear gravitational superfields. Analytic prepotentials arise in a decomposition of the background linear superfields in terms of spinor coordinates and transform in a nonstandard way under the background supersymmetry. The linear gravitational superfields can be written via spinor derivatives of nonanalytic spinor prepotentials. The perturbative expansion of supergravity action in terms of the B-covariant superfields and the corresponding version of the differential-geometric formalism are considered. We discuss the dual harmonic representation of the linearized extended supergravity, which corresponds to the dynamical condition of Grassmann analyticity

  7. Harmonization game. [Need for management to resolve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, I

    1977-01-01

    The problem is to try to harmonize socio-economic and environmental goals by redefining patterns of resource use and the uses of growth. The author uses examples mainly of developing countries, with the exception of the time uses, but the same framework can be applied to industrial countries faced by a development crisis of their own. The interrrelations that exist between demand, supply, and the environment are summarized. The development goal consists of a mix of goods and service which reflects the working time of the population as well as of different models of use of available non-working time. It is concluded that for industrialized and developing countries the harmonization game cannot happen instantly. Some measures require only imagination while others require retooling of the economy with low-waste technology or the promotion of solar house heating requiring time and investment. (MCW)

  8. Simulation of Second Harmonic Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    A non-linear ultrasound imaging simulation software should be capable of simulating the non-linear fields for any kind of transducer, focusing, apodization, and attenuation. At present, a major issue is the overlong simulation time of the non-linear software. An Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA......) using a quasi-linear approximation for solving the Westervelt equation can simulate the second harmonic pressure at any distance. Therefore, it shortens the execution time compared with the operator splitting method. The purpose of this paper is to implement the monochromatic solution for the second...... harmonic component based on ASA and Field II, and to compare with results from the simulation program Abersim. A linear array transducer with a center frequency of 4 MHz and 64 active elements is used as the transmitting source. The initial plane is 5 mm away from the transducer surface...

  9. Overhead distribution line models for harmonics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, M.; Xu, W.; Dommel, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Carson's formulae and Maxwell's potential coefficients are used for calculating the per unit length series impedances and shunt capacitances of the overhead lines. The per unit length values are then used for building the models, nominal pi-circuit, and equivalent pi-circuit at the harmonic frequencies. This paper studies the accuracy of these models for presenting the overhead distribution lines in steady-state harmonic solutions at frequencies up to 5 kHz. The models are verified with a field test on a 25 kV distribution line and the sensitivity of the models to ground resistivity, skin effect, and multiple grounding is reported.

  10. Generating transverse response explicitly from harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Tang, Ying; Ao, Ping

    2017-10-01

    We obtain stochastic dynamics from a system-plus-bath mechanism as an extension of the Caldeira-Leggett (CL) model in the classical regime. An effective magnetic field and response functions with both longitudinal and transverse parts are exactly generated from the bath of harmonic oscillators. The effective magnetic field and transverse response are antisymmetric matrices: the former is explicitly time-independent corresponding to the geometric magnetism, while the latter can have memory. The present model can be reduced to previous representative examples of stochastic dynamics describing nonequilibrium processes. Our results demonstrate that a system coupled with a bath of harmonic oscillators is a general approach to studying stochastic dynamics, and provides a method to experimentally implement an effective magnetic field from coupling to the environment.

  11. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... initially used as Doppler signal enhancers, second-generation microbubble contrast agents are now used with specific contrast harmonic imaging techniques, which benefit from the highly nonlinear behavior of the microbubbles. Contrast-specific modes based on multi-pulse technology are used to perform...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  12. Spherical harmonics and integration in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bie, H de; Sommen, F

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the classical theory of spherical harmonics in R m is extended to superspace using techniques from Clifford analysis. After defining a super-Laplace operator and studying some basic properties of polynomial null-solutions of this operator, a new type of integration over the supersphere is introduced by exploiting the formal equivalence with an old result of Pizzetti. This integral is then used to prove orthogonality of spherical harmonics of different degree, Green-like theorems and also an extension of the important Funk-Hecke theorem to superspace. Finally, this integration over the supersphere is used to define an integral over the whole superspace, and it is proven that this is equivalent with the Berezin integral, thus providing a more sound definition of the Berezin integral

  13. Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.

    1980-01-01

    Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)

  14. Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs

  15. Investigation of Student Reasoning about Harmonic Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnopparat, N.; Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    This study aimed to investigate student reasoning about harmonic oscillations. We conducted a semi-structured interview based on three situations of harmonic motions—(1) a mass attaching to spring and horizontally oscillating without damping, (2) the same situation but vertically oscillating and (3) a mass attaching to spring and oscillating in viscous liquid. Forty-five second-year students taking a vibrations and wave course at Chiang Mai University, Thailand participated in a fifteen-minute interview, which was video-recorded. The videos were transcribed and analyzed by three physics instructors. As results, we found that most students had misconceptions about angular frequency and energy mostly in the second and third situations.

  16. Advanced Gouy phase high harmonics interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustary, M. H.; Laban, D. E.; Wood, J. B. O.; Palmer, A. J.; Holdsworth, J.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Sang, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    We describe an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometric technique that can resolve ∼100 zeptoseconds (10‑21 s) delay between high harmonic emissions from two successive sources separated spatially along the laser propagation in a single Gaussian beam focus. Several improvements on our earlier work have been implemented in the advanced interferometer. In this paper, we report on the design, characterization and optimization of the advanced Gouy phase interferometer. Temporal coherence for both atomic argon and molecular hydrogen gases has been observed for several harmonic orders. It has been shown that phase shift of XUV pulses mainly originates from the emission time delay due to the Gouy phase in the laser focus and the observed interference is independent of the generating medium. This interferometer can be a useful tool for measuring the relative phase shift between any two gas species and for studying ultrafast dynamics of their electronic and nuclear motion.

  17. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  18. Harmonic curvatures and generalized helices in En

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camci, Cetin; Ilarslan, Kazim; Kula, Levent; Hacisalihoglu, H. Hilmi

    2009-01-01

    In n-dimensional Euclidean space E n , harmonic curvatures of a non-degenerate curve defined by Ozdamar and Hacisalihoglu [Ozdamar E, Hacisalihoglu HH. A characterization of Inclined curves in Euclidean n-space. Comm Fac Sci Univ Ankara, Ser A1 1975;24:15-23]. In this paper, we give some characterizations for a non-degenerate curve α to be a generalized helix by using its harmonic curvatures. Also we define the generalized Darboux vector D of a non-degenerate curve α in n-dimensional Euclidean space E n and we show that the generalized Darboux vector D lies in the kernel of Frenet matrix M(s) if and only if the curve α is a generalized helix in the sense of Hayden.

  19. Dirac monopole without strings: monopole harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    Using the ideas developed in a previous paper which are borrowed from the mathematics of fiber bundles, it is shown that the wave function psi of a particle of charge Ze around a Dirac monopole of strength g should be regarded as a section. The section is without discontinuities. Thus the monopole does not possess strings of singularities in the field around it. The eigensections of the angular momentum operators are monopole harmonics which are explicitly exhibited. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  20. Harmonic polylogarithms for massive Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakon, M.; Riemann, T.

    2005-08-01

    One- and two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, HPLs and GPLs, appear in calculations of multi-loop integrals. We discuss them in the context of analytical solutions for two-loop master integrals in the case of massive Bhabha scattering in QED. For the GPLs we discuss analytical representations, conformal transformations, and also their transformations corresponding to relations between master integrals in the s- and t-channel. (orig.)

  1. Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13.

  2. Excises Harmonization Stage Within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Drăcea, Raluca; Buziernescu, Radu

    2007-01-01

    Tax policy in the European Union consists of two components: direct taxation, which remains the sole responsibility of Member States, and indirect taxation, which affects free movement of goods and the freedom to provide services. The most important efforts for the tax harmonization were made in the domain of the indirect taxation, the consumption taxes influence the price supported by the final consumer and prevent the fiscal neutrality necessary for a fair competition on the ...

  3. Non-singular spiked harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Guardiola, R.

    1990-01-01

    A perturbative study of a class of non-singular spiked harmonic oscillators defined by the hamiltonian H = d sup(2)/dr sup(2) + r sup(2) + λ/r sup(α) in the domain [0,∞] is carried out, in the two extremes of a weak coupling and a strong coupling regimes. A path has been found to connect both expansions for α near 2. (author)

  4. Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    small but statistically significant difference in average F/B of treated US patients versus untreated Dutch patients. Fig. 1. Display of all...predictive ability of models incorporating F/B using a multivariate linear model, but this time applying the analysis to the entire ER+ and ER- cohort. As...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0040 TITLE: Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward Brown

  5. The International Politics of IFRS Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanna, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    The globalization of accounting standards as seen through the proliferation of IFRS worldwide is one of the most important developments in corporate governance over the last decade. I offer an analysis of some international political dynamics of countries' IFRS harmonization decisions. The analysis is based on field studies in three jurisdictions: Canada, China, and India. Across these jurisdictions, I first describe unique elements of domestic political economies that are shaping IFRS polici...

  6. Harmonic currents circulation in electrical networks simulation and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Em-Mamlouk, W.M. [MEP, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sharkawy, M.A. [Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Electrical Power and Machines; Mostafa, H.E. [Jazan Univ., Jazan (Saudi Arabia). Electrical Dept.

    2009-07-01

    A detailed harmonic flow analysis for a 13-bus balanced industrial distribution system was presented. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of harmonic sources in various branches of the system on voltage and current waveforms before disruptions to the utility supply system occurred. The current harmonic contents of an adjustable speed drive (ASD) were studied under various loading conditions. The test system was simulated using a standard study test system. Harmonic effects from multiple sources were investigated, and voltage distortion on the different buses was monitored. The study demonstrated that while the harmonic loads circulated harmonic currents in all system branches, no harmonic source was directly connected to the system buses. Many of the investigated cases exceeded allowable voltage total harmonic distortion and or current total harmonic distortion standards set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). It was concluded that active harmonic filters should be used to prevent the effects of harmonic current circulation at different buses on neighbouring loads within a system. 8 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs.

  7. Plasma wave and second harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Sharma, J.K.; Tewari, D.P.; Sharma, R.P.; Kaushik, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is made of a plasma wave at pump wave frequency and second harmonic generation caused by a self induced transverse inhomogeneity introduced by a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a hot collisionless plasma. In the presence of a Gaussian beam the carriers get redistributed from the high field region to the low field region by ponderomative force and a transverse density gradient is established in the plasma. When the electric vector of the main beam is parallel to this density gradient, a plasma wave at the pump wave frequency is generated. In addition to this the transverse intensity gradient of the electromagnetic wave also contributes significantly to the plasma wave generation. The power of the plasma wave exhibits a maximum and minimum with the power of the pump wave (at z = 0). The generated plasma wave interacts with the electromagnetic wave and leads to the generation of a second harmonic. Furthermore, if the initial power of the pump wave is more than the critical power for self-focusing, the beam gets self-focused and hence the generated plasma wave and second harmonic which depend upon the background electron concentration and power of the main beam also get accordingly modified. (author)

  8. Means of Harmonization in Religious Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ščukina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Means of harmonization of religious discourse are considered by studying communicational behaviour (verbal and nonverbal between the religion institution and believers. The following factors defining specificity of realization of harmonization in Orthodox and other religious texts are taken into account: the communication channel between the author and the reader, a defining speech genre, the command of language (communication code, and extra-linguistic factors. It is shown that sharing the general social, historical and national experience, as well as a lexical overlapping of actors on both sides of the communication channel are the deciding elements of the harmonization process. The analysis also shows that usage of rational argumentation is more likely to lead to harmonisation in comparison to other rhetoric tools (i. e. affective ones or story-telling. Rational and unemotional sermonic discourse is perceived as a sign of respect (namely, for the listener's intelligence. Another successful and much-applied way seems to be evoking a feeling of equality, unity and/or identity between clerics and their flocks.

  9. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, H.

    2010-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm -2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10 -18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)

  10. Potential harmonic expansion for atomic wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre de la Ripelle, M.; Larsen, S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    One way to reduce the large degeneracy of the Hyperspherical Harmonic basis for solving few- and many-body bound state problems is to introduce an optimal basis truncation called the Potential Harmonic (PH) basis. Various PH truncation schemes are introduced, and their accuracies are evaluated in predicting the energies of the Helium and H - ground states , and the excited 2 1 S level of the Helium atom. It was found that the part of the PH basis that accounts for one-body correlations gives a better ground state energy for He than the Hartree-Fock approximation. When an orthogonal complement is introduced to the basis to account for e-e correlations, the error in the binding energy is found to be .00025 au and .00015 au for ground and excited helium, resp., and .00035 au for H - . Furthermore, the PH truncation is about 99.9% accurate in accounting for contributions coming from large values of the global angular momentum. This PH scheme is also much more accurate than previous versions based on the Faddeev equations. The present results indicate that the PH truncation can render the Hyperspherical Harmonic method useful for systems with N>3. (R.P.) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REGULATIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirstea Andreea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the degree of formal accounting harmonization within the European Union with respect to the EC Regulation No. 1606/2002 adopted by the European Parliament and European Council on the 19th of July 2002, which regulates the application of IAS/IFRS regarding the financial reporting of listed European companies. The conclusions of the paper were drawn after the completion of a thorough analysis performed by using correlation and/ or association coefficients, namely: the Jaccard’s Correlation Coefficients, Rogers and Tanimoto Coefficient, Lance and Williams Coefficient and Binary Euclidian Distance Coefficient. The results lead us to conclude that although our first hypothesis is verified, the degree of harmonization between the accounting systems of EU Member States could be truly quantified only through an analysis of the material accounting harmonization, more precisely by analyzing the way the companies put into practice the requirements imposed through the EC Regulation No. 1606/2002.

  13. Harmonic Mitigation Methods in Large Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Hesselbæk, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Various sources of harmonic problems in large wind power plants (WPPs) and optimized harmonic mitigation methods are presented in this paper. The harmonic problems such as sources of harmonic emission and amplification as well as harmonic stability are identified. Also modern preventive...... and remedial harmonic mitigation methods in terms of passive and active filtering are described. It is shown that WPP components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency resonances which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall WPP stability...... as well as amplification of harmonic distortion. It is underlined that there is a potential in terms of active filtering in modern grid-side converters in e.g. wind turbines, STATCOMs or HVDC stations utilized in modern large WPPs. It is also emphasized that the grid-side converter controller should...

  14. Analyzing correlation functions with tesseral and Cartesian spherical harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Pratt, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of interparticle correlations on the orientation of particle relative momentum can yield unique information on the space-time features of emission in reactions with multiparticle final states. In the present paper, the benefits of a representation and analysis of the three-dimensional correlation information in terms of surface spherical harmonics is presented. The harmonics include the standard complex tesseral harmonics and the real Cartesian harmonics. Mathematical properties of the lesser known Cartesian harmonics are illuminated. The physical content of different angular harmonic components in a correlation is described. The resolving power of different final-state effects with regard to determining angular features of emission regions is investigated. The considered final-state effects include identity interference, strong interactions, and Coulomb interactions. The correlation analysis in terms of spherical harmonics is illustrated with the cases of Gaussian and blast-wave sources for proton-charged meson and baryon-baryon pairs

  15. How classical gluon fields generate odd azimuthal harmonics for the two-gluon correlation function in high-energy collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2018-05-01

    We show that, in the saturation/color glass condensate framework, odd azimuthal harmonics of the two-gluon correlation function with a long-range separation in rapidity are generated by the higher-order saturation corrections in the interactions with the projectile and the target. At the very least, the odd harmonics require three scatterings in the projectile and three scatterings in the target. We derive the leading-order expression for the two-gluon production cross section which generates odd harmonics: the expression includes all-order interactions with the target and three interactions with the projectile. We evaluate the obtained expression both analytically and numerically, confirming that the odd-harmonics contribution to the two-gluon production in the saturation framework is nonzero.

  16. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  17. ECH power deposition at 3rd harmonic in high elongation TCV discharges sustained by 2nd harmonic current profile broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochelon, A. . E-mail : Antoine.Pochelon@epfl.ch; Arnoux, G.; Camenen, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises the present effort aimed at developing high elongation heated discharges and testing their confinement properties at normalised currents for which the highest ideal MHD β-limits are predicted. 2nd harmonic (X2) far off-axis ECH/CD is used to stabilise the plasma vertically at high elongation by broadening the current profile in stationary conditions (during the current flat top and over several current diffusion times). Current broadening is maximal for a power deposition in a narrow region (∼a/5), for a finite toroidal injection angle and for high plasma density using upper lateral launchers to minimise refraction. In these discharges which are twice X2 overdense in the centre, 3rd harmonic (X3) is injected from a top launcher to deposit power in the centre and increase the central pressure, simultaneously with far off-axis X2. Using modulated X3, full absorption is measured by the diamagnetic probe. Absorption higher than calculated by thermal ray tracing is occasionally found, indicating absorption on the electron bulk as well as in the suprathermal electron population sometimes with a hollow deposition profile. The high sensitivity of the power coupling to the beam angle stresses the need for developing a mirror feedback scheme to increase the coupling efficiency in transient heating scenarios. (author)

  18. Harmonic balance approach to the periodic solutions of the (an)harmonic relativistic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Pascual, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    The first-order harmonic balance method via the first Fourier coefficient is used to construct two approximate frequency-amplitude relations for the relativistic oscillator for which the nonlinearity (anharmonicity) is a relativistic effect due to the time line dilation along the world line. Making a change of variable, a new nonlinear differential equation is obtained and two procedures are used to approximately solve this differential equation. In the first the differential equation is rewritten in a form that does not contain a square-root expression, while in the second the differential equation is solved directly. The approximate frequency obtained using the second procedure is more accurate than the frequency obtained with the first due to the fact that, in the second procedure, application of the harmonic balance method produces an infinite set of harmonics, while in the first procedure only two harmonics are produced. Both approximate frequencies are valid for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one are demonstrated and discussed. The discrepancy between the first-order approximate frequency obtained by means of the second procedure and the exact frequency never exceeds 1.6%. We also obtained the approximate frequency by applying the second-order harmonic balance method and in this case the relative error is as low 0.31% for all the range of values of amplitude of oscillation A

  19. Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

    Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated

  20. Second-harmonic generation in second-harmonic fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, M J; de Sterke, C M

    1996-06-20

    We consider the production of second-harmonic light in gratings resonant with the generated field, through a Green's function approach. We recover some standard results and obtain new limits for the uniform grating case. With the extension to nonuniform gratings, we find the Green's function for the second harmonic in a grating with an arbitrary phase shift at some point. We then obtain closed form approximate expressions for the generated light for phase shifts close to π/2 and at the center of the grating. Finally, comparing the uniform and phase-shifted gratings with homogeneous materials, we discuss the enhancement in generated light and the bandwidth over which it occurs, and the consequences for second-harmonic generation in optical fiber Bragg gratings.