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Sample records for underwent substantial decadal

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  2. A case that underwent bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract Available A case that underwent bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) biopsy combined with pneumonectomy is presented. The patient developed hypoxia during the contralateral VATS biopsy. His hypoxia was treated with positive expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the dependent lung and apneic ...

  3. NUTRITION SUPPORT COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENT WHO UNDERWENT CARDIAC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Krdžalić, Alisa; Kovčić, Jasmina; Krdžalić, Goran; Jahić, Elmir

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nutrition support complications after cardiac surgery should be detected and treated on time. Aim: To show the incidence and type of nutritional support complication in patients after cardiac surgery. Methods: The prospective study included 415 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2013 in Clinic for Cardiovascular Disease of University Clinical Center Tuzla. Complications of the delivery system for nutrition support (NS) and nutrition itself were analy...

  4. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis in a Patient who Underwent Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Dabak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS is a rare, benign, but a locally aggressive tumor. It is characterized by the proliferation of synovial membrane, but it can also be seen in tendon sheaths and bursae. Clinical presentation of solitary lesions include compression and locking of the joint suggesting loose bodies in the joint and a subsequent findings of an effusion, whereas diffuse lesions manifest with pain and chronic swelling. In this article, we presented a curious case of PVNS in a female patient who have been followed up due to an acetabular cystic lesion. She underwent total hip arthroplasty for severe osteoarthritis of the hip joint and associated pain. The diagnosis of PVNS was established intraoperatively. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 235-7

  5. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  6. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  7. Pathophysiological Substantiation of Epidural Administration of Tenoxicam in Dorsalgia Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yastrebov D.N.; Shpagin М.V.; Artifexov S.B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to assess the efficiency of Tenoxicam epidural administration, and represent pathophysiological substantiation of new techniques of dorsalgias treatment. Materials and Methods. There have been examined 75 patients with intense lumbar pain syndrome who underwent epidural pharmacotherapy of pain syndrome. The 1st group (n=50) had epidural Tenoxicam introduction, by 20 mg in 10–20 ml of saline solution, the control group (n=25) was given the combination of cor...

  8. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate thefrequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopyeastern Anatolia.Materials and methods: The patients whose endoscopicantral biopsies were taken for any reason in our endoscopyunit in February-June 2010 period were includedand retrospectively investigated. The frequency of Helicobacterpylori was determined as separating the patientsaccording to general, sex and the age groups. Antral biopsieswere stained with hematoxylin-eosin and modified giemsamethod and examined under light microscope andreported as (+ mild, (++ moderate, (+++ severe positiveaccording to their intensities.Results: Biopsy specimens of 1298 patients were includedinto the study. The mean age was 47.5 ± 17.5 years(range 14-88 and 607 of these patients (47% were male.Histopathological evaluation revealed that, 918 of the patientswere (71% positive and 379 (29% were negativefor Helicobacter pylori. Approximately 60% of our patientshad mild, 29% had moderate and 11% had severe positivityfor Helicobacter pylori. No significant difference wasfound in the frequency of Helicobacter pylori betweenwomen and men. The frequencies of Helicobacter pyloriwere 73.2%, 71.5%, 68.6% and 70.4%, respectively, inthe age groups of 14-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 yearsand 61-88 years.Conclusion: The frequency of Helicobacter pylori was71% in Eastern Anatolia Region. No statistically significantdifference was found between genders and agegroups in term of the frequency of Helicobacter pylori.

  9. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Regulations Branch, Legal Processing Division, Associate Chief Counsel (Procedure and Administration). [FR Doc... Substantial Business Activities; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country. FOR FURTHER...

  10. 77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic corporations... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country for purposes of...

  11. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial default. 902.79 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.79 Substantial default. (a) Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. The following events or conditions shall constitute...

  12. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  13. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory animals... and conditions of use. Substantial evidence of effectiveness of a new animal drug shall demonstrate that the new animal drug is effective for each intended use and associated conditions of use for and...

  14. PRS projections for DECADE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L., Jr.; Davis, J.

    1994-04-01

    Two approaches are described for predicting and evaluating the potential range of PRS performance on DECADE. On the one hand, the DECADE generator is represented as a lumped electrical circuit coupled to an inductive PRS load using slug model dynamics for the load. The nonlinearly coupled circuit equations determine the energy transfer from the Marx bank to the load as a function of the circuit parameters, enabling one to predict the efficiency for converting Marx bank energy into load kinetic energy. Newly experimentally confirmed scaling relations then allow one to predict the conversion fraction of this kinetic energy into K-shell x rays. Both aluminum and titanium should be able to generate in excess of 100 kJ/cm of K-shell radiation based on the DECADE circuit model used in this report. On the other hand, power flow from the Marx generator to the load is taken as a given, and a number of specific issues related to PRS load dynamics are calculated using detailed (non-slug) models of the load MHD dynamics. A number of such issues are discussed. They need to be addressed because of their potential to either degrade or enhance the load yield performance predicted on the basis of kinetic energy and x ray scaling laws alone. These issues also deal with matters of x ray simulation fidelity that will be an important part of DECADE's function. It is argued that the capability to carry out aluminum radiative collapse experiments on DECADE is significantly greater than on existing simulators, and that these experiments may offer a range of opportunity for improving simulation fidelity beyond that offered by kinetic energy scaling alone. This represents a compelling reason for giving DECADE a PRS capability.

  15. A Decade of Suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel; Pedersen, Marianne Holm

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, al-Qaeda leader, Osama Bin Laden, was killed in Pakistan and the US president, Barack Obama, concluded a decade of global ‘war against terror’. In light of this, it seems only sensible to explore what implications the post-9/11 international developments have had on a local basis...

  16. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  17. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  18. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  19. The second decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available   It is ten years since the Iranian Journal of Physics Research has been in publication. For the Occasion of the 10th anniversary of its publication, we have planned several changes and modifications. These includes increasing the annual issues to four and omission of Introduction of Previously-Published Papers in International Journals section. In this article some statistical information of the published articles is given together with the index of the journals referees. As we enter the second decade of our publication, we face several questions. In this article we share these questions with our readers in the hope of finding the best possible solutions, so that we would be able to publish a better journal in future.

  20. Tides and Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  1. Prospects for decadal climate prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Keenlyside, Noel; Ba, Jin

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, global surface temperatures did not increase as rapidly as in the preceding decades. Although relatively small compared to the observed centennial scale global warming, it has renewed interest in understanding and even predicting climate on time scales of decades, and sparked a community initiative on near‐term prediction that will feature in the fifth intergovernmental panel on climate change assessment report. Decadal prediction, however, is in its infancy, with only...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  4. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özülkü

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results: The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump as compared to Group 2 (off-pump. But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893, P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006. Conclusion: Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  5. Dysphagia among Adult Patients who Underwent Surgery for Esophageal Atresia at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Huynh-Trudeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and/or anatomical anomalies.

  6. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing or...

  7. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and Substantial...

  8. 45 CFR 1355.34 - Criteria for determining substantial conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for determining substantial conformity... GENERAL § 1355.34 Criteria for determining substantial conformity. (a) Criteria to be satisfied. ACF will determine a State's substantial conformity with title IV-B and title IV-E State plan requirements based on...

  9. Evolution of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moré Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a steady increase in the number of elderly patients with severe cardiovascular diseases who require a surgical procedure to recover some quality of life that allows them a socially meaningful existence, despite the risks.Objectives: To analyze the behavior of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Method: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with patients over 65 years of age who underwent surgery at the Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara, in Santa Clara, from January 2013 to March 2014.Results: In the study, 73.1% of patients were men; and there was a predominance of subjects between 65 and 70 years of age, accounting for 67.3%. Coronary artery bypass graft was the most prevalent type of surgery and had the longest cardiopulmonary bypass times. Hypertension was present in 98.1% of patients. The most frequent postoperative complications were renal dysfunction and severe low cardiac output, with 44.2% and 34.6% respectively.Conclusions: There was a predominance of men, the age group of 65 to 70 years, hypertension, and patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft with prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. Renal dysfunction was the most frequent complication.

  10. Acute myocardial infarctation in patients with critical ischemia underwent lower limb revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdras Marques Lins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD of the lower limbs. Patients with PAOD often also have obstructive atherosclerosis in other arterial sites, mainly the coronary arteries. This means that patients who undergo infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia have a higher risk of AMI. There are, however, few reports in the literature that have assessed this risk properly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia of the lower limbs caused by PAOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent 82 infrainguinal bypass operations, from February 2011 to July 2012 were studied. All patients had electrocardiograms and troponin I blood assays during the postoperative period (within 72 hours. RESULTS: There were abnormal ECG findings and elevated blood troponin I levels suggestive of AMI in five (6% of the 82 operations performed. All five had conventional surgery. The incidence of AMI as a proportion of the 52 conventional surgery cases was 9.6%. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: There was a 6% AMI incidence among patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass due to PAOD. Considering only cases operated using conventional surgery, the incidence of AMI was 9.6%.

  11. Mental health inequalities in 9 former Soviet Union countries: evidence from the previous decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent substantive economic and social changes. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyse two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N = 18,428) and in 2010 (N = 17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as the indirect standardization approach, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the past decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. Hence, we did not find evidence of a trade-off between changes in average and distributional mental health indicators between 2001 and 2010. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measures, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Voiding patterns of adult patients who underwent hypospadias repair in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Jawdat; Kocherov, Stanislav; Chertin, Leonid; Farkas, Amicur; Chertin, Boris

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the voiding patterns of adult patients who underwent hypospadias repair in childhood. Following IRB approval 103 (22.7%) of 449 adult patients who underwent hypospadias repair between 1978 and 1993 responded to the following questionnaires: International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and Short Form 12 questionnaire (SF-12). Uroflowmetry (UF) was performed for all patients. The patients were divided into three groups according to the primary meatus localization. Group I had 63 patients (61.5%) treated for glanular hypospadias, group II had 19 patients (18.4%) treated for distal hypospadias, and group III comprised the remaining 21 patients (20.4%) treated for proximal hypospadias. The mean ± SD I-PSS score for all patients who responded to the questionnaire was 2.3 ± 2.4, and UF was 21.1 ± 4.3 mL/s. The patients from groups I and III had fewer urinary symptoms compared with those of the group II: 1.3 ± 1.5, 5.5 ± 2.4, and 1.6 ± 1.4, respectively (p hypospadias repair in childhood had normal or mild voiding disturbance, with no effects on their physical or mental status. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prognostic Analysis of Breast Cancer Patients Who Underwent Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using QOL-ACD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yasuhiro; Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Takada, Koji; Goto, Wataru; Asano, Yuka; Morisaki, Tamami; Noda, Satoru; Takashima, Tsutomu; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2017-11-01

    We investigated into association of quality of life(QOL)and prognosis of breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NAC). We retrospectively studied 228 patients with breast cancer who were performed NAC during a period between 2007 and 2015. TheQ OL score was measured with"The QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs(QOL-ACD)". We evaluate association between QOL score with antitumor effect and prognosis. Changes in the QOL score between before and after NAC were compared as well. We divided 2 groups by QOL-ACD scoreinto high and low groups. Therapeautic effect of NAC on 75 patients were pathological complete response(pCR). QOL-ACD score was not significantly associated with pCR rate in both high and low groups(p=0.199). High group was significantly associated with higher survival rate in both of disease free survival(p=0.009, logrank)and overall survival(p=0.040, logrank). QOLACD score decreased after NAC in both of pCR and non-pCR patients. In conclusion, QOL evaluation using QOL-ACD could be an indicator of breast cancer patients' prognosis who underwent NAC.

  14. HLA-G regulatory haplotypes and implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Vargas, Rafael Gustavo; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    2012-09-01

    The role of HLA-G in several clinical conditions related to reproduction has been investigated. Important polymorphisms have been found within the 5'URR and 3'UTR regions of the HLA-G promoter. The aim of the present study was to investigate 16 SNPs in the 5'URR and 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism located in the 3'UTR region of the HLA-G gene and its possible association with the implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatments (ART). The case group was composed of 25 ART couples. Ninety-four couples with two or more term pregnancies composed the control group. Polymorphism haplotype frequencies of the HLA-G were determined for both groups. The Haplotype 5, Haplotype 8 and Haplotype 11 were absolute absence in ART couples. The HLA-G*01:01:02a, HLA-G*01:01:02b alleles and the 14-bp ins polymorphism, Haplotype 2, showed an increased frequency in case women and similar distribution between case and control men. However, this susceptibility haplotype is significantly presented in case women and in couple with failure implantation after treatment, which led us to suggest a maternal effect, associated with this haplotype, once their presence in women is related to a higher number of couples who underwent ART. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Sarcopenia: a new predictor of postoperative complications for elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Min; Zhang, Fei-Yu; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Shen, Xian; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Chen, Xiao-Xi

    2017-05-01

    A geriatric assessment is needed to identify high-risk elderly patients with gastric cancer. However, the current geriatric assessment has been considered to be either time-consuming or subjective. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of sarcopenia on the postoperative complications for elderly patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. We conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from August 2014 to December 2015. Computed tomography-assessed lumbar skeletal muscle, handgrip strength, and gait speed were measured to define sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was present in 69 of 240 patients (28.8%) and was associated with lower body mass index, lower serum albumin, lower hemoglobin, and higher nutritional risk screening 2002 scores. Postoperative complications significantly increased in the sarcopenic patients (49.3% versus 24.6%, P sarcopenia (odds ratio: 2.959, 95% CI: 1.629-5.373, P Sarcopenia, presented as a new geriatric assessment factor, was a strong and independent risk factor for postoperative complications of elderly patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Varrica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P0.05 have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations.

  17. Effect of different pneumoperitoneum pressure on stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Yun Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of different CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure on the stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy. Methods: A total of 90 patients who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2015 to October, 2015 for gynecological laparoscopy were included in the study and divided into groups A, B, and C according to different CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure. The changes of HR, BP, and PetCO2 during the operation process in the three groups were recorded. The changes of stress indicators before operation (T0, 30 min during operation (T1, and 12 h after operation (T2 were compared. Results: The difference of HR, BP, and PetCO2 levels before operation among the three groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05. HR, BP, and PetCO2 levels 30 min after pneumoperitoneum were significantly elevated when compared with before operation (P0.05. PetCO2 level 30 min after pneumoperitoneum in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P0.05. Conclusions: Low pneumoperitoneum pressure has a small effect on the stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy, will not affect the surgical operation, and can obtain a preferable muscular relaxation and vision field; therefore, it can be selected in preference.

  18. DECADE design and testing status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sincerny, P.; Childers, K.; Goyer, J.; Kortbawi, D.; Roth, I.; Stallings, C.; Dempsey, J.; Schlitt, L.

    1996-01-01

    DECADE is a very high power generator that will be built at Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma, Tennessee, by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The full facility consists of 16 modules. Two full power modules (DM1 and DM2) have been built to verify the DECADE design at Physics International. Each module consists of a 570 kJ Marx generator that pulse charges a water transfer capacitor. The transfer capacitor discharges into a water output line through an array of 6 parallel triggered gas switches. The water output line then pulse charges the inductive store/opening switch pulse compression stage. When the opening switch opens, the inductive store discharges into an electron beam bremsstrahlung diode load. The initial testing of the DM1 module has been completed. The electrical design of the module will be presented, including circuit modeling results. The test data from a module will be compared to the modeling results. This test data, including reproducibility and timing accuracy, was used to predict the output from the full system of 16 modules and a subset of 4 unit modules (DECADE Quad). One option under consideration is to deploy a DECADE Quad at the testing center in Tennessee prior to the full 16 module system. The design sketch of the DECADE Quad and the predicted output based on the modeling and the demonstrated module performance is given. (author). 11 figs., 11 refs

  19. Calibration of decadal ensemble predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Alexander; Rust, Henning W.; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark; Grieger, Jens; Müller, Wolfgang; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Decadal climate predictions are of great socio-economic interest due to the corresponding planning horizons of several political and economic decisions. Due to uncertainties of weather and climate, forecasts (e.g. due to initial condition uncertainty), they are issued in a probabilistic way. One issue frequently observed for probabilistic forecasts is that they tend to be not reliable, i.e. the forecasted probabilities are not consistent with the relative frequency of the associated observed events. Thus, these kind of forecasts need to be re-calibrated. While re-calibration methods for seasonal time scales are available and frequently applied, these methods still have to be adapted for decadal time scales and its characteristic problems like climate trend and lead time dependent bias. Regarding this, we propose a method to re-calibrate decadal ensemble predictions that takes the above mentioned characteristics into account. Finally, this method will be applied and validated to decadal forecasts from the MiKlip system (Germany's initiative for decadal prediction).

  20. Decadal climate prediction (project GCEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Keith; Hermanson, Leon; Liu, Chunlei; Putt, Debbie; Sutton, Rowan; Iwi, Alan; Smith, Doug

    2009-03-13

    Decadal prediction uses climate models forced by changing greenhouse gases, as in the International Panel for Climate Change, but unlike longer range predictions they also require initialization with observations of the current climate. In particular, the upper-ocean heat content and circulation have a critical influence. Decadal prediction is still in its infancy and there is an urgent need to understand the important processes that determine predictability on these timescales. We have taken the first Hadley Centre Decadal Prediction System (DePreSys) and implemented it on several NERC institute compute clusters in order to study a wider range of initial condition impacts on decadal forecasting, eventually including the state of the land and cryosphere. The eScience methods are used to manage submission and output from the many ensemble model runs required to assess predictive skill. Early results suggest initial condition skill may extend for several years, even over land areas, but this depends sensitively on the definition used to measure skill, and alternatives are presented. The Grid for Coupled Ensemble Prediction (GCEP) system will allow the UK academic community to contribute to international experiments being planned to explore decadal climate predictability.

  1. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  2. A Pregnant Woman Who Underwent Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy due to Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Diri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS may lead to severe maternal and fetal morbidities and even mortalities in pregnancy. However, pregnancy complicates the diagnosis and treatment of CS. This study describes a 26-year-old pregnant woman admitted with hypertension-induced headache. Hormonal analyses performed due to her cushingoid phenotype revealed a diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone- (ACTH- independent CS. MRI showed a 3.5 cm adenoma in her right adrenal gland. After preoperative metyrapone therapy, she underwent a successful unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy at 14-week gestation. Although she had a temporary postoperative adrenal insufficiency, hormonal analyses showed that she has been in remission since delivery. Findings in this patient, as well as those in previous patients, indicate that pregnancy is not an absolute contraindication for laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Rather, such surgery should be considered a safe and efficient treatment method for pregnant women with cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas.

  3. Clinical outcomes for 14 consecutive patients with solid pseudopapillary neoplasms who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Sumiyoshi, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-02-01

    The postoperative results of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), including the effects of spleen-preserving resection, are still to be elucidated. Of the 139 patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatectomy for non-cancerous tumors, 14 consecutive patients (average age, 29.6 years; 1 man, 13 women) with solitary SPN who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy between March 2004 and June 2015 were enrolled. The tumors had a mean diameter of 4.8 cm. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in eight patients (spleen-preserving group), including two cases involving pancreatic tail preservation, and laparoscopic spleno-distal pancreatectomy was performed in six patients (standard resection group). The median operating time was 317 min, and the median blood loss was 50 mL. Postoperatively, grade B pancreatic fistulas appeared in two patients (14.3%) but resolved with conservative treatment. No patients had postoperative complications, other than pancreatic fistulas, or required reoperation. The median postoperative hospital stay was 11 days, and the postoperative mortality was zero.None of the patients had positive surgical margins or lymph nodes with metastasis. The median follow-up period did not significantly differ between the two groups (20 vs 39 months, P = 0.1368). All of the patients are alive and free from recurrent tumors without major late-phase complications. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy might be a suitable treatment for patients with SPN. A spleen-preserving operation is preferable for younger patients with SPN, and this study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the procedure compared to spleno-distal pancreatectomy. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. [Patients with astigmatism who underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification: toric IOL x asferic IOL?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Netto, Emilio de Almeida; Gulin, Marina Carvalho; Zapparoli, Marcio; Moreira, Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Compare the visual acuity of patients who underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with IOL AcrySof(®) toric implantation versus AcrySof(®) IQ and evaluate the reduction of cylindrical diopters (CD) in the postoperative period. Analytical and retrospective study of 149 eyes with 1 or more diopters of regular symmetrical keratometric astigmatism, which underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. The eyes were divided into two groups: the toric group with 85 eyes and the non-toric group with 64 eyes. In the pre-operative phase, topographic data and refraction of each eye to be operated were assessed. In the postoperative phase, refraction and visual acuity with and without correction were measured. The preoperative topographic astigmatism ranged from 1.00 to 5.6 DC in both groups. Average reduction of 1.37 CD (p<0.001) and 0.16 CD (p=0.057) was obtained for the toric and non-toric group when compared to the refractive astigmatism, respectively. Considering visual acuity without correction (NCVA), the toric group presented 44 eyes (51.7%) with NCVA of 0 logMAR (20/20) or 0.1 logMAR (20/25) and the toric group presented 7 eyes (10.93%) with these same NCVA values. The results show that patients with a significant keratometric astigmatism presented visual benefits with the toric IOL implantation. The reduction of the use of optical aids may be obtained provided aberrations of the human eye are corrected more accurately. Currently, phacoemulsification surgery has been used not only for functional improvement, but also as a refraction procedure.

  5. Enteral nutrition is superior to total parenteral nutrition for pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changli; Du, Zhi; Lou, Cheng; Wu, Chenxuan; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Jun; Shu, Guiming; Wang, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effects of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (EN) on biochemical and clinical outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. From the year 2006 to 2008, 60 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy in Tianjin Third Central Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into the EN group and the TPN group. The biochemical and clinical parameters were recorded and analyzed between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the nutritional status, liver and kidney function, and blood glucose levels between the TPN and EN groups on the preoperative day, the 1st and 3 rd postoperative days. However, on the 7th postoperative day, there was significant difference between the two groups in 24 h urinary nitrogen, serum levels of, total protein (TP), transferrin (TF), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr). On the 14th postoperative day, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of urinary levels of 24 h nitrogen, TP, TF, retinol binding protein, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, BUN, Cr, and glucose. The incidence of delayed gastric emptying in the EN and TPN groups was 0% and 20%, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of pancreatic fistulas and hemorrhages in the EN group were 3.6% and 3.6%, versus 26.7% and 30% in the TPN group, respectively. EN is better than TPN for pancreatic cancer patients who received pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  6. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In order...), substantially all of its units, lots or buildings must be used by individuals for residences. For the purposes...

  8. 26 CFR 1.507-6 - Substantial contributor defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)), whether or not exempt from taxation under section 501(a), who contributed or bequeathed an aggregate... contributions and bequests from all sources. As of June 1, 1969, A is a substantial contributor to M for... from all sources. B is a substantial contributor to N as of March 15, 1970, since that is the first...

  9. The UN Decade for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nancy C.

    1983-01-01

    The events of the UN Decade for Women are reviewed. The Third World Conference on Women, to be held in 1985, is seen as a forum to assess progress achieved and to look to the future needs and potential of women throughout the world. (MLW)

  10. Blended Learning over Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhonggen, Yu; Yuexiu, Zhejiang

    2015-01-01

    The 21st century has witnessed vast amounts of research into blended learning since the conception of online learning formed the possibility of blended learning in the early 1990s. The theme of this paper is blended learning in mainstream disciplinary communities. In particular, the paper reports on findings from the last two decades which looked…

  11. IRIN marks its first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Clark

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN has come a long way from its initial coverage of three countries. A decade later, IRIN is a multimedia news service producing daily and analytical reports, news footage and radio broadcasts spanning Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

  12. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change.

  13. 40 CFR 350.27 - Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.27 Substantiation form to... Secret Substantiation Form General Information EPA requires that the information requested in a trade..., 311, 312, and 313 submissions may be claimed trade secret on the Title III submittal itself. (Other...

  14. Comparative analysis of pain in patients who underwent total knee replacement regarding the tourniquet pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate through the visual analog scale (VAS the pain in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR with different pressures of the pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: An observational, randomized, descriptive study on an analytical basis, with 60 patients who underwent TKR, divided into two groups, which were matched: a group where TKR was performed with tourniquet pressures of 350 mmHg (standard and the other with systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg (P + 100. These patients had their pain assessed by VAS at 48 h, and at the 5th and 15th days after procedure. Secondarily, the following were also measured: range of motion (ROM, complications, and blood drainage volume in each group; the data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: After data analysis, there was no statistical difference regarding the incidence of complications (p = 0.612, ROM (p = 0.202, bleeding after 24 and 48 h (p = 0.432 and p = 0.254 or in relation to VAS. No correlation was observed between time of ischemia compared to VAS and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the pneumatic tourniquet pressure at 350 mmHg or systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg did not influence the pain, blood loss, ROM, and complications. Therefore the pressures at these levels are safe and do not change the surgery outcomes; the time of ischemia must be closely observed to avoid major complications.

  15. Assessment of quality of life in patients who underwent minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Marcello Simão; Haddad, Alessandra; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-06-01

    There are increasingly more patients seeking minimally invasive procedures, which have become more effective and safer in reducing the signs of facial aging. This study included 40 female adult patients who voluntarily underwent selected minimally invasive procedures (filling with hyaluronic acid and botulinum toxin injection) for facial rejuvenation. All patients were followed for a period of 6 months. They were evaluated with the use of questionnaires, a quality-of-life questionnaire (DLQI), the self-esteem scale of Rosenberg (EPM/Rosenberg), and a pain scale. The minimally invasive procedures resulted in improvement in quality of life and self-esteem, which were stronger the first 3 months after the procedures but remained at a higher level than that before treatment, even after 6 months. Hyaluronic acid with lidocaine in the formula is more comfortable for the patient as it makes the injection less painful. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  16. Assessment of Patients Who Underwent Nasal Reconstruction After Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoğlu, Haldun Onuralp; Dadaci, Mehmet; Çaliş, Mert; Öcal, Engin

    2015-06-01

    Basal and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common malignant cutaneous lesions affecting the nose. With the rising incidence of skin cancers, plastic surgeons increasingly face nasal reconstruction challenges. Although multiple options exist, optimal results are obtained when "like is used to repair like". We aimed to introduce a simple algorithm for the reconstruction of nasal defects with local flaps, realizing that there is always more than one option for reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 163 patients who underwent nasal reconstruction after excision of non-melanoma skin cancer between March 2011 and April 2014. We analyzed the location of the defects and correlated them with the techniques used to reconstruct them. There were 66 males and 97 females (age, 21-98 years). Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 121 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 42. After tumor excision, all the defects were immediately closed by either primary closure or local flap options such as Limberg, Miter, glabellar, bilobed, nasolabial, V-Y advancement, and forehead flaps. Obtaining tumor-free borders and a pleasing aesthetic result are major concerns in nasal reconstruction. Defect reconstruction and cosmesis are as important as rapid recovery and quick return to normal daily activities, and these should be considered before performing any procedure, particularly in elderly patients.

  17. [A survey of perioperative asthmatic attack among patients with bronchial asthma underwent general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Yoshizawa, Atsuto; Hirano, Satoru; Izumi, Sinyuu; Hojo, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayasi, Nobuyuki; Kudou, Kouichirou; Maehara, Yasuhiro; Kawachi, Masaharu; Miyakoshi, Kouichi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the risk factor of perioperative asthmatic attack and effectiveness of preventing treatment for asthmatic attack before operation. We performed retrospective chart review of one hundred eleven patients with asthma underwent general anesthesia and surgical intervention from January 2006 to October 2007 in our hospital. The rate of perioperative asthmatic attack were as follows; 10.2% (5 in 49 cases) in no pretreatment group, 7.5% (3 in 40 cases) in any pretreatments except for systemic steroid, and 4.5% (1 in 22 cases) in systemic steroid pretreatment group. Neither preoperative asthma severity nor duration from the last attack had significant relevancy to perioperative attack rate. The otolaryngological surgery, especially those have nasal polyp and oral surgery had high perioperative asthma attack rate, although there was no significant difference. We recommend the systemic steroid pretreatment for asthmatic patients, especially when they have known risk factor such as administration of the systemic steroid within 6 months, or possibly new risk factor such as nasal polyp, otolaryngological and oral surgery.

  18. Influence of perioperative administration of amino acids on thermoregulation response in patients underwent colorectal surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeba Snježana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypothermia in the surgical patients can be the consequence of long duration of surgical intervention, general anesthesia and low temperature in operating room. Postoperative hypothermia contributes to a number of postoperative complications such as arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, hypertension, bleeding, wound infection, coagulopathy, prolonged effect of muscle relaxants. External heating procedures are used to prevent this condition, but some investigations reported that infusion of aminoacids during surgery can induce thermogenesis and prevent postoperative hypothermia. Case report. We reported two males who underwent major colorectal surgery for rectal carcinoma. One patient received Aminosol 15% solution, 125 ml/h, while the other did not. The esophageal temperatures in both cases were measured every 30 minutes during the operation and 60 minutes after in Intensive Care Unit. We were monitoring blood pressure, heart rate, ECG, and shivering. Patient who received aminoacids showed ameliorated postoperative hypothermia without hypertension, arrhythmia, or shivering, while the other showed all symptoms mentioned above. Conclusion. According to literature data, as well as our findings, we can conclude that intraoperative intravenous treatment with amino acid solution ameliorates postoperative hypothermia along with its complications. .

  19. Congenital hydrocele: prevalence and outcome among male children who underwent neonatal circumcision in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, O D; Osaigbovo, E O

    2008-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and spontaneous resolution of congenital hydrocele diagnosed in male neonates who underwent circumcision at our centre. All male neonates presented for circumcision at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2006 were examined for the presence of hydrocele. Those diagnosed with this condition were recruited and followed up in a surgical outpatient clinic for 2 years. The number of cases of spontaneous resolution and age at which this occurred were documented on a structured pro forma. A total of 2715 neonates were circumcised and 128 (4.7%) were diagnosed with 163 cases of hydrocele, while 27 cases in 25 (0.9%) children failed to resolve at the age of 2 years. Neonatal hydrocele was bilateral in 112 (68.7%), and there were 20 (12.3%) right and 31 (19.0%) left. Among those with hydrocele, 28.1% were delivered preterm and resolution was spontaneous in many of them, with no observed significant statistical difference to those delivered full term (P=0.4740). Of the 163 hydrocele cases, 136 (83.4%) resolved spontaneously by age 18 months with peak resolution at 4-6 months. No spontaneous resolution occurred after 18 months and no hydrocele-related complication occurred during follow up. Neonates with congenital hydrocele should be observed for spontaneous resolution for at least 18 months before being subjected to surgery.

  20. Stress and Quality of Life for Taiwanese Women Who Underwent Infertility Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Stevenson, Eleanor Lowndes; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2018-04-28

    To describe the psychological stress and quality of life experienced by women who underwent fertility treatment in Taiwan. Cross-sectional, correlational study. Recruitment was conducted and questionnaires administered at a reproductive medicine center in Chiayi City, Taiwan. Informed consent to participate was obtained from 126 women who sought fertility treatment at the center. The Chinese Fertility Problem Inventory and Fertility Quality of Life scale were used to measure participants' levels of fertility-related stress and fertility-related quality of life. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis were used. Overall, participants reported low levels of fertility-related stress and fertility-related quality of life; however, they had relatively high levels of stress related to need for parenthood. Women who were older, had greater body mass indexes, and consumed coffee regularly had lower fertility-related quality of life. Social and relationship concerns and stress related to need for parenthood were significant predictors of low fertility-related quality of life. In a culture in which childbearing is generally an expectation and an important part of family life, women who experience infertility are at risk to experience fertility-related stress. Social support and family consultation might be offered to improve women's fertility-related quality of life. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology for substantiation of the fast reactor fuel element serviceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Maershin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methodological aspects of fast reactor fuel element serviceability substantiation are presented. The choice of the experimental program and strategies of its realization to solve the problem set in short time, taking into account available experimental means, are substantiated. Factors determining fuel element serviceability depending on parameters and operational conditions are considered. The methodological approach recommending separate studing of the factors, which points to the possibility of data acquisition, required for the development of calculational models and substantiation of fuel element serviceability in pilot and experimental reactors, is described. It is shown that the special-purpose data are more useful for the substantiation of fuel element serviceability and analytical method development than unsubstantial and expensive complex tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, which should be conducted only at final stages for the improvement of the structure on the whole

  2. Long-term outcomes of four patients with tracheal agenesis who underwent airway and esophageal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazuke, Yuko; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Uehara, Shuichiro; Ueno, Takehisa; Nara, Keigo; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Kubota, Akio; Usui, Noriaki; Soh, Hideki; Nomura, Motonari; Oue, Takaharu; Sasaki, Takashi; Nose, Satoko; Saka, Ryuta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of four patients with tracheal agenesis who underwent airway and esophageal/alimentary reconstruction. We reviewed the medical records of four long-term survivors of tracheal agenesis and collected the following data: age, sex, type of tracheal agenesis, method of reconstruction, nutritional management, and physical and neurological development. The patients consisted of three boys and one girl, who ranged in age from 77 to 109months. The severity of their condition was classified as Floyd's type I (n=2), II (n=1), or III (n=1). Mechanical respiratory support was not necessary in any of the cases. Esophageal/alimentary reconstruction was performed using the small intestine (n=2), a gastric tube (n=1), and the esophagus (n=1). The age at esophageal reconstruction ranged from 41 to 55months. All of the cases required enteral nutrition via gastrostomy. Three of the patients were able to swallow a small amount of liquid and one was able to take pureed food orally. The physical development of the subjects was moderately delayed-borderline in childhood. Neurological development was normal in two cases and slightly delayed in two cases. None of the long-term survivors of tracheal agenesis required the use of an artificial respirator, and their development was close to normal. Future studies should aim to elucidate the optimal method for performing esophageal reconstruction to allow tracheal agenesis patients to achieve their full oral intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of weight regain in patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantavasinkul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai; Omotosho, Philip; Corsino, Leonor; Portenier, Dana; Torquati, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a highly effective treatment for obesity and results in long-term weight loss and resolution of co-morbidities. However, weight regain may occur as soon as 1-2 years after surgery. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of weight regain and possible preoperative predictors of this phenomenon after RYGB. An academic medical center in the United States. A total of 1426 obese patients (15.8% male) who underwent RYGB during January 2000 to 2012 and had at least a 2-year follow-up were reviewed. We included only patients who were initially successful, having achieved at least 50% excess weight loss at 1 year postoperatively. Patients were then categorized into either the weight regain group (WR) or sustained weight loss (SWL) group based upon whether they gained≥15% of their 1-year postoperative weight. Weight regain was observed in 244 patients (17.1%). Preoperative body mass index was similar between groups. Body mass index was significantly higher and percent excess weight loss was significantly lower in the WR group (Pweight regain was 19.5±9.3 kg and-.8±8.5 in the WR and SWL groups, respectively (Pweight loss. Moreover, a longer duration after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The present study confirmed that a longer interval after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The findings of this study underscore the complexity of the mechanisms underlying weight loss and regain after RYGB. Future prospective studies are needed to further explore the prevalence, predictors, and mechanisms of weight regain after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of patients who underwent resympathectomy for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, José Ribas Milanez; Lembrança, Lucas; Fukuda, Juliana Maria; Kauffman, Paulo; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Puech-Leão, Pedro; Wolosker, Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Video thoracoscopic sympathectomy is the recommended surgical treatment for primary hyperhidrosis and has a high success rate. Despite this high success rate, some patients are unresponsive and eventually need a resympathectomy. Few studies have previously analysed exclusively the results of these resympathectomies in patients with primary hyperhidrosis. None of the studies have objectively evaluated the degree of response to surgery or the improvement in quality of life after resympathectomies. This is a retrospective study, evaluating 15 patients from an initial group of 2300 patients who underwent resympathectomy after failure of the primary surgical treatment. We evaluated sympathectomy levels of resection, technical difficulties, surgical complications preoperative quality of life, response to treatment and quality-of-life improvement 30 days after each surgery. Regarding gender, 11 (73.3%) patients were women. The average age was 23.2 with SD of 5.17 years, and the mean body mass index was 20.9 (SD 2.12). Ten patients had major complaints about their hands (66%) and 5 (33%) patients about their forearms. A high degree of response to sympathectomy occurred in 73% of patients. In 11 of these patients, the improvement in quality of life was considered high, 3 showed a mild improvement and 1 did not improve. No major complications occurred; the presence of adhesions was reported in 11 patients and pleural drainage was necessary in 4 patients. Resympathectomy is an effective procedure, and it improves the quality of life in patients with primary hyperhidrosis who failed after the first surgery. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical outcomes of 380 patients with double outlet right ventricle who underwent biventricular repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoujun; Ma, Kai; Hu, Shengshou; Hua, Zhongdong; Yang, Keming; Yan, Jun; Chen, Qiuming

    2014-09-01

    The study objective was to report the outcomes of biventricular repair in patients with double outlet right ventricle. Patients with double outlet right ventricle who underwent biventricular repair at Fuwai Hospital from January 2005 to December 2012 were included. Patients were excluded if double outlet right ventricle was combined with atrioventricular septal defect, heterotaxy syndrome, atrioventricular discordance, or univentricular physiology. A total of 380 consecutive patients with a mean age of 1.9 ± 2.1 years (range, 1 month to 6 years) were included. Varied types of biventricular repair were customized individually. Follow-up was 90.4% complete, and the mean follow-up time was 3.4 ± 3.9 years. There were 17 (4.5%) early deaths and 7 (2.1%) late deaths. Preoperative pulmonary hypertension was the only risk factor for early mortality. Postoperative significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was present in 9 survivors. Patients with noncommitted ventricular septal defect had a longer crossclamp time, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, and higher incidence of postdischarge left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. There were 4 reoperations, all of which were caused by subaortic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. All of the pressure gradients were decreased to less than 20 mm Hg after the modified Konno procedure with an uneventful postoperative course. Optimal results of varied types of biventricular repair for double outlet right ventricle have been acquired. Although noncommitted ventricular septal defect is technically difficult, the outcomes of patients are favorable. Late-onset left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is the main reason for reoperation but can be successfully relieved by the modified Konno procedure. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Newly Developed Sarcopenia as a Prognostic Factor for Survival in Patients who Underwent Liver Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Young Jeon

    Full Text Available The relationship between a perioperative change in sarcopenic status and clinical outcome of liver transplantation (LT is unknown. We investigated whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status were associated with the survival of patients.This retrospective study was based on a cohort of 145 patients from a single transplant center who during a mean of 1 year after LT underwent computed tomography imaging evaluation. The cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle of LT patients was compared with that of age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status affect post-LT survival.The mean age at LT of the 116 male and 29 female patients was 50.2 ± 7.9 years; the mean follow-up duration was 51.6 ± 32.9 months. All pre-LT patients with sarcopenia still had sarcopenia 1 year after LT; 14 (15% patients had newly developed sarcopenia. The mean survival duration was 91.8 ± 4.2 months for non-sarcopenic patients and 80.0 ± 5.2 months for sarcopenic patients (log-rank test, p = 0.069. In subgroup analysis, newly developed sarcopenia was an independent negative predictor for post-LT survival (hazard ratio: 10.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-80.93, p = 0.024.Sarcopenia in LT recipients did not improve in any of the previously sarcopenic patients and newly developed within 1 year in others. Newly developed sarcopenia was associated with increased mortality. Newly developed sarcopenia can be used to stratify patients with regard to the risk of post-LT mortality.

  7. Chernobyl: lessons of the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a drastic increase the incidents of thyroid cancer in children living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The incidents of hemoblastoses which are etiologically closely related to radiation did not change after the incident. The lessons of the decade that passed since the accident necessitate measures aimed at alleviation of the medical consequences of the accident which are to be implemented for many years. The program of such measures should be based on a strictly scientific evaluation of each factor, that will be conductive to a most adequate state financing of this work [ru

  8. Comparison of Standard Catheters Versus Radial Artery-Specific Catheter in Patients Who Underwent Coronary Angiography Through Transradial Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, On; Goel, Sunny; Acholonu, Michael; Kulbak, Guy; Verma, Shivani; Travlos, Efstratios; Casazza, Richard; Borgen, Elliot; Malik, Bilal; Friedman, Michael; Moskovits, Norbert; Frankel, Robert; Shani, Jacob; Ayzenberg, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    In this prospective, randomized controlled study, we aim to compare the performance outcomes of standard catheters with the radial artery-specific catheter. Over the past decade, transradial cardiac catheterization has gained widespread popularity because of its low complication rates compared with transfemoral access. Operators have the choice of using either standard catheters (used for both transfemoral and transradial approach, with need for separate catheter use for either right or left coronary artery engagement) or a dedicated radial artery catheter, which is specifically designed to engage both coronary arteries through radial artery access. A total of 110 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography at our institution from March 2015 to April 2015 were prospectively randomized to either radial artery-specific Tiger catheter (5Fr; Terumo Interventional Systems, Somerset, New Jersey) versus standard Judkins left and right catheters (5Fr R4, L4; Cordis Corporation, Miami, Florida). The end points of the study included fluoroscopy time, dose-area product, contrast volume used, and total procedure time for the coronary angiography. A total of 57 patients (52%) were randomized to radial artery-specific catheter and 53 (48%) to the standard catheter. Tiger catheter was associated with significantly lower fluoroscopy time (184 ± 91 vs 238 ± 131 seconds, p = 0.015), which was statistically significant. Other outcome measures such as dose-area product (2,882.4 ± 1,471.2 vs 3,524.6 ± 2,111.7 Gy·cm(2), p = 0.07), total contrast volume (48.1 ± 16.1 vs 53.4 ± 18.5 ml, p = 0.114), and total procedure time (337 ± 382 vs 434 ± 137 seconds, p = 0.085) were also lower in single-catheter group, but it did not reach statistical significance. A total of 8 patients (14%) were crossed over from radial-specific catheter arm to standard catheter arm because of substandard image quality and difficulty in coronary engagement. Six patients had to be

  9. The LUVOIR Decadal Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, G. N.; Crooke, J.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Fischer, D.; Peterson, B.; Schmidt, B. E.; Stdt, T. L. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four mission concepts being studied by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR is a general-purpose space-based observatory with a large aperture in the 8-16 m range and a total bandpass spanning from the far-UV to the near-infrared. This observatory will enable revolutionary new studies in many areas of astronomy, including planetary science within and beyond our Solar System. Because LUVOIR is being considered for the next decadal survey, it must be capable of advancing our understanding of astronomical targets, including exoplanets, far beyond what will be achieved by the next two decades of observations from other space- or ground-based facilities. This means that the mission must move past planet detection, which is happening now with Kepler and ground-based measurements and will continue with TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) and WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope). It must also move beyond the chemical characterization of gas giants, which has begun with observations from Spitzer, Hubble, and ground-based telescopes and will greatly advances with the upcoming JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) and WFIRST coronagraph. Therefore, one of LUVOIR's main science objectives will be to directly image rocky Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of other stars, measure their spectra, analyze the chemistry of their atmospheres, and obtain information about their surfaces. Such observations will allow us to evaluate these worlds' habitability and potential for life. We will review the specific observational strategies needed for astrobiological assessments of exoplanetary environments, including the wavelength range and spectral resolution required for these habitability analyses and biosignature searches. Further, we will discuss how the observational requirements to make measurements of "Earthlike" worlds will allow high-quality observations of a wide

  10. 40 CFR 350.7 - Substantiating claims of trade secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating claims of trade secrecy..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy...

  11. Helminthiasis: A substantial hindrance to profitable egg-production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminthiasis: A substantial hindrance to profitable egg-production in the domestic fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus ): A case study of commercial-poultry farms In Port ... The helminthes suspected to have caused or contributed to the death and/or poor-performance of the birds in this study) were recovered and identified by a ...

  12. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-2 Substantial gainful... minimum wage prescribed by section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, 29 U.S.C.... Example (1). Before retirement on disability, taxpayer worked for a hotel as night desk clerk. After...

  13. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  14. SUBSTANTIATION OF SOLUTIONS PERTAINING TO COMPLEX PRODUCTION RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  15. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  16. 26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the daily cost of the traveler's own breakfast, lunch, and dinner and of expenditures incidental to... portions of a taxable year and use that record to substantiate the business/investment use of listed property for all or a portion of the taxable year if the taxpayer can demonstrate by other evidence that...

  17. A New Decade of Vaccines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-09-01

    The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.

  18. Two decades of PRA: What next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Two decades ago, in the spring of 1972, the Reactor Safety Study was undertaken for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The goal of this study was to assess the risk to the public posed by the nuclear power plants operating in the US. Some three and one-half years later in October 1975, the study group issued its final report titled The Reactor Safety Study, also commonly known by its document number WASH 1400. Because it was issued at a time of heated public debate about nuclear safety, WASH 1400 received considerable critical review. By the late 1970s, as a result of the Lewis Report and the accident at Three Mile Island, the value of the WASH 1400 methodology was gradually recognized. A number of utilities undertook such studies of their own plants. The field of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) developed from these efforts. Challenges remain. Among these are how to effectively communicate the results of the analysis. Just what does a probability of one in a million mean? Is there a de minimis probability - one so small that it can be ignored? How should society make decisions under substantial uncertainty? A number of these questions pose real challenges for the future

  19. Decadal opportunities for space architects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-12-01

    A significant challenge for the new field of space architecture is the dearth of project opportunities. Yet every year more young professionals express interest to enter the field. This paper derives projections that bound the number, type, and range of global development opportunities that may be reasonably expected over the next few decades for human space flight (HSF) systems so those interested in the field can benchmark their goals. Four categories of HSF activity are described: human Exploration of solar system bodies; human Servicing of space-based assets; large-scale development of space Resources; and Breakout of self-sustaining human societies into the solar system. A progressive sequence of capabilities for each category starts with its earliest feasible missions and leads toward its full expression. The four sequences are compared in scale, distance from Earth, and readiness. Scenarios hybridize the most synergistic features from the four sequences for comparison to status quo, government-funded HSF program plans. Finally qualitative, decadal, order-of-magnitude estimates are derived for system development needs, and hence opportunities for space architects. Government investment towards human planetary exploration is the weakest generator of space architecture work. Conversely, the strongest generator is a combination of three market drivers: (1) commercial passenger travel in low Earth orbit; (2) in parallel, government extension of HSF capability to GEO; both followed by (3) scale-up demonstration of end-to-end solar power satellites in GEO. The rich end of this scale affords space architecture opportunities which are more diverse, complex, large-scale, and sociologically challenging than traditional exploration vehicle cabins and habitats.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  1. Tobacco products, exemptions from substantial equivalence requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to establish procedures for requesting an exemption from the substantial equivalence requirements of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The final rule describes the process and statutory criteria for requesting an exemption and explains how FDA reviews requests for exemptions. This regulation satisfies the requirement in the Tobacco Control Act that FDA issue regulations implementing the exemption provision.

  2. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  3. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology. We had better investigate the ethical aspects of considerable human lifespan extension now, before this extension has become genuinely practicable, or before large sums of money have been spent on i...

  4. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Lyme disease: the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Johnson, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Although Lyme disease remains a controversial illness, recent events have created an unprecedented opportunity to make progress against this serious tick-borne infection. Evidence presented during the legally mandated review of the restrictive Lyme guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has confirmed the potential for persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as the complicating role of tick-borne coinfections such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species associated with failure of short-course antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, renewed interest in the role of cell wall-deficient (CWD) forms in chronic bacterial infection and progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilms has focused attention on these processes in chronic Lyme disease. Recognition of the importance of CWD forms and biofilms in persistent B. burgdorferi infection should stimulate pharmaceutical research into new antimicrobial agents that target these mechanisms of chronic infection with the Lyme spirochete. Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing. Advances in these areas have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the coming decade. PMID:21694904

  6. Lyme disease: the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael B Stricker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphael B Stricker, Lorraine JohnsonInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Although Lyme disease remains a controversial illness, recent events have created an unprecedented opportunity to make progress against this serious tick-borne infection. Evidence presented during the legally mandated review of the restrictive Lyme guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA has confirmed the potential for persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as the complicating role of tick-borne coinfections such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species associated with failure of short-course antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, renewed interest in the role of cell wall-deficient (CWD forms in chronic bacterial infection and progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilms has focused attention on these processes in chronic Lyme disease. Recognition of the importance of CWD forms and biofilms in persistent B. burgdorferi infection should stimulate pharmaceutical research into new antimicrobial agents that target these mechanisms of chronic infection with the Lyme spirochete. Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing. Advances in these areas have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the coming decade.Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, L-forms, cysts, biofilms, proteomics

  7. GESAMP: Two decades of accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windom, H.L

    1991-01-01

    Many of the uses of the oceans by society may lead potentially to the degradation of the marine environment. Human activities on land lead to the inadvertent or deliberate input of contaminants to the oceans which also may result in marine environmental degradation on local, regional or global scales. Potential impacts on the marine environment of human activities on land and the potential conflicts of society's utilization of the oceans require ongoing global evaluation from a multidisciplinary scientific perspective. This has been recognized for some time by the community of United Nations organizations, eight of which jointly sponsor an interdisciplinary groups of scientists to provide independent advice on existing and potential marine pollution problems. This Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) was formed two decades ago to serve as a mechanism for encouraging coordination, collaboration and harmonization of activities related to marine pollution of common interest to the co-sponsoring bodies. More recently, GESAMP has expanded its programme to include consideration of the impacts of other human activities, such as coastal development, on the marine environment. The purpose of this booklet is to briefly describe what GESAMP is, how it operates and what it accomplishes

  8. Inter-decadal changes in stratification and double diffusion in a transatlantic section along 7.5°N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel San Antolín Plaza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We use three transatlantic cruises (1957, 1993 and 2010 along 7.5°N to analyse inter-decadal variations of the neutral buoyancy frequency (with neutral density replacing potential density and Turner angle. We also use Argo data from the 2003-2011 period to show that, within central and intermediate waters, the changes between the three sections are slightly greater than the seasonal and inter-annual variations, so they may be interpreted as actual inter-decadal variations. The results point to a generalized sinking of isoneutrals between 1957 and 2010, with maximum zonally-averaged values of about 100 m in the central and upper deep layers. They also reveal the occurrence of substantial changes in the intermediate and neighbouring water strata, with differential vertical sinking of isoneutrals and the transformation of their thermohaline characteristics. The neutral buoyancy frequency increased in the lower central and upper intermediate layers and decreased in the lower intermediate and upper deep layers. The distributions of Turner angle highlight a predominance of salt-fingering in the North Atlantic, except for a gravitationally doubly-stable layer located immediately below the intermediate water core; this stable layer thinned substantially between 1957 and 2010 because of the sinking of the lower intermediate isoneutrals acting together with actual water transformations from Antarctic Intermediate Waters into North Atlantic Deep Waters. We conclude that a significant portion of the water column underwent both increased vertical stratification and enhanced salt-fingering, two mechanisms with opposite effects on the effective vertical diffusion.

  9. The long-term impact of tissue injury on pain processing and modulation: a study on ex-prisoners of war who underwent torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, R; Ginzburg, K; Mikulincer, M; Solomon, Z

    2014-04-01

    Tissue injury may, in some instances, induce chronic pain lasting for decades. Torture survivors suffer from high rates of chronic pain and hypersensitivity in the previously injured regions. Whether torture survivors display generalized alterations in pain perception and modulation, and whether such alterations underlie their chronic pain is unknown. We aimed at exploring the long-term alterations in pain perception and modulation in torture survivors. In order to address these questions, a systematic quantitative somatosensory evaluation was performed in individuals (n = 60) who suffer from chronic pain, and who, decades previously, were tortured, resulting in substantial tissue damage. These individuals were compared with age- and sex-matched individuals (n = 44) of similar background. Testing included the measurement of pain threshold and pain tolerance, perceived suprathreshold stimuli, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and temporal summation of pain (TSP) in intact body regions. Chronic pain was found highly prevalent (86.6%) among torture survivors, who exhibited higher suprathreshold pain ratings (p < 0.05), poorer CPM (p < 0.0001) and stronger TSP (p < 0.0001) than controls. Significant differences in CPM and TSP were also found between torture survivors and controls with chronic pain. Chronic pain intensity among torture survivors correlated negatively with the magnitude of CPM (r = -0.47, p < 0.01). Torture appears to induce generalized dysfunctional pain modulation that may underlie the intense chronic pain experienced by torture survivors decades after torture. The results may be generalized to instances where chronic pain exists for decades after severe injury in non-tortured populations and emphasize the importance of preventive care. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  10. Action learning across the decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Ken

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how action learning concepts were used in two healthcare projects undertaken many decades apart. The specific purpose in both cases was to examine how action learning can contribute to shared learning across key stakeholders in a complex socio-technical system. In each case study, action learning supported joint design programmes and the sharing of perspectives about the complex system under investigation. Design/methodology/approach Two action learning projects are described: first, the Hospital Internal Communications (HIC) project led by Reg Revans in the 1960s. Senior staff in ten London hospitals formed action learning teams to address communication issues. Second, in the Better Outcomes for People with Learning Disabilities: Transforming Care (BOLDTC) project, videoconferencing equipment enabled people with learning disabilities to increase their opportunities to communicate. A mutual learning process was established to enable stakeholders to explore the potential of the technical system to improve individual care. Findings The HIC project demonstrated the importance of evidence being shared between team members and that action had to engage the larger healthcare system outside the hospital. The BOLDTC project confirmed the continuing relevance of action learning to healthcare today. Mutual learning was achieved between health and social care specialists and technologists. Originality/value This work draws together the socio-technical systems tradition (considering both social and technical issues in organisations) and action learning to demonstrate that complex systems development needs to be undertaken as a learning process in which action provides the fuel for learning and design.

  11. A decade of Radiometallurgy Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.; Bahl, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    The main thrust of the Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Radiometallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is on (1) R and D work and production of plutonium bearing nuclear fuels, (2) Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of fuels and structural materials, and (3) failure analysis of power reactor components. The main activities and achievements of the Division during the decade beginning from April 1978 are highlighted and the new thrust areas oriented towards installing a series of 235 MWe and 500 MWe PHWR units and prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) of 500 MWe capacity during the next 15 years are described in brief. The major achievements during last ten years are: (1) development and irradiation testing of mixed uranium plutonium oxide (MOX), as an alternative fuel for boiling water reactors at Tarapur, (2) setting up of a 10 tons/year pilot plant for fabrication of oxide fuels and technical support for setting up such plants, (3) development and production of plutonium rich, advanced mixed uranium plutonium monocarbide driver fuel for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor comm issioned at Kalpakkam, (4) development and fabrication of Al- 233 U plate fuel elements for KAMINI reactor, (5) PIE of fuel elements from Indian reactors in operation, (6) failure analysis of reactor components, and (7) in-pile performance analysis of power reactor structural materials. A list of publications during 1978-88 by the scientists of the Division is given at the end. The publications are listed under the headings: (1) fuels, (2) non-destructive evaluation, (3) engineering development, (4) welding development, (5) characterization and property evaluation, and (6) post irradiation examination. The entire text is illustrated with a number of diagrams and photographs - many of them coloured . (M.G.B.)

  12. The DDR at telomeres lacking intact shelterin does not require substantial chromatin decompaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, Leonid A; Babcock, Hazen; Zhuang, Xiaowei; de Lange, Titia

    2017-03-15

    Telomeres are protected by shelterin, a six-subunit protein complex that represses the DNA damage response (DDR) at chromosome ends. Extensive data suggest that TRF2 in shelterin remodels telomeres into the t-loop structure, thereby hiding telomere ends from double-stranded break repair and ATM signaling, whereas POT1 represses ATR signaling by excluding RPA. An alternative protection mechanism was suggested recently by which shelterin subunits TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mediate telomeric chromatin compaction, which was proposed to minimize access of DDR factors. We performed superresolution imaging of telomeres in mouse cells after conditional deletion of TRF1, TRF2, or both, the latter of which results in the complete loss of shelterin. Upon removal of TRF1 or TRF2, we observed only minor changes in the telomere volume in most of our experiments. Upon codeletion of TRF1 and TRF2, the telomere volume increased by varying amounts, but even those samples exhibiting small changes in telomere volume showed DDR at nearly all telomeres. Upon shelterin removal, telomeres underwent 53BP1-dependent clustering, potentially explaining at least in part the apparent increase in telomere volume. Furthermore, chromatin accessibility, as determined by ATAC-seq (assay for transposase-accessible chromatin [ATAC] with high-throughput sequencing), was not substantially altered by shelterin removal. These results suggest that the DDR induced by shelterin removal does not require substantial telomere decompaction. © 2017 Timashev et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, η p 2 =0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pmobility disability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Findings from Total Colonoscopy in Obstructive Colorectal Cancer Patients Who Underwent Stent Placement as a Bridge to Surgery(BTS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Tsuyuki, Hajime; Kojima, Tadahiro; Koreyasu, Ryohei; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Kota; Ikeda, Takashi; Takayanagi, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    We clinically investigated 34 patients with obstructive colorectal cancer who underwent placement of a colonic stent as a bridge to surgery(BTS), focusing on endoscopic findings after stent placement.Twenty -nine patients(85.3%)underwent colonoscopy after stent placement, and the entire large intestine could be observed in 28(96.6%).Coexisting lesions were observed in 22(78.6%)of these 28 patients.The lesions comprised adenomatous polyps in 17 patients(60.7%), synchronous colon cancers in 5 patients(17.9%), and obstructive colitis in 3 patients(10.7%), with some overlapping cases.All patients with multiple cancers underwent one-stage surgery, and all lesions were excised at the same time.Colonoscopy after colonic stent placement is important for preoperative diagnosis of coexisting lesions and planning the extent of resection. These considerations support the utility of colonic stenting for BTS.

  15. Future loss of Arctic sea-ice cover could drive a substantial decrease in California's rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Santer, Benjamin D; Bonfils, Céline; Lucas, Donald D; Chiang, John C H; Zimmerman, Susan

    2017-12-05

    From 2012 to 2016, California experienced one of the worst droughts since the start of observational records. As in previous dry periods, precipitation-inducing winter storms were steered away from California by a persistent atmospheric ridging system in the North Pacific. Here we identify a new link between Arctic sea-ice loss and the North Pacific geopotential ridge development. In a two-step teleconnection, sea-ice changes lead to reorganization of tropical convection that in turn triggers an anticyclonic response over the North Pacific, resulting in significant drying over California. These findings suggest that the ability of climate models to accurately estimate future precipitation changes over California is also linked to the fidelity with which future sea-ice changes are simulated. We conclude that sea-ice loss of the magnitude expected in the next decades could substantially impact California's precipitation, thus highlighting another mechanism by which human-caused climate change could exacerbate future California droughts.

  16. Formal and Substantial Irregularity of Procedural Acts in French Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohseni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedural acts may be invalid because of Formal or Substantial Irregularity. In French Procedural Law we can see a distinction between Invalidity of Instruments owning to Formal Irregularity and Invalidity of Documents by Reason of Essential Defect; a distinction that effects on nature and its plea time and subsequent regularization of document. Formal invalidity must be expressly provided for in Law, except where it is a case of a failure to comply with an important formality or one of public policy but Plea of invalidity based on failure to comply with substantive rules relating to written pleadings shall be admissible without the party raising them having to prove any prejudice to him even where the invalidity does not arise under express provisions.

  17. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  18. Monte Carlo reactor calculation with substantially reduced number of cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Joo, H. G.; Lee, D.; Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation scheme that substantially reduces the number of cycles is introduced with the aid of coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation. First, it is confirmed in terms of pin power errors that using extremely many particles resulting in short active cycles is beneficial even in the conventional MC scheme although wasted operations in inactive cycles cannot be reduced with more particles. A CMFD-assisted MC scheme is introduced as an effort to reduce the number of inactive cycles and the fast convergence behavior and reduced inter-cycle effect of the CMFD assisted MC calculation is investigated in detail. As a practical means of providing a good initial fission source distribution, an assembly based few-group condensation and homogenization scheme is introduced and it is shown that efficient MC eigenvalue calculations with fewer than 20 total cycles (including inactive cycles) are possible for large power reactor problems. (authors)

  19. Pathogenetic substantiation of surgical treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilіanskyі L.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose was to investigate tissue reactions on implantation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, after plastic surgery of experimental defect in rats in preperitoneal prosthesis localization. Research was performed in two experimental groups. Group 1 – in 17 rats an experimental defect of anterior abdominal wall with 3 cm of size with further preperitoneal fixation of the polypropylene mesh of 0,5×1,0 cm size was performed. Group 2 – in 20 rats under analogous conditions preperitoneal fixation of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen was performed. Morphological analysis of stages of scar tissue formation in the implantation region in the preperitoneal cavity of rats by stereological characteristics of cellular and fiber structures of connective tissue considering hemodynamic characteristics shows substantial benefits of polypropylene mesh, processed with collagen, during 2 montha after experimental hernioplasty.

  20. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  1. Changing trends in peripartum hysterectomy over the last 4 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify changing trends in peripartum hysterectomy (PH) in a single large obstetric population over the last 40 years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was performed from 1966-2005 of patients who had PH in any of the 3 Dublin obstetric hospitals. Cases were identified, and details were obtained from the combined patient databases of each hospital. RESULTS: There were 872,379 deliveries during the study period, among which 358 women underwent PH (0.4\\/1000 deliveries). In a comparison of the study decades 1966-1975 with 1996-2005, PH decreased from 0.9 per 1000 deliveries to 0.2 of 1000 deliveries. Although the overall cesarean delivery rate has increased from 6-19% during these 2 decades, the percentage of PH that occurs in the setting of a previous cesarean delivery has increased from 27-57% (P < .00001). Indications for PH have changed significantly in this time period, with "uterine rupture" as the indication for PH decreasing from 40.5-9.3% (P < .0001) and placenta accreta as the indication increasing significantly from 5.4-46.5% (P < .00001). CONCLUSION: PH has decreased over the last 4 decades. However, alongside the rising cesarean delivery rate, there has been a marked increase in the incidence of placenta accreta.

  2. Substantially Evolutionary Theorizing in Designing Software-Intensive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Useful inheritances from scientific experience open perspective ways for increasing the degree of success in designing of systems with software. One such way is a search and build applied theory that takes into account the nature of design and the specificity of software engineering. This paper presents a substantially evolutionary approach to creating the project theories, the application of which leads to positive effects that are traditionally expected from theorizing. Any implementation of the approach is based on a reflection by designers of an operational space of designing onto a semantic memory of a question-answer type. One of the results of such reflection is a system of question-answer nets, the nodes of which register facts of interactions of designers with accessible experience. A set of such facts is used by designers for creating and using the theory that belongs to the new subclass of Grounded Theories. This sub-class is oriented on organizationally behavioral features of a project’s work based on design thinking, automated mental imagination, and thought experimenting that facilitate increasing the degree of controlled intellectualization in the design process and, correspondingly, increasing the degree of success in the development of software-intensive systems.

  3. APACHE II SCORING SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CHILDREN WHO UNDERWENT POLYCHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term disease prognosis should be considered for the appropriate treatment policy based on the assessment of disease severity in patients with acute disease. The adequate assessment of disease severity and prognosis allows the indications for transferring patients to the resuscitation and intensive care department to be defined more precisely. Disease severity of patients who underwent polychemotherapy was assessed using APACHE II scoring system.

  4. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) : A study of 219 patients who underwent surgery for AVSD at Rikshospitalet from 1979 to 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Skraastad, Ingrid Birthe Bendixen; Skraastad, Berit Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluates 219 consecutive patients that underwent surgical repair for AVSD in a long term follow-up. Methods: The patients had a surgical correction for AVSD at Rikshospitalet from January 1979 to December 1999. The follow-up was closed in January 2009. AVSD with additional defects and syndromes were included. Results: Forty-two patients died during the observational period. Early mortality was 12.8% and late mortality was 6.4%. Early mortality declined f...

  5. Comparison of libido, Female Sexual Function Index, and Arizona scores in women who underwent laparoscopic or conventional abdominal hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayataş, Semra; Özkaya, Enis; Api, Murat; Çıkman, Seyhan; Gürbüz, Ayşen; Eser, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare female sexual function between women who underwent conventional abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven women who were scheduled to undergo hysterectomy without oophorectomy for benign gynecologic conditions were included in the study. The women were assigned to laparoscopic or open abdominal hysterectomy according to the surgeons preference. Women with endometriosis and symptomatic prolapsus were excluded. Female sexual function scores were obtained before and six months after the operation from each participant by using validated questionnaires. Results: Pre- and postoperative scores of three different quationnaires were found as comparable in the group that underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy (p>0.05). Scores were also found as comparable in the group that underwent laparotomic hysterectomy (p>0.05). Pre- and postoperative values were compared between the two groups and revealed similar results with regard to all three scores (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our data showed comparable pre- and the postoperative scores for the two different hysterectomy techniques. The two groups were also found to have similar pre- and postoperative score values. PMID:28913149

  6. Vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates based on vaginal cuff length in patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Cho, S Y; Park, S I; Kim, B J; Kim, M H; Choi, S C; Ryu, S Y; Lee, E D

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of vaginal cuff length (VCL) with vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates in patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomies. The clinicopathologic characteristics were collected from the medical records of 280 patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomies. The association of VCL with 3-year vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates was determined using a Z-test. The association of VCL with other clinicopathologic characteristics was also determined. The VCL was not associated with 3-year vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates. The 3-year vaginal recurrence rate was 0%-2% and the 3-year pelvic recurrence rate was 7%-8%, independent of VCL. The VCL and the age of patients had an inverse relationship. However, the VCL was not associated with histologic type, FIGO stage, clinical tumor size, tumor size in the surgical specimen, depth of invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, parametrial involvement, lymph node involvement, and adjuvant therapy. One-hundred ninety of 280 patients (68%) underwent adjuvant therapies following radical hysterectomies. Although it is limited by the high rate of adjuvant therapy, the current study suggested that the VCL following radical hysterectomy in patients with cervical cancer was not associated with vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New theory of arrhythmia. Conceptual substantiation of arrhythmia mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Ermoshkin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims A new attempt is made to substantiate the concept of the mechanism of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Methods The paper is based on a theoretical analysis of special literature, personal experience of participation in conferences and discussions with leading Russian cardiologists. Results We have succeeded in demonstrating the fact that researchers ignore the fact that cardiomyocytes can be excited by mechanical pulses, when considering the arrhythmia mechanisms. We have conducted trials using the Cardiocode device. Under stress in a human, opened may be large and small arteriovenous anastomoses, via which blood under high pressure is ejected into veins. It leads to pressure surges in arteries and veins. The vena cava dilates, its tonus increases. In some cases, the pulse waves travel via anastomoses along the vena cava walls to the atria and the ventricles. An above-threshold concentration of tensions from mechanical pulses may excite cardiomyocytes from different points of the myocardium, disturbing the sinus rhythm. As a result, extrasystoles, tachycardia attacks, blocking of blood circulation in the peripheral segments of the venous arterial networks, edemata, thrombosis and metabolism disorders appear. Arrhythmia, tachycardia attacks and concomitant myocardial ischemia lead to progression of heart fibrosis. Such changes increase the probability of fibrillations and sudden cardiac death. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyle, the presence of opening and not properly closing anastomoses may provoke a number of diseases. To avoid the cardiac arrhythmia attacks and prevent SCD, it is necessary to suppress travel of the mechanical waves within the following circuitry: aorta – artery – anastomosis – vein – vena cava – atria – ventricles. The travel of the mechanical waves within the same vessel circuitry explains the fact that the fixed couplings under extrasystoles are observed, and the beat-to-beat RR intervals under tachycardia

  8. A Decade of Scholarship in Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Avery M.; Padgett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The teaching environment in business schools has changed dramatically over the last decade. But the last comprehensive review of the scholarship of teaching was conducted more than a decade ago. Where and from whom do the best practices for teaching originate today? To answer this question, the authors examine marketing education scholarship…

  9. ''Nuclear Energy - Potential to Substantially Impact California's Energy Use''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The use of nuclear power to generate electricity is very widespread today, with about 20% of all U.S. electricity coming from the nation's 103 operating reactors. Worldwide there are over 400 commercial nuclear plants that make a similar contribution percentage-wise. However, all of the current U.S. reactors and most of those elsewhere are relatively old, with no new ones having been started domestically in over two decades and only a few now being built overseas, mostly in Asia. The principal reason for this hiatus in the U.S. is that the cost of electricity from new nuclear plants has been non-competitive with other electricity sources for a long time. The U.S. nuclear-power industry has not been stagnant during this time, however. First, the existing plants themselves are running significantly better than they were twenty years ago, to the extent that the US. reactor fleet is producing about one-third more electricity annually than it was, due largely to improvements in the capacity factors: the plants run more reliably, shut down less often, and the refueling outages take less than half as long as they once did. The safety performance has also improved dramatically, with major improvements in every one of the main indicators of safety. The security of the plants against sabotage or other malevolent acts has always been very strong, and is stronger still after recent upgrades in response to the September 2001 attacks in New York and Washington. Thus the U.S. nuclear-electricity industry has remained dynamic despite the absence of new construction. The U.S. and foreign companies that design reactors and hope someday to sell more of them have also been actively at work--they have developed advanced reactor designs that promise to cost much less to build and to operate, and to have even better safety performance. Several of these advanced designs have received design-certification approvals from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, meaning that a utility could

  10. Improved image quality in abdominal CT in patients who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with small metal implants using a raw data-based metal artifact reduction algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Negi, Noriyuki [Kobe University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Inokawa, Hiroyasu; Sugihara, Naoki [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Tochigi (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    To determine the value of a raw data-based metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm for image quality improvement in abdominal CT for patients with small metal implants. Fifty-eight patients with small metal implants (3-15 mm in size) who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged with CT. CT data were reconstructed by filtered back projection with and without SEMAR algorithm in axial and coronal planes. To evaluate metal artefact reduction, mean CT number (HU and SD) and artefact index (AI) values within the liver were calculated. Two readers independently evaluated image quality of the liver and pancreas and visualization of vasculature using a 5-point visual score. HU and AI values and image quality on images with and without SEMAR were compared using the paired Student's t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using linear-weighted κ test. Mean HU and AI on images with SEMAR was significantly lower than those without SEMAR (P < 0.0001). Liver and pancreas image qualities and visualizations of vasculature were significantly improved on CT with SEMAR (P < 0.0001) with substantial or almost perfect agreement (0.62 ≤ κ ≤ 0.83). SEMAR can improve image quality in abdominal CT in patients with small metal implants by reducing metallic artefacts. (orig.)

  11. Intergration effects of D-shaped, underwing, aft-mounted, separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Milton; Carlson, John R.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at freestream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.82 and angles of attack from -3.0 to 4.0 deg to determine the integration effects of D-shaped, underwing, aft-mounted, separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transonic transport configuration. The results showed that the aft-mounted nacelle/pylon produced an increase in lift over that of the wing-body configuration by pressurizing much of the wing lower surface in front of the pylon. For the D-shaped nacelle, a substantial region of supersonic flow over the wing, aft of the lip of the nacelle, cancelled the reduction in drag caused by the increase in pressures ahead of the lip, to increase interference and form drag compared with a similar circular-shaped nacelle. The installed drag of the D=shaped nacelle was essentially the same as that of an aft-mounted circular nacelle from a previous investigation.

  12. Atlantic effects on recent decadal trends in global monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Li, Xichen; Xie, Shang-Ping; Ueda, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Natural climate variability contributes to recent decadal climate trends. Specifically the trends during the satellite era since 1979 include Atlantic and Indian Ocean warming and Pacific cooling associated with phase shifts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and enhanced global monsoon (GM) circulation and rainfall especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we evaluate effects of the oceanic changes on the global and regional monsoon trends by partial ocean temperature restoring experiments in a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Via trans-basin atmosphere-ocean teleconnections, the Atlantic warming drives a global pattern of sea surface temperature change that resembles observations, giving rise to the enhanced GM. The tropical Atlantic warming and the resultant Indian Ocean warming favor subtropical deep-tropospheric warming in both hemispheres, resulting in the enhanced monsoon circulations and precipitation over North America, South America and North Africa. The extratropical North Atlantic warming makes an additional contribution to the monsoon enhancement via Eurasian continent warming and resultant land-sea thermal gradient over Asia. The results of this study suggest that the Atlantic multidecadal variability can explain a substantial part of global climate variability including the recent decadal trends of GM.

  13. The prognostic significance of preoperatively assessed AST/ALT (De Ritis) ratio on survival in patients underwent radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Kose, Osman; Koc, Esra Meltem; Ates, Erhan; Akin, Yigit; Yilmaz, Yuksel

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate prognostic significance of preoperatively assessed aspartate aminotransaminase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (De Ritis) ratio on survival in bladder cancer (BC) patients underwent radical cystectomy (RC). We, respectively, analysed clinical and pathological data of 153 patients who underwent RC for BC between February 2006 and December 2016 at a tertiary level hospital. The potential prognostic value of De Ritis ratio was assessed by using ROC curve analysis. The effect of the De Ritis ratio was analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression hazard models for patients' disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OAS). We had 149 BC patients, in total. Mean age was 61.65 ± 9.13 years. One hundred and thirty-nine (93.3%) of the patients were men. According to ROC analysis, optimal threshold of De Ritis ratio for DSS was 1.30. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the high De Ritis ratio group showed worse progression in DSS and OAS (all parameters, p < 0.001). On Cox regression models of clinical and pathological parameters to predict DSS, De Ritis ratio (HR 5.79, 95% CI 2.25-15.13), pathological T stage (HR 15.89, 95% CI 3.92-64.33, in all p < 0.001); and to predict OAS, De Ritis ratio (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.49-4.56; p < 0.001), pathological T stage (HR 5.42, 95% CI 2.63-11.64; p < 0.001) and age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08; p = 0.001) were determined as independent prognostic factors. Preoperative elevated De Ritis ratio could be an independent prognostic factor in BC patients underwent RC. Our results should be confirmed by large and properly designed prospective, randomized trials.

  14. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of different enteral immunonutrition formulas in patients underwent gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Min; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Bian, Wei; Wu, Jing; Deng, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xu

    2017-04-04

    Optimal enteral immunonutrition (EIN) regime for gastric cancer (GC) patients underwent gastrectomy remains uncertainty. To assess comparative efficacy of different EIN formulas in GC patients underwent gastrectomy, we performed network meta-analysis. We included 11 RCTs enrolling 840 patients. Pairwise meta-analysis indicated that EIN (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.86; MD -0.42, 95% CI -0.74-0.10), Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22-0.63; MD -0.42, 95% CI -0.75-0.07), Arg+Gln+ω-3-FAs (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.94; MD -0.69, 95% CI -1.22-1.07) reduced ICs and LOS. Network meta-analysis confirmed the potential of Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs for ICs (OR 0.27, 95% Crl 0.12-0.49) and Arg+Gln+ω-3-FAs for CIs (OR 0.22, 95% Crl 0.02-0.84) and LOS (SMD -0.63, 95% Crl -1.07-0.13), and indicated that Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs was superior to Arg+RNA and Arg+Gln for ICs as well. We performed direct and network meta-analyses for randomized controlled trials comparing EIN formulas with each other or standard enteral nutrition (SEN) in reducing infectious complications (ICs), noninfectious complications (NICs) and length of hospital stay (LOS), through January 2016. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SCURA) and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) were used to rank regimes and rate qualities of evidences respectively. As for GC patients underwent gastrectomy, Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs and Arg+Gln+ω-3-FAs are the optimal regimes of reducing ICs and LOS.

  15. [Four patients with hepatitis A presenting with fulminant hepatitis and acute renal failure and who underwent liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Hoon; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Hwang, Ji Won; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Chang Hoon; Gwak, Geum Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Koh, Kwang Chul; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2009-09-01

    Hepatitis A is generally known as a mild, self-limiting disease of the liver, but in rare instances it can progress to fulminant hepatitis, which may require liver transplantation for recovery. Such cases are known to be related to old age and underlying liver disease. We report four cases of hepatitis A in which patients presented with fulminant hepatitis and acute renal failure and underwent liver transplantation. The following common features were observed in our cases: (1) occurrence in relatively old age (>/=39 years old), (2) association with acute renal failure, (3) presence of hepatomegaly, and (4) microscopic features of submassive hepatic necrosis.

  16. Clinical Outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease who underwent FFR evaluation of intermediate coronary lesionS– COFFRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In our experience, MACE events were not higher in patients with FFR > 0.8 and kept under medical therapy and were similarly lower in patients with FFR ≤0.8 and underwent revascularisation (p = 0.73. Also MACE events were higher in patients with FFR ≤ 0.8 and did not undergo revascularisation compared to other two appropriately treated groups (p = 0.03. FFR based revascularization decision appears to be a safe strategy in Indian patients.

  17. The Impact of IT over Five Decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Raymond, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This contribution to the Ken D. Eason special issue is an illustration of the value of socio-technical analysis applied at an organizational level. We provide a brief historical overview of socio-technical IS research and review studies investigating the impact of IT on organizational structures...... in the last five decades, identifying a dominating (new) research theme in each decade. A key overall impact of IT in all decades has been a dramatic decrease in transaction costs making it increasingly easier for organizations to source from external providers. A five level taxonomy of sourcing arrangement...... leading to a new type of organization that we call the Ambient organization....

  18. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Michalak, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument. To this end, we have assembled a relatively complete description of the prospective mission sampling, atmospheric, and surface states that enables us to quantitatively scale measurement errors globally for a variety of nominal CO2 instrument approaches. The resulting error distributions are used in inverse studies to estimate the impact

  19. [Anesthetic Management of an Infant who Underwent Awake-intubation for Her Pharyngeal Injury Caused by a Toothbrush].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Arai, Takero; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-01

    A 2-year-and-4-month-old female infant, 12 kg in weight and 90 cm in height fell off from a table, which was about 1 m height with a toothbrush in her mouth without her parents noticing. Urgent CT scan showed that it penetrated the left side of her oropharyngeal wall to the bifurcation of her right carotid artery. According to the initial assessment, carotid artery seemed intact and there seemed to be no sign of CNS involvement. She underwent general anesthesia for further investigation and operation. We could detect vocal code with ease by inserting Glidescope between her tongue and the toothbrush. After the intubation, we administered fentanyl 25 μg rocuronium 15 mg and sevoflulane 3-5% to her, and then she underwent arteriography. The neurosurgeon found no sign of major arterial injury nor traumatic aneurysm nor CNS involvement. She went to the ICU intubated after the removal of the toothbrush. She was extubated 5 days after operation. One of the benefits of the Glidescope is that we can share the visual image, and we chose it this time. When we expect a difficult airway during management for oropharyngeal trauma, we have to consider the way to manage the airway.

  20. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability

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    Lirong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin were isolated from C. aurantium. Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory function on cell growth. ROS production was increased in naringin- and hesperetin-treated groups after one day of culture while the level was always lowest in the naringenin-treated group after three days of culture. 95 osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgery were assigned into two groups: naringenin group (NG, received 20 mg naringenin daily, n=47 and control group (CG, received 20 mg placebo daily, n=48. After an average of two-year follow-up, osteosarcoma volumes were smaller in the NG group than in the CG group (P>0.01. The rate of osteosarcoma recurrence was also lower in the NG group than in CG group. ROS levels were lower in the NG group than in the CG group. Thus, naringenin from Citrus aurantium inhibits osteosarcoma progression and local recurrence in the patients who underwent osteosarcoma surgery by improving antioxidant capability.

  1. Prognostic Impact of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index on Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideki; Dohi, Tomotaka; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Doi, Shinichiro; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Hassan, Ahmed; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Suwa, Satoru; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Malnutrition has been identified as an important predictor of poor clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study is to examine the prognostic impact of nutritional status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of nutrition, assessed using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) calculated by serum albumin and body mass index, was evaluated in 2,853 patients with CAD who underwent their first PCI between 2000 and 2011. Patients were assigned to tertiles based on their GNRI levels. The incidences of all-cause death and cardiac death were assessed. The median GNRI values were 101 (interquartile range 95 to 106). Lower GNRI levels were associated with older age and higher prevalence of acute coronary syndrome and chronic kidney disease. During the median follow-up period of 7.4 years, Kaplan-Meier curves showed ongoing divergence in rates of mortality among tertiles (GNRI nutritional status was associated with long-term clinical outcomes in CAD patients after PCI. Evaluation of GNRI carries important prognostic information and may guide the therapeutic approach to such patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mid-Term Results of Patients who Underwent Radiofrequency Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Together with Mitral Valve Surgery

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    Abdurrahim Çolak

    Full Text Available Abstract Objetive: Saline-irrigated radiofrequency ablation, which has been widely used for surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation in recent years, is 80-90% successful in achieving sinus rhythm. In our study, our surgical experience and mid-term results in patients who underwent mitral valve surgery and left atrial radiofrequency ablation were analyzed. Methods: Forty patients (15 males, 25 females; mean age 52.05±9.9 years; range 32-74 underwent surgery for atrial fibrillation associated with mitral valvular disease. All patients manifested atrial fibrillation, which started at least six months before the surgical intervention. The majority of patients (36 patients, 90% were in NYHA class III; 34 (85% patients had rheumatic heart disease. In addition to mitral valve surgery and radiofrequency ablation, coronary artery bypass, DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty, left ventricular aneurysm repair, and left atrial thrombus excision were performed. Following discharge from the hospital, patients' follow-up was performed as outpatient clinic examinations and the average follow-up period of patients was 18±3 months. Results: While the incidence of sinus rhythm was 85.3% on the first postoperative day, it was 80% during discharge and 71% in the 1st year follow-up examination. Conclusion: Radiofrequency ablation is an effective method when it is performed by appropriate surgical technique. Its rate for returning to sinus rhythm is as high as the rate of conventional surgical procedure.

  3. Contribution of solar radiation to decadal temperature variability over land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaicun; Dickinson, Robert E

    2013-09-10

    Global air temperature has become the primary metric for judging global climate change. The variability of global temperature on a decadal timescale is still poorly understood. This paper examines further one suggested hypothesis, that variations in solar radiation reaching the surface (Rs) have caused much of the observed decadal temperature variability. Because Rs only heats air during the day, its variability is plausibly related to the variability of diurnal temperature range (daily maximum temperature minus its minimum). We show that the variability of diurnal temperature range is consistent with the variability of Rs at timescales from monthly to decadal. This paper uses long comprehensive datasets for diurnal temperature range to establish what has been the contribution of Rs to decadal temperature variability. It shows that Rs over land globally peaked in the 1930s, substantially decreased from the 1940s to the 1970s, and changed little after that. Reduction of Rs caused a reduction of more than 0.2 °C in mean temperature during May to October from the 1940s through the 1970s, and a reduction of nearly 0.2 °C in mean air temperature during November to April from the 1960s through the 1970s. This cooling accounts in part for the near-constant temperature from the 1930s into the 1970s. Since then, neither the rapid increase in temperature from the 1970s through the 1990s nor the slowdown of warming in the early twenty-first century appear to be significantly related to changes of Rs.

  4. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  5. A Case of Type 2 Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis That Underwent Total Thyroidectomy under High-Dose Steroid Administration

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    Koshi Hashimoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is used commonly and effectively in the treatment of arrhythmia; however, it may cause thyrotoxicosis categorized into two types: iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (type 1 amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT and destructive thyroiditis (type 2 AIT. We experienced a case of type 2 AIT, in which high-dose steroid was administered intravenously, and we finally decided to perform total thyroidectomy, resulting in a complete cure of the AIT. Even though steroid had been administered to the patient (maximum 80 mg of prednisolone, the operation was performed safely and no acute adrenal crisis as steroid withdrawal syndrome was found after the operation. Few cases of type 2 AIT that underwent total thyroidectomy with high-dose steroid administration have been reported. The current case suggests that total thyroidectomy should be taken into consideration for patients with AIT who cannot be controlled by medical treatment and even in those under high-dose steroid administration.

  6. Infants with Atypical Presentations of Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of the Pulmonary Veins Who Underwent Bilateral Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Christopher T; White, Frances V; Grady, R Mark; Sweet, Stuart C; Eghtesady, Pirooz; Wegner, Daniel J; Sen, Partha; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Hamvas, Aaron; Cole, F Sessions; Wambach, Jennifer A

    2018-03-01

    To describe disease course, histopathology, and outcomes for infants with atypical presentations of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) who underwent bilateral lung transplantation. We reviewed clinical history, diagnostic studies, explant histology, genetic sequence results, and post-transplant course for 6 infants with atypical ACDMPV who underwent bilateral lung transplantation at St. Louis Children's Hospital. We compared their histology with infants with classic ACDMPV and compared their outcomes with infants transplanted for other indications. In contrast with neonates with classic ACDPMV who present with severe hypoxemia and refractory pulmonary hypertension within hours of birth, none of the infants with atypical ACDMPV presented with progressive neonatal respiratory failure. Three infants had mild neonatal respiratory distress and received nasal cannula oxygen. Three other infants had no respiratory symptoms at birth and presented with hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension at 2-3 months of age. Bilateral lung transplantation was performed at 4-20 months of age. Unlike in classic ACDMPV, histopathologic findings were not distributed uniformly and were not diffuse. Three subjects had apparent nonmosaic genetic defects involving FOXF1. Two infants had extrapulmonary anomalies (posterior urethral valves, inguinal hernia). Three transplanted children are alive at 5-16 years of age, similar to outcomes for infants transplanted for other indications. Lung explants from infants with atypical ACDMPV demonstrated diagnostic but nonuniform histopathologic findings. The 1- and 5-year survival rates for infants with atypical ACDMPV are similar to infants transplanted for other indications. Given the clinical and histopathologic spectra, ACDMPV should be considered in infants with hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension, even beyond the newborn period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive state among adults 65 years and older who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchick, Boris; Freud, Tamar; Press, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension (OH) increases with age, but the results of studies that assessed possible associations between them are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess possible associations between cognitive impairment and OH in patients ≥65 years of age who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the computerized medical records of the study population from 2005 to 2013. Data collected included blood pressure measurements that enabled the calculation of OH, results of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), results of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) test, and cognitive diagnoses that were determined over the course of the assessment. The rate of OH in the study population of 571 adults was 32.1%. The mean MMSE score was 22.5 ± 5.2 among participants with OH and 21.6 ± 5.8 among those without OH (P = 0.09). The absence of a significant association between OH and MMSE remained after adjusting the MMSE score for age and education level. The mean MoCA score was 16.4 ± 5.0 among participants with OH and 16.4 ± 4.8 among those without (P = 0.33). The prevalence of OH was 39% among participants without cognitive impairment, 28.9% among those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 30.6% among those with dementia (P = 0.13). There was no association between OH and cognitive impairment in adults who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:27442658

  8. Long-term prognosis and clinical characteristics of young adults (≤40 years old) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Hirokazu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Kasai, Takatoshi; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Naito, Ryo; Katoh, Yoshiteru; Okai, Iwao; Tamura, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Limited data exist regarding the long-term prognosis of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in young adults. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the long-term clinical outcomes in young patients who underwent PCI. Between 1985 and 2011, 7649 consecutive patients underwent PCI, and data from 69 young adults (age ≤40 years) and 4255 old adults (age ≧65 years) were analyzed. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the independent predictors of a composite endpoint that included all-cause death and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during the follow-up period. The mean age of the 69 young patients was 36.1±4.9 years, and 96% of them were men. Approximately 30% were current smokers, and their body mass index (BMI) was 26.7±5.0kg/m(2). The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 33% and 48%, respectively. All patients had ≥1 conventional cardiovascular risk factor. At a median follow-up of 9.8 years, the overall death rate was 5.8%, and new-onset ACS occurred in 8.7%. Current smoking was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (hazard ratio 4.46, confidence interval 1.08-19.1, p=0.04) for young adults. Current smoking and obesity (high BMI) are the important clinical characteristics in young Japanese coronary heart disease patients who undergo PCI. The long-term prognosis in young patients is acceptable, but current smoking is a significant independent predictor of death and the recurrence of ACS in young Japanese coronary heart disease patients who are obese. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Ulcer Recurrences After Metatarsal Head Resection in Patients Who Underwent Surgery to Treat Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Corbalán, Irene; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; García-Morales, Esther; Molines-Barroso, Raúl; Alvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-01

    Metatarsal head resection is a common and standardized treatment used as part of the surgical routine for metatarsal head osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to define the influence of the amount of the metatarsal resection on the development of reulceration or ulcer recurrence in patients who suffered from plantar foot ulcer and underwent metatarsal surgery. We conducted a prospective study in 35 patients who underwent metatarsal head resection surgery to treat diabetic foot osteomyelitis with no prior history of foot surgeries, and these patients were included in a prospective follow-up over the course of at least 6 months in order to record reulceration or ulcer recurrences. Anteroposterior plain X-rays were taken before and after surgery. We also measured the portion of the metatarsal head that was removed and classified the patients according the resection rate of metatarsal (RRM) in first and second quartiles. We found statistical differences between the median RRM in patients who had an ulcer recurrence and patients without recurrences (21.48 ± 3.10% vs 28.12 ± 10.8%; P = .016). Seventeen (56.7%) patients were classified in the first quartile of RRM, which had an association with ulcer recurrence (P = .032; odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.92). RRM of less than 25% is associated with the development of a recurrence after surgery in the midterm follow-up, and therefore, planning before surgery is undertaken should be considered to avoid postsurgical complications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. [Evaluation of the antithrombotic strategy in low thrombotic risk patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Velázquez, Eduardo; Vieyra-Herrera, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Chávez, Laura; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín

    2017-07-16

    According to current guidelines, in patients without additional risk factors who have undergone aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis, anticoagulation in the first 3 months after surgery is still a matter of debate. According to current evidence, aspirin in low doses is a reasonable alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). A comparison is made between the incidence of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in patients with low thrombotic risk who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico. The hypothesis: aspirin as monotherapy has a beneficial effect compared to VKA. The studied patients were the low thrombotic risk patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico from 2011 to 2015. The groups studied were: aspirin only, VKA only, and the combination of VKA plus aspirin. The patients were retrospectively followed-up for 12 months, and the thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications were documented. Of the 231 patients included in the study, only one patient in the VKA only group presented with a haemorrhagic complication. No thrombotic complications were observed. In the present study no thrombotic complications were observed in patients who did not receive anticoagulation in the first 3 months after an aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis after a follow up period of 12 months. This suggests that the use of aspirin only is safe during this period. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue in children with mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy: Evaluation of splenic residual functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is an attempt for maintenance of splenic functions when splenectomy is indicated in children. It minimizes the risks of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection and it has been done in children with severe portal hypertension due to hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis that underwent splenectomy. The purposes of this investigation were to study the morphology of the residual splenic tissue; to evaluate the residual filtration function of this splenosis; and to assess the immune response to polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty-three children with portal hypertension from mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein, autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch were evaluated for residual splenic parenchyma and functions. Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans were used for detection of splenic nodules. The search for Howell Jolly bodies were used for assessing the filtration function and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for measuring the relative rise in titter of specific pneumococcal antibodies. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, in two there were less than five splenic nodules in the greater omentum, which was considered insufficient. Howell-Jolly bodies were found in the peripheral blood only in these two patients with less evident splenosis. The immune response was adequate in 15 patients; it was intermediate in 4 patients and inadequate in 4 patients. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch is efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% of the cases and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in approximately 65% of the children.

  12. Effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayedrelease tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hua Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayedrelease tablets on the blood pressure in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery and its feasibility. Methods: A total of 80 patients who were admitted in ENT department from June, 2012 to June, 2015 for nasal endoscope surgery were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 40 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were given nifedipine delayed-release tablets for advanced blood pressure control before operation, and were given routine blood pressure control during operation; while the patients in the control group were only given blood pressure control during operation. The changes of blood pressure, mean central arterial pressure, and heart rate before anesthesia (T0, after intubation (T1, during operation (T2, extubation when waking (T3, 30 min after extubation (T4, and 3 h after back to wards (T5 in the two groups were compared. The intraoperative situation and the surgical field quality in the two groups were compared. Results: SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T1-5 in the two groups were significantly lower than those at T0. SBP, DBP, and MAP levels at T2 were significantly lower than those at other timing points, and were gradually recovered after operation, but were significantly lower than those at T0. The effect taking time of blood pressure reducing, intraoperative nitroglycerin dosage, and postoperative wound surface exudation amount in the observation group were significantly less than those in the control group. The surgical field quality scores in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. Conclusions: Advanced blood pressure control with nifedipine delayed-release tablets can stabilize the blood pressure during the perioperative period in patients underwent nasal endoscope surgery, and enhance the surgical field qualities.

  13. Atmospheric River Characteristics under Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, J.; Ge, M.

    2017-12-01

    How does decadal climate variability change the nature and predictability of atmospheric river events? Decadal swings in atmospheric river frequency, or shifts in the proportion of precipitation falling as rain, could challenge current water resource and flood risk management practice. Physical multi-scale processes operating between Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and atmospheric rivers over the Western U.S. are explored using the global Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS). A 45km global mesh is refined over the Western U.S. to 12km to capture the major terrain effects on precipitation. The performance of the MPAS is first evaluated for a case study atmospheric river event over California. Atmospheric river characteristics are then compared in a pair of idealized simulations, each driven by Pacific SST patterns characteristic of opposite phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Given recent evidence that we have entered a positive phase of the IPO, implications for current reservoir management practice over the next decade will be discussed. This work contributes to the NSF-funded project UDECIDE (Understanding Decision-Climate Interactions on Decadal Scales). UDECIDE brings together practitioners, engineers, statisticians, and climate scientists to understand the role of decadal climate information for water management and decisions.

  14. 65. Impact of focused echocardiography in clinical decision of patients presented with STMI, underwent primary percutenouse angioplasty

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    M. Qasem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography in coronary artery diseases is an essential, routine echocardiography prior to primary percutaneous angioplasty is not clear. In our clinical practice in primary angioplasty we faced lots of complications either before or during or after the procedure. Moreover, lots of incidental findings that discovered after the procedure which if known will affect the plan of management. One-hundred-nineteen consecutive underwent primary angioplasty. All patients underwent FE prior to the procedure in catheterization lab while the patient was preparing for the procedure. FE with 2DE of LV at base, mid and apex, and apical stander views. Diastology grading, E/E′ and color doppler of mitral and aortic valve were performed. (N = 119 case of STMI were enrolled, mean age 51 ± 12 year. Eleven cases (9.2% had normal coronary and normal LV function. Twenty cases (17% of MI complication detected before the procedures: RV infarction 8.4% (5.1% asymptomatic and 3.3% symptomatic, ischemic MR (8.4%, LV apical aneurysm (0.8%, significant pericardial effusion (0.80%. Acute pulmonary edema in 17 cases (14.3%: six cases (5.1% developed acute pulmonary edema on the cath lab with grade 3 diastolic dysfunction and E/E ′  >20, 9 cases (7.6% develop acute pulmonary edema in CCU with grade 2–3 diastolic dysfunction and E/E′ 15–20. 2 cases (2.7% develop acute pulmonary in CCU with grade 1–2 diastolic dysfunction and E/E′ 9–14. One case (0.8% presented cardiac tamponade 2 h post PCI. Incidental finding not related to STMI were as follow: 2 cases (1.7% with severe fibro degenerative MR, 2 cases (1.7% with mild to moderate AR and 2 cases (1.7% with mild to moderate AS. Isoled CABG 5/4.2% and CABG and MVR 2/1.7%. FE play an important role in guiding the management, early detection the incidental findings and complication post PCI.

  15. Assessment of quality of life of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and a rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Cohen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of life can be defined as the expression of aconceptual model that tries to represent patient’s perspectivesand his/her level of satisfaction expressed by numbers. Theobjective of this study is to evaluate the parameters of quality oflife of 23 patients who underwent surgery for anterior cruciateligament reconstruction. Methods: We adopted SF-36, a generichealth-related evaluation questionnaire, to obtain informationregarding several aspects of patients’ health conditions, and theLysholm questionnaire, specific to evaluate the symptoms andfunction of the knee. The questionnaires were applied at two stagesof the treatment: pre- and postoperatively (after the rehabilitationprogram. Results: Before surgery, the Lysholm questionnairepresented the following results: excellent in 4% of the cases, goodin 22%, fair in 22%, and poor in 52%. After surgery (Lysholm e SF-36 the correlation level was approximately 44% (p = 0.041.Discussion: The correlation between the Lysholm and the SF-36questionnaires showed the following: the lower the level of pain,the higher the Lysholm score. The high scores presented by theLysholm questionnaire are directly proportional to physical andemotional aspects, and to functional capacity. Conclusion:Analysis of both questionnaires, as well as of their correlation,showed some improvement in patients´ quality of life. We werealso able to demonstrate the importance and usefulness of applyingthe two questionnaires at three different moments: before, duringand after physiotherapeutic intervention.

  16. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent assisted reproductive techniques on the pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Turk, Rukiye; Yucel, Cigdem; Dilbaz, Serdar; Cinar, Ozgur; Karahalil, Bensu

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) on pregnancy outcomes. This study was conducted as a prospective and comparative study with 217 couples. The study data was collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The questionnaire, STAI and BDI were applied to couples who initiated ART treatment. Couples' state anxiety scores were re-evaluated after embryo transfer (ET). A significant relationship was found between the depression score of women and pregnancy outcome (p 0.05) and lower depression scores (p positive pregnancy outcome. Study results indicated that the anxiety and depression scores of couples who had achieved a positive pregnancy result were lower than for couples with a negative result. The results of this study will contribute to the health professionals especially to the nurses who spend the most time with couples in providing consulting services and supporting psychological status of couples during ART process in Turkey.

  17. The Effects of Functional Knee Brace on Postural Control in Patients Who Underwent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study aimed to evaluate the postural control in patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction pre and post wearing functional knee brace. Methods Eighteen athletes undergone unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction included in the study. They had unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least six months before session test. Postural control was assessed pre and post wearing custom-fit functional knee brace using a posturographic platform prokin 254. The balance tests included: 1 standing on prokin platform with eyes open/closed on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction limb, 2 standing on prokin platform with eyes open/closed on both limbs. The standard deviation (SD of body sway along the anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML axis, mean velocity of center of pressure (COP along AP/ ML axis and the area ellipse (measured in 2 mm were calculated. Results Results of the paired T-test revealed a significant effect on selected postural control variables for the brace conditions especially in low challengeable conditions (double leg, eyes open test situations (P < 0.05. But in high challengeable conditions this effect was not significant. Conclusions Functional knee brace improved postural control in the simple balancing task in the subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. But this improvement in more difficult balancing task was limited.

  18. The Effect of Prazosin and Oxybutynin on the Symptoms Due to Using Double J Catheter in Patients Underwent TUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Double J catheter has been used for years as an independent practice or a part of other urological practices. Although these catheters have solved many patients’ problems but those can cause symptoms and problems for patients. The aim of this study was the investigation the effect of prazosin and oxybutynin on the degree of symptoms due to using Double J catheter. Methods: In this interventional study, patients who underwent TUL from July 2008 to march 2008 in the lithotripsy ward of Imam Reza hospital were entered to the study and randomly divided in 3 groups randomly. In the first group, placebo, in the second group, oxybutynin, in the third group prazosin were prescribed. Three weeks later standard questionnaire Ureteric Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ was completed. After collecting data, was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: A total of 113 patients (70 men 43 women were included to the study. The mean age was 39 years. There were no significance difference among urinary symptoms score pain of body and physical activity problems in three groups (P>0.05, but there was a significant difference in general health and work problems among them (P<0.05. Conclusion: Oxybutynin caused a low effect on improvement of general health and work problems in patients who were studied. It might Prazosin does not has a sufficient time to affect on urinary symptoms, because of shortness of usage.

  19. Factors associated with late specialized rehabilitation among veterans with lower extremity amputation who underwent immediate postoperative rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurichi, Jibby E; Xie, Dawei; Kwong, Pui L; Bates, Barbara E; Vogel, W Bruce; Stineman, Margaret G

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine what patient- and facility-level characteristics drive late specialized rehabilitation among veterans who already received immediate postoperative services. Data were obtained from eight administrative databases for 2,453 patients who underwent lower limb amputation in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in 2002-2004. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the factors associated with days to readmission for late services after discharge from surgical hospitalization. There were 2304 patients who received only immediate postoperative services, whereas 152 also received late specialized rehabilitation. After adjustment, veterans who were less disabled physically, residing in the South Central compared with the Southeast region, and had their surgeries in facilities accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities were all more likely to receive late services. The hazard ratios for type of immediate postoperative rehabilitation were not constant over time. At hospital discharge, there was no difference in receipt; however, after 3 mos, those who received early specialized rehabilitation were significantly less likely to receive late services. The factors associated with late specialized rehabilitation were due mainly to facility-level characteristics and care process variables. Knowledge of these factors may help with decision-making policies regarding units accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities.

  20. Carotid intima-media thickness and ınsulin resistance changes in patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, G; Cilekar, M; Bilge, U; Akcan, E; Akalin, A

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to examine changes in insulin resistance, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT), in morbid obese patients without any known associated chronic diseases who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. The subjects of this study were patients with minimum BMI of 40, who did not have any known chronic diseases. Sleeve gastrectomy was performed and perioperative control endoscopy was performed. The following values were measured before the operation and after follow-up period after the operation: Fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipid profile, BMI, liver function tests, right and left CIMT. Furthermore, the patients' insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA method, and the values of 2.7. Six-teen patients (14 women and 2 men, average age: 39.12 ± 10.63 years), who did not have a known additional chronic disease, took part in the study. There was a significant difference between baseline and follow-up values of the patients, and the mean weight loss was 20.5%. Given the statistical evaluation of baseline and follow-up values, there was a significant difference in BMI, insulin resistance rates and right and left CIMT values. Bariatric surgery may provide some additional advantages for the management of cardiovascular risks in obese patients. However, it should be kept in mind that the most important components of fight against obesity are appropriate diet and exercise programs.

  1. Anatomical location of metastatic lymph nodes: an indispensable prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients who underwent curative resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bochao; Zhang, Jingting; Zhang, Jiale; Chen, Xiuxiu; Chen, Junqing; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Huimian; Huang, Baojun

    2018-02-01

    Although the numeric-based lymph node (LN) staging was widely used in the worldwide, it did not represent the anatomical location of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) and not reflect extent of LN dissection. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether the anatomical location of MLNs was still necessary to evaluate the prognosis of node-positive gastric cancer (GC) patients. We reviewed 1451 GC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy in our institution between January 1986 and January 2008. All patients were reclassified into several groups according to the anatomical location of MLNs and the number of MLNs. The prognostic differences between different patient groups were compared and clinicopathologic features were analyzed. In the present study, both anatomical location of MLNs and the number of MLNs were identified as the independent prognostic factors (p location of MLNs was considered (p location of MLNs had no significant effect on the prognosis of these patients, the higher number of MLNs in the extraperigastric area was correlated with the unfavorable prognosis (p location of MLNs was an important factor influencing the prognostic outcome of GC patients. To provide more accurate prognostic information for GC patients, the anatomical location of MLNs should not be ignored.

  2. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.

    2009-03-01

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  3. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cooray, Asantha R.; /UC, Irvine; Covey, Kevin R.; /Harvard U.; Csabai, Istvan; /Eotvos U.; Ferguson, Henry C.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kantor, Jeffrey; /LSST Corp.; Kent, Stephen M.; /Fermilab; Knapp, G.R.; /Princeton U.; Myers, Steven T.; /NRAO, Socorro; Neilsen, Eric H., Jr.; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Caltech, IPAC /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Harvard U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /NOAO, Tucson /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2011-11-14

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  4. Manganese Toxicity Upon Overexposure: a Decade in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Stefanie L; Zheng, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to manganese (Mn) causes clinical signs and symptoms resembling, but not identical to, Parkinson's disease. Since our last review on this subject in 2004, the past decade has been a thriving period in the history of Mn research. This report provides a comprehensive review on new knowledge gained in the Mn research field. Emerging data suggest that beyond traditionally recognized occupational manganism, Mn exposures and the ensuing toxicities occur in a variety of environmental settings, nutritional sources, contaminated foods, infant formulas, and water, soil, and air with natural or man-made contaminations. Upon fast absorption into the body via oral and inhalation exposures, Mn has a relatively short half-life in blood, yet fairly long half-lives in tissues. Recent data suggest Mn accumulates substantially in bone, with a half-life of about 8-9 years expected in human bones. Mn toxicity has been associated with dopaminergic dysfunction by recent neurochemical analyses and synchrotron X-ray fluorescent imaging studies. Evidence from humans indicates that individual factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, genetics, and pre-existing medical conditions can have profound impacts on Mn toxicities. In addition to body fluid-based biomarkers, new approaches in searching biomarkers of Mn exposure include Mn levels in toenails, non-invasive measurement of Mn in bone, and functional alteration assessments. Comments and recommendations are also provided with regard to the diagnosis of Mn intoxication and clinical intervention. Finally, several hot and promising research areas in the next decade are discussed.

  5. Challenges of the decade: Natural disasters and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, James P.

    1992-06-01

    The 1990s can be seen, in many ways, as a transitional decade. THe concept of environmentally sustainable development is becoming accepted as a paradigm for the 21st century, gradually overtaking the concepts of environmental protection and resource management. It will be increasingly unacceptable to view environmental protection as an add-on or afterthought to economic development activities. The U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, the ``Earth Summit'' of June 1992, sough to strengthen economic development in ways that reinforce environmental values. Two of the major, inter-related, issues driving these changes in approach to both environment and development, are climate change as influenced by human-generated greenhouse gases, and the reduction of losses, human and economic, due to natural environmental hazards. The Second World Climate Conference in late 1990, lead to opening of international negotiation of a global convention on climate change. This convention, signed at the Earth Summit, ensures that energy, forest management and agricultural policies, in all countries, are being closely re-examined for their environmental effects. The climate negotiations also addressed adaptation to changes in risks of natural hazards, due to changing climate. The International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction should be viewed in a similar developmental context. It is clear that losses during natural disasters can seriously set back economic development, estecially in poorer countries and regions. In many vulnerable countries, periodic declines in national economic output are highly correlated with occurrences of major disasters due to tropical cyclones, floods, earthquakes or volcanos. It is also evident that by adequate measures for prevention, warning and preparedness, these disaster losses can be substantially reduced. It is, thus, essential that all national development plans incorporate disaster preparedness activities, and that these activities be

  6. Arctic climate change and decadal variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Eveline C.

    2016-01-01

    High northern latitudes exhibit enhanced near-surface warming in a climate with increasing greenhouse gases compared to other parts of the globe, indicating an amplified climate response to external forcing. Decadal to multidecadal variability sometimes enhances and at other times reduces the

  7. Arctic climate change and decadal variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Eveline C.

    2016-01-01

    High northern latitudes exhibit enhanced near-surface warming in a climate with increasing greenhouse gases compared to other parts of the globe, indicating an amplified climate response to external forcing. Decadal to multidecadal variability sometimes enhances and at other times reduces the

  8. The IGISOL technique : three decades of developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, I.D.; Dendooven, Peter; Ärje, J.

    The Ion Guide Isotope SeparatorOn-Line (IGISOL) technique, conceived in the early 1980s as a novel variation to the helium-jet method, has been used to provide radioactive ion beams of short-lived exotic nuclei for fundamental nuclear structure research and applications for three decades. This

  9. A Decade of Change in NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Li, Can; Boersma, Folkert; Adams, Cristen

    2016-01-01

    A decade (2005-2014) of observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used to examine trends in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) over a large region of western Canada and the northern United States, with a focus on the Canadian oil sands. In the

  10. Evolutionary robotics in two decades: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 4. Evolutionary robotics in two decades: A review. Sameer Gupta Ekta Singla. Mechanical Sciences Volume 40 Issue 4 June 2015 pp ... Author Affiliations. Sameer Gupta1 Ekta Singla1. School of Mechanical, Materials and Energy Engineering, IIT Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, India ...

  11. A Challenging Decade For Employment Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantaci, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    The employment counselor outlook for this decade is good if the needs of youth, older workers, women, and the handicapped are provided for. Short-term curtailment and redirection of counseling staff in state agencies will result from the phasing down of categorical programs and from funding restraints. In the long run, though, there will be a…

  12. Reflections on a Decade of Microfoundations Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    I briefly take stock on the microfoundations project which has become influential in macro-management research over the past decade or so. While the project has now moved into distinct theorybuilding, it still need to engage in serious empirical research. I discuss a number of challenges and solu...

  13. A Decade of Mobile Computing for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the mobile computing at Grove City College, a small, private, liberal arts institution in Western Pennsylvania. They have entered their second decade of mobile computing for students in the school of about 2200. Each incoming freshman receives a laptop computing and inkjet printer during the fall orientation, all a benefit of…

  14. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Scoccimarro, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric ''target'' concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the

  15. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Marcello; Manzini, Elisa; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Alessandri, Andrea; Patara, Lavinia; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric "target" concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the projected concentration

  16. An empirical model of decadal ENSO variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, S. [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences Group, P. O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This paper assesses potential predictability of decadal variations in the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) characteristics by constructing and performing simulations using an empirical nonlinear stochastic model of an ENSO index. The model employs decomposition of global sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies into the modes that maximize the ratio of interdecadal-to-subdecadal SST variance to define low-frequency predictors called the canonical variates (CVs). When the whole available SST time series is so processed, the leading canonical variate (CV-1) is found to be well correlated with the area-averaged SST time series which exhibits a non-uniform warming trend, while the next two (CV-2 and CV-3) describe secular variability arguably associated with a combination of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) signals. The corresponding ENSO model that uses either all three (CVs 1-3) or only AMO/PDO-related (CVs 2 and 3) predictors captures well the observed autocorrelation function, probability density function, seasonal dependence of ENSO, and, most importantly, the observed interdecadal modulation of ENSO variance. The latter modulation, and its dependence on CVs, is shown to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis of random decadal ENSO variations simulated by multivariate linear inverse models. Cross-validated hindcasts of ENSO variance suggest a potential useful skill at decadal lead times. These findings thus argue that decadal modulations of ENSO variability may be predictable subject to our ability to forecast AMO/PDO-type climate modes; the latter forecasts may need to be based on simulations of dynamical models, rather than on a purely statistical scheme as in the present paper. (orig.)

  17. Clinical and echocardiographic findings of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Nouri, Shadi; Moradi, Maryam; Shahabi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between clinical and echocardiographic findings and risk factors of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 310 hospitalized patients aged >18 years with high clinical suspicion of PTE referred to imaging center of our hospital from different wards for CTPA were enrolled. The frequency of different clinical presentations, risk factors, items of Wells’ criteria, and echocardiographic findings was compared in patients with and without PTE, which have been diagnosed according to the CTPA results. Results: PTE was diagnosed in 53 (17.1%) of patients with suspected PTE. From clinical manifestations, tachypnea, pleuritic chest pain, and edema of lower extremities were significantly more frequent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05). Major surgery was the risk factor which was significantly more prevalent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05). Frequency of all criteria of Wells’ criteria, except hemoptysis, was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05). The frequency of all studied echocardiographic variables was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It is suggested that we could use the results of this study for utilizing the diagnostic process of PTE in patients with highly clinical suspicion of PTE and providing more validated decision. Using the results of this study, we could identify high-risk patients and made appropriate risk assessment for better management of patients with suspected PTE as well as reduce the rate of unnecessary CTPA and its related adverse consequences. PMID:28255326

  18. The effects of transfusion of irradiated blood upon cellular immune response in patients underwent open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Ken-ichi; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Moro, Hisanaga; Yazawa, Masatomo; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Eguchi, Shoji

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effect of the transfusion of blood received 1500 rad exposure upon the immune response in 14 patients underwent various type of cardiac surgery. 13 patients received known amounts banked blood and irradiated fresh blood, while one patient received a lot of amounts of banked and irradiated and non-irradiated fresh blood. The authors studied the numbers of lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte subsets such as pan-T cells, B cells, helper/inducer T cells (T H/I ), cytotoxic/supressor T cells (T C/S ), active T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NK cell activity during two weeks after surgeries. In all 14 patients, pan-T lymphocytes decreased markedly in a few days after surgeries, but increased to higher levels on the eight postoperative day than the levels preoperatively. T H/I and T C/S lymphocytes changed on the similar pattern as pan-T lymphocytes. Active T and B cells did not change significantly in two weeks. The number and activity of NK cells gave the lowest levels on the second postoperative day and did not recovery to the preoperative levels in two weeks. One patient received non-irradiated fresh blood showed the similar immune response as other 13 patients, while he gave the lower levels than others did. This patient died of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-like syndrome on the 36th postoperative day. It may be thought that the transfusion of irradiated blood would prevent the host from GVHD and gave the better effects on the immune response than that of non-irradiated blood following open-heart surgeries. (author)

  19. Clinical and echocardiographic findings of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between clinical and echocardiographic findings and risk factors of patients with suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 310 hospitalized patients aged >18 years with high clinical suspicion of PTE referred to imaging center of our hospital from different wards for CTPA were enrolled. The frequency of different clinical presentations, risk factors, items of Wells' criteria, and echocardiographic findings was compared in patients with and without PTE, which have been diagnosed according to the CTPA results. Results: PTE was diagnosed in 53 (17.1% of patients with suspected PTE. From clinical manifestations, tachypnea, pleuritic chest pain, and edema of lower extremities were significantly more frequent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Major surgery was the risk factor which was significantly more prevalent among patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Frequency of all criteria of Wells' criteria, except hemoptysis, was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05. The frequency of all studied echocardiographic variables was significantly higher in patients with PTE (P < 0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that we could use the results of this study for utilizing the diagnostic process of PTE in patients with highly clinical suspicion of PTE and providing more validated decision. Using the results of this study, we could identify high-risk patients and made appropriate risk assessment for better management of patients with suspected PTE as well as reduce the rate of unnecessary CTPA and its related adverse consequences.

  20. Early prediction of treatment response by serum CRP levels in patients with advanced esophageal cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Serum C reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be associated with the progression of esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between treatment response and serum CRP levels in time course during definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in terms of early prediction of CRT response by serum CRP. The subjects of this study were 36 patients with cT3/cT4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent definitive CRT in our hospital. Serum CRP levels during definitive CRT (pretreatment, 1W, 2W and 3W after CRT initiation) were compared between CR and non-CR group. In addition, partition model was constructed to discriminate CR with non-CR and the prediction accuracy was evaluated. The patients were consisted of 28 males and 8 females. At pretreatment diagnosis, tumors were categorized as T3 (n=21) and T4 (n=15). Thirty four patients received FP-based chemotherapy and 2 patients received docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Treatment responses were categorized as CR (n=8), partial response (PR) (n=14), no change (NC) (n=2) and progressive disease (PD) (n=12). Serum CRP levels at the time of 2W after CRT initiation (CRT2W) in CR group were low compared to those in non-CR group (p=0.071). The partition model was constructed based on CRP levels at CRT2W. The prediction accuracies to discriminate CR from non-CR by CRP ≤0.1 were 50%, 82%, and 75% in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, respectively. Serum CRP is a useful biomarker for an early prediction of CRT response. (author)

  1. Preoperative evaluation of myocardial viability by thallium-201 imaging in patients with old myocardial infarction who underwent coronary revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    The myocardial uptake and redistribution in thallium scintigraphy and the regional wall motion by echocardiography were evaluated by a semi-quantitative method in 42 patients who previously had myocardial infarction (50 target vessels) and underwent coronary revascularization. The aim of this study was to elucidate the significance of the initial image, delayed image and redistribution on thallium-201 scintigraphy for clinical diagnosis of the myocardial viability. As a semi-quantitative analysis, we used a bull's-eye display for thallium image and centerline method for echocardiographic wall motion, and compared the results before and after revascularization. As a result, the thallium grade improved postoperatively in all 17 areas which preoperatively had showed redistribution, and also in 11 of the 32 areas without preoperative redistribution. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of preoperative thallium redistribution for predicting myocardial viability were 61%, 100% and 78%, respectively, when the postoperative improvement in the thallium grade was used as the standard. The postoperative probability of improvement in the thallium grade increased in proportion to the preoperative grade (delayed image)(p<0.01). There was no correlation between the preoperative thallium delayed image and postoperative improvement in wall motion. Postoperative improvement in thallium image and wall motion could not be predicted from the preoperative wall motion. Thus, postoperative improvement in thallium images can be anticipated if redistribution is present on the preoperative thallium image, and the preoperative thallium delayed image is useful for predicting myocardial viability. Improvement in wall motion could not be predicted preoperatively by these methods. (author)

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Orientation to Pain, and Pain Perception in Ex-Prisoners of War Who Underwent Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Noga; Defrin, Ruth; Ginzburg, Karni

    Studies suggest that torture survivors often experience long-term chronic pain and increased pain perception. However, it is unclear whether the actual experience of torture or rather the subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) explains these pain problems. Furthermore, although catastrophic and fearful orientations to pain have been suggested to play a significant role in the association between trauma and pain, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study examined whether chronic pain and pain perception among torture survivors are associated with torture experience or PTSD and whether catastrophic and fearful orientations mediate or moderate these associations. Fifty-nine ex-prisoners of war who underwent torture and 44 matched veterans participated in this study. Pain perception was evaluated by assessing pain threshold and reactivity to experimental suprathreshold noxious stimuli. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing PTSD, chronic pain, pain catastrophizing, and fear of pain. Although chronic pain was associated with PTSD (0.44 < β < 0.49, p < .002), increased pain perception was correlated with torture (0.33 < β < 0.65, p < .05). Pain catastrophizing was found to mediate the association between PTSD and chronic pain (β = 0.18 and 0.19, respectively; p < .05). Fear of pain moderated the association between torture and pain perception (β = 0.41 and 0.42, respectively; p < .017). The findings suggest that chronic pain is contingent upon the psychological toll of torture, that is, PTSD. This study also indicates that PTSD exacerbates catastrophic orientation, which in turn may amplify chronic pain. Reactivity to experimental noxious stimuli was related to previous experiences of torture, which enhances perceived pain intensity when interacting with a fearful pain orientation. These findings highlight the significance of orientation to bodily experiences after trauma.

  3. CA-125–indicated asymptomatic relapse confers survival benefit to ovarian cancer patients who underwent secondary cytoreduction surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no consensus regarding the management of ovarian cancer patients, who have shown complete clinical response (CCR to primary therapy and have rising cancer antigen CA-125 levels but have no symptoms of recurrent disease. The present study aims to determine whether follow-up CA-125 levels can be used to identify the need for imaging studies and secondary cytoreductive surgery (CRS. Methods We identified 410 ovarian cancer patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1984 and 2011. These patients had shown CCR to primary therapy. Follow-up was conducted based on the surveillance protocol of the MD Anderson Cancer Center. We used the Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test to assess the associations between the follow-up CA-125 levels and secondary CRS and survival duration. Results The CA-125 level of 1.68 × nadir was defined as the indicator of recurrent disease (p  1.68 × nadir at relapse (55.7 and 10.4 months; p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively. The overall and progression free survival duration of patients with asymptomatic relapse and underwent a secondary CRS was longer than that of patients with symptomatic relapse (p = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively. Conclusions The increase of serum CA-125 levels is an early warning of clinical relapse in ovarian cancer. Using CA-125 levels in guiding the treatment of patients with asymptomatic recurrent ovarian cancer, who have shown CCR to primary therapy, can facilitate optimal secondary CRS and extend the survival duration of the patients.

  4. Periodical assessment of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Asakawa, Isao; Anai, Satoshi; Hirayama, Akihide; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Konishi, Noboru; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2013-01-01

    To compare the periodical incidence rates of genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy between the monotherapy group (seed implantation alone) and the boost group (in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)). A total of 218 patients with a median follow-up of 42.5 months were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2 groups by treatment modality, namely, the monotherapy group (155 patients) and the boost group (63 patients). The periodical incidence rates of GU and GI toxicity were separately evaluated and compared between the monotherapy group and the boost group using the National Cancer Institute - Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. To elucidate an independent factor among clinical and postdosimetric parameters to predict grade 2 or higher GU and GI toxicity in the acute and late phases, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Of all patients, 78.0% showed acute GU toxicity, and 7.8% showed acute GI toxicity, while 63.8% showed late GU toxicity, and 21.1% showed late GI toxicity. The incidence rates of late GU and GI toxicity were significantly higher in the boost group. Multivariate analysis showed that the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) before seed implantation was a significant parameter to predict acute GU toxicity, while there were no significant predictive parameters for acute GI toxicity. On the other hand, combination with EBRT was a significant predictive parameter for late GU toxicity, and rectal volume (mL) receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (R100) was a significant predictive parameter for late GI toxicity. The boost group showed higher incidence rates of both GU and GI toxicity. Higher IPSS before seed implantation, combination with EBRT and a higher R100 were significant predictors for acute GU, late GU and late GI toxicity

  5. Comparison of quality of life between men and women who underwent Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy for lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Thomaidis, Tryfon; Charitoudis, Georgios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Studies describing the efficacy of TPED on shortness of recovery and improvement of postoperative quality of life are limited, especially regarding gender something that has never been reported before in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate possible differences of the health-related quality of life in patients who underwent TPED for LDH in accordance with sex. Seventy-six patients diagnosed and treated with TPED for LDH with 1 year follow-up were selected and divided into two groups of equal number depending on sex. Their quality of life was evaluated by using the SF-36 before the operation, six weeks, three, six and twelve months postoperatively. A statistical analysis was conducted, in order to compare the 8 scaled scores of the SF-36 combining each time two chronological phases in the total of patients, in each group and between groups. Fifty-two (68.4%) patients were ≤63 years old, while the rest 24 (31,4%) were >63 years old (mean ±SD = 56,5 ±12,1 years). Apart from the PF domain, the scores were higher in every visit for the two groups, but the change between groups was not significant. Women had a significantly higher increase of PF score in 3 months after TPED and in the interval 6 weeks-3 months comparing with men. However, in the intervals 3 months-6 months and 3 months-12 months men presented significantly higher increase compared to women. Statistically significant improvement of the quality of life for both men and women was observed. Generally, there was no significant difference between the two groups. As regards to the physical functioning, it appears to be a significant difference which is counterpoised over time. 2. TPED for LDH does not present major differences in the improvement of quality of life regarding gender.

  6. The quality and reporting of randomized trials in cardiothoracic physical therapy could be substantially improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, Nádia N; Moseley, Anne M; Elkins, Mark R; Chiavegato, Luciana D; Shiwa, Silvia R; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2013-11-01

    While the number of reports of randomized controlled trials in physical therapy has increased substantially in the last decades, the quality and reporting of randomized trials have never been systematically investigated in the subdiscipline of cardiothoracic physical therapy. The primary aim was to determine the methodological quality and completeness of reporting of cardiothoracic physical therapy trials. Secondary aims were to investigate the range of clinical conditions investigated in these trials and the degree of association between trial characteristics and quality. All reports of randomized trials indexed on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and coded as being relevant to cardiothoracic physical therapy were surveyed. PEDro scale individual items and total score were downloaded, and some characteristics included in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement were extracted for each trial report. The mean ± SD total PEDro score for the 2,970 included reports of cardiothoracic trials was 4.7 ± 1.4, with 27% being of moderate to high quality. The clinical conditions studied included chronic lung diseases (32% of the trials), cardiac diseases (20%), cardiovascular surgical conditions (5%), sleep disorders (5%), peripheral vascular disease (4%), acute lung disease (4%), critical illness (3%), and other surgical conditions (3%). The multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that endorsement of the CONSORT statement by the publishing journal, time since publication, evidence of trial registration, sources of funding, description of the sample size calculation, and identification of the primary outcome(s) had associations with the total PEDro score. There is great potential to improve the quality of the conduct and reporting of trials evaluating the effects of cardiothoracic physical therapy.

  7. Substantial impacts of landscape changes on summer climate with major regional differences: The case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Yu, Deyong; Georgescu, Matei; Wu, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    China's rapid socioeconomic development during the past few decades has resulted in large-scale landscape changes across the country. However, the impacts of these land surface modifications on climate are yet to be adequately understood. Using a coupled process-based land-atmospheric model, therefore, we quantified the climatic effects of land cover and land management changes over mainland China from 2001 to 2010, via incorporation of real-time and high-quality satellite-derived landscape representation (i.e., vegetation fraction, leaf area index, and albedo) into numerical modeling. Our results show that differences in landscape patterns due to changes in land cover and land management have exerted a strong influence on summer climate in China. During 2001 and 2010, extensive cooling of up to 1.5°C was found in the Loess Plateau and 1.0°C in northeastern China. In contrast, regional-scale warming was detected in the Tibetan Plateau (0.3°C), Yunnan province (0.4°C), and rapidly expanding urban centers across China (as high as 2°C). Summer precipitation decreased in the northeastern region, with patchy reduction generally landscapes have had substantial impacts on summer climate over the entire mainland China, but these impacts varied greatly on the regional scale, including changes in opposite directions. Therefore, effective national-level policies and regional land management strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation should take explicit account of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-climate interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accuracy of bone SPECT/CT for identifying hardware loosening in patients who underwent lumbar fusion with pedicle screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudyana, Hendrah; Maes, Alex [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); University Hospital Leuven, Department of Morphology and Medical Imaging, Leuven (Belgium); Vandenberghe, Thierry; Fidlers, Luc [AZ Groeninge, Department of Neurosurgery, Kortrijk (Belgium); Sathekge, Mike [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Nicolai, Daniel [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Wiele, Christophe van de [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); University Ghent, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of bone SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)/CT (computed tomography) in diagnosing loosening of fixation material in patients with recurrent or persistent back pain that underwent lumbar arthrodesis with pedicle screws using surgery and clinical follow-up as gold standard A total of 48 patients (median age 49 years, range 21-81 years; 17 men) who had undergone lumbar spinal arthrodesis were included in this retrospective analysis. SPECT/CT results were compared to the gold standard of surgical evaluation or clinical follow-up. Positive SPECT/CT results were considered true positives if findings were confirmed by surgery or if clinical and other examinations were completely consistent with the positive SPECT/CT finding. They were considered false positives if surgical evaluation did not find any loose pedicle screws or if symptoms subsided with non-surgical therapy. Negative SPECT/CT scans were considered true negatives if symptoms either improved without surgical intervention or remained stable over a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Negative SPECT/CT scans were determined to be false negatives if surgery was still required and loosening of material was found. The median length of time from primary surgery to bone SPECT/CT referral was 29.5 months (range 12-192 months). Median follow-up was 18 months (range 6-57) for subjects who did not undergo surgery. Thirteen of the 48 patients were found to be positive for loosening on bone SPECT/CT. Surgical evaluation (8 patients) and clinical follow-up (5 patients) showed that bone SPECT/CT correctly predicted loosening in 9 of 13 patients, while it falsely diagnosed loosening in 4 patients. Of 35 negative bone SPECT/CT scans, 12 were surgically confirmed. In 18 patients, bone SPECT/CT revealed lesions that could provide an alternative explanation for the symptoms of pain (active facet degeneration in 14 patients, and disc and sacroiliac

  9. CA-125–indicated asymptomatic relapse confers survival benefit to ovarian cancer patients who underwent secondary cytoreduction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the management of ovarian cancer patients, who have shown complete clinical response (CCR) to primary therapy and have rising cancer antigen CA-125 levels but have no symptoms of recurrent disease. The present study aims to determine whether follow-up CA-125 levels can be used to identify the need for imaging studies and secondary cytoreductive surgery (CRS). Methods We identified 410 ovarian cancer patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1984 and 2011. These patients had shown CCR to primary therapy. Follow-up was conducted based on the surveillance protocol of the MD Anderson Cancer Center. We used the Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test to assess the associations between the follow-up CA-125 levels and secondary CRS and survival duration. Results The CA-125 level of 1.68 × nadir was defined as the indicator of recurrent disease (p CA-125 biochemical progression prior to clinically-defined relapse was 31 days (ranging from 1 to 391 days). The median number of the negative imaging studies for the clinical relapse findings in patients with a CA-125 level of CA-125 level at relapse was an independent predictor of overall and progression free survival in patients who had shown CCR to primary therapy (p = 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). The overall and progression free survival durations in patients with a CA-125 level ≤ 1.68 × nadir at relapse (69.4 and 13.8 months) were longer than those with a CA-125 level > 1.68 × nadir at relapse (55.7 and 10.4 months; p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). The overall and progression free survival duration of patients with asymptomatic relapse and underwent a secondary CRS was longer than that of patients with symptomatic relapse (p = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively). Conclusions The increase of serum CA-125 levels is an early warning of clinical relapse in ovarian cancer. Using CA-125 levels in

  10. Liver resection over the last decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, A.; Larsen, P.N.; Rasmussen, A.

    2008-01-01

    after resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated. RESULTS: 141 patients (71M/70F), median age 58 years (1-78), underwent a liver resection in the ten-year period. The number of resections increased from two in 1995 to 32 in 2004. Median hospital...... stay was 9 days (3-38). The most frequent complication was biliary leakage (7.8%), haemorrhage (2.8%) and hepatic insufficiency (2.8%). 30-days mortality was 1.4%. The actuarial 5-survival after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma was 39% and 42%, respectively...

  11. Medical radiation protection in next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M. M.; Vano, E.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in medical radiation protection today is the same as what it would have been almost a century ago. After many decades of relatively safe application of radiation in medicine, the recent spurt in over exposures, over-use of imaging and accidental exposures has created the need for stakeholders to join hands and contribute towards increasing radiation safety levels. Whether it be the need for technological developments to achieve sub-mSv CT scans, tracking of patient exposure history, accounting for repeated exposures of the same patient, specific consideration of requests for radiological examinations that deliver few mSv of dose, or utilization of regulatory approaches, radiological equipment will need to alert users whenever the radiation dose to the patient is above a defined value. The current decade will focus increasingly on carcinogenic effects in patients. (authors)

  12. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  13. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Dodds, N.E.; Hofman, G.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Tsai, H.; Walters, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960s worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Decadal Changes in Surface Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M.

    2009-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at the Earth surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected with the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after decades of decline ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations. This presentation gives an update on recent investigations related to the decadal variations in these fluxes, based on both observational and modeling approaches. Updated observational data, archived at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) at ETH Zurich, suggest a continuation of surface solar brightening beyond the year 2000 at numerous locations, yet less pronounced and coherent than during the 1990s, with more regions with no clear changes or declines. Current global climate models as used in the IPCC-AR4 report typically do not reproduce the observed decadal variations to their full extent. Modeling attempts to improve this situation are under way at ETH, based on a global climate model which includes a sophisticated interactive treatment of aerosol and cloud microphysics (ECHAM5-HAM). Further the impact of the decadal changes in surface radiative forcings on different aspects of the global climate system and climate change is discussed, such as 20th century day- and nighttime warming, evapotranspiration changes and the varying intensity of the hydrological cycle as well as the terrestrial carbon cycle. Selected related references: Wild, M., and Co-authors, 2005: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at the Earth's surface. Science, 308, 847-850 Wild, M., 2007: Decadal changes in surface radiative fluxes and their importance in the context of global climate change, in: Climate Variability and Extremes during the Past 100 years, Advances

  15. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  16. Design of a decade scaler prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rill Isaris; Widodo Priyodiprojo.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a simple decade scaler made of devices and components available in the local market, is described. The constituents of the system, consisting of an amplifier, pulse shaper, counting system, low voltage and high voltage supply, are also described. The number of pulses counted are indicated on six digits, varying to a maximum of 999999 counts, using LED device. This apparatus may be interconnected with scintillation and Geiger Muller detectors. (author)

  17. The decade for women...1985 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This special issue of "The Tribune" attempts to answer the many requests for information on the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. There has been a particular need for specific information on plans and preparations for the 1985 World Conference. Information is gathered in this issue on background to the Decade, the views of various governmental and nongovernmental groups concerning the issues and priorities of the Conference, the preparations underway, some of the major initiatives taken in the Decade, and some useful addresses for soliciting further information. The Program of Action for the 2nd half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace focuses on ensuring women's increased participation in the realization of the objectives of the World Plan of Action. In particular, the World Plan of Action gives high priority to improving the conditions of the most disadvantaged groups of women, especially the rural and urban poor and the vast group of women workers in the tertiary sector. The Program of Action reiterates these priorities, particularly those disadvantaged because of socioeconomic and historic conditions, with emphasis on the rural and urban poor and on the subthemes: employment; education; and health. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) invited nongovermental organizations (NGOs); intergovernmental organizations; UN specialized agencies, organs, and organizations; regional commissions; and member states to submit their views on their contributions to the World Conference and the possible themes and issues of the Conference, in writing, to the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, for consolidated presentation to the preparatory body. Summaries of the views expressed by these groups are provided. Overall, there was an emphasis given by the Member States to the importance of involving women and women's organizations in the preparations for the Conference. In many replies it was indicated that the review

  18. [Retrospective analysis of 856 cases with stage 0 to III rectal cancer underwent curative surgery combined modality therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengju; Yao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Jun; Li, Ming; Peng, Yifan; Zhan, Tiancheng; Du, Changzheng; Wang, Lin; Chen, Nan; Gu, Jin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the survival and prognostic factors of stage 0 to III rectal cancer in 10 years. Clinical data and follow-up of 856 rectal cancer patients with stage 0-III underwent curative surgery from January 2000 to December 2010 were retrospective analyzed. There were 470 male and 386 female patients, with a mean age of (58 ± 12) years. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the overall survival and disease free survival. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival between groups. Cox regression was used to analyze the independent prognostic factors of rectal cancer. The patients in each stage were stage 0 with 18 cases, stage I with 209 cases, stage II with 235 cases, and stage III with 394 cases. All patients received curative surgery. There were 296 patients evaluated as cT3, cT4 and any T with N+ received preoperative radiotherapy. 5.4% patients got pathological complete response (16/296), and the recurrence rate was 4.7% (14/296). After a median time of 41.7 months (range 4.1 to 144.0 months) follow-up, the 5-year overall survival rate in stage 0 to I of was 91.0%, stage II 86.2%, and stage III 60.0%, with a significant difference (P=0.000). The cumulative local recurrence rate was 4.8% (41/856), of which 70.7% (29/41) occurred within 3 years postoperatively, 97.6% (40/41) in 5 years. The cumulative distant metastasis rate was 16.4% (140/856), of which 82.9% (129/140) occurred within 3 years postoperatively, 96.4% (135/140) in 5 years. The incidence of abnormal imaging findings was significantly higher in pulmonary than liver and other sites metastases (75.0% vs. 21.7%, χ² =25.691, P=0.000). The incidence of CEA elevation was significantly higher in liver than lung and other sites metastases (56.8% vs. 37.8%, χ² =25.691, P=0.000). Multivariable analysis showed that age (P=0.015, HR=1.385, 95% CI: 1.066 to 1.801), surgical approach (P=0.029, HR=1.337, 95% CI: 1.030 to 1.733), differentiation (P=0.000, HR=1.535, 95% CI: 1.222 to 1.928), TNM stage (P

  19. 14-Decades Calibration in Airborne Detectors for Environmental Science (14DeCADES), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 14-DeCADES SBIR leverages the results of a FY13 spontaneous IRAD and a subsequent successful Phase 1 SBIR which characterized and tested key elements that will...

  20. The DECADES project - Outline and general overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and health-related impacts of different energy systems, including those associated with the production of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for the coming decades. This interest is highlighted by the current debate about health effects of pollution, environmental damages due to acidification of forests and lakes, concerns about the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste management, and the potential risks of global climate change induced by increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. All fuel chains within the electricity generation system involve some health risks and lead to some environmental impacts. This fact, together with the emerging needs of many countries to define their energy programmes for the coming decades, has provided the basis for a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity generating systems, particularly from an environmental and human health viewpoint. The need to design and implement sustainable strategies in the electricity sector has been stressed in many international fora such as the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment (Helsinki, 1991), the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) and the 15th Conference of the World Energy Council (Madrid, 1992). The essential goal of sustainable strategies is to provide the energy services required for supporting economic growth and improving quality of life, especially in developing countries, while minimising the health and environmental impacts of human activities. The inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation [DECADES] has been established with the objective of enhancing capabilities for incorporating health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of different

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF ESTIMATION, ANALYSIS, SUBSTANTIATION AND SELECTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL DECISIONS FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIEDIN V. L.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Over the past decade, changes in the economy have led to the decline of many industrial enterprises, which in turn led to the emergence of abandoned buildings and degraded areas that create a social and environmental hazard. Accordingly, the buildings and structures of such enterprises do not function and need reconstruction. Purpose of the aricle. Study of the development of methods for assessing, analyzing, substantiating and selecting rational organizational and technological decisions for the reconstruction of industrial enterprises. Conclusion. With the aim of transforming degraded and disordered territories into modern centers of vital activity, it is necessary to identify in each populated area the areas of priority renovation and reconstruction, and also to concentrate budgetary funds and private investments for the implementation of such projects. In the implementation of the above measures, the settlements will be systematically updated in accordance with european standards.

  2. The Global Pattern of Urbanization and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Three Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decad...

  3. A roadmap for Antarctic and Southern Ocean science for the next two decades and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kennicutt, M.C.; Chown, S.L.; Cassano, J.J.; Liggett, D.; Peck, L.S.; Massom, R.; Rintoul, S.R.; Storey, J.; Vaughan, D.G.; Wilson, T.J.; Allison, I.; Ayton, J.; Badhe, R.; Baeseman, J.; Barrett, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consu...

  4. The next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs

  5. Security 2020 Reduce Security Risks This Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Doug; Schneier, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Identify real security risks and skip the hype After years of focusing on IT security, we find that hackers are as active and effective as ever. This book gives application developers, networking and security professionals, those that create standards, and CIOs a straightforward look at the reality of today's IT security and a sobering forecast of what to expect in the next decade. It debunks the media hype and unnecessary concerns while focusing on the knowledge you need to combat and prioritize the actual risks of today and beyond.IT security needs are constantly evolving; this guide examine

  6. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, Neil; Leufkens, Hubert; Hövels, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. We analyzed the evolution of the HTA system and processes in Poland over the past decade and current developments based on publicly available information. The role of HTA in drug-reimbursement process in Poland has increased substantially over the recent decade, starting in 2005 with the formation the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (AOTMiT). The key success factors in this development were effective capacity building based on the use of international expertise, the implementation of transparent criteria into the drug reimbursement processes, and the selective approach to the adoption of innovative medicines based on the cost-effectiveness threshold among other criteria. While Poland is regarded as a leader in Central and Eastern Europe, there is room for improvement, especially with regard to the quality of HTA processes and the consistency of HTA guidelines with reimbursement law. In the "pragmatic" HTA model use by AOTMiT, the pharmaceutical company is responsible for the preparation of a reimbursement dossier of good quality in line with HTA guidelines while the assessment team in AOTMiT is responsible for critical review of that dossier. Adoption of this model may be considered by other countries with limited resources to balance differing priorities and ensure transparent and objective access to medicines for patients who need them.

  7. Five Decades: From Challenge to Acclaim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melina, Vesanto

    2016-09-01

    What can make your work as a dietitian so meaningful that you begin each day with enthusiasm, and if you so choose, retain that joy in your work for 5 decades or more? Three themes are: (i) doing work that profoundly makes sense to you, (ii) inspiring others (and yourself) to make healthful choices, and (iii) moving through challenges to success. Initially it can be challenging to make a living through work that is most deeply meaningful or closest to your heart. Yet it is well worth finding the balance between practicality and movement in the desired direction. Other challenges faced by dietitians involve helping others to adopt new, more healthful lifestyle choices. As health professionals, our attitudes towards plant-based diets have changed dramatically during these past decades. This article examines our evolving perspectives of plant-based diets, and uses this as an example of movement through challenges to success and acclaim. Vegetarian and vegan diets that were considered entirely inappropriate for many stages of the life cycle in the 1970s are now seen to confer health benefits. This applies to well-designed plant-based diets, thus offering a significant role for dietitians as creative leaders in this field.

  8. Uji Ketahanan Beberapa Varietas Dan Pengaruh Jarak Tanam Terhadap Penyakit Karat Daun (Puccinia Polysora Underw) Pada Tanaman Jagung (Zea Mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya, Sukma

    2013-01-01

    Sukma Aditya, "Some Resistance Test Plant Varieties and Influence Distance Against Disease Leaf Rust (Puccinia polysora Underw) In the Corn Plantation (Zea mays l.) In the Lowlands". Supervised by Dr. Ir. Hasanuddin, MS, and Ir. Mukhtar Pinem Iskandar, M. Agr. This study aims to determine the resistance of some varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) and plant spacing influence on leaf rust disease (Puccinia polysora Underw.) In the lowlands. Research conducted in the village of Tanjung Selamat, Med...

  9. Seventy years of continuous encroachment substantially increases 'blue carbon' capacity as mangroves replace intertidal salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J; Saintilan, Neil; Macreadie, Peter I; Skilbeck, Charles G; Zawadzki, Atun; Ralph, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in ecosystem structure have been observed over recent decades as woody plants encroach upon grasslands and wetlands globally. The migration of mangrove forests into salt marsh ecosystems is one such shift which could have important implications for global 'blue carbon' stocks. To date, attempts to quantify changes in ecosystem function are essentially constrained to climate-mediated pulses (30 years or less) of encroachment occurring at the thermal limits of mangroves. In this study, we track the continuous, lateral encroachment of mangroves into two south-eastern Australian salt marshes over a period of 70 years and quantify corresponding changes in biomass and belowground C stores. Substantial increases in biomass and belowground C stores have resulted as mangroves replaced salt marsh at both marine and estuarine sites. After 30 years, aboveground biomass was significantly higher than salt marsh, with biomass continuing to increase with mangrove age. Biomass increased at the mesohaline river site by 130 ± 18 Mg biomass km(-2)  yr(-1) (mean ± SE), a 2.5 times higher rate than the marine embayment site (52 ± 10 Mg biomass km(-2) yr(-1) ), suggesting local constraints on biomass production. At both sites, and across all vegetation categories, belowground C considerably outweighed aboveground biomass stocks, with belowground C stocks increasing at up to 230 ± 62 Mg C km(-2) yr(-1) (± SE) as mangrove forests developed. Over the past 70 years, we estimate mangrove encroachment may have already enhanced intertidal biomass by up to 283 097 Mg and belowground C stocks by over 500 000 Mg in the state of New South Wales alone. Under changing climatic conditions and rising sea levels, global blue carbon storage may be enhanced as mangrove encroachment becomes more widespread, thereby countering global warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Imatinib treatment causes substantial transcriptional changes in adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro exhibiting pleiotropic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Buro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome parasites cause schistosomiasis, one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. For decades Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug widely used for controlling schistosomiasis. The absence of a vaccine and fear of PZQ resistance have motivated the search for alternatives. Studies on protein kinases (PKs demonstrated their importance for diverse physiological processes in schistosomes. Among others two Abl tyrosine kinases, SmAbl1 and SmAbl2, were identified in Schistosoma mansoni and shown to be transcribed in the gonads and the gastrodermis. SmAbl1 activity was blocked by Imatinib, a known Abl-TK inhibitor used in human cancer therapy (Gleevec/Glivec. Imatinib exhibited dramatic effects on the morphology and physiology of adult schistosomes in vitro causing the death of the parasites.Here we show modeling data supporting the targeting of SmAbl1/2 by Imatinib. A biochemical assay confirmed that SmAbl2 activity is also inhibited by Imatinib. Microarray analyses and qRT-PCR experiments were done to unravel transcriptional processes influenced by Imatinib in adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrating a wide influence on worm physiology. Surface-, muscle-, gut and gonad-associated processes were affected as evidenced by the differential transcription of e.g. the gynecophoral canal protein gene GCP, paramyosin, titin, hemoglobinase, and cathepsins. Furthermore, transcript levels of VAL-7 and egg formation-associated genes such as tyrosinase 1, p14, and fs800-like were affected as well as those of signaling genes including a ribosomal protein S6 kinase and a glutamate receptor. Finally, a comparative in silico analysis of the obtained microarray data sets and previous data analyzing the effect of a TGFβR1 inhibitor on transcription provided first evidence for an association of TGFβ and Abl kinase signaling. Among others GCP and egg formation-associated genes were identified as common targets.The data affirm broad negative effects of

  11. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  12. Information Technology & Applications Corporation v. United States: An Interested Party's "Substantial Chance" at APA Standing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slicker, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .... Building on CICA's "interested party" definition with Information Technology's refinement of "substantial chance" rule, the Federal Circuit has effectively translated "APA standing" into the language...

  13. Decadal Monsoon-ENSO Relationships Reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Timmermann, Axel

    2018-02-01

    The strength of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) relationship shows considerable decadal fluctuations, which have been previously linked to low-frequency climatic processes such as shifts in ENSO's center of action or the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. However, random variability can also cause similar variations in the relationship between climate phenomena. Here we propose a statistical test to determine whether the observed time-evolving correlations between ENSO and ISMR are different from those expected from a simple stochastic null hypothesis model. The analysis focuses on the time evolution of moving correlations, their expected variance, and probabilities for rapid transitions. The results indicate that the time evolution of the observed running correlation between these climate modes is indistinguishable from a system in which the ISMR signal can be expressed as a stochastically perturbed ENSO signal. This challenges previous deterministic interpretations. Our results are further corroborated by the analysis of climate model simulations.

  14. The first decade of commercial space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    In order to provide a basis for assessing the future prospects and challenges of space tourism, this paper begins with a brief overview of the history of space tourism. This is followed by a discussion on market demand and current developments in the academic community, as well as the status of traffic tools, regulations and legalization. In market demand, although studies conducted in 1990s assumed the possibility of 500,000 per year in space tourists and several billion USD of annual revenue, in 2008 a relatively modest 13,000 per year was predicted. At this time traffic transport tools including the Soyuz system, CST-100, DragonRider and International Space Station (ISS) can only provide a few tens in spare seats for space tourists per year compared to the projected 20,000 plus seat capacity of the Lynx, Dream Chaser and SpaceShipTwo (SS2) fleets, which have the potential to conduct their first full suborbital test flight and first commercial flight within the coming decade. Added to this, the US government has only a regulatory regime that supports privately owned suborbital space tourism (SST) and no government funded orbital space tourism (OST). These evidences reveal a very high and advantageous potential for SST to form a space tourism industry in the coming decade, whereas the possibility of OST is relatively low. However, even though the prosperity of SST in the coming years is expectable, its maturity, reliability and safety still need to win the confidence of the general public. For examples, the announcement of changes to fuel used in the SS2 rocket engine in May 2014 and the crash of one SS2 while performing test flight on 31 October 2014 indicated the need for much careful preparation, as any accident in commercial operation could seriously damage or even kill its future prospects.

  15. Children's rights: a decade of dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to raise issues surrounding children's rights against a backdrop of ethical principles and their subsequent interpretation and application in practice. Key words have been used to search a selection of electronic databases and a range of 'grey' literature has been reviewed. Over a decade ago the United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child was ratified, with the exception of two member states (UNICEF 2000). The Human Rights Act (Department of Health 1998) became law in October 2000 in the United Kingdom (UK). Despite a decade of recommendations, guidelines and legislation, children's rights, particularly consent to health care, remain complex and inconsistent. As we move into a new era of human rights involving all members of society, it is timely for nurses in the UK to reflect on the challenges created in attempting to interpret the philosophy of such legislation because such complexity surrounds the interpretation of human rights for many other vulnerable clients within health care. The interpretation of children's rights continues to be influenced by the evolution of the meanings of childhood. Adults view children's rights from multiple perspectives of best interest, which are determined by their beliefs about children's ability to understand and consent to health care and treatment. An ability and right to consent appears not to be balanced by the right to withhold consent. Inconsistency and ambiguity persist in the law and its interpretation. Adults need to develop a more pragmatic approach to children's rights. This requires better understanding of children and their experiences of health care. Until adults develop a more pragmatic ideology in relation to children's rights then a true respect for children's autonomy will not be achieved. Consent will therefore remain an adult and legal prerogative.

  16. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  17. 26 CFR 1.6662-5 - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is added to the tax an amount equal to 20 percent of such portion. Section 6662(h) increases the... corporation (as defined in section 1361(a)(1)) or a personal holding company (as defined in section 542...—(1) Substantial valuation misstatement. There is a substantial valuation misstatement if the value or...

  18. Substantiation of Optimum Stoker Number in Potassium Production by Game Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bogatov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dump formation process of hard halite waste in potassium production has been analyzed in the paper. The paper shows high cost of a salt dump formation and an actuality to substantiate number of ОШ-1900-110/150 stokers that are operating simultaneously. A game theory method has been used to substantiate a solution of the problem.

  19. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year preceding...

  20. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  1. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved] 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved] ...

  2. Rings Research in the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. A.; Tiscareno, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    The study of planetary ring systems forms a key component of planetary science for several reasons: 1) The evolution and current states of planets and their satellites are affected in many ways by rings, while 2) conversely, properties of planets and moons and other solar system populations are revealed by their effects on rings; 3) highly structured and apparently delicate ring systems may be bellwethers, constraining various theories of the origin and evolution of their entire planetary system; and finally, 4) planetary rings provide an easily observable analogue to other astrophysical disk systems, enabling real “ground truth” results applicable to disks much more remote in space and/or time, including proto-planetary disks, circum-stellar disks, and even galaxies. Significant advances have been made in rings science in the past decade. The highest-priority rings research recommendations of the last Planetary Science Decadal Survey were to operate and extend the Cassini orbiter mission at Saturn; this has been done with tremendous success, accounting for much of the progress made on key science questions, as we will describe. Important progress in understanding the rings of Saturn and other planets has also come from Earth-based observational and theoretical work, again as prioritized by the last Decadal Survey. However, much important work remains to be done. At Saturn, the Cassini Solstice Mission must be brought to a successful completion. Priority should also be placed on sending spacecraft to Neptune and/or Uranus, now unvisited for more than 20 years. At Jupiter and Pluto, opportunities afforded by visiting spacecraft capable of studying rings should be exploited. On Earth, the need for continued research and analysis remains strong, including in-depth analysis of rings data already obtained, numerical and theoretical modeling work, laboratory analysis of materials and processes analogous to those found in the outer solar system, and continued Earth

  3. Strategy for the International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2015-10-01

    LD is a global event and process for international collaboration in space initiated by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the National Space Society and the National Science Centre FOTONIKA-LV of the University of Latvia. ILD is planned for launch in 2017, the 60th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year that marked the dawn of the space age with the launch of Sputnik. ILD is envisioned as a decade long process of international collaboration with lunar exploration concurrent with development of policies, key enabling technologies and infrastructures on the Moon and in cislunar space leading towards an eventual goal of industrial development of the Moon and economic activity beyond Earth orbit[1]. This second International Lunar Decade will build on the foundations of the ILD first proposed in by the Planetary Society in 2006 at International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM), was endorsed by ICEUM participants[3], and then by ILEWG, COSPAR and other organizations. Starting in 2007, the work plan included a series of recommendations for lunar exploration missions coordinated through the ILEWG agencies and COSPAR. Advances in technology such as CubeSats and 3D printing and fundamental changes in mind-set marked by initiatives such as the Google Lunar-X prize and asteroid mining ventures have made industrial development of the Moon a thinkable proposition. The ILD to be launched in 2017 is intended to set the stage for the Moon to become a wealth generating platform for human expansion into the solar system.ILD is being organized to engage existing organizations involved in space collaboration such as COSPAR, COPUOS, ISECG, technical and scientific organizations and others that address space policy, space law, space security, governance and related concerns. Additional organizations will be involved that deal with structures, ecosystems, financing, economic development and health and life support and

  4. Evaluation of decadal hindcasts using satellite simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangehl, Thomas; Mazurkiewicz, Alex; Schröder, Marc

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of dynamical ensemble forecast systems requires a solid validation of basic processes such as the global atmospheric water and energy cycle. The value of any validation approach strongly depends on the quality of the observational data records used. Current approaches utilize in situ measurements, remote sensing data and reanalyses. Related data records are subject to a number of uncertainties and limitations such as representativeness, spatial and temporal resolution and homogeneity. However, recently several climate data records with known and sufficient quality became available. In particular, the satellite data records offer the opportunity to obtain reference information on global scales including the oceans. Here we consider the simulation of satellite radiances from the climate model output enabling an evaluation in the instrument's parameter space to avoid uncertainties stemming from the application of retrieval schemes in order to minimise uncertainties on the reference side. Utilizing the CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) we develop satellite simulators for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar (TRMM PR) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The simulators are applied within the MiKlip project funded by BMBF (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research) to evaluate decadal climate predictions performed with the MPI-ESM developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. While TRMM PR enables the evaluation of the vertical structure of precipitation over tropical and sub-tropical areas, IASI is used to support the global evaluation of clouds and radiation. In a first step the reliability of the developed simulators needs to be explored. The simulation of radiances in the instrument space requires the generation of sub-grid scale variability from the climate model output. Furthermore, assumptions are made to simulate radiances such as, for example, the distribution of different

  5. Prediction of Pathological Complete Response Using Endoscopic Findings and Outcomes of Patients Who Underwent Watchful Waiting After Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kazushige; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Nonoperative management for patients with rectal cancer who have achieved a clinical complete response after chemoradiotherapy is becoming increasingly important in recent years. However, the definition of and modality used for patients with clinical complete response differ greatly between institutions, and the role of endoscopic assessment as a nonoperative approach has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the ability of endoscopic assessments to predict pathological regression of rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy and the applicability of these assessments for the watchful waiting approach. This was a retrospective comparative study. This study was conducted at a single referral hospital. A total of 198 patients with rectal cancer underwent preoperative endoscopic assessments after chemoradiotherapy. Of them, 186 patients underwent radical surgery with lymph node dissection. The histopathological findings of resected tissues were compared with the preoperative endoscopic findings. Twelve patients refused radical surgery and chose watchful waiting; their outcomes were compared with the outcomes of patients who underwent radical surgery. The endoscopic criteria correlated well with tumor regression grading. The sensitivity and specificity for a pathological complete response were 65.0% to 87.1% and 39.1% to 78.3%. However, endoscopic assessment could not fully discriminate pathological complete responses, and the outcomes of patients who underwent watchful waiting were considerably poorer than the patients who underwent radical surgery. Eventually, 41.7% of the patients who underwent watchful waiting experienced uncontrollable local failure, and many of these occurrences were observed more than 3 years after chemoradiotherapy. The number of the patients treated with the watchful waiting strategy was limited, and the selection was not randomized. Although endoscopic assessment after chemoradiotherapy correlated with pathological response

  6. XMM-Newton: The Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe

    2016-06-01

    The recent generation of high energy observatories has enabled unprecedented progress to be made in our understanding of astrophysics in the X-ray domain. Current technical evaluations suggest that the XMM-Newton spacecraft and its scientific instruments may continue to provide first class X-ray observations well into the next decade. Other X-ray missions are planned to be launched soon, including Astro-H and e-ROSITA. Coupled with new ground-based developments, this will open up new exciting opportunities for multi-wavelength and follow-up observations, to which XMM-Newton is ideally placed to play a major role. This workshop will summarise the state of our current knowledge derived from X-ray astrophysics. We will discuss some of the major achievements over the past years, and identify a set of fundamental questions still to be addressed. Within this context a primary aim of the workshop will be to define the key scientific topics which will have the highest scientific importance and impact. We will seek to identify observing programs of maximum long-term value to the entire astronomical community. Many of these programs are likely to require large amounts of observing time on only a few carefully selected targets or sky areas. We strongly encourage innovative ideas for applications, and the formation of well organised major collaborations.

  7. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  8. ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Walter

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ to 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be kept lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tr...

  9. Breastfeeding: what changed after a decade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Tamami Minagawa Toryiama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the changes in prevalence, median duration and correlates of breastfeeding in a small city in São Paulo state, Brazil. Method: analysis of two cross-sectional studies, conducted at intervals of one decade, with 261 and 302 children younger than two years, respectively. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for calculation of the median duration of breastfeeding, and Cox regression for correlates analysis, with significance level of 5%. Results: an increase of 33.4% in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and 20.9% in breastfeeding was identified. Regarding the latter, the median duration increased from 7.2 to 12 months. In the most recent study, the median duration was lower in first-born children who used pacifiers, and it was not associated with breastfeeding incentive actions. Conclusions: advances in the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding were observed during the 10 year-period, however, pacifier use still remains associated to a shorter median duration of breastfeeding. Our findings contribute to highlighting the need for intensification of nursing actions in the promotion of breastfeeding, and discouragement regarding the use of pacifiers.

  10. ATLAS Upgrades for the next Decades

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Along with maintenance and consolidation of the detector in the past few years, ATLAS has added inner b-layer to its tracking system. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requir...

  11. Review of progress in the past decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywosz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The past decade saw tremendous changes in the operation and maintenance of steam generators. Inservice inspection practices were continually upgraded to better maintain the integrity of steam generator pressure boundaries. Even though the number of plants replacing steam generators earlier than expected is increasing, concerted efforts are underway to extend the life of those remaining. Managing the safe and continued operation of steam generators is a complex task and the role of NDE is expanding. The conventional role of NDE for detecting and characterizing both degraded and new damage mechanisms is expanding to other functions such as: monitoring degradation growth rate, verifying the effectiveness of remedial measures, assisting in the establishment of defect-specific plugging limits, and assuring the inspectability of new replacement tube materials. Consequently, NDE plays a major role in improving availability and life extension of steam generators. This paper reviews the current operating conditions of steam generators in the United States, strategies for managing steam generators, and current inservice inspection practices. (author)

  12. ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred \\ifb\\ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for...

  13. What criteria do child protective services investigators use to substantiate exposure to domestic violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31 (7.1%) couples were investigated for exposing a child to domestic violence or failing to protect a child from domestic violence. All of the batterers investigated and in the caregiver role when their children were exposed to domestic violence were substantiated. The unsubstantiated victims of battering tended to use more protective behaviors (M=3.82) than the substantiated victims (M=2.00); yet, at the case level, using more than one protective behavior did not seem to be a criterion used to substantiate the victims. Instead, it appears that investigators were discriminating between those protective behaviors by the victims that ended contact between the batterers and the children--for a substantial amount of time--and those that did not in both the substantiation and removal decision. Key issues related to applying criteria in incidents involving domestic violence are discussed along with recommendations to further refine and document them.

  14. Societal Impacts of Natural Decadal Climate Variability - The Pacemakers of Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    Natural decadal climate variability (DCV) is one of the oldest areas of climate research. Building on centuries-long literature, a substantial body of research has emerged in the last two to three decades, focused on understanding causes, mechanisms, and impacts of DCV. Several DCV phenomena - the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) or the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature gradient variability (TAG for brevity), West Pacific Warm Pool variability, and decadal variability of El Niño-La Niña events - have been identified in observational records; and are associated with variability of worldwide atmospheric circulations, water vapor transport, precipitation, and temperatures; and oceanic circulations, salinity, and temperatures. Tree-ring based drought index data going back more than 700 years show presence of decadal hydrologic cycles (DHCs) in North America, Europe, and South Asia. Some of these cycles were associated with the rise and fall of civilizations, large-scale famines which killed millions of people, and acted as catalysts for socio-political revolutions. Instrument-measured data confirm presence of such worldwide DHCs associated with DCV phenomena; and show these DCV phenomena's worldwide impacts on river flows, crop productions, inland water-borne transportation, hydro-electricity generation, and agricultural irrigation. Fish catch data also show multiyear to decadal catch variability associated with these DCV phenomena in all oceans. This talk, drawn from my recently-published book (Mehta, V.M., 2017: Natural Decadal Climate Variability: Societal Impacts. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 326 pp.), will give an overview of worldwide impacts of DCV phenomena, with specific examples of socio-economic-political impacts. This talk will also describe national and international security implications of such societal impacts, and worldwide food security implications. The talk will end with an outline of needed

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy substantially reduces symptom severity and social disability associated with multiple chemical sensitivity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Gulmann, Nils; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-09-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic nonallergic, multisymptom disorder triggered by common environmental chemicals in concentrations considered nontoxic for most individuals. The condition may lead to loss of occupation and social isolation, and no effective treatment has been reported. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment of severe depression and medical conditions such as chronic pain disorders. We report a case of a 45-year-old man with a 5-year history of MCS who had to quit his job to live a solitary life without his wife and children because of the condition. The patient had no history of psychiatric illness and no signs of clinical depression at treatment start. Over a 3-week period, he underwent a course of 8 ECTs, giving a remarkable effect on symptom severity and social functional level. After a partial symptom relapse, maintenance treatment was started with 1 ECT every second week. No memory impairment or other complications of ECT were reported at the 4-month follow-up. In this case, a substantial, positive effect on symptom severity and social disability related to MCS was obtained by an initial ECT course and maintenance treatment. Electroconvulsive therapy should be considered an option in severe and socially disabling MCS, but more studies are needed to evaluate if ECT can be recommended as a treatment in MCS.

  16. Renewable Electricity: Insights for the Coming Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Camila [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A sophisticated set of renewable electricity (RE) generation technologies is now commercially available. Globally, RE captured approximately half of all capacity additions since 2011. The cost of RE is already competitive with fossil fuels in some areas around the world, and prices are anticipated to continue to decline over the next decade. RE options, led by wind and solar, are part of a suite of technologies and business solutions that are transforming electricity sectors around the world. Renewable deployment is expected to continue due to: increasingly competitive economics; favorable environmental characteristics such as low water use, and minimal local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; complementary risk profiles when paired with natural gas generators; strong support from stakeholders. Despite this positive outlook for renewables, the collapse in global oil prices since mid-2014 and continued growth in natural gas supply in the United States--due to the development of low-cost shale gas--raise questions about the potential impacts of fossil fuel prices on RE. Today, oil plays a very minor role in the electricity sectors of most countries, so direct impacts on RE are likely to be minimal (except where natural gas prices are indexed on oil). Natural gas and RE generating options appear to be more serious competitors than oil and renewables. Low gas prices raise the hurdle for RE to be cost competitive. Additionally, although RE emits far less GHG than natural gas, both natural gas and RE offer the benefits of reducing carbon relative to coal and oil (see Section 4.1 for more detail on the GHG intensity of electricity technologies). However, many investors and decision makers are becoming aware of the complementary benefits of pairing natural gas and renewables to minimize risk of unstable fuel prices and maintain the reliability of electricity to the grid.

  17. LAB bacteriocin applications in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Rocío López-Cuellar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the expectations about bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LABs were aimed at food applications. However, the effectiveness of bacteriocins against undesirable micro-organisms opened endless possibilities for innovative research. In the present review, we collected a database including 429 published papers and 245 granted patents (from 2004 to 2015. Based on bibliometric analysis, the progress of bacteriocin research in the last 11 years was discussed in detail. It was found that 164 patents were granted in 2010–2015, which is equivalent to 60% in comparison with previous years (i.e. only 81 patents were granted in 2004–2009. Currently, the research on bacteriocins is still gaining importance. In the realm of therapeutic strategies, about a 37% of the published research was focused on biomedical applications in the last decade. This vein of research is currently seeking for alternative solutions to problems such as cancer, systemic infections, oral-care, vaginal infections, contraception and skincare. On the other hand, food preservation, bio-nanomaterial and veterinary applications represent 29%, 25% and 9%, respectively. All this technology is being applied and will surely grow in the future, since about 31% of the patents granted since 2004 are focused on the biomedical area, 29% on food preservation, 5% on veterinary use; whereas 13% and 16% correspond to patents granted on production–purification systems and recombinant proteins or molecular modifications in the producer strains. This review contributes to the analysis of recent LAB bacteriocin applications and their role in safety, quality and improvement of human health.

  18. Global Estimated Net Migration Grids by Decade: 1970-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Estimated Net Migration by Decade: 1970-2000 data set provides estimates of net migration over the three decades from 1970 to 2000. Because of the lack of...

  19. Long-term psychological distress, and styles of coping, in parents of children and adolescents who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, Alinda W.; Helbing, Willem A.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the level of psychological distress and styles of coping in both mothers and fathers of children who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease at least 7 years and 6 months ago. The General Health Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List were completed by parents of

  20. SUBSTANTIAL EXCEPTIONS AND (DELIMITATIONS OF THE POWERS OF THE JUDGES ON CIVIL PROCEDURAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Raatz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to unveil the role of the substantial exceptions on delimiting the powers of the judges on civil procedural law, especially regarding the ex officio judicial activity. This way, under a phenomenological method and based on a vision of guarantee of rights on procedural law, the article offers a brief explanation of the question concerning the content of the object under litigation and its role of (delimiting the powers of the judges. The work hypothesis is the addition of the substantial exceptions among the content of the object under litigation, along with the claim itself and the cause of action. The results lie on the premise that, by the substantial exceptions, the defendant extends the object under litigation – which is formed dynamically on civil procedure. The conclusion points towards the idea that the substantial exceptions act in a way of limiting the ex officio judicial activity on civil procedural law

  1. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lunch counter for the convenience of X's employees. The canteen is required to be open at least 5 days... substantial users. Example 2. The facts are the same as in example (1) except that X rents food and beverage...

  2. Sahel rainfall and decadal to multi-decadal sea surface temperature variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohino, Elsa [LOCEAN/IPSL, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Janicot, Serge [LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Bader, Juergen [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)

    2011-08-15

    Decadal Sahelian rainfall variability was mainly driven by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during the twentieth century. At the same time SSTs showed a marked long-term global warming (GW) trend. Superimposed on this long-term trend decadal and multi-decadal variability patterns are observed like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Using an atmospheric general circulation model we investigate the relative contribution of each component to the Sahelian precipitation variability. To take into account the uncertainty related to the use of different SST data sets, we perform the experiments using HadISST1 and ERSSTv3 reconstructed sets. The simulations show that all three SST signals have a significant impact over West Africa: the positive phases of the GW and the IPO lead to drought over the Sahel, while a positive AMO enhances Sahel rainfall. The tropical SST warming is the main cause for the GW impact on Sahel rainfall. Regarding the AMO, the pattern of anomalous precipitation is established by the SSTs in the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins. In turn, the tropical SST anomalies control the impact of the IPO component on West Africa. Our results suggest that the low-frequency evolution of Sahel rainfall can be interpreted as the competition of three factors: the effect of the GW, the AMO and the IPO. Following this interpretation, our results show that 50% of the SST-driven Sahel drought in the 1980s is explained by the change to a negative phase of the AMO, and that the GW contribution was 10%. In addition, the partial recovery of Sahel rainfall in recent years was mainly driven by the AMO. (orig.)

  3. Decadal Detectability of Anthropogenic Hydroclimate Changes over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Delworth, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Future hydroclimate changes consist of shifts in mean state resulting from anthropogenic forcing and contributions from natural climate variability. Considering the inherently limited predictability of natural climate variability, our confidence in projections of future hydroclimate changes relies on a robust assessment of anthropogenic shifts in mean state. Assessment of anthropogenic shifts in near-term projections is challenging because the "signal" of anthropogenic changes is modest compared to the "noise" of natural variability; however, this "signal to noise" ratio can be greatly improved in a large model ensemble that contains the same "signal" but different "noise". Here using multiple large ensembles from two state-of-the-art climate models, we assess the decadal shifts in precipitation-minus-evaporation (PmE) mean state caused by anthropogenic forcing, focusing on North America during 2000 2050. Anthropogenic forcing is projected to cause significant (against internal climate variability) shifts in PmE mean state relative to the 1950 1999 climatology over 50 70% of North America by 2050. The earliest detectable signals include, during November-April, a moistening over northeastern North America and a drying over southwestern North America and, during May-October, a drying over central North America. The central drying is largely attributable to anthropogenic warming. Changes in submonthly transient eddies account for the northeastern moistening and central drying while monthly atmospheric circulation changes explain the southwestern drying. Despite these significant anthropogenic shifts in PmE mean state, large irreducible uncertainties, caused primarily by atmosphere/land internal dynamics, remain in individual projections and are of substantial relevance for policy planning.

  4. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  5. Evaluation of interpretation strategies and substantial bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with normal baseline spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Daniel P; Ocampo, Thad F; DiGiovanni, Heather A; Gil, Eddie R

    2013-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the best method to interpret pediatric spirometry. There is also controversy regarding the benefit of performing post-bronchodilator spirometry after normal baseline spirometry. This study compares the use of lower limit of normal (LLN) against percent of predicted (PP) in the interpretation of spirometry. We also investigate the occurrence of a substantial bronchodilator response for patients who received post-bronchodilator spirometry. Spirometric tests performed in the pediatric clinic at San Antonio Military Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Results of spirometry were compared using LLN and PP for interpretation. Abnormal spirometry was defined as a low FEV1 or low FEV1/FVC, indicating evidence of airway obstruction. The presence of a substantial bronchodilator response was recorded and the results were analyzed. Of 242 tests, 212 normal and 30 abnormal tests were reported using the LLN interpretation strategy. Using the PP interpretation strategy, there was a significant difference in the number of normal (183) and abnormal (59) tests, when compared to the LLN (P spirometry, 10% (PP) and 12% (LLN) had a substantial bronchodilator response. An abnormal baseline spirometry was more likely to have a substantial response to bronchodilator, compared to normal baseline spirometry (P spirometry, 10-12% of subjects with normal baseline spirometry showed a substantial bronchodilator response. This suggests that normal baseline spirometry may miss reversible airway obstruction, which is a hallmark of asthma.

  6. Significant Contributions of Volcanic Aerosols to Decadal Changes in the Stratospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, M.; Ploeger, F.; Konopka, P.; Birner, T.; Müller, R.; Riese, M.; Garny, H.; Legras, B.; Ray, E.; Berthet, G.; Jegou, F.

    2017-10-01

    The stratospheric circulation is an important element of climate as it determines the concentration of radiatively active species like water vapor and aerosol above the tropopause. Climate models predict that increasing greenhouse gas levels speed up the stratospheric circulation. However, these results have been challenged by observational estimates of the circulation strength, constituting an uncertainty in current climate simulations. Here, we quantify the effect of volcanic aerosol on the stratospheric circulation focusing on the Mount Pinatubo eruption and discussing further the minor extratropical volcanic eruptions after 2008. We show that the observed pattern of decadal circulation change over the past decades is substantially driven by volcanic aerosol injections. Thus, climate model simulations need to realistically take into account the effect of volcanic eruptions, including the minor eruptions after 2008, for a reliable reproduction of observed stratospheric circulation changes.

  7. OCEAN CIRCULATION. Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation yields a decade of inevitable surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokosz, M A; Bryden, H L

    2015-06-19

    The importance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) heat transport for climate is well acknowledged. Climate models predict that the AMOC will slow down under global warming, with substantial impacts, but measurements of ocean circulation have been inadequate to evaluate these predictions. Observations over the past decade have changed that situation, providing a detailed picture of variations in the AMOC. These observations reveal a surprising degree of AMOC variability in terms of the intraannual range, the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle, the interannual changes in strength affecting the ocean heat content, and the decline of the AMOC over the decade, both of the latter two exceeding the variations seen in climate models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Opportunities for knowledge translation in the decade of road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J; Dunbar, Robert P; Burgess, Andrew R; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations has identified road traffic safety as an important objective for the decade 2011-2020. It has implemented a 5-tiered program: improving health care services, improving management of road safety, improving road network safety, improving vehicular safety, and improving road safety legislation. A small body of practical research has been generated by the medical and surgical (including orthopaedic) communities regarding the road traffic safety, but a substantial amount of work remains to be performed. This article will review published research in each of the 5 tiers of the Decade of Action for Road Traffic Safety and will identify areas where research is insufficient or absent, such that new research programming and funding can be developed.

  9. Impact of baseline renal function on all-cause mortality in patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoukis, G; Letsas, K P; Korantzopoulos, P; Thomopoulos, C; Vlachos, K; Georgopoulos, S; Karamichalakis, N; Saplaouras, A; Efremidis, M; Sideris, A

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves both morbidity and mortality in selected patients with heart failure and increased QRS duration. However, chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have an adverse effect on patient outcome. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the existing data regarding the impact of baseline renal function on all-cause mortality in patients who underwent CRT. Medline database was searched systematically, and studies evaluating the effect of baseline renal function on all-cause mortality in patients who underwent CRT were retrieved. We performed three separate analyses according to the comparison groups included in each study. Data were analyzed using Review Manager software (RevMan version 5.3; Oxford, UK). We included 16 relevant studies in our analysis. Specifically, 13 studies showed a statistically significant higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with impaired baseline renal function who underwent CRT. The remaining three studies did not show a statistically significant result. The quantitative synthesis of five studies showed a 19% decrease in all-cause mortality per 10-unit increment in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.73-0.90), p <0.01, 86% I 2 ]. Additionally, we demonstrated that patients with an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 had an all-cause mortality rate of 66% [HR: 1.66, 95% CI (1.37-2.02), p <0.01, 0% I 2 ], which was higher than in those with an eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Baseline renal dysfunction has an adverse effect on-all cause mortality in patients who underwent CRT.

  10. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie [Palo Alto, CA

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  11. Physical Biology : challenges for our second decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    understand when the details of proteins and nucleic acids structure and function can be assumed constant when considering the cell. This problem is even more serious as we try to set higher sights and think of cells as constituents of tissue, organ and organism. Trying to understand higher-order biological systems is a bit like trying to play a board game where the pieces and rules are constantly changing, somehow in concert with what is happening at the scale of the game. Others will undoubtedly have their own view of what is really difficult and different about living systems. One of the roles of Physical Biology should therefore be to provide a needed forum to address some of these really difficult questions. Of course, most papers will operate with the safety-setting on, and will use established ideas in physics, either experimental or theoretical, to further our quantitative appreciation of living systems. These papers are without doubt an absolutely necessary part of the field, and we hope that our journal can serve as a home for the best of these. But, my real hope is that we can attract papers that really try to break new ground, that suggest ways in which the living world is not just an extremely messy example of the same phenomena that can be studied in non-biological contexts. Amazingly, this hope is actually shared by many leading biologists. In one of the most influential papers on cancer research in the past decades. Hanahan and Weinberg argue that 'one day, we imagine that cancer biology and treatment—at present, a patchwork quilt of cell biology, genetics, histopathology, biochemistry, immunology, and pharmacology—will become a science with a conceptual structure and logical coherence that rivals that of chemistry or physics.' We should take up the challenge, not just for cancer, and Physical Biology should help. Figuring out exactly how best to do this is now my responsibility, and I look forward to hearing from you and working with all of you, in order

  12. Physical Biology : challenges for our second decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    understand when the details of proteins and nucleic acids structure and function can be assumed constant when considering the cell. This problem is even more serious as we try to set higher sights and think of cells as constituents of tissue, organ and organism. Trying to understand higher-order biological systems is a bit like trying to play a board game where the pieces and rules are constantly changing, somehow in concert with what is happening at the scale of the game. Others will undoubtedly have their own view of what is really difficult and different about living systems. One of the roles of Physical Biology should therefore be to provide a needed forum to address some of these really difficult questions. Of course, most papers will operate with the safety-setting on, and will use established ideas in physics, either experimental or theoretical, to further our quantitative appreciation of living systems. These papers are without doubt an absolutely necessary part of the field, and we hope that our journal can serve as a home for the best of these. But, my real hope is that we can attract papers that really try to break new ground, that suggest ways in which the living world is not just an extremely messy example of the same phenomena that can be studied in non-biological contexts. Amazingly, this hope is actually shared by many leading biologists. In one of the most influential papers on cancer research in the past decades. Hanahan and Weinberg argue that 'one day, we imagine that cancer biology and treatment-at present, a patchwork quilt of cell biology, genetics, histopathology, biochemistry, immunology, and pharmacology-will become a science with a conceptual structure and logical coherence that rivals that of chemistry or physics.' We should take up the challenge, not just for cancer, and Physical Biology should help. Figuring out exactly how best to do this is now my responsibility, and I look forward to hearing from you and working with all of you, in order to

  13. Prelude and first decade, 1951-1961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    the eventual adoption of the new Constitution, the Bureau would function informally. In 1961 the Federation as we know it today emerged beginning with the spring meeting in Paris, held in premises shared by the IAF and IAA, and with the Executive Secretariat in place. The main business was for the informal Bureau to meet with the committee responsible for the draft of the new constitution, to amend it to a form acceptable to all member societies. This done, the proposed new Constitution was submitted to the ensuing congress in Washington D.C. The XIIth Congress saw the IAF emerge from its adolescence to adult status. The new Constitution was approved and the Bureau was formally established. Henceforth, the plenary gathering of member societies was designated the General Assembly and reference to the IAF Council discontinued. A radical innovation was the creation of the International Programme Committee with future responsibility for planning and co-ordinating the congress technical lecture sessions. At Washington the first task of the Bureau was to draw up the Terms of Reference and the functional duties of this committee which have remained substantially unchanged.

  14. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Werner, Bo

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged seven years to 19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height. We used height and weight data on 6572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes. Of the 6572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and BMI reduction of 10% or more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height. Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental marketing claims. 260.5 Section 260.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.5 Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts and...

  16. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna

    2016-01-01

    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  17. Complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams in seismic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negmatullaev, S.Kh.; Yasunov, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    This article is devoted to complex researches on substantiation of construction and seismic stability of large dams (Nurec hydroelectric power station) in seismic region. Geological, seismological, model, and engineering investigations are discussed in this work. At construction of Nurec hydroelectric power station the rich experience is accumulated. This experience can be used in analogous seismically active regions at construction similar hydroelectric power stations.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1680 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of right to hearing on proposed... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Hearings and Appeals § 404.1680 Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure. If...

  19. 16 CFR 3.40 - Admissibility of evidence in advertising substantiation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admissibility of evidence in advertising....40 Admissibility of evidence in advertising substantiation cases. (a) If a person, partnership, or... documents or oral testimony, any material of any type whatsoever that was required to be but was not timely...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6229(c)(2)-1T - Substantial omission of income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....6229(c)(2)-1T Substantial omission of income (temporary). (a) Partnership return—(1) General rule. (i) If any partnership omits from the gross income stated in its return an amount properly includible... omitted from gross income if information sufficient to apprise the Commissioner of the nature and amount...

  1. 26 CFR 1.162-17 - Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employer for his ordinary and necessary business expenses, e.g., travel, transportation, entertainment, and... adequate and detailed records of travel, transportation, entertainment, and similar business expenses as... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting and substantiation of certain business...

  2. Substantial Molecular Evolution In Prolonged Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infections In Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael

    2015-01-01

    , as well as evidence for distinct processes such as oxidative damage or natural selection having contributed to mutation accumulation. Conclusions: Our study shows that distinct processes can shape Mtb genomes during latent infection. Most importantly, we document substantial molecular evolution of Mtb...

  3. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... associated with a product will be eliminated or adequately reduced ``in a timely fashion.'' Id. The... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2010-0042] Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... risk of injury associated with a product will be eliminated or adequately reduced ``in a timely fashion... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers AGENCY: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  5. Substantiated and Unsubstantiated Cases of Child Maltreatment: Do Their Consequences Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeffrey; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated differences in school and delinquency outcomes according to proportion of maltreatment reports that have been substantiated. Data on school and delinquency outcomes from over 2,000 maltreated children and comparison samples of school children and juvenile Department of Social Services clients revealed no significant differences by…

  6. 34 CFR 692.41 - What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership Program How Does A State Select Students... establishes that are approved by the Secretary. A State may define substantial financial need in terms of... “independent student” as defined under section 480(d) of the HEA. However, for good cause shown, the Secretary...

  7. Impact of high-density lipoprotein 3 cholesterol subfraction on periprocedural myocardial injury in patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Aoki, Toshijiro; Iwakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hirayama, Kenshi; Mitsuda, Takayuki; Sumi, Takuya; Negishi, Yosuke; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2018-02-02

    Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) is a major complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary plaque and worse clinical outcomes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a protective factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of HDL-C subfractions, such as HDL2 cholesterol (HDL2-C) or HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C), in cardiovascular disease remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between HDL2-C and HDL3-C subfractions and the incidence of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI. We enrolled 129 patients who underwent elective PCI for stable angina pectoris. PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T levels > 5 times the upper normal limit (> 0.070 ng/mL) at 24 h after PCI. Serum HDL-C subfractions (HDL2-C and HDL3-C) were assessed using ultracentrifugation in patients with and those without PMI. HDL3-C levels were significantly lower in patients with PMI than in those without (15.1 ± 3.0 mg/dL vs. 16.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL, p = 0.016) and had an independent and inverse association with PMI (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; p = 0.038). When divided by the cut-off value of HDL3-C for PMI (14.3 mg/dL), the incidence of PMI was significantly higher in low HDL3-C patients than in high HDL3-C patients (51.2% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.020). HDL3-C was an independent inverse predictor of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI.

  8. Patterns and Timing of Failure for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma After Initial Therapy in a Cohort Who Underwent Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation for Relapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Sughosh; Bates, James E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Casulo, Carla; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Becker, Michael W.; Liesveld, Jane L. [Department of Medicine, Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Constine, Louis S., E-mail: louis_constine@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the location and timing of initial recurrence in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who subsequently underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (HDC/ASCT), to direct approaches for disease surveillance, elucidate the patterns of failure of contemporary treatment strategies, and guide adjuvant treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We analyzed consecutive patients with DLBCL who underwent HDC/ASCT between May 1992 and March 2014 at our institution. Of the 187 evaluable patients, 8 had incomplete data, and 79 underwent HDC/ASCT as a component of initial treatment for de novo or refractory DLBCL and were excluded from further analysis. Results: The median age was 50.8 years; the median time to relapse was 1.3 years. Patients were segregated according to the initial stage at diagnosis, with early stage (ES) defined as stage I/II and advanced stage (AS) defined as stage III/IV. In total, 40.4% of the ES and 75.5% of the AS patients relapsed in sites of initial disease; 68.4% of those with ES disease and 75.0% of those with AS disease relapsed in sites of initial disease only. Extranodal relapses were common (44.7% in ES and 35.9% in AS) and occurred in a variety of organs, although gastrointestinal tract/liver (n=12) was most frequent. Conclusions: Most patients with DLBCL who relapse and subsequently undergo HDC/ASCT initially recur in the previously involved disease site(s). Time to recurrence is brief, suggesting that frequency of screening is most justifiably greatest in the early posttherapy years. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Spinopelvic balance evaluation of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis L4L5 and L4L5 herniated disc who underwent surgery ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Viviane Regina Hernandez; Jacob, Charbel; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Batista, Jos? Lucas; Brazolino, Marcus Alexandre Novo; Maia, Thiago Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate spinopelvic balance with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis and disk herniation. METHODS: This was a descriptive retrospective study that evaluated 60 patients in this hospital, 30 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level and 30 with herniated disk at the L4-L5 level, all of whom underwent Surgical treatment. RESULTS: Patients with lumbar disk herniation at L4-L5 level had a mean tilt of 8.06, mean slope of 36.93, an...

  10. The regional MiKlip decadal forecast ensemble for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieruch, S.; Feldmann, H.; Schädler, G.; Lenz, C.-J.; Kothe, S.; Kottmeier, C.

    2013-11-01

    Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) a major research project called MiKlip (Mittelfristige Klimaprognose, Decadal Climate Prediction) was launched and global as well as regional predictive ensemble hindcasts have been generated. The aim of the project is to demonstrate for past climate change whether predictive models have the capability of predicting climate on time scales of decades. This includes the development of a decadal forecast system, on the one hand to support decision making for economy, politics and society for decadal time spans. On the other hand, the scientific aspect is to explore the feasibility and prospects of global and regional forecasts on decadal time scales. The focus of this paper lies on the description of the regional hindcast ensemble for Europe generated by COSMO-CLM and on the assessment of the decadal variability and predictability against observations. To measure decadal variability we remove the long term bias as well as the long term linear trend from the data. Further, we applied low pass filters to the original data to separate the decadal climate signal from high frequency noise. The decadal variability and predictability assessment is applied to temperature and precipitation data for the summer and winter half-year averages/sums. The best results have been found for the prediction of decadal temperature anomalies, i.e. we have detected a distinct predictive skill and reasonable reliability. Hence it is possible to predict regional temperature variability on decadal timescales, However, the situation is less satisfactory for precipitation. Here we have found regions showing good predictability, but also regions without any predictive skill.

  11. Association of Blood Fatty Acid Composition and Dietary Pattern with the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients Who Underwent Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Poyoung; Choi, Dongho; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with gallstone disease and in those who have a high risk for NAFLD has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of NAFLD and dietary pattern in patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Additionally, we assessed the association between erythrocyte fatty acid composition, a marker for diet, and the risk of NAFLD. Patients (n = 139) underwent liver ultrasonography to determine the presence of NAFLD before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, reported dietary intake using food frequency questionnaire, and were assessed for blood fatty acid composition. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with NAFLD. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with 2 dietary patterns: consuming whole grain and legumes and consuming fish, vegetables, and fruit. NAFLD was positively associated with the consumption of refined grain, meat, processed meat, and fried foods. Additionally, the risk of NAFLD was positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 16:0 and 18:2t, while it was negatively associated with 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and Omega-3 Index. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with a healthy dietary pattern of consuming whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fish, and fruit and with an erythrocyte level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich in fish. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Prediction of vascular involvement and resectability by multidetector-row CT versus MR imaging with MR angiography in patients who underwent surgery for resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Kyong [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, 911-1 Mok-dong, YangCheon-ku, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnab-dong, Songpa-ku, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon-Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnab-dong, Songpa-ku, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic value of dual-phase multidetector-row CT (MDCT) and MR imaging with dual-phase three-dimensional MR angiography (MRA) in the prediction of vascular involvement and resectability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Methods and materials: 116 patients with proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent both MDCT and combined MR imaging prior to surgery. Of 116 patients, 56 who underwent surgery were included. Two radiologists independently attempt to assess detectability, vascular involvement and resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma on both images. Results were compared with surgical findings and statistical analysis was performed. Results: MDCT detected pancreatic mass in 45 of 56 patients (80.3%) and MR imaging in 44 patients (78.6%). In assessment of vascular involvement, sensitivities and specificities of MDCT were 61% and 96% on a vessel-by-vessel basis, respectively. Those of MR imaging were 57% and 98%, respectively. In determining resectability, sensitivities and specificities of MDCT were 90% and 65%, respectively. Those of MR imaging were 90% and 41%, respectively. There was no statistical difference in detecting tumor, assessing vascular involvement and determining resectability between MDCT and MR imaging (p = 0.5). Conclusion: MDCT and MR imaging with MRA demonstrated an equal ability in detection, predicting vascular involvement, and determining resectability for a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  13. A New Risk Factor Profile for Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Who Underwent an Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Qiu, Hong; Song, Lei; Hu, Xiaoying; Luo, Tong; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Yuan; Qiao, Shubin; Yang, Yuejin; Gao, Runlin

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new risk factor profile for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) under a new definition in patients who underwent an emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Consecutive patients (n = 1061) who underwent an emergency PCI were divided into a derivation group (n = 761) and a validation group (n = 300). The rates of CI-AKI were 23.5% (definition 1: serum creatinine [SCr] increase ≥25% in 72 hours), 4.3% (definition 2: SCr increase ≥44.2 μmol/L in 72 hours), and 7.0% (definition 3: SCr increase ≥44.2 μmol/L in 7 days). Due to the high sensitivity of definition 1 and the high rate of missed cases for late diagnosis of CI-AKI under definition 2, definition 3 was used in the study. The risk factor profile included body surface area 15.00 × 10 9 /L ( P = .047), estimated glomerular filtration rate 133 μmol/L ( P = .007), intra-aortic balloon pump application ( P = .006), and diuretics administration ( P < .001), showing a significant predictive power in the derivation group and validation group. The new risk factor profile of CI-AKI under a new CI-AKI definition in emergency PCI patients is easily applicable with a useful predictive value.

  14. An evaluation of quality of life in women with endometriosis who underwent primary surgery: a 6-month follow up in Sabah Women & Children Hospital, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M F, Ahmad; Narwani, Hussin; Shuhaila, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Endometriosis is a complex disease primarily affecting women of reproductive age worldwide. The management goals are to improve the quality of life (QoL), alleviate the symptoms and prevent severe disease. This prospective cohort study was to assess the QoL in women with endometriosis that underwent primary surgery. A pre- and post-operative questionnaire via ED-5Q and general VAS score used for the evaluation for endometrial-like pain such as dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia. A total of 280 patients underwent intervention; 224 laparoscopically and 56 via laparotomy mostly with stage II disease with ovarian endometriomas. Improvements in dysmenorrhoea pain scores from 5.7 to 4.15 and dyspareunia from 4.05 to 2.17 (p <.001) were observed. The Self Rate Assessment was improved; 6.66-4.68 post-operatively (p < .05). In EQ-5 D Index, the anxiety and activities outcomes showed a significant worsening post-intervention. There was no correlation between the stage of disease and endometrial pain; (p = .289), method of intervention (p = .290) and usage of post-operative hormonal therapy (p = .632). This study concluded that surgical treatment improved the QoL with added hormonal therapy post-intervention, despite not reaching statistical significance, showed a promising result. Impact statement Surgical intervention does improve the QoL for women with endometriosis however post interventional hormonal therapy is remain inconclusive.

  15. The importance of superficial basal cell carcinoma in a retrospective study of 139 patients who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery in a Brazilian university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Takata Pontes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mohs micrographic surgery is a specialized surgical procedure used to treat skin cancer. The purpose of this study was to better understand the profile of the patients who underwent the procedure and to determine how histology might be related to complications and the number of stages required for complete removal. METHODS: The records of patients who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery from October 2008 to November 2013 at the Dermatology Division of the Hospital of the Campinas University were assessed. The variables included were gender, age, anatomical location, histology, number of stages required and complications. RESULTS: Contingency tables were used to compare the number of stages with the histological diagnosis. The analysis showed that patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma were 9.03 times more likely to require more than one stage. A comparison between complications and histological diagnosis showed that patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma were 6.5 times more likely to experience complications. CONCLUSION: Although superficial basal cell carcinoma is typically thought to represent a less-aggressive variant of these tumors, its propensity for demonstrating “skip areas” and clinically indistinct borders make it a challenge to treat. Its particular nature may result in the higher number of surgery stages required, which may, as a consequence, result in more complications, including recurrence. Recurrence likely occurs due to the inadequate excision of the tumors despite their clear margins. Further research on this subtype of basal cell carcinoma is needed to optimize treatments and decrease morbidity.

  16. The importance of superficial basal cell carcinoma in a retrospective study of 139 patients who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery in a Brazilian university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata Pontes, Luciana; Fantelli Stelini, Rafael; Cintra, Maria Leticia; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Velho, Paulo Eduardo N F; Moraes, Aparecida Machado

    2015-11-01

    Mohs micrographic surgery is a specialized surgical procedure used to treat skin cancer. The purpose of this study was to better understand the profile of the patients who underwent the procedure and to determine how histology might be related to complications and the number of stages required for complete removal. The records of patients who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery from October 2008 to November 2013 at the Dermatology Division of the Hospital of the Campinas University were assessed. The variables included were gender, age, anatomical location, histology, number of stages required and complications. Contingency tables were used to compare the number of stages with the histological diagnosis. The analysis showed that patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma were 9.03 times more likely to require more than one stage. A comparison between complications and histological diagnosis showed that patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma were 6.5 times more likely to experience complications. Although superficial basal cell carcinoma is typically thought to represent a less-aggressive variant of these tumors, its propensity for demonstrating "skip areas" and clinically indistinct borders make it a challenge to treat. Its particular nature may result in the higher number of surgery stages required, which may, as a consequence, result in more complications, including recurrence. Recurrence likely occurs due to the inadequate excision of the tumors despite their clear margins. Further research on this subtype of basal cell carcinoma is needed to optimize treatments and decrease morbidity.

  17. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the. Bay of Bengal (BOB) for the .... Decadal variation of OHC and TC activity over the Bay of Bengal. 67 available because of its ..... In: Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (eds). Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, ...

  18. Working towards Legitimacy: Two Decades of Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Linda L.; Brooker, Ross; Patton, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Time and acceptance are criterion often used to measure the legitimacy and worth of an idea. Two decades have passed since the first publications that introduced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) as a means to conceptualize games teaching and learning. For over two decades various professionals have advocated for TGfU as a sound idea, which…

  19. Expanding Student International Awareness Through Short-Term Study Abroad Courses With Substantial Engineering Technical Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Schubert, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of Compact International Experience (CIE) courses is assessed in this study. These courses were developed with the aim to raise student international awareness while retaining substantial engineering technical content. The courses were motivated by a strong student desire for engineering international studies as well as a drive by the home institution for internationalization of the curriculum. The experiences gained from delivering two distinct three-semester-unit engineering elective courses in three-week time frames in France and Australia are discussed. While the two courses, Topics in Fluid Mechanics and Advanced Electronic Circuit Design, focused on their technical content, the desire for student understanding of the cultural environment and the impact of engineering solutions from a global and societal viewpoint were strong driving factors for each. Assessment validates the hypothesis that CIE courses can successfully deliver substantial engineering technical content while providing an enriching international experience to students.

  20. What Would Happen to Superstorm Sandy Under the Influence of a Substantially Warmer Atlantic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  1. What would happen to Superstorm Sandy under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  2. Substantiation for Approaches to Treatment of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Tykhonova

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions. Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism on the manifestation stage and over time development of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults as well as reduction of β-cells insulin-producing function associated with autoimmune insulitis and progressing while the development of this form of disease, substantiate the rational for insulin administration as this form of diabetes has been diagnosed. If patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults have metabolic syndrome clusters it is quite reasonable to add metformin to insulin.

  3. Critical review of Type B shipping container impact analyses: present research areas and substantiating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counts, J.; Payne, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Assumptions and limitations of a one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the dynamic response of Type B shipping containers subjected to a 9.14 m drop onto a rigid horizontal target are discussed. Some predicted acceleration time-histories are shown and, where possible, compared with existing experimental records. A new and more accurate mathematical model for impacting shipping containers and planned substantiating experiments are reviewed. Other projects in the ongoing research program are briefly noted

  4. Defining substantial clinical benefit for patient-rated outcome tools for shoulder impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, Lori A; Snyder Valier, Alison R; McClure, Philip W

    2013-04-01

    To define for 2 shoulder outcomes scales the substantial clinical benefit (SCB)-a metric that defines the change amount associated with patient perception of a large meaningful improvement and that can be used to interpret change over time in the outcome score. Cohort. Clinic. Patients (N=74) with shoulder impingement syndrome. Standardized exercise and manual therapy for 6 weeks, and outcome measures completed at initial evaluation, discharge, and 6 to 8 weeks postdischarge. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Pennsylvania Shoulder Score (Penn), and a 13-point Global Rating of Change (GROC). Patients were classified as "substantially improved" when they reported "quite a bit better" (11) or greater on the GROC at discharge and again 6 to 8 weeks after discharge. Patients with GROC <11 at discharge or follow-up were classified as "nonsubstantially improved." The percentage and raw points change in the Penn and DASH that corresponded with patient-rated substantial improvement was determined with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses. ROC analyses revealed the SCB for the DASH was 40% (area under the curve [AUC]=.79; confidence interval [CI], .69-.89) and 11 points (AUC=.63; CI, .50-.76); and for the Penn, 20% (AUC=.76; CI, .65-.87) and 21 points (AUC=.80; CI, .69-.90). The SCB of 40% for the DASH, and 20% and 21 points for the Penn represents substantial improvement over 6 weeks of care, which was sustained at 12 weeks. The SCB of 11 points for the DASH is not recommended for use because of poor discrimination. The SCB can be used to enable clinical decision-making and in future clinical trials. Alternative approaches such as the within- and between-group change values can produce different SCB values. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylloquinone content from wild green vegetables may contribute substantially to dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Spagner, Camilla; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Nordic eatable wild plants are now sold in local stores and available to everyone. Wild vegetables may contain large amounts of vitamin K1. Due to the concomitant therapeutic use of anticoagulants among the populations, it is important to gain knowledge about the content....../d. Conclusion: Inclusion of more wild vegetables may substantially increase the intake of vitamin K, which could pose a risk for people treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), but may be beneficial for the remaining population....

  6. Substantial Equivalence Standards in Tobacco Governance: Statutory Clarity and Regulatory Precedent for the FSPTCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Daniel; Connolly, Gregory N; Lempert, Lauren Kass

    2017-08-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) of 2009 creates the first national system of premarket regulation of tobacco products in American history. The FDA must now review and give marketing authorization to all new tobacco products, based on a public health standard, before they can be legally marketed. Yet the law also contains an alternative pathway for market entry-the substantial equivalence (SE) clause-by which novel and altered tobacco products can be marketed by demonstrating their substantial equivalence to existing products. Over 99 percent of tobacco product applications sent to the FDA under the new law have used this mechanism, and loose application of the SE mechanism carries the risk of undoing the FDA's gatekeeping power under the law. We review the statutory and regulatory precedent for SE, examining the FSPTCA itself as well as regulatory precedent from drug and device regulation (from which the term substantial equivalence and much of the associated statutory language was derived). Our review of standards and scientific precedent demonstrates that exacting scrutiny under the public health standard should govern all SE reviews and that clinical data incorporating social scientific evidence should be routinely required for SE claims by tobacco product sponsors. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  7. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF PROJECTS OF THE AFFORDABLE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAVCHUNOVSKA T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. The development of inhabitant locality of Ukraine is characterized by significant differences in levels of socio and economic development. An excessive concentration of population and industry in large cities, inefficient, slow development of most medium and small cities, towns and villages, considerable territorial disproportions of economic development of the country, considerable shortcomings in the territorial organization of society are observed. At the same time the tendency of the total area of increasing of inhabitant locality. The lands are used inefficiently. Among the most common problems of inhabitant locality is the housing problem. When making a decision on the design of affordable housing construction is one of the most important stages in the development of the technique and economic substantiation of the project is determination of the advisability and effectiveness of construction. The substantiation of advisability and effectiveness of affordable housing based on the definition of technical and economic indicators of projects, one of the most important among them is the cost, in its calculation is necessary to take into account the influence of organizational and technological factors, reflecting the features of construction in condition of compacted construction. Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations on substantiation of cost construction of affordable housing in the conditions of compacted construction. Conclusion. To provide a processing and the analysis of data is necessary development of the applied software on the basis of the developed block scheme of justification of cost construction of affordable housing.

  8. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  9. Regional influence of decadal to multidecadal Atlantic Oscillations in Morocco during the last 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Brahim, Y.; Sifeddine, A.; Cheng, H.; Khodri, M.; Cruz, F. W., Sr.; Pérez-Zanón, N.; SHA, L.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Bouchaou, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate projections predict a substantial increase of extreme heats and drought occurrences during the coming decades in Morocco, while already under severe water stress. It is however not clear what can be attributed to natural climate variability and to anthropogenic forcing, as hydroclimate variations observed in areas such as Morocco are highly influenced by the Atlantic climate modes. Since observational data sets are too short to resolve properly natural modes of variability acting on decadal to multidecadal timescales, high resolution paleoclimate reconstructions are the only alternative to reconstruct climate variability in the remote past. However, the climate processes are still poorly understood in North Africa, which makes the investigation of hydroclimate variations during the last millennium in Morocco highly requested. Here, we present the first well-dated high resolution ( 1.7 years) stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) speleothem record from southwestern Morocco, covering the last 1200 years. Our record reveals substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords, with prevailing dry conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), wetter conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), and a trend towards dry conditions during the current warm period. These coherent regional climate signals suggest common climate controls. Statistical analyses indicate that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the last millennium. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably influenced the regional climate in North Africa through the influence on Sahara Low which weakened and strengthened the mean moisture inflow from the Atlantic Ocean during the MCA and LIA respectively.

  10. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE NEED AND POSSIBILITIES FOR OPTIMIZATION ON PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPORT FOR WOMEN WITH THYTOID GLAND PATHOLOGY

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    G. T. Glembotskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Last decades the amount of people with thynoid gland diseases has increased significantly all over the globe. This disease has more negative consequences for women organism during all aging hormonal changes. Similarity of symptoms of thynoid glands diseases and a range of aging hormonal changes complicates the problem. At that the question of pharmaceutical assistance for women with this pathology was not the object of organizational and economical researches in the Russian Federation, despite their relevance. The purpose is the study of a degree of scientific development of the mentioned problem and representation of the elements of problem situation in the chosen segment of medical and pharmaceutical assistance consumers. Based on the analysis of literature and statistic data, content analysis of rules and regulations, concerning procedures and the relations in the pharmaceutical assistance system, and the results of the conducted sociological survey, we have formed the elements of a problem situation in the chosen segment of medical and pharmaceutical support consumers. Sociological, graphic, logic, contentanalysis were used as methods of the study. We have substantiated a scientific and practice need in development of methodological principals of pharmaceutical support optimization for women with thynoid gland pathology; we have reasoned the opportunities and principal directions of specialized pharmaceutical assistance to the given segment of drug consumers. We have proved the timeliness of the study for organization of pharmaceutical assistance for women with thynoid gland pathology due to its specifically negative consequences during all aging hormonal changes in an organism. We have revealed the presence of risk factors and exceptionally low awareness of women in thynoid gland pathology against the background of excessive occupation of women in active working ages. We have determined a niche in formation of informational mass with

  11. Hypertension: New perspective on its definition and clinical management by bedtime therapy substantially reduces cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Smolensky, Michael H

    2018-05-01

    Diagnosis of hypertension-elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-and its management for decades have been based primarily on single time-of-day office BP measurements (OBPM) assumed representative of systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the entire 24-hours span. Around-the-clock ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), however, reveals BP undergoes 24-hours patterning characterized in normotensives and uncomplicated hypertensives by striking morning-time rise, 2 daytime peaks-one ~2-3 hours after awakening and the other early evening, small midafternoon nadir and 10-20% decline (BP dipping) in the asleep BP mean relative to the wake-time BP mean. A growing number of outcome trials substantiate correlation between BP and target organ damage, vascular and other risks is greater for the ABPM-derived asleep BP mean, independent and stronger predictor of CVD risk, than daytime OBPM or ABPM-derived awake BP. Additionally, bedtime hypertension chronotherapy, that is, ingestion of ≥1 conventional hypertension medications at bedtime to achieve efficient attenuation of asleep BP, better reduces total CVD events by 61% and major events (CVD death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke) by 67%-even in more vulnerable chronic kidney disease, diabetes and resistant hypertension patients-than customary on-awaking therapy that targets wake-time BP. Such findings of around-the-clock ABPM and bedtime hypertension outcome trials, consistently indicating greater importance of asleep BP than daytime OBPM or ambulatory awake BP, call for a new definition of true arterial hypertension plus modern approaches for its diagnosis and management. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in Tuscany: Ecological study comparing neighboring areas with substantial differences in environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, Claudio; Piaggi, Paolo; Scarsi, Paolo; Venturini, Elio; Cecchi, Romina; Pingitore, Alessandro

    2017-06-19

    Environmental pollution is associated with morbidity and mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases. Recent data points out a relationship between proximity to industrial plants and mortality due to neoplasms. The aim of this study has been to compare mortality due to chronic-degenerative diseases in the area of Tuscany (Bassa Val di Cecina), Italy, characterized by the presence of 2 neighboring municipalities similar in terms of size but with substantial differences in industrial activities: Rosignano (the site of chemical, energy production and waste processing industries) and Cecina (with no polluting activity). Standardized mortality rates for the 2001-2010 decade were calculated; the data of the whole Tuscany was assumed as reference. Environmental levels of pollutants were obtained by databases of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana - ARPAT). Maximum tolerated pollutant levels set by national laws were assumed as reference. In the whole Bassa Val di Cecina, significantly elevated standardized mortality rates due to mesothelioma, ischemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and Alzheimer and other degenerative diseases of nervous system were observed. In the municipality of Rosignano, a significant excess of mortality for all these groups of diseases was confirmed. On the contrary, the municipality of Cecina showed only significantly higher mortality rates for ischemic heart diseases. Elevated levels of heavy metals in sea water and of particulate matter which contains particles of diameter ≤ 10 mm (PM10) and ozone in air were detected in Rosignano. This study shows an excess of mortality for chronic-degenerative diseases in the area with elevated concentration of polluting factories. Proximity to industrial plants seems to represent a risk factor for those diseases. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):641-653. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed

  13. RELIGIOUS DEMOCRATIZATION IN INDONESIA: STRENGTHENING THE PRO-CEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIAL RELIGIOUS DEMOCRACY

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    Eka Hendry AR.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the book of Michael Mann about the dark side of democracy that discusses the paradox between the ideality of democratic values and empirical realities of violence in the name of freedom (democracy, this paper begins with the exposure of the paradox, such as the rise of the violent conflict between groups of people (both ethnic and religious-based and the high prevalence of violence between religious groups in Indonesia. Even worse, a very wrenching violence involves state actors (rulers. This paper tries to understand the roots of the paradox, with a look at how the relationship between state and religion and the religious community trend of Indonesia (especially Muslims. The author argues that the democratization of religion is a solution to the issues. To answer what kind of religious democracy lives in Indonesia, the author analyzes through a religious procedural (or constitutional democratic dimension and religious substantial democratic dimension. The phenomenon of disobedience of law and system and the euphoria of law-making that reflects “intolerance” in several places in Indonesia display the fundamental issue in the religious procedural democracy. Whereas in the context of religious substantial democracy, the prevailing trend of religion that serves as a political and economic vehicle and ignores religion as a substantial aspect of the behavior of the Indonesian society has resulted in the marginalization of religious position and function. Then, the infiltration of the model of political Islam has also led to alienation of the character of the Islamic society of Indonesia, from a democratic pattern to a revival (radical one. In this light, the author needs to present a strategy to encourage religious democracy in Indonesia, structurally through formulating the ideal relation model between state and religion and culturally through a substantial pattern of religion embedded with the character of Indonesian religious

  14. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States in the next three decades (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2010-12-01

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. One important source of climate change impact is extreme heat, which can cause substantial damage, including to human health, agricultural systems, food security, and energy and water supply and delivery. Because the atmospheric conditions that cause hot extremes can result from both large- and fine-scale climate processes, we quantify the risk of extreme heat in the United States using a high-resolution, transient, multi-decadal, ensemble climate model experiment, along with a large suite of global climate model experiments. We find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2 degrees C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. This intensification of hot extremes includes substantial increases in the occurrence of the hottest season and longest heat wave of the second half of the 20th century. We find that the intensification is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. Further, the sign of soil-moisture change and coupling with temperature and precipitation is robust across the climate model ensembles. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2 degrees C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  15. Gene therapy: the first two decades and the current state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R

    2007-11-01

    The concept of gene therapy was envisioned soon after the emergence of restriction endonucleases and subcloning of mammalian genes in phage and plasmids. Over the ensuing decades, vectors were developed, including nonviral methods, integrating virus vectors (gammaretrovirus and lentivirus), and non-integrating virus vectors (adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and herpes simplex virus vectors). Preclinical data demonstrated potential efficacy in a broad range of animal models of human diseases, but clinical efficacy in humans remained elusive in most cases, even after decades of experience in over 1000 trials. Adverse effects from gene therapy have been observed in some cases, often because of viral vectors retaining some of the pathogenic potential of the viruses upon which they are based. Later generation vectors have been developed in which the safety and/or the efficiency of gene transfer has been improved. Most recently this work has involved alterations of vector envelope or capsid proteins either by insertion of ligands to target specific receptors or by directed evolution. The disease targets for gene therapy are multiple, but the most promising data have come from monogenic disorders. As the number of potential targets for gene therapy continues to increase, and a substantial number of trials continue with both the standard and the later generation vector systems, it is hoped that a therapeutic niche for gene therapy will emerge in the coming decades.

  16. Decadal Polar Motion of the Earth Excited by the Convective Outer Core From Geodynamo Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, W.; Chao, B. F.; Chen, J.

    2017-10-01

    Long time geodetic observation records show that the orientation of the Earth's rotation axis with respect to the terrestrial reference frame, or polar motion, changes on a broad range of timescales. Apart from external torques from the luni-solar tides, these changes are excited by interactions among different components of the Earth system. The convective fluid outer core has long been conjectured a likely contributor to the observed polar motion on timescales upward of decades, such as the ˜30 year Markowitz wobble. We investigated the electromagnetic coupling scenario across the core-mantle boundary via numerical geodynamo simulation for different geodynamo parameters (Rayleigh numbers and magnetic Rossby numbers). Our simulated polar motion varies strongly with the dynamo parameters, while its excitation on decadal timescales appear to converge asymptotically within the adopted range of numerical Rossby numbers. Three strongest asymptotic modes emerge from numerical results, with periods around 30, 40, and 60 years for the prograde excitation and around 24, 30, and 60 years for the retrograde excitation. Their amplitudes are all larger than 5 × 10-8, or approximately 10 milliseconds of arc. The results suggest that the electromagnetic core-mantle coupling could explain a substantial portion, if not all, of the observed decadal polar motion. In particular, the predicted 60 year polar motion deserves special attention for future observations and studies.

  17. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

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    Yao Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia.

  18. Status of the anesthesia workforce in 2011: evolution during the last decade and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Armin; Eckhout, Gifford V; Ngo, Anh L; Tremper, Kevin K; Peterson, Mary D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive assessment of the anesthesia workforce during the past decade and attempt forecasting the future based on present knowledge. The supply of anesthesiologists has gradually recovered from a deficit in the mid to late 1990 s. Current entry rates into our specialty are the highest in more than a decade, but are still below the level they were in 1993. These factors along with slower surgical growth and less capital available for expanding anesthetizing locations have resulted in greater availability of anesthesiologists in the labor market. Despite these recent events, the intermediate-term outlook of a rapidly aging population and greater access of previously uninsured patients portends the need to accommodate increasing medical and surgical procedures requiring anesthesia, barring disruptive industry innovations. Late in the decade, nationwide surveys found shortages of anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthetists to persist. In response to increasing training program output with stagnant surgical growth, compensation increases for these allied health professionals have moderated in the present. Future projections anticipate increased personnel availability and, possibly, less compensation for this group. It is important to understand that many of the factors constraining current demand for anesthesia personnel are temporary. Anesthesiologist supply constrained by small graduation growth combined with generation- and gender-based decrements in workforce contribution is unlikely to keep pace with the substantial population and public policy-generated growth in demand for service, even in the face of productivity improvements and innovation.

  19. Spinopelvic balance evaluation of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis L4L5 and L4L5 herniated disc who underwent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Viviane Regina Hernandez; Jacob, Charbel; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Batista, José Lucas; Brazolino, Marcus Alexandre Novo; Maia, Thiago Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    To correlate spinopelvic balance with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis and disk herniation. This was a descriptive retrospective study that evaluated 60 patients in this hospital, 30 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level and 30 with herniated disk at the L4-L5 level, all of whom underwent Surgical treatment. Patients with lumbar disk herniation at L4-L5 level had a mean tilt of 8.06, mean slope of 36.93, and mean PI of 45. In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level, a mean tilt of 22.1, mean slope of 38.3, and mean PI of 61.4 were observed. This article reinforces the finding that the high mean tilt and PI are related to the onset of degenerative spondylolisthesis, and also concluded that the same angles, when low, increase the risk for disk herniation.

  20. Spinopelvic balance evaluation of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis L4L5 and L4L5 herniated disc who underwent surgery

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    Viviane Regina Hernandez Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate spinopelvic balance with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis and disk herniation. METHODS: This was a descriptive retrospective study that evaluated 60 patients in this hospital, 30 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level and 30 with herniated disk at the L4-L5 level, all of whom underwent Surgical treatment. RESULTS: Patients with lumbar disk herniation at L4-L5 level had a mean tilt of 8.06, mean slope of 36.93, and mean PI of 45. In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level, a mean tilt of 22.1, mean slope of 38.3, and mean PI of 61.4 were observed. CONCLUSION: This article reinforces the finding that the high mean tilt and PI are related to the onset of degenerative spondylolisthesis, and also concluded that the same angles, when low, increase the risk for disk herniation.

  1. Integration effects of underwing forward- and rearward-mounted separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M.; Abeyounis, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.82 and angles of attack from -2.5 to 4.0 degrees to determine the integration effects of pylon-mounted underwing forward and rearward separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transonic transport configuration. The results showed that the installed drag of the nacelle/pylon in the rearward location was slightly less than that of the nacelle/pylon in the forward location. This reduction was due to the reduction in calculated skin friction of the nacelle/pylon configuration. In all cases the combined value of form, wave, and interference drag was excessively high. However, the configuration with the nacelle/pylon in a rearward location produced an increase in lift over that of the basic wing-body configuration.

  2. Functional Changes of Dendritic Cells in C6 Glioma-Bearing Rats That Underwent Combined Argon-Helium Cryotherapy and IL-12 Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cui, Yao; Li, Xiqing; Guo, Yanwu; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Jiadong; Xu, Jian; Han, Shuangyin; Shi, Xiwen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in tumor tissues of glioma-bearing rats that underwent argon-helium cryoablation as well as changes in antitumor immunity before and after combined interleukin 12 treatment. Two hundred sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, intravenous injection interleukin-12 group, cryotherapy group, and cryotherapy + intravenous injection group. C6 glioma cells proliferated in vitro were implanted subcutaneously on the backs of rats to establish C6 glioma-bearing animal models. Each group underwent the corresponding treatments, and morphological changes in tumor tissues were examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. CD11c staining was examined using immunohistochemistry, and differences in dendritic cells and T-cell subsets before and after treatment were analyzed using flow cytometry. The control group showed no statistical changes in terms of tumor tissue morphology and cellular immunity, cryotherapy group, and cryotherapy + intravenous injection group, among which the count for the cryotherapy + intravenous injection group was significantly higher than those of all other groups. In the argon-helium cryotherapy group, tumor cells were damaged and dendritic cell markers were positive. The number of CD11c+ and CD86+ cells increased significantly after the operation as did the cytokine interferon-γ level (P < .01), suggesting a shift toward Th1-type immunity. Combined treatment of argon-helium cryoablation and interleukin 12 for gliomas not only effectively injured tumor tissues but also boosted immune function and increased antitumor ability. Therefore, this approach is a promising treatment measure for brain gliomas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Analysis of 175 Cases Underwent Surgical Treatment in Our Hospital After Having Abdominal Wounding by Firearm in the War at Syria

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    Yusuf Yucel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed at analysing the patients, who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital after having abdominal wounding by firearm in the war at Syria, retrospectively. Material and Method: The files of Syrian patients, who applied to Emergency Service of Harran University Medical Faculty because of gunshot wounds and had operation after being hospitalized in General Surgery Clinic due to abdominal injuries between the years of 2011 and 2014, were analysed retrospectively. Results: 175 Syrian patients, who had abdominal injuries by firearms, underwent operation in our general surgery clinic. 99.4% (n=174 of the patients were male, and 0.6% (n=1 were female. Trauma-admission to hospital times of all cases were %u2265 6 hours. 62.8% (n=110 of the patients had isolated abdominal injuries, and 37.1% (n=65 had two or more system injuries. The frequency of more than one organ injuries in abdominal region was 44.5% (n=78 and the most frequent complication was wound infection (10%. Negative laparoscopy was 2.8% (n=5, support for intensive care was 38.2% (n=67, average duration of intensive care unit stay was 5.57 days and mortality was 9.7% (n=17. Discussion: In our study, it was seen that infectious morbidity and mortality increased for the patients, who applied to our hospital because of abdominal injuries by firearm, particularly the ones with gastrointestinal perforation, if trauma-admission to hospital times were %u2265 6 hours. And this shows us that the early intervention to injuries that perforate gastrointestinal tract was an important factor for decreasing morbidity and mortality.

  4. Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor prognosis in high-grade pT1 bladder cancer patients who underwent transurethral resection in one piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Rinzo; Hashimoto, Kunihiro; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki

    2017-05-01

    Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in high-grade clinical T1 bladder cancer is usually considered a poor prognostic factor, but it is often difficult to achieve correct staging of T1 bladder cancer and diagnose the presence of LVI because of the inadequacy of conventional transurethral resection specimens. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prognostic value of LVI in patients with correctly staged high-grade pathological T1 (pT1) bladder cancer who initially underwent transurethral resection in one piece (TURBO). Eighty-six high-grade pT1 bladder cancer patients who underwent TURBO were enrolled. Risk of tumor understaging was avoided by examining the vertical resection margin of the TURBO specimen. Immunohistochemical staining using D2-40 and CD31 was performed to confirm LVI. We examined the association of LVI with other clinicopathological factors and the impact of LVI on progression-free survival and cancer-specific survival. The median follow-up period was 49 months (range, 6-142). In all patients, the tumors were accurately staged as pT1 at initial TURBO. LVI was detected in 15 patients (17%) and was significantly associated with tumor growth pattern (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified LVI as the only independent predictor for reduced progression-free survival (HR, 4.48; 95% CI, 1.45-13.90; P = 0.009) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.17-16.24; P = 0.029). The presence of LVI in TURBO specimens independently predicts poor clinical outcomes in patients with high-grade pT1 bladder cancer. This information may help urologists to counsel their patients when deciding whether to choose a bladder-preserving strategy or radical cystectomy.

  5. Clinical impacts of inhibition of renin-angiotensin system in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent successful late percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyukjin; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Jae Yeong; Lee, Ki Hong; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jim

    2017-01-01

    Successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the occluded infarct-related artery (IRA) in latecomers may improve long-term survival mainly by reducing left ventricular remodeling. It is not clear whether inhibition of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) brings additional better clinical outcomes in this specific population subset. Between January 2008 and June 2013, 669 latecomer patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (66.2±12.1 years, 71.0% males) in Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) who underwent a successful PCI were enrolled. The study population underwent a successful PCI for a totally occluded IRA. They were divided into two groups according to whether they were prescribed RAS inhibitors at the time of discharge: group I (RAS inhibition, n=556), and group II (no RAS inhibition, n=113). During the one-year follow-up, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which consist of cardiac death and myocardial infarction, occurred in 71 patients (10.6%). There were significantly reduced incidences of MACE in the group I (hazard ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.199-0.588, p=0.001). In subgroup analyses, RAS inhibition was beneficial in patients with male gender, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, and even in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥40%. In the baseline and follow-up echocardiographic data, benefit in changes of LVEF and left ventricular end-systolic volume was noted in group I. In latecomers with STEMI, RAS inhibition improved long-term clinical outcomes after a successful PCI, even in patients with low risk who had relatively preserved LVEF. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved predictive value of GRACE risk score combined with platelet reactivity for 1-year cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Haijun

    2016-11-01

    Both high platelet reactivity (HPR) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score have moderate predictive value for major adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas the prognostic significance of GRACE risk score combined with platelet function testing remains unclear. A total of 596 patients with non-ST elevation ACS who underwent PCI were enrolled. The P2Y 12 reaction unit (PRU) value was measured by VerifyNow P2Y 12 assay and GRACE score was calculated by GRACE risk 2.0 calculator. Patients were stratified by a pre-specified cutoff value of PRU 230 and GRACE score 140 to assess 1-year risk of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stent thrombosis. Seventy-two (12.1%) patients developed CVD events during 1-year follow-up. Patients with CVD events had a higher PRU value (244.6 ± 50.9 vs. 203.7 ± 52.0, p risk independently. Compared to patients with normal platelet reactivity (NPR) and GRACE score risk (HR: 5.048; 95% CI: 2.268-11.237; p risk score yielded superior risk predictive capacity beyond GRACE score alone, which is shown by improved c-statistic value (0.871, p = 0.002) as well as net reclassification improvement (NRI 0.263, p risk of adverse CVD events. The combination of platelet function testing and GRACE score predicted 1-year CVD risk better.

  7. Browning in Desert Boundaries in Asia in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Brown, Molly E.; Kug, Jong-Seong; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the changes in desert boundaries in Asia (Gobi, Karakum, Lut, Taklimakan, and Thar deserts) during the growing season (April October) in the years 1982 2008 were investigated by analyzing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and temperature. In the desert boundary regions, the domain mean NDVI values increased by 7.2% per decade in 1982 1998 but decreased by 6.8% per decade thereafter. Accordingly, the bare soil areas (or nonvegetated areas) of the inside of the desert boundaries contracted by 9.8% per decade in the 1990s and expanded by 8.7% per decade in the 2000s. It is noted that the five deserts experience nearly simultaneous NDVI changes although they cover a very diverse area of Asia. In contrast, changes in temperature and precipitation in the deserts show rather diverse results. In desert boundaries located along 40 N (Gobi, Taklimakan, and Karakum), the decadal changes in vegetation greenness were mainly related to regional climate during the entire analysis period. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth (i.e., greening), but precipitation reduced (19 mm per decade) and warming intensified (0.7 C per decade) in the 2000s, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth (i.e., browning). In desert boundaries below 40 N (Lut and Thar), although an increase in precipitation (8 mm per decade) led to greening in the 1990s, local changes in precipitation and temperature did not necessarily cause browning in the 2000s. Observed multidecadal changes in vegetation greenness in the present study suggest that under significant global and/or regional warming, changes in moisture availability for vegetation growth in desert boundaries are an important factor when understanding decadal changes in areas vulnerable to desertification over Asia.

  8. Browning in desert boundaries in Asia in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Brown, Molly E.; Kug, Jong-Seong; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the changes in desert boundaries in Asia (Gobi, Karakum, Lut, Taklimakan, and Thar deserts) during the growing season (April-October) in the years 1982-2008 were investigated by analyzing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and temperature. In the desert boundary regions, the domain mean NDVI values increased by 7.2% per decade in 1982-1998 but decreased by 6.8% per decade thereafter. Accordingly, the bare soil areas (or nonvegetated areas) of the inside of the desert boundaries contracted by 9.8% per decade in the 1990s and expanded by 8.7% per decade in the 2000s. It is noted that the five deserts experience nearly simultaneous NDVI changes although they cover a very diverse area of Asia. In contrast, changes in temperature and precipitation in the deserts show rather diverse results. In desert boundaries located along 40°N (Gobi, Taklimakan, and Karakum), the decadal changes in vegetation greenness were mainly related to regional climate during the entire analysis period. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth (i.e., greening), but precipitation reduced (19 mm per decade) and warming intensified (0.7°C per decade) in the 2000s, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth (i.e., browning). In desert boundaries below 40°N (Lut and Thar), although an increase in precipitation (8 mm per decade) led to greening in the 1990s, local changes in precipitation and temperature did not necessarily cause browning in the 2000s. Observed multidecadal changes in vegetation greenness in the present study suggest that under significant global and/or regional warming, changes in moisture availability for vegetation growth in desert boundaries are an important factor when understanding decadal changes in areas vulnerable to desertification over Asia.

  9. Decadal sea-level changes in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangan, Nidheesh; Vialard, Jerome; Lengaingne, Matthieu; Izumo, Takeshi; Alakkatt, Unnikrishnan

    2017-04-01

    While the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) has been identified as the main driver of natural decadal sea-level variations in the Pacific, Indian Ocean natural decadal sea-level variability remains a largely uncharted territory. In this study, we analyse Indian Ocean natural decadal sea-level variations from a large set of observational products, CMIP3 and CMIP5 pre-industrial simulations. The various observational products display very consistent patterns of decadal sea-level variability in the Pacific, but not in the Indian Ocean, most likely because of sparse observational coverage in the IO. In contrast, almost all CMIP simulations display two very consistent patterns of Indian Ocean decadal sea-level variability, which explain a large part of the total sea-level variance in this basin. The first mode consists of a dipolar sea-level pattern, with negative signals in the eastern Indian Ocean from the west coast of Australia to the northern Bay of Bengal and positive signals northeast of Madagascar. This mode is largely driven by the wind variability related to the decadal variations of the Indian Ocean Dipole, which is partly independent from decadal climate variability in the tropical Pacific. The second mode is completely independent from decadal Pacific variability, and consists of a broad sea-level pattern east of Madagascar. This mode is excited by decadal wind variations in the subtropical Indian Ocean, most likely associated with fluctuations of the Mascarene high. The two decadal modes identified in CMIP models are broadly consistent with those deduced from the relatively short altimeter dataset or from the longer ORA reanalysis. Sea-level reconstructions generally reproduce the dipolar mode but do not capture the decadal sea-level variability east of Madagascar, presumably because of the absence of long tide-gauge records in this region. This study hence illustrates that CMIP simulations can provide some guidance for identifying robust modes of

  10. Substantial vertebral body osteophytes protect against severe vertebral fractures in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Carl-Éric; Chaumoître, Kathia; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Ménard, Anne-Laure; Petit, Yvan; Garo, Anaïs; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that vertebral osteophytes increase the resistance of the spine to compression. However, the role of vertebral osteophytes on the biomechanical response of the spine under fast dynamic compression, up to failure, is unclear. Seventeen human spine specimens composed of three vertebrae (from T5-T7 to T11-L1) and their surrounding soft tissues were harvested from nine cadavers, aged 77 to 92 years. Specimens were imaged using quantitative computer tomography (QCT) for medical observation, classification of the intervertebral disc degeneration (Thomson grade) and measurement of the vertebral trabecular density (VTD), height and cross-sectional area. Specimens were divided into two groups (with (n = 9) or without (n = 8) substantial vertebral body osteophytes) and compressed axially at a dynamic displacement rate of 1 m/s, up to failure. Normalized force-displacement curves, videos and QCT images allowed characterizing failure parameters (force, displacement and energy at failure) and fracture patterns. Results were analyzed using chi-squared tests for sampling distributions and linear regression for correlations between VTD and failure parameters. Specimens with substantial vertebral body osteophytes present higher stiffness (2.7 times on average) and force at failure (1.8 times on average) than other segments. The presence of osteophytes significantly influences the location, pattern and type of fracture. VTD was a good predictor of the dynamic force and energy at failure for specimens without substantial osteophytes. This study also showed that vertebral body osteophytes provide a protective mechanism to the underlying vertebra against severe compression fractures. PMID:29065144

  11. Demonstration of “substantial research activity” to acquire consultative status under the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Gray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties are entitled to participate in consensus-based governance of the continent through the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. To acquire consultative status, an interested Party must demonstrate “substantial research activity,” but no agreed mechanism exists to determine whether a Party has fulfilled this criterion. Parties have generally demonstrated substantial research activity with the construction of a research station, as suggested within the Treaty itself. However, this largely demonstrates logistical capacity, rather than research activity, and often results in major and persistent impacts on Antarctic terrestrial environments. Our study found that national investment in Antarctic infrastructure, estimated by the number of bed spaces at stations, was not a reliable indicator of scientific output. Therefore, we investigated metrics to evaluate research activity directly, and identified both the overall number of Antarctic papers and the proportion of national scientific output these represented as meaningful metrics. Such metrics could (1 demonstrate a nation's level of research activity in Antarctica or (2 help Consultative Parties assess the level of research activity undertaken by a Party seeking to acquire consultative status. Our data showed that, even without land-based Antarctic infrastructure, Canada, Denmark and Switzerland may have reasonable grounds to demonstrate “substantial research activity” on a level comparable with existing Consultative Parties. The use of these metrics may help dispel any perceived requirement for the establishment of a research station to reach consultative status, by putting a greater emphasis on generation of scientific research outputs rather than construction of Antarctic infrastructure.

  12. Substantiated childhood maltreatment and young adulthood cannabis use disorders: A pre-birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Najman, Jake Moses; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Clavarino, Alexandra; Kisely, Steve

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to prospectively-substantiated childhood maltreatment between 0 and 14 years of age and lifetime cannabis use, abuse and dependence reported at 21 years. Data were taken from 2526 (51.6% female) participants in the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a pre-birth, prospective, cohort study. Prospectively-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment, reported to the government child protection agencies between 0 and 14 years of age, were linked to CIDI DSM-IV self-report data from the 21-year follow-up. Exposure to any childhood maltreatment, and childhood neglect in particular, predicted subsequent cannabis abuse with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 1.79 and 2.62, respectively. Any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect predicted cannabis dependence with AORs of 2.47, 2.81, 2.44 and 2.68, respectively. The associations for an early age of onset of cannabis abuse and dependence were significant and consistent for maltreated children. In addition, frequency of maltreatment substantiations predicted cannabis abuse, dependence and an early age of onset of these disorders. The AORs for cannabis ever use without any DSM-IV cannabis disorder were 1.78 for any maltreatment and 2.15 for emotional abuse. Any childhood maltreatment and neglect predicted lifetime ever cannabis use, as well as cannabis use disorder. There was little evidence for any interaction between gender and different forms of childhood maltreatment and its association with cannabis use disorders. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, as well as multiple episodes of maltreatment independently predicted cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress-induced Aldosterone Hyper-Secretion in a Substantial Subset of Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Sertedaki, Amalia; Kaltsas, Gregory; Androulakis, Ioannis I; Marakaki, Chrisanthi; Pappa, Theodora; Gouli, Aggeliki; Papanastasiou, Labrini; Fountoulakis, Stelios; Zacharoulis, Achilles; Karavidas, Apostolos; Ragkou, Despoina; Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P; Piaditis, George P

    2015-08-01

    Aldosterone (ALD) secretion is regulated mainly by angiotensin II, K(+), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have effectively been used for the treatment of patients with hypertension who do not have primary aldosteronism (PA). We tested whether chronic stress-related ACTH-mediated ALD hypersecretion and/or zona glomerulosa hypersensitivity could be implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (ESHT). One hundred thirteen hypertensives without PA and 61 normotensive controls underwent an ultralow-dose (0.03-μg) ACTH stimulation and a treadmill test. Patients with ALD hyper-response according to the cutoffs obtained from controls received treatment with MRAs and underwent genomic DNA testing for the presence of the CYP11B1/CYP11B2 chimeric gene and KCNJ5 gene mutations. A control group of 22 patients with simple ESHT received treatment with MRAs. Based on the cutoffs of ALD and aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) post-ACTH stimulation obtained from controls, 30 patients (27%) exhibited an ALD but not cortisol (F) hyper-response (HYPER group). This group had no difference in basal ACTH/renin (REN) concentrations compared with controls and the 83 patients with hypertension (73%) without an ALD hyper-response to ACTH stimulation. Patients in the HYPER group demonstrated significantly higher ALD concentrations, ARR, and ALD/ACTH ratio (AAR) in the treadmill test. Treatment with MRAs alone produced normalization of blood pressure in these patients whereas patients with hypertension with neither PA nor ALD hyper-response to ACTH stimulation who served as a control group failed to lower blood pressure. Also, two novel germline heterozygous KCNJ5 mutations were detected in the HYPER group. A number of patients with hypertension without PA show ACTH-dependent ALD hyper-secretion and benefit from treatment with MRAs. This could be related to chronic stress via ACTH hyper secretion and/or gene-mutations increasing the

  14. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  15. Substantial increase in cadaveric organ donors in hospitals implementing the donor action program in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckerstedt, K; Heikkiläl, M-L; Holmberg, C

    2005-10-01

    The results of solid organ transplantation have improved during the last decade. Five-year patient survivals over 80% and graft survivals over 70% are common in many transplant centers. Also, quality-of-life assessments show that not only adults but even small children have a good quality of life after successful organ transplantation. Furthermore, transplantation programs have proved to be cost-effective. However, the organ shortage is a worldwide problem, which has in many countries led to prolonged waiting times, deaths on the waiting list, increased living related donations, acceptance of lower-quality organs, and in some instances even commercialization of the organ supply. Thus, it is extremely important to find strategies that increase the number of cadaveric organs for donation. In Finland organ transplantation is concentrated in one center with about 250 transplantations of different organs performed annually. The number of patients needing a new cadaveric organ is steadily increasing, but the number of donors has remained the same during the last decade. To improve cadaveric organ procurement the Donor Action (DA) program, which consists of a Hospital Attitude Survey and a medical records review performed by the donor hospital, has proved to increase the number of cadaveric donors. We introduced the DA program in Finland in 2000. Here in we report the results of this program in terms of its impact on the availability of cadaveric donors.

  16. UNAVCO: A Decade Supporting EarthScope - Three Decades of Supporting Geodesy for Science Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    UNAVCO supports research that establishes Earth's reference frame, enabling mapping of the planet's shape and mass; determines changes in the distribution of ice, water resources, and sea level; characterizes processes that contribute to natural and man-made hazards; and recognizes land-use changes (including subsidence, soil moisture, and health of wetlands). UNAVCO began as an investigator cooperative in 1984 - with the goal of sharing equipment and technologies that were expensive, rapidly changing, and extraordinarily powerful. Today as NSF's National Earth Science Geodetic Facility, on the eve of our 30th anniversary, we are excited to highlight a decade of support for major components of EarthScope, especially the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). Innovations by UNAVCO and the UNAVCO community have supported steady advancement towards millimeter-level global geodesy. Modern space geodesy provides new observational capability for contemporary deformation and magmatism in active convergent margin systems that operate over a spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, especially the PBO. Time scales vary from seconds to millennia, and spatial scales from borehole nanostrains to the global plate circuit. High-precision strain or 3-D point observations with borehole strainmeter or Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and geodetic imaging with SAR and LiDAR are used in combination to reveal these complex systems. GPS now combines with strong ground motion accelerometer time series to provide important enhancements to conventional seismology. The resulting 3-D fully georeferenced dynamic positioning time series are free of ambiguities associated with seismometer tilt and displacement. Geodesy constrains plate kinematics for convergence rate and direction, co-seismic deformation during great and moderate earthquakes, episodic tremor and slip events and related transient deformation, tectono-magmatic interactions, and the possible triggering effects of

  17. Two-digit number comparison: Decade-unit and unit-decade produce the same compatibility effect with number words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo

    2010-03-01

    This study explored the processing of 2-digit number words by examining the unit-decade compatibility effect in Spanish. Participants were required to choose the larger of 2-digit number words presented in verbal notation. In compatible trials the decade and unit comparisons led to the same response (e.g., 53-68) while in incompatible trials the decade and unit comparisons led to different responses (e.g., 59-74). Participants were slower on compatible trials as compared to incompatible trials. In Experiments 2 and 3, we evaluated whether the reverse compatibility effect in Spanish was only due to a pure left-to-right encoding which favours the decade processing in this language (decade-unit order). When participants processed 2-digit number words presented in reverse form (in the unit-decade order), the same reverse compatibility effect was found. This pattern of results suggests that participants have learnt a language-dependent process for analysing written numbers which is used irrespective of the specific arrangement of units and decades in the comparison task. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Distributions of decadal means of temperature and precipitation change under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, I. G.; Whetton, P. H.

    2011-04-01

    There remains uncertainty in the projected climate change over the 21st century, in part because of the range of responses forced by rising greenhouse gas concentrations among global climate models. This paper applies a method of estimating distributions and "probability density functions" (PDFs) for forced change, based on the pattern scaling technique and previously used for Australia, to generate changes in temperature and precipitation at locations over the globe, from simulations of 23 CMIP3 models. Changes for 2030 and 2100, under the A1B scenario for concentrations, for both seasonal and annual cases are presented. The PDFs for temperature have a standard deviation that averages 31% of the mean change, and they tend to be positively skewed. The standard deviation for precipitation averages 15% of the base climate mean, leading to five and 95 percentile estimates that are of opposite sign for most of the globe. A further source of uncertainty of change for a particular period of time, such as a decadal average, is the unforced or internal variability of climate. A joint probability distribution approach is used to produce PDFs for decadal means by adding in an estimate of internal variability. In the decade centered on 2030, this broadens the PDFs substantially. The results are related to time series of observations and projections over 1900-2100 for the agricultural regions of Iowa and the Murray-Darling Basin. For most land areas, warming becomes clearly discernable, allowing for both uncertainties, in the next few decades. Data files of the key results are provided.

  19. Spatial and decadal variations in satellite-based terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhaolu Zhang

    2017-12-02

    s12040-017-0885-0. Spatial and decadal variations in satellite-based terrestrial evapotranspiration and drought over. Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China during 1982–2009. Zhaolu Zhang1, Hui Kang2, Yunjun Yao3,.

  20. RPS strategies to enable NASA's next decade robotic Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Jordan, James F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the available power system options and power selection strategies in line with the proposed mission lineup, and identifies the benefits and utility of the various options for each of the next decade launch opportunities.

  1. Decadal Anthropogenic Carbon Storage Along P16 and P02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. R.; Feely, R. A.; Talley, L. D.; Cross, J. N.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Siedlecki, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific Ocean has the largest ocean basin anthropogenic carbon (Canth) inventory due to the large size of the basin. We estimate anthropogenic carbon (Canth) concentrations and decadal storages along the meridional P16 and zonal P02 lines since the mid 90s using a modified version of the extended multiple linear regression (EMLR) technique with data from the WOCE, CLIVAR, and GO-SHIP occupations of these lines. We present our estimates and map the aragonite saturation state (ΩA) decreases and saturation horizon shoaling resulting from continued Canth storage. The average storage rate was larger along both sections during the most recent decade (2000's to 2010's) than during the previous decade (1990's to 2000's), especially along P02. Significant decadal concentration increases were found in the mixed layers, shallow thermoclines, mode waters, and portions of the intermediate water masses.

  2. Will co-trimoxazole resistance rates ever go down? : Resistance rates remain high despite decades of reduced co-trimoxazole consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Koen B; Batra, Rahul; Patel, Amita; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Robotham, Julie V; Smieszek, Timo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies showed that a substantial decline in the use of co-trimoxazole did not result in a decline in resistance rates among Escherichia coli isolates. Since mathematical models have shown that it may take decades before resistance rates start to decline to relevant levels, we

  3. Atlantic effects on recent decadal trends in global monsoon

    OpenAIRE

    KAMAE, Youichi; LI, Xichen; XIE, Shang-Ping; UEDA, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Natural climate variability contributes to recent decadal climate trends. Specifically the trends during the satellite era since 1979 include Atlantic and Indian Ocean warming and Pacific cooling associated with phase shifts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and enhanced global monsoon (GM) circulation and rainfall especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we evaluate effects of the oceanic changes on the global and regional monsoon trends by part...

  4. Lateral CO2 diffusion inside dicotyledonous leaves can be substantial: quantification in different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James I L; Lawson, Tracy; Cornic, Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Substantial lateral CO(2) diffusion rates into leaf areas where stomata were blocked by grease patches were quantified by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging in different species across the full range of photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). The lateral CO(2) flux rate over short distances was substantial and very similar in five dicotyledonous species with different vascular anatomies (two species with bundle sheath extensions, sunflower [Helianthus annuus] and dwarf bean [Phaseolus vulgaris]; and three species without bundle sheath extensions, faba bean [Vicia faba], petunia [Petunia hybrida], and tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum]). Only in the monocot maize (Zea mays) was there little or no evident lateral CO(2) flux. Lateral diffusion rates were low when PPFD diffusion represented 15% to 24% of the normal CO(2) assimilation rate. Smaller patches and higher ambient CO(2) concentration increased lateral CO(2) diffusion rates. Calculations with a two-dimensional diffusion model supported these observations that lateral CO(2) diffusion over short distances inside dicotyledonous leaves can be important to photosynthesis. The results emphasize that supply of CO(2) from nearby stomata usually dominates assimilation, but that lateral supply over distances up to approximately 1 mm can be important if stomata are blocked, particularly when assimilation rate is low.

  5. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiper, Harry A.; Kleter, Gijs A.; Noteborn, Hub P.J.M.; Kok, Esther J.

    2002-01-01

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism

  6. Pharmaceutical manufacturing facility discharges can substantially increase the pharmaceutical load to U.S. wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Phillips, Patrick J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Colella, Kaitlyn M.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.

    2018-01-01

    Discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities (PMFs) previously have been identified as important sources of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Yet few studies are available to establish the influence of PMFs on the pharmaceutical source contribution to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and waterways at the national scale. Consequently, a national network of 13 WWTPs receiving PMF discharges, six WWTPs with no PMF input, and one WWTP that transitioned through a PMF closure were selected from across the United States to assess the influence of PMF inputs on pharmaceutical loading to WWTPs. Effluent samples were analyzed for 120 pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical degradates. Of these, 33 pharmaceuticals had concentrations substantially higher in PMF-influenced effluent (maximum 555,000 ng/L) compared to effluent from control sites (maximum 175 ng/L). Concentrations in WWTP receiving PMF input are variable, as discharges from PMFs are episodic, indicating that production activities can vary substantially over relatively short (several months) periods and have the potential to rapidly transition to other pharmaceutical products. Results show that PMFs are an important, national-scale source of pharmaceuticals to the environment.

  7. Decadal and interannual variability of the Indian Ocean SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of the Indian Ocean on interannual and decadal timescales is investigated in observations, coupled model simulation and model experiment. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode was specifically analyzed using a data-adaptive method. This study reveals one decadal mode and two interannual modes in the sea surface temperature (SST) of the IOD. The decadal mode in the IOD is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) of the North Pacific SST. The two interannual modes are related to the biennial and canonical components of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), consistent with previous studies. This study hypothesizes that the relation between the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific on decadal scale may be through the northerly winds from the western North Pacific. The long simulation of Community Climate System Model version 4 also indicates the presence of IOD modes associated with the decadal PDO and canonical ENSO modes. However, the model fails to simulate the biennial ENSO mode in the Indian Ocean. The relation between the Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean is further supported by the regionally de-coupled model experiment.

  8. Estimation of absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and effective sose in patients underwent abdominopelvic spiral CT scan using impact CT patient dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Amirnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the presence of radiosensitive organs in the abdominopelvic region and increasing the number of requests for CT scan examinations, concerns about increasing radiation doses in patients has been greatly elevated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and the effective dose in patients underwent abdominopelvic CT scan using ImPACT CT patient dosimetry Calculator (version 1.0.4, Imaging Performance Assessment on Computed Tomography, www.impactscan.org. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Imam Reza Hospital from November to February 2015 February 2015 in the Imam Reza Hospital, in Urmia, Iran. The demographic and dosimetric information of 100 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT scan in a 6-slice CT scanner were obtained through the data collection forms. The demographic data of the patients included age, weight, gender, and BMI. The dosimetric parameters included pitch value, CT dose volume index (CTDIvol, dose-length product (DLP, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, collimation size, scan length, and scan time. To determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and also the effective dose in patients, ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator was used. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that the mean and standard deviation (SD of patients' effective dose in abdominopelvic CT scan was 4.927±0.164 mSv. The bladder in both genders had the greatest mean organ dose, which was 64.71±17.15 mGy for men and 77.56±18.48 mGy for women (P<0.001. Conclusion: The effective dose values of this examination are in the same range as previous studies, as well as International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP recommendations. However, the radiation dose from CT scan has the largest contribution to the medical imaging. According to the ALARA principle, it is recommended that the scan parameters, especially mAs, should be

  9. [Analysis of prevalence and risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse of women underwent gynecologic health care in Peking Union Medical College Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lan; Wang, Jing-yi; Lang, Jing-he; Xu, Tao; Li, Lin

    2010-07-01

    To investigate prevalence and risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse in women underwent routine gynecologic health care in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). From Jan. 2008 to Aug. 2009, 972 women underwent gynecological health care in PUMCH were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires and pelvic examinations were given. The pelvic organ prolapse quantitive examination (POP-Q) system was used as the assessment tool. (1) Among all participants, the mean ages were (42 ± 10) years (range 22 to 78 years), the mean height were (162 ± 5) cm (range 142 to 180 cm), and the mean weight were (59 ± 8) kg (range 42 to 91 kg). 83.8% (815/972) of women were multipara. The mean total vaginal length (TVL) of 972 women was 8.20 cm. No women met the standard of pelvic organ prolapse, while 35.5% (345/972) of women presented mild posterior vaginal descent and 96.7% (940/972) presented mild anterior vaginal descent, all of them were asymptomatic. (2) The length of genital hiatus (gh), TVL and C, D proximal to the hymen in nullipara were (2.26 ± 0.32), (8.08 ± 0.30), (-7.08 ± 0.24) and (-8.08 ± 0.30) cm, which were significantly less than (2.33 ± 0.39), (8.22 ± 0.35), (-7.14 ± 0.28) and (-8.22 ± 0.35) cm in multipara (P 0.05). However, those in women at group of 22 - 34 years and 35 - 49 years showed statistical difference when compared with women at group of more than 50 years (P < 0.05). When compared with women at group of 22 - 34 years, the incidence of posterior and anterior vaginal wall protrusion were increased (OR = 1.713, 3.765). (4) Menopause status was associated with severities of all kinds of descent (P < 0.05) and presence of posterior vaginal protrusion (OR = 3.354). Mild anterior and posterior vaginal descent by POP-Q were common among women in China. The risk of anterior vaginal descent is relatively higher than posterior vaginal descent. However, most of the women with descent are asymptomatic and need no treatment. The most important factors

  10. A controlled clinical study of serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma patients who underwent surgery plus intraperitoneal hyperthermo-chemo-perfusion (IHCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Bae, H S

    2001-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinomas, no satisfactory outcomes are available because of micrometastases and free-floating carcinoma cells already existing in the peritoneal cavity. From 1990, we started using intraperitoneal hyperthermo-chemo-perfusion (IHCP) to prevent and to treat peritoneal metastasis after surgical resection of stomach cancer. We analyzed 103 serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma patients who underwent surgical resection between 1990 and 1995. Fifty-two patients who received surgery plus IHCP were compared with 51 patients who underwent surgery only, as controls. IHCP was administered for 2 h with an automatic IHCP device (closed-circuit system) just after surgical resection, with the patient under hypothermic general anesthesia (32.4 degrees C-34.0 degrees C). As perfusate, we used 1.5% peritoneal dialysis solution mixed with 10 micrograms/ml of mitomycin-C (MMC), warmed at an inflow temperature of over 44 degrees C. The overall 5-year survival rate (5-YSR) of the 103 patients was 29.97%. The 5-YSR was higher in the IHCP group than in the control group, at 32.7% and 27.1%, respectively, but this difference was not significant. However, in the 65 serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma patients (excluding those in stage IV) the 5-YSR was significantly higher (P = 0.0379) in the IHCP group than in the control group, at 58.6% and 44.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis of all 103 patients, depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis were significant factors for survival, whereas significant factors on univariate analysis, such as combined operation, distant metastasis, and peritoneal metastasis, were not significant. The most common recurrence patterns were loco-regional in the IHCP group and peritoneal in the control group. Complete cytoreductive surgery plus IHCP is effective to prevent and to treat peritoneal metastasis, and it should lead to long-term survival for serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma patients

  11. Comparison of pathological outcomes of active surveillance candidates who underwent radical prostatectomy using contemporary protocols at a high-volume Korean center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Ha Bum; Lee, Seung Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Jun; Yang, Seung Choul; Chung, Byung Ha

    2012-11-01

    We compared contemporary active surveillance protocols based on pathological outcomes in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. We identified the experimental cohort from prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2001 and 2011, and who met the inclusion criteria of five published active surveillance protocols, namely Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, University of California at San Francisco, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, University of Miami and Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance. To compare each protocol, we evaluated the pathological outcomes and calculated the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each protocol according to the proportion of organ-confined Gleason≤6 disease. Overall, 376 patients met the inclusion criteria of the active surveillance protocols with 61, 325, 222, 212 and 206 patients meeting the criteria of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, University of California at San Francisco, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, University of Miami and Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance protocols, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity values of the five protocols, respectively, were 0.199 and 0.882 in Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, 0.855 and 0.124 in University of California at San Francisco, 0.638 and 0.468 in Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 0.599 and 0.479 in University of Miami, and 0.609 and 0.527 in Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance. In terms of both the sensitivity and specificity, Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance was the most balanced protocol. In addition, Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance showed a more accurate performance for favourable pathological outcomes than the others. However, using the area under the curve to compare the discriminative ability of each protocol, there were no statistically significant differences. The contemporary

  12. Grammatical Conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov: Nominative ↔ Vocative in the System of Substantial Categoriality

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    Anatoliy Zahnitko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Analysis of Yuriy Shevel'ov’s approaches to the interpretation of the morphological tier of language, as well as his examination of particular phenomena of this level – substantiality, verbality, and others – reflects not only the author's understanding itself of all the grammatical system as a whole, and morphological one in particular, but also represents the features of modification of scientific approaches in the history of linguistic thought of mid-twentieth century, its strengthening in the studies of the XX – XXI century. The researcher’s definition of nominative and vocative cases as interrelated within the categorical substantiality is of particular importance. Purpose: to determine the main components of interpretation of the status dimension of the nominative and vocative cases within morpho-substantial categoriality of Yuriy Shevel'ov with the definition of theoretical foundations and practical principles, revealing the patterns of establishing internal sentence dimension of the nominative and vocative cases. Results: In the case theory with reliance on the sequence of forms of dependencies in the internal sentence space Yuriy Shevel'ov distinguishes five cases: genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative. In the statement about the nominative as grammatically independent case the scientist relies on sentence. Two-dimensionality of grammatically independent case opposes to the one-dimensional grammatically dependent nominative that is traceable in syntactic positions of predicate and apposition. Yuriy Shevel'ov did not consider addressing that is not grammatically linked to the sentence with a specific expression as an individual case. The forms of vocative case show functional three-componentity, because in its functional-semantic paradigm it covers the function of the addressee – potential subject of action (primary function that is represented in formal grammar sentence structure by the main element of

  13. Acute myocardial infarction in progressively elderly patients. A comparative analysis of immediate results in patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention

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    Luiz Alberto Mattos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the in-hospital results, in progressively elderly patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in the first 24 hours of AMI. METHODS: The patients were divided into three different age groups (60/69, 70/79, and > or = 80 years and were treated from 7/95 until 12/99. The primary success rate and the occurrence of major clinical events were analyzed at the end of the in-hospital phase. Coronary stent implantation and abciximab use were employed at the intervencionist discretion. RESULTS: We analyzed 201 patients with age ranging from 60 to 93 years, who underwent primary PCI. Patients with ages above 70 were more often female (p=.015. Those with ages above 80 were treated later with PCI (p=.054, and all of them presented with total occlusion of the infarct-related artery. Coronary stents were implanted in 30% of the patients. Procedural success was lower in > or = 80 year old patients (p=.022, and the death rate was higher in > or = 70 years olds (p=.019. Reinfarction and coronary bypass surgery were uncommon events. A trend occurred toward a higher combined incidence of major in-hospital events according to increased age (p=.064. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients ( > or = 70 years presented with adverse clinical and angiographic profiles and patients > or = 80 years of age obtained reduced TIMI 3 flow success rates after primary PTCA, and those > or = 70 years had a higher death rate.

  14. Acute myocardial infarction in progressively elderly patients. A comparative analysis of immediate results in patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, L A; Zago, A; Chaves, A; Pinto, I; Tanajura, L; Staico, R; Centemero, M; Feres, F; Maldonado, G; Cano, M; Abizaid, A; Abizaid, A; Sousa, A G; Sousa, J E

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the in-hospital results, in progressively elderly patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the first 24 hours of AMI. The patients were divided into three different age groups (60/69, 70/79, and > or =80 years) and were treated from 7/95 until 12/99. The primary success rate and the occurrence of major clinical events were analyzed at the end of the in-hospital phase. Coronary stent implantation and abciximab use were employed at the interventionist discretion. We analyzed 201 patients with age ranging from 60 to 93 years, who underwent primary PCI. Patients with ages above 70 were more often female (p=.015). Those with ages above 80 were treated later with PCI (p=.054), and all of them presented with total occlusion of the infarct-related artery. Coronary stents were implanted in 30% of the patients. Procedural success was lower in > or =80 year old patients (p=.022), and the death rate was higher in > or =70 years olds (p=.019). Reinfarction and coronary bypass surgery were uncommon events. A trend occurred toward a higher combined incidence of major in-hospital events according to increased age (p=.064). Elderly patients (> or =70 years) presented with adverse clinical and angiographic profiles and patients > or =80 years of age obtained reduced TIMI 3 flow success rates after primary PTCA, and those > or =70 years had a higher death rate.

  15. Improved image quality in abdominal CT in patients who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with small metal implants using a raw data-based metal artifact reduction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Negi, Noriyuki; Inokawa, Hiroyasu; Sugihara, Naoki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2017-07-01

    To determine the value of a raw data-based metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm for image quality improvement in abdominal CT for patients with small metal implants. Fifty-eight patients with small metal implants (3-15 mm in size) who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged with CT. CT data were reconstructed by filtered back projection with and without SEMAR algorithm in axial and coronal planes. To evaluate metal artefact reduction, mean CT number (HU and SD) and artefact index (AI) values within the liver were calculated. Two readers independently evaluated image quality of the liver and pancreas and visualization of vasculature using a 5-point visual score. HU and AI values and image quality on images with and without SEMAR were compared using the paired Student's t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using linear-weighted κ test. Mean HU and AI on images with SEMAR was significantly lower than those without SEMAR (P small metal implants by reducing metallic artefacts. • SEMAR algorithm significantly reduces metallic artefacts from small implants in abdominal CT. • SEMAR can improve image quality of the liver in dynamic CECT. • Confidence visualization of hepatic vascular anatomies can also be improved by SEMAR.

  16. The Biological Activity of Propolis-Containing Toothpaste on Oral Health Environment in Patients Who Underwent Implant-Supported Prosthodontic Rehabilitation

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    Tadeusz Morawiec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft and periodontal tissues surrounding dental implants are particularly susceptible to bacteria invasion and inflammatory reactions due to complex histological structures. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Sixteen subjects who underwent an oral rehabilitation with dental implants were selected and randomly assigned into two groups, which received a newly formulated propolis-containing toothpaste (3% (CA or a negative control without an active ingredient (CC. Approximal plaque index (API, oral hygiene index (OHI, debris component, and sulcus bleeding index (SBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During the first and last examinations, the swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation. Propolis-containing toothpaste was found to be distinctively effective in improving oral health and the occurrence of gingivitis triggered by dental plaque. The qualitative and quantitative changes in oral bacteria spectrum were observed. Antibacterial measures containing propolis might be used as a natural adjuvant to other active substances in individuals with a high risk of periodontal problems against pathogenic oral microflora.

  17. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P training (pre: 350 +/- 36 v post: 290 +/- 39 micromol...

  18. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  19. Recommendations for successful substantiation of new health claims in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita; Žmitek, Katja

    2018-01-01

    Background While functional foods offer promise for public health and innovation in the food industry, the efficiency of such foods should be assured to protect consumers from misleading claims. Globally, many countries regulate the communication of the health effects of such foods to final...... consumers. Scope and approach In the European Union (EU), the use of health claims was harmonized in 2006. All claims need to be scientifically assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and pre-approved. Implementing the regulation has involved a steep learning curve for stakeholders, resulting...... recommendations should be seen as a starting point for researchers in the area of nutrition and food technology, and for those dealing with functional foods, including the food industry. Keywords Functional foods; Health claims; Food labelling; Substantiation; Regulation; European Union...

  20. Substantial variability in postoperative treatment, and convalescence recommendations following vaginal repair. A nationwide questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Marianne; Møller, Charlotte; Kehlet, H

    2001-01-01

    -employed gynecologists, and gynecologists in private practice, to patients undergoing vaginal repair. METHOD: In 1999 all Danish gynecologists (n=433) received a tested questionnaire about postoperative treatment and convalescence recommendations following vaginal repair. Non-responders received one reminder. OUTCOME...... MEASURES: Pre and postoperative treatment, and expected hospital stay. Furthermore, lifting restrictions, sick leave, and convalescence before resumption of defined activities. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 82%. The expected postoperative hospital stay was median 3 days (range, 1-7) following...... anterior repair, and 2 days (range, 1-7) following posterior repair. The recommended sick leave was median 6 weeks (range, 2-12) for patients with work with heavy lifts. There were substantial differences in recommendations. Recommended lifting restrictions were median 3 kg (range, 0-20) for median 4 weeks...

  1. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome

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    Adithya Sivaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients.

  2. Experimental substantiation of methodic of 11-13 years old boxers’ coordination development

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    Yong Qiang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of methodic of junior boxers’ coordination training. Material: in the research 18 boxers of 11-13 year old age participated. In total, during 4 months 42 trainings were conducted. Total time of coordination load’s fulfillment at each training was 15-45 minutes. Results: dynamic of results in control tests was statistically confident in the tested parameters of movements. It proves effectiveness of usage the tasks with complex-coordination orientation, accented on impact on sensor-informational and motor systems of movements in junior boxers’ trainings. Conclusions: coordination training in boxing at initial stage shall include specialized varied means and methods, which would facilitate formation of motor condition and skills’ basis. Motor condition and skills are a reserve for further rising of coordination abilities’ level of junior sportsmen.

  3. Substantial Truth and the Impossibility of Conviction after Manifestation of the Public Prosecutor's Office for Acquittal

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    Rafael de Deus Garcia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defends the thesis that the criminal conviction of an accused after a plea of acquittal by the Public Prosecutor's Office in final arguments offends not only the accusatory principle, but also the right to an adversarial process. It is known that we already have an advanced debate on the constitutionality of article 385 of the Criminal Procedure Code, which treats the MP's final allegations as mere opinion and which allows the judge to convict the defendant even when the prosecutor requests the acquittal, so this article intends to contribute to the issue by demonstrating that this legal possibility has on its ground the substantial truth principle, unsustainable both from the epistemological and the political-juridical point of view. It is a fact that the accusatory principle prohibits the judge from replacing the accusation when it abandons any accusatory narrative capable of sustaining any conviction.

  4. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  5. Extended family medicine training: Measuring training flows at a time of substantial pedagogic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F

    2016-12-01

    To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Canada. All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS-Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of extended family medicine training programs. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians

  6. Decadal changes in channel morphology of a freely meandering river—Powder River, Montana, 1975–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Meade, Robert H.

    2018-03-19

    Few studies exist on the long-term geomorphic effects of floods. However, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was able to begin such a study after a 50-year recurrence interval flood in 1978 because 20 channel cross sections along a 100-kilometer reach of river were established in 1975 and 1977 as part of a study for a proposed dam on Powder River in southeastern Montana. These cross-section measurements (data for each channel cross section are available at the USGS ScienceBase website) have been repeated about 30 times during four decades (1975–2016) and provide a unique dataset for understanding long-term changes in channel morphology caused by an extreme flood and a spectrum of annual floods.Changes in channel morphology of a 100-kilometer reach of Powder River are documented in a series of narratives for each channel cross section that include a time series of photographs as a record of these changes. The primary change during the first decade (1975–85) was the rapid vertical growth of a new inset flood plain within the flood-widened channel. Changes during the second decade (1985–95) were characterized by slower growth of the flood plain, and the effects of ice-jam floods typical of a northward-flowing river. Changes during the third decade (1995–2005) showed little vertical growth of the inset flood plain, which had reached a height that limited overbank deposition. And changes during the final decade (2005–16) covered in this report showed that, because the new inset flood plain had reached a limiting height, the effects of the large annual flood of 2008 (largest flood since 1978) were relatively small compared to smaller floods in previous decades. Throughout these four decades, the riparian vegetation, which interacts with the river, has undergone a gradual but substantial change that may have lasting effects on the channel morphology.

  7. Opportunities in Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan for the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-04-01

    The DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee of the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is charged with providing advice on a continuing basis regarding the management of the national basic nuclear science research program. In July 2000, the Committee was asked to study the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research, and to develop a long-range plan that will serve as a frame-work for the coordinated advancement of the field for the next decade. The plan contained here is the fifth that has been pre-pared since the Committee was established. Each of the earlier plans has had substantial impact on new directions and initiatives in the field.

  8. Incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in children whose fathers underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with epididymal sperm aspiration: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirelli-Filho, Milton; Marchi, Patricia Leme de; Mafra, Fernanda Abani; Cavalcanti, Viviane; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Bianco, Bianca; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by epididymal aspiration (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration). A case-control study comprising male children of couples in which the man had been previously vasectomized and chose vasectomy reversal (n=31) or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (n=30) to conceive new children, and a Control Group of male children of fertile men who had programmed vasectomies (n=60). Y-chromosome microdeletions research was performed by polymerase chain reaction on fathers and children, evaluating 20 regions of the chromosome. The results showed no Y-chromosome microdeletions in any of the studied subjects. The incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with spermatozoa recovered by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration did not differ between the groups, and there was no difference between control subjects born from natural pregnancies or population incidence in fertile men. We found no association considering microdeletions in the azoospermia factor region of the Y chromosome and assisted reproduction. We also found no correlation between these Y-chromosome microdeletions and vasectomies, which suggests that the assisted reproduction techniques do not increase the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions. Avaliar a incidência de microdeleções do cromossomo Y em indivíduos nascidos de pais vasectomizados submetidos à reversão de vasectomia ou fertilização in vitro com recuperação de espermatozoides por aspiração do epidídimo (aspiração percutânea de espermatozoides do epidídimo). Estudo caso-controle que compreende crianças do sexo masculino de casais em que o homem havia sido previamente vasectomizado e escolheu revers

  9. Comparison of Healthcare Costs Among Commercially Insured Women in the United States Who Underwent Hysteroscopic Sterilization Versus Laparoscopic Bilateral Tubal Ligation Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Patricia I; Yao, Jianying; Lin, Jay; Law, Amy

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated healthcare costs of index procedures and during a 6-month follow-up of women who had hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) versus laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation (LBTL). Women (18-49 years) with claims for HS and LBTL procedures were identified from the MarketScan commercial claims database (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012) and placed into separate cohorts. Demographics, characteristics, index procedure costs, and 6-month total healthcare costs and sterilization procedure-related costs were compared. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the impact of HS versus LBTL on costs. Among the study population, 12,031 had HS (mean age: 37.0 years) and 7286 had LBTL (mean age: 35.8 years). The majority (80.9%) who had HS underwent the procedure in a physician's office setting. Fewer women who had HS versus LBTL received the procedure in an inpatient setting (0.5% vs. 2.1%), an ambulatory surgical center setting (5.0% vs. 23.8%), or a hospital outpatient setting (13.4% vs. 71.9%). Mean total cost for the index sterilization procedure was lower for HS than for LBTL ($3964 vs. $5163, p women who had HS versus LBTL. Multivariable regression results confirmed that costs were lower for women who had HS versus LBTL. Among commercially insured women in the United States, HS versus LBTL is associated with lower average costs for the index procedure and lower total healthcare and procedure-related costs during 6 months after the sterilization procedure.

  10. [Assessment of the correlation between histological degeneration and radiological and clinical parameters in a series of patients who underwent lumbar disc herniation surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munarriz, Pablo M; Paredes, Igor; Alén, José F; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cepeda, Santiago; Hernandez-Lain, Aurelio; Lagares, Alfonso

    The use of histological degeneration scores in surgically-treated herniated lumbar discs is not common in clinical practice and its use has been primarily restricted to research. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there is an association between a higher grade of histological degeneration when compared with clinical or radiological parameters. Retrospective consecutive analysis of 122 patients who underwent single-segment lumbar disc herniation surgery. Clinical information was available on all patients, while the histological study and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging were also retrieved for 75 patients. Clinical variables included age, duration of symptoms, neurological deficits, or affected deep tendon reflex. The preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated using Modic and Pfirrmann scores for the affected segment by 2 independent observers. Histological degeneration was evaluated using Weiler's score; the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and neovascularization, not included in the score, were also studied. Correlation and chi-square tests were used to assess the association between histological variables and clinical or radiological variables. Interobserver agreement was also evaluated for the MRI variables using weighted kappa. No statistically significant correlation was found between histological variables (histological degeneration score, inflammatory infiltrates or neovascularization) and clinical or radiological variables. Interobserver agreement for radiological scores resulted in a kappa of 0.79 for the Pfirrmann scale and 0.65 for the Modic scale, both statistically significant. In our series of patients, we could not demonstrate any correlation between the degree of histological degeneration or the presence of inflammatory infiltrates when compared with radiological degeneration scales or clinical variables such as the patient's age or duration of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirug

  11. Outcome of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Including Cilostazol in Elderly Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction who Underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from the INTERSTELLAR Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho-Jun; Park, Sang-Don; Park, Hyun Woo; Suh, Jon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Moon, Jeonggeun; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kang, Woong Chol; Kwon, Sung Woo; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Compared with dual antiplatelet therapy including aspirin and clopidogrel, triple antiplatelet therapy including cilostazol has a mortality benefit in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, whether the mortality benefit persists in elderly patients is not clear. From 2007 to 2014, 1278 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups by age (elderly, respectively) and antiplatelet strategy (triple or dual antiplatelet therapy). We compared the mortality rates between the triple and dual antiplatelet therapy groups. There were 1052 (male, 85%; mean age, 56.3 ± 10.4 years) patients in the young group and 241 (male, 52.7%; mean age, 80.3 ± 4.5 years) patients in the elderly group. In the young and elderly groups, 220 (20.9%) and 28 (12.3%) patients were treated with triple antiplatelet therapy. During a 1-year follow-up period, 80 patients died (4.2% in the young group vs. 15.5% in the elderly group). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that triple antiplatelet therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate in the young group (log-rank, p = 0.005). Although there were more angiographic high-risk patients in the elderly group, similar mortality rates were reported (log-rank, p = 0.803) without increased bleeding rates (1 vs. 3.6% in the elderly group, p = 0.217). Triple antiplatelet therapy might be a better antiplatelet regimen than dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Although this benefit was strong in patients aged elderly patients (aged ≥75 years).

  12. A single FTO gene variant rs9939609 is associated with body weight evolution in a multiethnic extremely obese population that underwent bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gisele K; Resende, Cristina M M; Durso, Danielle F; Rodrigues, Lorena A A; Silva, José Luiz P; Reis, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Solange S; Ferreira, Daniela C; Franco, Gloria R; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is involved in obesity. Few studies have been conducted on patients who underwent bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of FTO SNPs on body weight, body composition, and weight regain during a 60-mo follow-up period after bariatric surgery. The rs9939609 was genotyped in 146 individuals using a real-time polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay. Data for lifestyle, comorbidities, body weight, body mass index (BMI), excess weight loss (EWL), and body composition were obtained before and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 mo after surgery. Data were analyzed by comparing two groups of patients according to rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism. Mixed-regression models were constructed to evaluate the dynamics of body weight, BMI, and EWL over time in female patients. No differences were observed between the groups during the first 24 mo after surgery. After 36, 48, and 60 mo, body weight, fat mass, and BMI were higher, whereas fat-free mass and EWL were lower in the FTO-SNP patient group. Weight regain was more frequent and occurred sooner in the FTO-SNP group. There is a different evolution of weight loss in obese carriers of the FTO gene variant rs9939609 after bariatric surgery. However, this pattern was evident at only 2 y postbariatric surgery, inducing a lower proportion of surgery success and a greater and earlier weight regain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term follow-up of pepsinogen I/II ratio after eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients who underwent endoscopic mucosal resection for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su Youn; Jeon, Seong Woo; Lee, Hyun Seok; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Park, Haeyoon; Choi, Jin Woo

    2017-05-01

    Although the pepsinogen I/II (PGI/II) ratio after Helicobacter pylori eradication is recovered at short-term follow-up, long-term follow-up studies of PGI/II are rare. A total of 773 patients with gastric cancer who underwent endoscopic resection and pepsinogen and H. pylori tests were enrolled. H. pylori was eradicated in these patients. Endoscopic and pepsinogen tests were performed every year. A low PGI/II ratio was defined as ≤3. The PGI/II ratio was higher in non-infected patients (n=275, 4.99) than infected patients (n=498, 3.53). After H. pylori eradication, the PGI/II ratio increased to 5.81 and 5.63 after 1 and 2 years (each ppylori eradication group became similar to that of the H. pylori-negative group at 3 (4.48 vs. 4.34), 4 (4.88 vs. 4.34), and 5 years (4.89 vs. 4.23). The adjusted odds ratios for a lower PG I/II ratio in the non-eradication group compared to the eradication group were 4.78 (95% CI 2.15-10.67) after 1year and 8.13 (95% CI 2.56-25.83) after 2 years. After H. pylori eradication, the PGI/II ratio increased and was similar to that of H. pylori-negative controls for up to 5 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of right ventricular electrode location (outflow tract vs. apex) on mechanical Ventricular synchrony in patients that underwent pacemaker implant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, Oscar S; Saenz, Luis C; Salazar, Gabriel; Hernandez, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to assess in depth the effect of ventricular stimulation from the right ventricular outflow tract and the apex on mechanical ventricular synchrony. Materials And Methods: cohort analytical study. 20 patients with indication of definitive pacemaker indication underwent trans thoracic echocardiogram before and after pacemaker implant with electrode implantation in the right ventricular outflow tract and in the apex (10 patients in each group). There was no structural cardiopathy, ejection fraction was ? 50%, QRS and AV conduction were normal. Mechanical ventricular asynchrony (M mode and tissue doppler) and implant and device parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: results are given as mean values, standard deviation or percentages.Continuous variables were compared using Chi-square test and ANOVA. A p <0.05 value was considered statistically significant. Results: in five patients (25%) a pre-implant ventricular asynchrony was found; in seven (70%) ventricular asynchrony post-implant in the right ventricle outflow tract and in 5 (50%) in the apex. Mean interventricular pot-implant delay was 21,6 ms in the right ventricular outflow tract and 11,5 ms in the apex (p = 0,8); mean septal to lateral wall delay was 73 ms in the right ventricular outflow tract and 26 ms in the apex (p = 0,8). QRS post-implant delay was 134 ms in the right ventricular outflow tract and 140 ms in the apex (p = 0,1). No differences between implant parameters and device programming were found. Conclusions: presence of ventricular asynchrony was evidenced in patients with normal QRS and structurally healthy heart. Ventricular stimulation with pacemaker from the apex or the right ventricular outflow tract suggests acute ventricular asynchrony at least in 60% of the cases, without statistically significant difference between both groups.

  15. Traços psicológicos dos pacientes submetidos a angioplastia transluminal coronária Psychological profile of patients that underwent coronary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Helena de Campos

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a identificação de traços psicológicos e características emocionais comuns aos pacientes que foram, pela primeira vez, submetidos a angioplastia transluminal coronária (ATC, no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. Foram analisados 84 pacientes, de ambros os sexos, com idade média de 55 anos. Foram realizadas, pela equipe de psicólogos, duas entrevistas semidirigidas, durante cada uma das quais foram aplicados o Inventário de Ansiedade Traço - Estado (IDATE e a Escala de Hamilton. Essas entrevistas foram realizadas imediatamente anterior à ATC e um dia após o procedimento, na alta dos pacientes. Os resultados permitiram-nos concluir que a grande maioria apresentou padrão comportamental tipo A, próprio do coronariano, alto estresse constitucional e ambiental e ansiedade - traço acima da média. Obtiveram alta porcentagem, também, as variáveis tensão, depressão, grau de competitividade e labilidade de humor.This paper presents psychological and emotional characteristics that were found common to patients that underwent a first coronary angioplasty at Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. We studied 84 patients of both sexes, with mean age of 55 years. Two semi-directed interviews were conducted by the psychology team, and during each of them the State-Trait - Anxiety Inventory STAI and the Hamilton Scale were applied. Such interviews were conducted immediately before PTCA and repeated one day after it, at patient's discharge. We concluded that most patients had a type A personality, typical of patients with coronary artey disease, high constitutional stress and anxiety-trace higher than the average population. There was also a high incidence of tension, depression, competitivity and humor lability.

  16. Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Kronmiller, Brent A.; Shen, Danyu; Strem, Mary D.; Amoako-Attah, Ishmael; Akrofi, Andrew Yaw; Begoude, B.A. Didier; ten Hoopen, G. Martijn; Coulibaly, Klotioloma; Kebe, Boubacar Ismaël; Melnick, Rachel L.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Tyler, Brett M.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao is the only known host of economic importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. We sequenced and compared the Pmeg and Ppal genomes and identified virulence-related putative gene models (PGeneM) that may be responsible for their differences in host specificities and virulence. Pmeg and Ppal have estimated genome sizes of 126.88 and 151.23 Mb and PGeneM numbers of 42,036 and 44,327, respectively. The evolutionary histories of Pmeg and Ppal appear quite different. Postspeciation, Ppal underwent whole-genome duplication whereas Pmeg has undergone selective increases in PGeneM numbers, likely through accelerated transposable element-driven duplications. Many PGeneMs in both species failed to match transcripts and may represent pseudogenes or cryptic genetic reservoirs. Pmeg appears to have amplified specific gene families, some of which are virulence-related. Analysis of mycelium, zoospore, and in planta transcriptome expression profiles using neural network self-organizing map analysis generated 24 multivariate and nonlinear self-organizing map classes. Many members of the RxLR, necrosis-inducing phytophthora protein, and pectinase genes families were specifically induced in planta. Pmeg displays a diverse virulence-related gene complement similar in size to and potentially of greater diversity than Ppal but it remains likely that the specific functions of the genes determine each species’ unique characteristics as pathogens. PMID:28186564

  17. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  18. Space strategy for Europe and the International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ

    2017-09-01

    The 2020-2030 decade offers extraordinary opportunity for the European space sector that is largely not recognized in present space strategy which does not recognize commercial space activities beyond communications satellites, launchers, and earth observation and navigation and downstream activities. Lunar and cislunar development can draw on the extensive experience of Europe in mining, clean energy, ecological systems as well as deep experience in managing the development of technologies through TRL1 through commercial sale via Horizon 2020 and previous Framework programs. The EU has unrivalled experience in coordinating research and advanced technology development from research centers, major firms and SMEs across multiple sovereign states. This capacity to coordinate across national boundaries can be a significant contribution to a global cooperative program like the International Lunar Decade. This paper will present a European space strategy for beyond 2020 and how this can mesh with the International Lunar Decade.

  19. Unilateral idiopathic hydrocele has a substantial effect on the ipsilateral testicular geometry and resistivity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Unsal, Alparslan; Ozden, Eriz; Kosar, Pinar; Kosar, Ugur; Emir, Levent

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether hydrocele has any effect on the volume and shape of the ipsilateral testis and can be implicated as a cause of testicular ischemia. Group 1 consisted of 23 patients with unilateral idiopathic hydrocele, whereas 30 healthy men constituted group 2. All patients underwent scrotal ultrasonography by which testicular dimensions in craniocaudal (D(cc)), anteroposterior (D(ap)), and mediolateral axes were measured, followed by calculation of the D(cc)/D(ap) ratio and testicular volume. By color Doppler analysis, the resistivity index of the subcapsular artery (RI(sc)) and the resistivity index of the intratesticular artery were determined. The mean D(cc)/D(ap) ratio +/- SD for group 1 was 1.7 +/- 0.3 (range, 1.1-2.3), significantly lower than that of group 2, which was 1.9 +/- 0.3 (range, 1.3-2.2) (P = .028). Mean testicular volume values of subjects having hydrocele for more than and less than 6 months were 13.4 +/- 7.3 and 22.5 +/- 5.1 cm3, respectively; the difference between the subgroups was significant (P = .003). For the ipsilateral testis, mean RI(sc) values were 0.70 +/- 0.06 (range, 0.60-0.80) in group 1 and 0.65 +/- 0.06 (range, 0.59-0.83) in group 2. The mean RI(sc) was significantly higher in group 1 (P = .006). Unilateral idiopathic hydrocele has a tendency for rounding rather than flattening the ipsilateral testis as well as elevating the RI(sc) on the affected side. To the best of our knowledge, no strict spectral Doppler analysis criteria have been proposed for testicular ischemia yet. Therefore, the impact of the difference of the RI(sc) should raise the suspicion for ischemia, and further research is needed to elucidate any effect on spermatogenesis.

  20. Methodological substantiation of the professional functions of Responsible persons of pharmaceutical and hospital institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Vetiutneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the content analysis and methodological justification of the professional functions of the Responsible persons for quality assurance of medicines in pharmaceutical and hospital institutions. Materials and methods. The following research methods were used: system and comparative analysis, generalization, systematization, graphic modeling, observation. Research materials: normative legal acts, normative documents, recommendations of international organizations, information of wholesale and retail pharmaceutical companies, pharmaceutical and hospital institutions, professional non-governmental organizations, placed on official web-sites and collected in the process of direct observation. Results. The personnel and qualification aspects of professional activity of Responsible persons of pharmaceutical and hospital institutions were discussed. On the basis of analysis of the modern legal and regulatory framework, a general list of professional functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions had been formed. The content analysis and comparison of the number of the functions of Responsible persons performed in health care institutions of different types is carried out. The new functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions are considered. The managerial nature of the professional functions of the Responsible persons and the expediency of their complementing with the leadership functions are substantiated. On the basis of international management standards, requirements of GPP and GPEP, systematization of the functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions in the groups and subgroups was performed. Conclusions. The generalization and systematization of the professional functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions had been carried out for five classification groups of functions, namely: leadership, planning, organizational, control and information, of which the

  1. The association between substantiated childhood maltreatment, asthma and lung function: A prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Suresh, Sadasivam; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Asthma reflects multiple and likely complex causal pathways. We investigate the possibility that childhood maltreatment is one such causal pathway. Childhood maltreatment can be interpreted as a form of early life adversity and like other life adversities may predict a range of negative health outcomes, including asthma. A total of 3762 young adults (52.63% female) from the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) participated in this study. MUSP is a prospective Australian birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital from 1981 to 1983. The study followed both mother-child dyads to the age of 21years after birth. Participants reported whether they had been diagnosed by a physician with asthma by the 21-year follow-up. Trained research assistants also performed gender- and height-standardized lung function tests using a Spirobank G spirometer system attached to a laptop computer. We linked this dataset with data obtained from the child protection services and which comprised all substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment in the MUSP cohort. Substantiations of childhood maltreatment included children in an age range of 0-14years. The experience of any childhood maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse, was independently associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma by the 21-year follow-up. The association was no longer significant after adjustment for a range of confounders and covariates in neglected children. Childhood maltreatment, including multiple events, was not associated with lung function in adjusted models. Childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse, was associated with lifetime ever asthma. This was in contrast to the absence of an association with objective measures of lung function. More research is indicated on the effect of childhood maltreatment on lung function using objective measures. In the meantime, there should be a

  2. EGS4 in '94: A decade of enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Bielajew, A.F.; Rogers, D.W.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the developments made to the EGS4 code over the past decade. This code is a Monte Carlo code developed to study electron-photon transport properties. It is widely used, in particular in the medical physics field, it has been updated, expanded, benchmarked, and applied to a wide array of problems. The paper covers precursors to this code, a basic snapshop of its physics and calculation methods, and an overview of how it has been expanded during the past decade

  3. United States Foreign Policy Toward Australia in the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    more industry, energy, housing , services, and just about everything. l"Consider Australia ," The Economist, 30 May 1964, p. 967. 16 The availability of...BENEFIT TO THE USER AS MAY ACCRUE. 8 April 1966 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD AUSTRALIA IN THE NEXT DECADE By 2) i:ob i . 1RMY WAR COLI.IGF LOUIS J...States Foreign Policy Toward Australia in the Next Decade by Lt Col Louis J. Schelter, Jr. Infantry US Army War College Carlisle Barracks

  4. The first decade: 2004 - 2014. 10 years of renewable energy progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, Christine; Williamson, Laura E.; Leitner, Sarah; Teske, Sven; Hankins, Mark; Sosis, Karin; Kiene, Ansgar; Mali, Thembakazi; Auth, Katie; Musolino, Evan; Iida, Tetsunari; Thornton, Kane; Haugwitz, Frank; Hinrichs-Rahlwes, Rainer; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Bravo, Gonzalo; McQueen, Dane; Sawin, Janet L.; Wiser, Ryan; Schweinfurth, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of renewable energy over the past decade has surpassed all expectations. Global installed capacity and production from all renewable technologies have increased substantially, and supporting policies have continued to spread to more countries in all regions of the world. Developments in the early 2000's showed upward trends in global renewable energy investment, capacity, and integration across all sectors, yet most mainstream projections did not predict the extraordinary expansion of renewables that was to unfold over the decade ahead. Several factors set the foundation for this rapid growth. The various energy crises-beginning in the 1970's - and the subsequent economic downturns underscored the role of energy for both national and economic security. At the same time, a handful of pioneering countries-such as Germany, Denmark, Spain, and the United States-created critical markets for renewables, which drove early technological advances and economies of scale, setting the stage and helping to fuel the past decade of explosive market expansion. Growing emphasis on mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts has further contributed to the momentum. Renewable energy's contribution to the global heat, power and transport sectors has increased steadily. While growth in renewable's share of total energy use has been moderated by increases in both population and world energy demand-most notably in developing and emerging economies-renewable energy markets and technology developments have accelerated quickly, even when compared to other rapidly developing technologies such as mobile phones. Although the last decade has seen tremendous advances in the electricity sector, the renewable heating and cooling sector has lagged behind. This is despite the marked growth since 2004 in the use of geothermal, solar thermal, and biomass heating technologies for water and space heating, process heat, and cooling. Given that the share of

  5. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.

    2015-01-01

    It is over three decades since a large terrestrial carbon sink (S T) was first reported. The magnitude of the net sink is now relatively well known, and its importance for dampening atmospheric CO2 accumulation, and hence climate change, widely recognised. But the contributions of underlying...... quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed...... processes are not well defined, particularly the role of emissions from land-use change (E LUC) versus the biospheric carbon uptake (S L; S T = S L − E LUC). One key aspect of the interplay of E LUC and S L is the role of agricultural processes in land-use change emissions, which has not yet been clearly...

  6. Solar Energy Potentials and Benefits in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Review of Substantial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the fossil fuel industry has dominated the economy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries during the last few decades. However, recent developments show that most of the GCC countries plan to increase the share of renewable energy (RE in their future electrical power production. To ensure realistic increase in the share of RE in the production of electricity in the future, firm policies must be laid down with the objective to promote and market the benefit of RE to their citizens. Due to the high-solar radiation in the GCC region, the focus is now on solar energy development. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the progress made on solar energy in the GCC together with the challenges and the way forward. Some of the challenges and barriers hindering the development of RE in the GCC are in the area of technological know-how, policy development, and insufficient application of RE technology integrated in the buildings among others. Areas of improvement include promoting research and development, public/private initiatives, legislation and regulatory framework, solutions to technical issues and exchange of knowledge, scientific advice, and last but not the least is the issue of building integration with RE.

  7. Dynamics of aboveground phytomass of the circumpolar Arctic tundra during the past three decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Howard E; Raynolds, Martha K; Walker, Donald A; Bhatt, Uma S; Tucker, Compton J; Pinzon, Jorge E

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the dynamics of Arctic tundra vegetation throughout the past few decades, using remotely sensed proxies of vegetation, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). While extremely useful, these coarse-scale satellite-derived measurements give us minimal information with regard to how these changes are being expressed on the ground, in terms of tundra structure and function. In this analysis, we used a strong regression model between NDVI and aboveground tundra phytomass, developed from extensive field-harvested measurements of vegetation biomass, to estimate the biomass dynamics of the circumpolar Arctic tundra over the period of continuous satellite records (1982–2010). We found that the southernmost tundra subzones (C–E) dominate the increases in biomass, ranging from 20 to 26%, although there was a high degree of heterogeneity across regions, floristic provinces, and vegetation types. The estimated increase in carbon of the aboveground live vegetation of 0.40 Pg C over the past three decades is substantial, although quite small relative to anthropogenic C emissions. However, a 19.8% average increase in aboveground biomass has major implications for nearly all aspects of tundra ecosystems including hydrology, active layer depths, permafrost regimes, wildlife and human use of Arctic landscapes. While spatially extensive on-the-ground measurements of tundra biomass were conducted in the development of this analysis, validation is still impossible without more repeated, long-term monitoring of Arctic tundra biomass in the field. (letter)

  8. Dynamics of Aboveground Phytomass of the Circumpolar Arctic Tundra During the Past Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Howard E.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the dynamics of Arctic tundra vegetation throughout the past few decades, using remotely sensed proxies of vegetation, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). While extremely useful, these coarse-scale satellite-derived measurements give us minimal information with regard to how these changes are being expressed on the ground, in terms of tundra structure and function. In this analysis, we used a strong regression model between NDVI and aboveground tundra phytomass, developed from extensive field-harvested measurements of vegetation biomass, to estimate the biomass dynamics of the circumpolar Arctic tundra over the period of continuous satellite records (1982-2010). We found that the southernmost tundra subzones (C-E) dominate the increases in biomass, ranging from 20 to 26%, although there was a high degree of heterogeneity across regions, floristic provinces, and vegetation types. The estimated increase in carbon of the aboveground live vegetation of 0.40 Pg C over the past three decades is substantial, although quite small relative to anthropogenic C emissions. However, a 19.8% average increase in aboveground biomass has major implications for nearly all aspects of tundra ecosystems including hydrology, active layer depths, permafrost regimes, wildlife and human use of Arctic landscapes. While spatially extensive on-the-ground measurements of tundra biomass were conducted in the development of this analysis, validation is still impossible without more repeated, long-term monitoring of Arctic tundra biomass in the field.

  9. Conditions accounting for substantial time spent in hospital in children aged 1-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J; Goldacre, M J; Fairweather, J M; Marcovitch, H

    1992-01-01

    To identify the clinical conditions associated with substantial time spent in hospital by children aged 1-14 years, records of children admitted to hospital in 1975, 1979, and 1984 were studied. Analysis was by linkage of abstracts of routine records of hospital inpatient care in six districts in southern England covered by the Oxford record linkage study. The total time spend in hospital in the acute specialties each year was calculated by summing the lengths of stay of all episodes of care for each child in each year. First, admissions with long median times in hospital per child admitted were identified. These included, notably, fracture of femur and, in the later years, leukaemia, other malignant neoplasms, and congenital disorders of metabolism. Second conditions were identified which accounted for large numbers of children with lengths of stay of five days or more. These included, in particular, congenital anomalies, asthma, and appendicitis. Third, conditions were identified which accounted for the largest numbers of bed days used. These included congenital anomalies, hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids, asthma, otitis media, appendicitis, and head injury. Median time spent in hospital per child admitted declined for most conditions but increased for leukaemia, other malignant neoplasms, and congenital disorders of metabolism. Admission rates for children who spent five days or more in hospital each year declined for all common conditions except asthma which increased. Total numbers of beds used increased for asthma and otitis media but declined for all other common conditions.

  10. Covering Chemical Diversity of Genetically-Modified Tomatoes Using Metabolomics for Objective Substantial Equivalence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  11. Monitoring failure rates of commercial implant brands; substantial equivalence in question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Becker, William; Becker, Burton

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the failure rates of two distinct dental implant systems in a clinical practice setting. Date of implant placement and loss were entered prospectively in a data registry system. Failure rates of two commercially pure titanium implants, one with a porous oxydized surface (POS) and the other with a chemically altered surface (CAS), were assessed using a quality control chart and survival analyses. A total of 860 POS and 759 CAS implants were placed. A warning of an increased failure rate of the CAS implant was identified by means of the quality control chart. Survival analyses indicated that the CAS implant failure rate was twice that of the POS implant (Hazard Ratio: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.33-3.28, P-value POS implant was associated with a non-significant 64% drop in the implant failure rate within less than a year (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.12-1.14; P-value POS implant and an 8% failure with the CAS implant appears inconsistent with the assumption of substantial equivalence. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Safety Design Criteria and Approaches to Safety Substantiation of the BN-1200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, I.

    2013-01-01

    Russian experience in SFR area: Activities on development of safety design criteria for SFRs of the 4th generation is carried out within the GIF framework. Although this reactor technology is considered as innovative that is relevant to the 4th generation, however, it has already a certain history. In this relation, it seems to be useful to analyze the corresponding experience that is available in various countries. 4 SFRs have been successfully operated in the USSR and in the Russian Federation: • Experimental reactor BR-5/10; • Research reactor BOR-60; • Prototype BN-350 power reactor; • Commercial BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Thus, Russia gained a considerable experience of design, construction and operation of SFRs. In particular, a certain experience has been acquired on safety substantiation of reactors of this type and their licensing. Now BOR-60 and BN-600 continue their operation, BN-800 power unit is under construction, development of the commercial BN-1200 power unit, that is considered as the 4th generation reactor, has been started. Due to limited number of operating SFRs in the world, successful Russian experience in this area should be taken into account for further development and improvement of SFR SDC developed by the GIF Task Force. In particular, participation of SFR designers in this activities would be fruitful and useful

  13. Serotonin precursor (5-hydroxytryptophan) causes substantial changes in the fighting behavior of male crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, V E; Krushinsky, A L

    2013-07-01

    This study demonstrates that injection of the serotonin precursor 5-HTP causes substantial changes in the behavioral state, fighting behavior and ability to establish winner-loser relationships in male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). The characteristic features of 5-HTP-treated crickets include an elevated posture, enhanced general activity, longer duration of fighting, enhanced rival singing and a decreased ability to produce a clear fight loser. In addition, 5-HTP-treated males showed a slightly delayed latency to spread their mandibles, a decreased number of attacks and an equal potential to win in comparison to controls (physiological solution-treated males). The obtained results imply a significant role for serotonin in the regulation of social status-related behaviors in G. bimaculatus. Specifically, these data indicate that a decrease in serotonergic activity may be functionally important for the control of loser behavior and that some behavioral features of dominant male crickets are likely to be connected with the activation of the serotonergic system.

  14. Substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for univeristies students with muscular skeletal apparatuse affections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San. Zhen Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for universities students, who have disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus. Material: in experimental researches 126 students of 18-24 years’ age, having disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus, participated. With the help of testing we registered changes of students’ functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness indicators. Results: optimal correlation of specific and non specific loads was found: 60% of specific and 40% of non specific. It is recommended to follow certain correlation of exercises in easy and complicated conditions: for first year students - 3:2; for second year students - 3:2; for third year - 2:3; for forth year - 2:3; for fifth year students - 1:3. Specific only for power lifting conditions and temps of students’ (with muscular skeletal apparatus affections functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness improvement were determined. Conclusions: The requirements of the training methodic envisage correction of loads for bringing every indicator on proper level.

  15. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsung Wang

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  16. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Tennyson, Alan J D

    2017-12-12

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the new species outside a clade including all post-Paleocene giant penguins. It is phylogenetically separated from giant Eocene and Oligocene penguin species by various smaller taxa, which indicates multiple origins of giant size in penguin evolution. That a penguin rivaling the largest previously known species existed in the Paleocene suggests that gigantism in penguins arose shortly after these birds became flightless divers. Our study therefore strengthens previous suggestions that the absence of very large penguins today is likely due to the Oligo-Miocene radiation of marine mammals.

  17. [ICF and the Term "Substantial Disability" in the German Bundesteilhabegesetz (BTHG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The new law, called "Bundesteilhabegesetz" was rapidly approved by the German legislative institutions in December 2016. It was supposed to be a milestone demonstrating the change from paternalistic care to the right of autonomous participation in all parts of social life. This new law sought to offer new ways, but actually there remains a big space for interpretations in the implementation. The law proposal wanted to claim 5 from the nine areas of life from the ICF. That was not accepted. Until December 2019 there must be found a definition of "substantial disability". It must be clear, that this is no mathematical aspect. Each medical officer/doctor gives his expert decision to his best knowledge and belief. No other instrument would really respect the human dignity and could better guarantee justified social personal support. It must closely be observed until the year 2023 what will be realized in the implementation of this law. Each wrong headed development, which possibly prioritize financial aspects, should be acutely opposed. In this part all medical directors/doctors are required not only in the social medical but in the social political discussion, too. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  19. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  20. Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L

    2014-02-01

    The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors.

  1. Substantiation of the safety in the technical project of Belene NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.

    1990-01-01

    The chapter contains an evaluation of the safety of Belene NPP project, based on an experts study of the corresponding volume of the Technical Project documentation of the main contractor and also on other related documents. The authors state that most of the remarks are constitutive, part of them requiring additional information or research. The general explicit conclusion is that the materials on the safety substantiation provided in the project are insufficient for making final statements on the safety of the NPP and there is a need for a detailed analysis and expertise. There are 12 topical conclusion paragraphs and each of them comprises a number of remarks. Among the remarks there are some related to the reactivity coefficient values in certain modes of operation, the problem of the mechanical safety and control system efficiency, the unacceptable operation at nominal power in case of stringent safety rules enforcement, the insufficiency of the PSA, the automatic control systems and the software codes not standing up to the contemporary requirements. (R.Ts.)

  2. Gas monitoring during drilling substantiates hydrogen occurrence and eliminates corrosion as source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, E.D.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.; Zeller, E.J.; Angino, E.E.; Dreschhoff, G.A.M.

    1985-02-01

    Chromatograms from the simultaneous use of 2 gas sniffers, one monitoring hydrocarbon gases and one monitoring H/sub 2/, while drilling 5 uncased exploratory bore holes in Paleozoic rocks in Kansas substantiates that H/sub 2/N/sub 2/-rich gas emissions are from the sedimentary rocks above the Central North American rift system and are not the result of corrosion of casing pipe. The gases extend over an area of more than 100 mi/sup 2/, within which they appear to be migrating through formation waters along permeable zones at the silty to sandy base of pyritic shales. H/sub 2/ was detected in various zones from +/- 500 ft depth in the Indian Cave Sandstone (Pennsylvanian) to depths of 2100 ft in the Hunton Limestone (Silurian-Devonian). Negative peaks (noncombustible), which overlapped the H/sub 2/ positive peaks on the Wheatstone Bridge chromatograms, are thought to indicate N/sub 2/ gas. Possible N/sub 2/ gas occurs from about 1300 to 2100 ft, from the Heebner Shale Member (Pennsylvanian) to the Hunton Limestone. H/sub 2//N/sub 2/ peaks on the chromatograms correlate well with the crossover peaks indicative of gas zones on open-hole wireline logs.

  3. Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Irina; Delfin, Frederick; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2013-01-29

    The Australian continent holds some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, with initial occupation at least 40,000 y ago. It is commonly assumed that Australia remained largely isolated following initial colonization, but the genetic history of Australians has not been explored in detail to address this issue. Here, we analyze large-scale genotyping data from aboriginal Australians, New Guineans, island Southeast Asians and Indians. We find an ancient association between Australia, New Guinea, and the Mamanwa (a Negrito group from the Philippines), with divergence times for these groups estimated at 36,000 y ago, and supporting the view that these populations represent the descendants of an early "southern route" migration out of Africa, whereas other populations in the region arrived later by a separate dispersal. We also detect a signal indicative of substantial gene flow between the Indian populations and Australia well before European contact, contrary to the prevailing view that there was no contact between Australia and the rest of the world. We estimate this gene flow to have occurred during the Holocene, 4,230 y ago. This is also approximately when changes in tool technology, food processing, and the dingo appear in the Australian archaeological record, suggesting that these may be related to the migration from India.

  4. Grammar Clinical Marker Yields Substantial Heritability for Language Impairments in 16-Year-Old Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Philip S; Rice, Mabel L; Rimfeld, Kaili; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E

    2018-01-22

    There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012). The distribution of scores is markedly skewed negatively, as expected for a potential clinical marker. Low performance on GJ-20 is associated with lower maternal education, reported learning disability (age 7 years), and low scores on language tests administered via the Twins Early Development Study (age 16 years) as well as General Certificate of Secondary Education English and Math examination performance (age 16 years). Liability threshold estimates for the genetic influence on low performance on GJ-20 are substantial, ranging from 36% with a lowest 10% criterion to 74% for a lowest 5% criterion. The heritability of GJ-20 scores, especially at more extreme cutoffs, along with the score distribution and association with other indicators of language impairments, provides additional evidence for the potential value of this measure as a clinical marker of specific language impairment.

  5. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  6. Substantial practice variation exists in the management of childhood nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Susan; Morgan, Catherine J; Bitzan, Martin; Mammen, Cherry; Dart, Allison B; Manns, Braden J; Alexander, R Todd; Erickson, Robin L; Grisaru, Silviu; Wade, Andrew W; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Feber, Janusz; Arora, Steven; Licht, Christoph; Zappitelli, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Practice variation is common for nephrotic syndrome (NS) treatment. A cross-sectional, web-based survey on NS treatment was administered to 58 Canadian pediatric nephrologists with the aim to document existing practice variation and compare practice with the recommendations of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guideline for NS. Of the 58 nephrologists asked to participate in the survey, 40 (69 %) responded. Among these, 62 % prescribed initial daily glucocorticoid (GC) therapy for 6 weeks, 26 % for 4 weeks by 26 %, and 10 % prescribed 'other'. Alternate-day GC was continued for 6 weeks by 63 % of respondents and for >6 and <6 weeks by 32 and 6 %, respectively. For biopsy-confirmed minimal change disease, 65 and 46 % of respondents chose oral cyclophosphamide for frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent phenotypes, respectively; calcineurin inhibitors or mycophenolate were the second most popular choices. Kidney biopsy was 'always' performed by 16, 39, and 97 % of respondents for frequently relapsing, steroid-dependent, and steroid-resistant patients, respectively. Rituximab had been administered by 60 % of respondents; 22, 56, and 72 % reported that they would consider rituximab for frequently relapsing, steroid-dependent, and steroid-resistant patients, respectively. Most notable differences between practice and Guideline recommendations were first presentation GC duration, GC-sparing agent choices in frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent patients, and biopsy practices. There is substantial Canadian practice variation in NS treatment. Assessment of factors driving variation and strategies to implement Guideline recommendations are needed.

  7. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaktala, H.K.; Interrante, C.G.

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide ''substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig

  8. Gait Analysis of Transfemoral Amputees: Errors in Inverse Dynamics Are Substantial and Depend on Prosthetic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Raphael; Branemark, Rickard; Frossard, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative assessments of prostheses performances rely more and more frequently on gait analysis focusing on prosthetic knee joint forces and moments computed by inverse dynamics. However, this method is prone to errors, as demonstrated in comparison with direct measurements of these forces and moments. The magnitude of errors reported in the literature seems to vary depending on prosthetic components. Therefore, the purposes of this study were (A) to quantify and compare the magnitude of errors in knee joint forces and moments obtained with inverse dynamics and direct measurements on ten participants with transfemoral amputation during walking and (B) to investigate if these errors can be characterised for different prosthetic knees. Knee joint forces and moments computed by inverse dynamics presented substantial errors, especially during the swing phase of gait. Indeed, the median errors in percentage of the moment magnitude were 4% and 26% in extension/flexion, 6% and 19% in adduction/abduction as well as 14% and 27% in internal/external rotation during stance and swing phase, respectively. Moreover, errors varied depending on the prosthetic limb fitted with mechanical or microprocessor-controlled knees. This study confirmed that inverse dynamics should be used cautiously while performing gait analysis of amputees. Alternatively, direct measurements of joint forces and moments could be relevant for mechanical characterising of components and alignments of prosthetic limbs.

  9. First decadal lunar results from the Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Grant

    2018-03-01

    A need to gain more confidence in computer model predictions of coming climate change has resulted in greater analysis of the quality of orbital Earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements being used today to constrain, validate, and hence improve such simulations. These studies conclude from time series analysis that for around a quarter of a century, no existing satellite ERB climate data record is of a sufficient standard to partition changes to the Earth from those of un-tracked and changing artificial instrumentation effects. This led to the creation of the Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (MERBE), which instead takes existing decades old climate data to a higher calibration standard using thousands of scans of Earth's Moon. The Terra and Aqua satellite ERB climate records have been completely regenerated using signal-processing improvements, combined with a substantial increase in precision from more comprehensive in-flight spectral characterization techniques. This study now builds on previous Optical Society of America work by describing new Moon measurements derived using accurate analytical mapping of telescope spatial response. That then allows a factor of three reduction in measurement noise along with an order of magnitude increase in the number of retrieved independent lunar results. Given decadal length device longevity and the use of solar and thermal lunar radiance models to normalize the improved ERB results to the International System of Units traceable radiance scale of the "MERBE Watt," the same established environmental time series analysis techniques are applied to MERBE data. They evaluate it to perhaps be of sufficient quality to immediately begin narrowing the largest of climate prediction uncertainties. It also shows that if such Terra/Aqua ERB devices can operate into the 2020s, it could become possible to halve these same uncertainties decades sooner than would be possible with existing or even planned new observing systems.

  10. Interannual and decadal variability and trends in upper ocean temperatures in the North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.; Cayan, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Temperature profiles from the surface to 400 m deployed over the North Pacific Ocean for the 45 years from 1950--1994 are mapped onto a coarse grid each month, allowing trends in the upper ocean temperature to be estimated. Only temperature profiles distributed from 20 degree N-60 degree N are used, these subjected to rigorous scientific quality control. Two parameters are chosen to be representative of the upper ocean thermal structure; i.e., sea surface temperature (SST) and heat storage over the upper 400 m (HS400). Mapping of SST and HS400 is conducted monthly, with optimal interpolation utilizing a priori estimates of the covariance structure of the anomalous fields determined by White. This yields a time sequence of 540 monthly maps for each parameter over this 45-year period. Examining these time sequences for decadal variability and trends finds their magnitude and sign to change substantially as a function of geographical location over the North Pacific Ocean. For example, all along the west coast of North America, both SST and HS400 warmed during the past 45 years. But, in the middle of the North Pacific Ocean, both parameters cooled over this period. The average SST and HS400 over the entire domain from 20 degree-60 degree N did not show a trend. Rather, decadal variability dominated the time sequence, with the 1950's colder than normal, the 1960's near normal, the 1970's warmer than normal, the 1980's colder than normal, and the 1990's warmer than normal. This natural decadal variability obscures any possible anthropogenic warming due to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere over this period

  11. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a) As... in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited...

  12. Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders: A Decade of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E.; Scahill, Lawrence; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This is a review of progress made in the understanding of Tourette syndrome (TS) during the past decade including models of pathogenesis, state-of-the-art assessment techniques, and treatment. Method: Computerized literature searches were conducted under the key words "Tourette syndrome," "Tourette disorder," and "tics." Only references…

  13. Electronic HRM: four decades of research on adoption and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Parry, E.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existence of a number of recent reviews of e-HRM research, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting the adoption and consequences of e-HRM. This paper therefore provides a review of four decades of research in this area with the aim to provide a summary and

  14. Dynamic vehicle routing problems: Three decades and counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Wen, Min; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 70s, much research activity has taken place on the class of dynamic vehicle routing problems (DVRP), with the time period after year 2000 witnessing areal explosion in related papers. Our paper sheds more light into work in this area over more than 3 decades by developing a taxonomy...

  15. A quasi-decadal cycle in Caribbean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2009-07-01

    Climatic variables in the period from 1951 to 2000 are analyzed across the tropics from the East Pacific to Africa. A quasi-decadal mode is isolated using singular value decomposition (SVD) applied to monthly smoothed and detrended rainfall, sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), and 200 hPa zonal (U) wind anomalies. Seven- to 10-year cycles in Caribbean rainfall are revealed as the dominant mode (50% variance) and are found to be related to a mode of tropical variability that is distinct from previously known global signals. Sources of this signal include east Atlantic SST and the northern subtropical ridge, which modulate upwelling off Venezuela. SVD analysis of daily rainfall suggests interaction between annual and quasi-decadal signals, with northern summer convection as a driver. The second mode of Caribbean rainfall variability derives from the east Pacific El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, 21% variance) that is expressed as an east-west dipole of convection across the Caribbean. Composite analysis of rainfall for high and low phases of the quasi-decadal cycle reveals a corresponding signal that extends from the eastern Pacific Ocean across the Caribbean and West Africa to India. The southern Hadley cell spins up during wet phase, and the ITCZ migrates northward. This hemispheric-scale anomaly brings pulses of convection to the Caribbean. Impacts of the quasi-decadal cycle on socioeconomic resources are investigated.

  16. Ignoring the Evidence: Another Decade of Decline for School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Four decades of research indicates that well-staffed, well-stocked, and well-used school libraries are correlated with increases in student achievement. Well-staffed school libraries have qualified teacher-librarians with qualifications in librarianship, digital technologies, and inquiry-based pedagogies. Well-stocked school libraries include…

  17. Media Coverage of International Women's Decade: Feminism and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anne; Davenport, Lucinda

    A study examined changes in the treatment of women's issues and feminism from 1975 to 1985--the United Nations (UN) designated "Women's Decade"--by two nationally circulated newspapers. The purpose was to find out how much and what kind of news was reported during the three UN World conferences for women held in 1975, 1980, and 1985;…

  18. Five decades in the study of natural products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 3 ... Natural products; tylophora alkaloids; carpaine; tiliacorine; ishwarone; azadirachtin A. Abstract. This paper describes the five-decade long fascinating journey taken by Prof. T R Govindachari towards the study of the natural products of India. A variety of ...

  19. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a team of experts to assess the reforms to China's S&T sector — reforms that began in 1985 as an initiative of the State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC) of China. A Decade of ...

  20. Poverty and the American Family: A Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, Kathryn; Kissane, Rebecca Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Because of dramatic levels of economic volatility and massive changes in welfare policies, scholars in this decade worried anew about whether our official poverty measure, adopted in the 1960s, is adequate. Poverty's causes continued to be debated, with demographic factors often pitted against policy and maternal employment changes. Some scholars…

  1. African Women Commuter Traders in Nairobi in the First Decade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates African women commuter trading activities in Nairobi in the first decade after World War One. Its findings derive mainly from a research project carried out in 1989-1996. The major source of data for the study was oral interviews with the women who traded in Nairobi during the years under study, ...

  2. Four decades of conjoined twins at Red Cross Children's Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four decades of conjoined twins at Red Cross Children's Hospital - lessons learned. H Rode, AG Fieggen, RA Brown, S Cywes, MRQ Davies, JP Hewitson, EB Hoffman, LD Jee, J Lawrenson, MD Mann, LS Matthews, AJW Millar, A Numanoglu, JC Peter, J Thomas, H Wainwright ...

  3. Four decades of conjoined twins at Red Cross Children's Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjoined twins represent a rare but fascinating congenital condition, the aetiology of which remains obscure. Over the past four decades, the paediatric surgeons at Red Cross Children's Hospital have been involved in the management of 4;6 pairs of conjoined twins, of which 33 have been symmetrical and 12 ...

  4. Apparel shopping orientation: Two decades of research | Visser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparel shopping orientation: Two decades of research. EM Visser, R du Preez. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  5. A Decade of Change in Australia's DBA Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michelle; Byrne, Cathy; Vocino, Andrea; Sloan, Terry; Pervan, Simon J.; Blackman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Australia through the lens of a changing higher education landscape. The paper reflects on issues raised in a previous analysis of DBA programmes undertaken a decade ago, and highlights persistent challenges and emerging opportunities…

  6. A decade of experience with the European Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Stollt, M.; Vitols, S.

    2013-01-01

    A little more than a decade ago one of the most significant developments in European company law and worker participation occurred: the European Union passed a Regulation and Directive on the European Company (or Societas Europaea, hereafter SE). This legislation is a major innovation in that it

  7. Spatial and decadal variations in satellite-based terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8. Spatial and decadal variations in ... Ayad M Fadhil Yuhu Zhang Kun Jia. Volume 126 Issue 8 December 2017 Article ID 119 ... of Kufa, Najaf 34003, Iraq. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.

  8. Breastfeeding Duration Predicts Greater Maternal Sensitivity over the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study represents the first longitudinal investigation of the potential effects of breastfeeding duration on maternal sensitivity over the following decade. This study also examined whether infant attachment security at 24 months would mediate longitudinal relations between breastfeeding duration and changes in maternal sensitivity over…

  9. Connecting Complex Processes: A Decade of Research on Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines research on immigrant families in the United States from the past decade from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This work has used variations on assimilation and acculturation perspectives. In the case of the assimilation perspectives, the focus has largely been on family formation, whereas research using acculturation…

  10. Progress during the decade of the BSF beam-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Yoshiro; Adachi, Toshikazu; Yano, Yoshiharu; Fujimori, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Naokatsu; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Tahara, Toshihiro.

    1991-07-01

    Since the Booster Synchrotron Utilization Facility (BSF) came into operation in June, 1980, ten years have passed. This report summarizes the development of beam-line hardware and software system during the decade. Especially, the result on radiation protection along the beam-line is satisfactory. (author)

  11. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  12. Participating in the UN Decade of Education for Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Programme (SADC REEP) on participation in the United Nations Decade on Education for Sustainable. Development (UNDESD). Consultations ... was led by the SADC Regional Environmental Education Programme in 2005/2006, assisted by the. Rhodes University ...... (DRC ESD Consultation. Report). Leadership in ESD ...

  13. Gender and leadership styles : A review of the past decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engen, M.L.; Willemsen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    Research on sex differences in leadership styles over the past decade (1987-1999) is reviewed and compared with the results of a meta-analysis of studies of the previous period by Eagly and Johnson (1990). Research on transformational or charismatic leadership is included in this review. As was the

  14. Over the past decades, the Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis has ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Over the past decades, the Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis has supported a large purse-seine fishery in. South Africa. Management of the fishery is compli- cated by large interannual variations in recruitment, a phenomenon common to many pelagic fish species. (Lluch-Belda et al.1989). Understanding this vari- ability is ...

  15. Decadal climate predictions improved by ocean ensemble dispersion filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, C.; Illing, S.; Kröner, I.; Ulbrich, U.; Cubasch, U.

    2017-06-01

    Decadal predictions by Earth system models aim to capture the state and phase of the climate several years in advance. Atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role for such climate forecasts. While short-term weather forecasts represent an initial value problem and long-term climate projections represent a boundary condition problem, the decadal climate prediction falls in-between these two time scales. In recent years, more precise initialization techniques of coupled Earth system models and increased ensemble sizes have improved decadal predictions. However, climate models in general start losing the initialized signal and its predictive skill from one forecast year to the next. Here we show that the climate prediction skill of an Earth system model can be improved by a shift of the ocean state toward the ensemble mean of its individual members at seasonal intervals. We found that this procedure, called ensemble dispersion filter, results in more accurate results than the standard decadal prediction. Global mean and regional temperature, precipitation, and winter cyclone predictions show an increased skill up to 5 years ahead. Furthermore, the novel technique outperforms predictions with larger ensembles and higher resolution. Our results demonstrate how decadal climate predictions benefit from ocean ensemble dispersion filtering toward the ensemble mean.Plain Language SummaryDecadal predictions aim to predict the climate several years in advance. Atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role for such climate forecasts. The ocean memory due to its heat capacity holds big potential skill. In recent years, more precise initialization techniques of coupled Earth system models (incl. atmosphere and ocean) have improved decadal predictions. Ensembles are another important aspect. Applying slightly perturbed predictions to trigger the famous butterfly effect results in an ensemble. Instead of evaluating one prediction, but the whole ensemble with its

  16. Topsoil depth substantially influences the responses to drought of the foliar metabolomes of Mediterranean forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Barbeta, Adrià; Sardans, Jordi; Guenther, Alex; Ogaya, Romà; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-08-01

    Soils provide physical support, water, and nutrients to terrestrial plants. Upper soil layers are crucial for forest dynamics, especially under drought conditions, because many biological processes occur there and provide support, water and nutrients to terrestrial plants. We postulated that tree size and overall plant function manifested in the metabolome composition, the total set of metabolites, were dependent on the depth of upper soil layers and on water availability. We sampled leaves for stoichiometric and metabolomic analyses once per season from differently sized Quercus ilex trees under natural and experimental drought conditions as projected for the coming decades. Different sized trees had different metabolomes and plots with shallower soils had smaller trees. Soil moisture of the upper soil did not explain the tree size and smaller trees did not show higher concentrations of biomarker metabolites related to drought stress. However, the impact of drought treatment on metabolomes was higher in smaller trees in shallower soils. Our results suggested that tree size was more dependent on the depth of the upper soil layers, which indirectly affect the metabolomes of the trees, than on the moisture content of the upper soil layers. Metabolomic profiling of Q. ilex supported the premise that water availability in the upper soil layers was not necessarily correlated with tree size. The higher impact of drought on trees growing in shallower soils nevertheless indicates a higher vulnerability of small trees to the future increase in frequency, intensity, and duration of drought projected for the Mediterranean Basin and other areas. Metabolomics has proven to be an excellent tool detecting significant metabolic changes among differently sized individuals of the same species and it improves our understanding of the connection between plant metabolomes and environmental variables such as soil depth and moisture content.

  17. Pediatric testicular cancer: Two decades of Saudi national data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abomelha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric testicular cancer is exceedingly rare. There are no data available touching Saudi children. The aim of the study is to determine the trends and patterns of testicular cancer among Saudi children over a period of 20 years. The national database of the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR on pediatric testicular cancer over the last two decades was examined including epidemiological and histological patterns. From 1994 to 2013, 82 cases of testicular cancer among Saudi children aged 1–14 years were accumulated at the SCR. The annual percentage change rate was 3.3%. Of all cases, 62% appeared within the first 2 years of life. Seminomas were seen in 39%, nonseminomas in 40.3%, and paratesticular tumors in 20.7%. No gonadal stromal tumors observed. About 91% of the seminomas accrued in the first decade (1994–2003, while all nonseminomas fell in the last decade (2004–2013. The most common subtypes of the nonseminomas were yolk sac tumors and mixed tumors. More than 80% of the paratesticular tumors were rhabdomyosarcomas and lymphomas. The SEER summary stage of seminomas was localized in 56%, regional in 22%, and distant in 16%, while of nonseminomas was 56%, 16%, and 28%, respectively, and no stage improvement over the studied period was noted. No temporal trend in incidence rate was observed. The most affected age group was the first 2 years of life. Noteworthy was the high incidence of seminoma and the low rate of teratomas and stromal tumors, when compared to Western data. Notable was the dominance of the seminomas in the first decade and of the nonseminomas in the second decade. At the time of diagnosis, nonseminomas were more advanced than seminomas. No stage improvement noted over the studied period.

  18. Infective endocarditis epidemiology over five decades: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Slipczuk

    Full Text Available AIMS: To Assess changes in infective endocarditis (IE epidemiology over the last 5 decades. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched the published literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception until December 2011. DATA FROM: Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA were also included. Criteria for inclusion in this systematic review included studies with reported IE microbiology, IE definition, description of population studied, and time frame. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed manuscript quality. One hundred sixty studies (27,083 patients met inclusion criteria. Among hospital-based studies (n=142; 23,606 patients staphylococcal IE percentage increased over time, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS increasing over each of the last 5 decades (p<0.001 and Staphylococcus aureus (SA in the last decade (21% to 30%; p<0.05. Streptococcus viridans (SV and culture negative (CN IE frequency decreased over time (p<0.001, while enterococcal IE increased in the last decade (p<0.01. Patient age and male predominance increased over time as well. In subgroup analysis, SA frequency increased in North America, but not the rest of the world. This was due, in part, to an increase in intravenous drug abuse IE in North America (p<0.001. Among population-based studies (n=18; 3,477 patients no significant changes were found. CONCLUSION: Important changes occurred in IE epidemiology over the last half-century, especially in the last decade. Staphylococcal and enterococcal IE percentage increased while SV and CN IE decreased. Moreover, mean age at diagnosis increased together with male:female ratio. These changes should be considered at the time of decision-making in treatment of and prophylaxis for IE.

  19. One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially Impairs Vascular Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Liu, Jiangtao; Narayan, Shilpa; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Le, Stephenie; Danforth, Olivia M; Pinnamaneni, Kranthi; Rodriguez, Hilda J; Luu, Emmy; Sievers, Richard E; Schick, Suzaynn F; Glantz, Stanton A; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-07-27

    Despite public awareness that tobacco secondhand smoke (SHS) is harmful, many people still assume that marijuana SHS is benign. Debates about whether smoke-free laws should include marijuana are becoming increasingly widespread as marijuana is legalized and the cannabis industry grows. Lack of evidence for marijuana SHS causing acute cardiovascular harm is frequently mistaken for evidence that it is harmless, despite chemical and physical similarity between marijuana and tobacco smoke. We investigated whether brief exposure to marijuana SHS causes acute vascular endothelial dysfunction. We measured endothelial function as femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in rats before and after exposure to marijuana SHS at levels similar to real-world tobacco SHS conditions. One minute of exposure to marijuana SHS impaired FMD to a comparable extent as impairment from equal concentrations of tobacco SHS, but recovery was considerably slower for marijuana. Exposure to marijuana SHS directly caused cannabinoid-independent vasodilation that subsided within 25 minutes, whereas FMD remained impaired for at least 90 minutes. Impairment occurred even when marijuana lacked cannabinoids and rolling paper was omitted. Endothelium-independent vasodilation by nitroglycerin administration was not impaired. FMD was not impaired by exposure to chamber air. One minute of exposure to marijuana SHS substantially impairs endothelial function in rats for at least 90 minutes, considerably longer than comparable impairment by tobacco SHS. Impairment of FMD does not require cannabinoids, nicotine, or rolling paper smoke. Our findings in rats suggest that SHS can exert similar adverse cardiovascular effects regardless of whether it is from tobacco or marijuana. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Fruit peel polyphenols demonstrate substantial anti-tumour effects in the model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Kapinová, Andrea; Kello, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Mahmood, Silvia; Murin, Radovan; Viera, Tischlerová; Mojžiš, Ján; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kassayová, Monika; Bojková, Bianka; Stollárová, Nadežda; Dobrota, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with cancer; thus, it is proposed that an extract of phytochemicals as present in whole fruits, vegetables, or grains may have anti-carcinogenic properties. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of fruit peel polyphenols (Flavin7) in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Lyophilized substance of Flavin7 (F7) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration, and mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis and proliferation after F7 treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were performed. High-dose F7 suppressed tumour frequency by 58 % (P 0.05) in comparison with the control rats, whereas lower dose of F7 was less effective. Histopathological analysis of tumours showed significant decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas after high-dose F7 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat carcinoma cells in vivo found a significant increase in caspase-3 expression and significant decrease in Bcl-2, Ki67, and VEGFR-2 expression in the high-dose group. Both doses demonstrated significant positive effects on plasma lipid metabolism in rats. F7 significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in vitro in MTT assay by dose- and time-dependent manner compared to control. F7 prevented cell cycle progression by significant enrichment in G1 cell populations. Incubation with F7 showed significant increase in the percentage of annexin V-/PI-positive MCF-7 cells and DNA fragmentation. Our results reveal a substantial tumour-suppressive effect of F7 in the breast cancer model. We propose that the effects of phytochemicals present in this fruit extract are responsible for observed potent anti-cancer activities.

  1. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine contains Substantial and Unexpected Amounts of Defective Viral Genomic RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Philip S; Easton, Andrew J; Dimmock, Nigel J

    2017-09-21

    The live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist ® was withdrawn in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its failure to provide adequate protective immunity during 2013-2016. The vaccine uses attenuated core type A and type B viruses, reconfigured each year to express the two major surface antigens of the currently circulating viruses. Here Fluenz™ Tetra, the European version of this vaccine, was examined directly for defective-interfering (DI) viral RNAs. DI RNAs are deleted versions of the infectious virus genome, and have powerful biological properties including attenuation of infection, reduction of infectious virus yield, and stimulation of some immune responses. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by cloning and sequencing showed that Fluenz™ vaccine contains unexpected and substantial amounts of DI RNA arising from both its influenza A and influenza B components, with 87 different DI RNA sequences identified. Flu A DI RNAs from segment 3 replaced the majority of the genomic full-length segment 3, thus compromising its infectivity. DI RNAs arise during vaccine production and non-infectious DI virus replaces infectious virus pro rata so that fewer doses of the vaccine can be made. Instead the vaccine carries a large amount of non-infectious but biologically active DI virus. The presence of DI RNAs could significantly reduce the multiplication in the respiratory tract of the vaccine leading to reduced immunizing efficacy and could also stimulate the host antiviral responses, further depressing vaccine multiplication. The role of DI viruses in the performance of this and other vaccines requires further investigation.

  2. USING SPLINE FUNCTIONS FOR THE SUBSTANTIATION OF TAX POLICIES BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otgon Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to approach innovative financial instruments for the management of public resources. In the category of these innovative tools have been included polynomial spline functions used for budgetary sizing in the substantiating of fiscal and budgetary policies. In order to use polynomial spline functions there have been made a number of steps consisted in the establishment of nodes, the calculation of specific coefficients corresponding to the spline functions, development and determination of errors of approximation. Also in this paper was done extrapolation of series of property tax data using polynomial spline functions of order I. For spline impelementation were taken two series of data, one reffering to property tax as a resultative variable and the second one reffering to building tax, resulting a correlation indicator R=0,95. Moreover the calculation of spline functions are easy to solve and due to small errors of approximation have a great power of predictibility, much better than using ordinary least squares method. In order to realise the research there have been used as methods of research several steps, namely observation, series of data construction and processing the data with spline functions. The data construction is a daily series gathered from the budget account, reffering to building tax and property tax. The added value of this paper is given by the possibility of avoiding deficits by using spline functions as innovative instruments in the publlic finance, the original contribution is made by the average of splines resulted from the series of data. The research results lead to conclusion that the polynomial spline functions are recommended to form the elaboration of fiscal and budgetary policies, due to relatively small errors obtained in the extrapolation of economic processes and phenomena. Future research directions are taking in consideration to study the polynomial spline functions of second-order, third

  3. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3 emission factor (EF by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method. Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002. More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  4. Substantiation of strength of TVSA-ALPHA fuel assembly under dynamic seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutnov, A.; Kiselev, A.; Kiselev, A.; Krutko, E.; Kiselev, I.; Samoilov, O.; Kaydalov, V.

    2009-01-01

    A special place in the substantiation of the safe operation of fuel assemblies is the assessment their operating capability under seismic loads, leading to short-term (several seconds or tens of seconds) the dynamic effects on the reactor core. The level of acceleration of various elements of the reactor installation can be higher than 1,5 g (g - acceleration of gravity) and depends on the height of these elements relatively the ground, which movement causes an earthquake. This dynamic load cause significant deformation of the active zones design element, in particular of the fuel assemblies (FA), which could lead to a contact (or impact) interaction between them. The report presents the results of studies of stress-strain state of FA of TVSA-ALPHA type under the influence of seismic loads of the 8th level on Richter scale using standard approach. According to a normative approach the natural frequencies and modes of FA are calculated in the preliminary stage. The obtained results are conservative from the point of view that in the real FA design the most loaded SG in the middle of the fuel assemblies are made in a combined with mixing grid variant, which are joint by a common rim. This increases the overall carrying capacity of SG as compared with the calculation SG model. It is also necessary to bear in mind that the dynamic (impact) loading the basic mechanical properties of the material may have a significant difference from static (standard) values. This refers in particular to the yield limit, the value of which can be several times higher than specified in the calculation

  5. Biological substantiation of antipsychotic-associated pneumonia: Systematic literature review and computational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Janet; Calabró, Marco; Garcia-Serna, Ricard; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Crisafulli, Concetta; Mestres, Jordi; Trifirò', Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Antipsychotic (AP) safety has been widely investigated. However, mechanisms underlying AP-associated pneumonia are not well-defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the known mechanisms of AP-associated pneumonia through a systematic literature review, confirm these mechanisms using an independent data source on drug targets and attempt to identify novel AP drug targets potentially linked to pneumonia. A search was conducted in Medline and Web of Science to identify studies exploring the association between pneumonia and antipsychotic use, from which information on hypothesized mechanism of action was extracted. All studies had to be in English and had to concern AP use as an intervention in persons of any age and for any indication, provided that the outcome was pneumonia. Information on the study design, population, exposure, outcome, risk estimate and mechanism of action was tabulated. Public repositories of pharmacology and drug safety data were used to identify the receptor binding profile and AP safety events. Cytoscape was then used to map biological pathways that could link AP targets and off-targets to pneumonia. The literature search yielded 200 articles; 41 were included in the review. Thirty studies reported a hypothesized mechanism of action, most commonly activation/inhibition of cholinergic, histaminergic and dopaminergic receptors. In vitro pharmacology data confirmed receptor affinities identified in the literature review. Two targets, thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) and platelet activating factor receptor (PTAFR) were found to be novel AP target receptors potentially associated with pneumonia. Biological pathways constructed using Cytoscape identified plausible biological links potentially leading to pneumonia downstream of TBXA2R and PTAFR. Innovative approaches for biological substantiation of drug-adverse event associations may strengthen evidence on drug safety profiles and help to tailor pharmacological therapies to patient risk

  6. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological substantiation for acute immobilization stress-related disorders of adaptation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, Mykhailo M; Vynnyk, Nataliia I

    Nowadays, an individual is being constantly accompanied by stresses in his/her everyday life. Stress reactions, produced in the process of evolution, have become the organisms' response to emergency action or pathological factors and are the important link in adaptation process. However, the adverse course of stress reaction can lead to derangement of the adaptation mechanisms in the body and become the element of the pathogenesis of various diseases. The study was aimed at morphological substantiation of derangement of adaptation mechanisms in white Wistar rats caused by the acute immobilization stress. 40 Wistar white male rats of 240-260 g body weight aged 8-10 months were involved into study. 20 laboratory animals were assigned to the main group and the rest 20 rats formed the control (II) group. Experimental stress model was simulated by immobilization of rats, lying supine, for 6 hours. Morphological examination of heart, lungs and kidneys was carried out after animals' decapitation, which proved the derangement of rats' adaptation mechanisms caused by the acute immobilization stress. It has been established that six-hour immobility of rats, lying in the supine position, led to the development of destructive phenomena, hemorrhagic lesions and impaired hemomicrocirculation. Microscopically, the acute immobilization stress causes significant subendocardial hemorrhages, plethora of vessels of hemomicrocirculatory flow with dysdiemorrhysis, myocardial intersticium edema in the heart. Histologically, immobilization-induced trauma causes significant hemodynamic disorders, spasm of arterioles and considerable venous hyperemia, concomitant with microthrombosis in kidneys; at the same time dystrophic lesions and desquamation of epithelium of renal tubules has been observed in renal corpuscles. The abovementioned structural changes can contribute to origination and development of multiple lesions, demonstrating the morphologically grounded role of the acute

  8. Substantial equivalence analysis in fruits from three Theobroma species through chemical composition and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mora, Walter; Jorrin-Novo, Jesús V; Melgarejo, Luz Marina

    2018-02-01

    Substantial equivalence studies were performed in three Theobroma spp., cacao, bicolor and grandiflorum through chemical composition analysis and protein profiling of fruit (pulp juice and seeds). Principal component analysis of sugar, organic acid, and phenol content in pulp juice revealed equivalence among the three species, with differences in some of the compounds that may result in different organoleptic properties. Proteins were extracted from seeds and pulp juice, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis and major spots subjected to mass spectrometry analysis and identification. The protein profile, as revealed by principal component analysis, was variable among the three species in both seed and pulp, with qualitative and quantitative differences in some of protein species. The functional grouping of the identified proteins correlated with the biological role of each organ. Some of the identified proteins are of interest, being minimally discussed, including vicilin, a protease inhibitor, and a flavonol synthase/flavanone 3-hydroxylase. Theobroma grandiflorum and Theobroma bicolor are endemic Amazonian plants that are poorly traded at the local level. As close relatives of Theobroma cacao, they may provide a good alternative for human consumption and industrial purposes. In this regard, we performed equivalence studies by conducting a comparative biochemical and proteomics analysis of the fruit, pulp juice and seeds of these three species. The results indicated equivalent chemical compositions and variable protein profiles with some differences in the content of the specific compounds or protein species that may result in variable organoleptic properties between the species and can be exploited for traceability purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kirkpatrick

    Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.

  10. NSRD-06. Computational Capability to Substantiate DOE-HDBK-3010 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David L.Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Alexander L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Safety basis analysts throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex rely heavily on the information provided in the DOE Hand book, DOE-HDBK-3010, Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Resp irable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities , to determine source terms. In calcula ting source terms, analysts tend to use the DOE Handbook's bounding values on airbor ne release fractions (ARFs) and respirable fractions (RFs) for various cat egories of insults (representing potential accident release categories). This is typica lly due to both time constraints and the avoidance of regulatory critique. Unfort unately, these bounding ARFs/RFs represent extremely conservative values. Moreover, th ey were derived from very limited small- scale table-top and bench/labo ratory experiments and/or fr om engineered judgment. Thus the basis for the data may not be re presentative to the actual unique accident conditions and configura tions being evaluated. The goal of this res earch is to develop a more ac curate method to identify bounding values for the DOE Handbook using the st ate-of-art multi-physics-based high performance computer codes. This enable s us to better understand the fundamental physics and phenomena associated with the ty pes of accidents for the data described in it. This research has examined two of the DOE Handbook's liquid fire experiments to substantiate the airborne release frac tion data. We found th at additional physical phenomena (i.e., resuspension) need to be included to derive bounding values. For the specific cases of solid powder under pre ssurized condition and mechanical insult conditions the codes demonstrated that we can simulate the phenomena. This work thus provides a low-cost method to establis h physics-justified sa fety bounds by taking into account specific geometri es and conditions that may not have been previously measured and/or are too costly to do so.

  11. National South African HIV prevalence estimates robust despite substantial test non-participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South African (SA national HIV seroprevalence estimates are of crucial policy relevance in the country, and for the worldwide HIV response. However, the most recent nationally representative HIV test survey in 2012 had 22% test non-participation, leaving the potential for substantial bias in current seroprevalence estimates, even after controlling for selection on observed factors. Objective. To re-estimate national HIV prevalence in SA, controlling for bias due to selection on both observed and unobserved factors in the 2012 SA National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. Methods. We jointly estimated regression models for consent to test and HIV status in a Heckman-type bivariate probit framework. As selection variable, we used assigned interviewer identity, a variable known to predict consent but highly unlikely to be associated with interviewees’ HIV status. From these models, we estimated the HIV status of interviewed participants who did not test. Results. Of 26 710 interviewed participants who were invited to test for HIV, 21.3% of females and 24.3% of males declined. Interviewer identity was strongly correlated with consent to test for HIV; declining a test was weakly associated with HIV serostatus. Our HIV prevalence estimates were not significantly different from those using standard methods to control for bias due to selection on observed factors: 15.1% (95% confidence interval (CI 12.1 - 18.6 v. 14.5% (95% CI 12.8 - 16.3 for 15 - 49-year-old males; 23.3% (95% CI 21.7 - 25.8 v. 23.2% (95% CI 21.3 - 25.1 for 15 - 49-year-old females. Conclusion. The most recent SA HIV prevalence estimates are robust under the strongest available test for selection bias due to missing data. Our findings support the reliability of inferences drawn from such data.

  12. Biological substantiation of antipsychotic-associated pneumonia: Systematic literature review and computational analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotic (AP) safety has been widely investigated. However, mechanisms underlying AP-associated pneumonia are not well-defined. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the known mechanisms of AP-associated pneumonia through a systematic literature review, confirm these mechanisms using an independent data source on drug targets and attempt to identify novel AP drug targets potentially linked to pneumonia. Methods A search was conducted in Medline and Web of Science to identify studies exploring the association between pneumonia and antipsychotic use, from which information on hypothesized mechanism of action was extracted. All studies had to be in English and had to concern AP use as an intervention in persons of any age and for any indication, provided that the outcome was pneumonia. Information on the study design, population, exposure, outcome, risk estimate and mechanism of action was tabulated. Public repositories of pharmacology and drug safety data were used to identify the receptor binding profile and AP safety events. Cytoscape was then used to map biological pathways that could link AP targets and off-targets to pneumonia. Results The literature search yielded 200 articles; 41 were included in the review. Thirty studies reported a hypothesized mechanism of action, most commonly activation/inhibition of cholinergic, histaminergic and dopaminergic receptors. In vitro pharmacology data confirmed receptor affinities identified in the literature review. Two targets, thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) and platelet activating factor receptor (PTAFR) were found to be novel AP target receptors potentially associated with pneumonia. Biological pathways constructed using Cytoscape identified plausible biological links potentially leading to pneumonia downstream of TBXA2R and PTAFR. Conclusion Innovative approaches for biological substantiation of drug-adverse event associations may strengthen evidence on drug safety profiles and help to tailor

  13. Trial type mixing substantially reduces the response set effect in the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasshim, Nabil; Parris, Benjamin A

    2017-03-20

    The response set effect refers to the finding that an irrelevant incongruent colour-word produces greater interference when it is one of the response options (referred to as a response set trial), compared to when it is not (a non-response set trial). Despite being a key effect for models of selective attention, the magnitude of the effect varies considerably across studies. We report two within-subjects experiments that tested the hypothesis that presentation format modulates the magnitude of the response set effect. Trial types (e.g. response set, non-response set, neutral) were either presented in separate blocks (pure) or in blocks containing trials from all conditions presented randomly (mixed). In the first experiment we show that the response set effect is substantially reduced in the mixed block context as a result of a decrease in RTs to response set trials. By demonstrating the modulation of the response set effect under conditions of trial type mixing we present evidence that is difficult for models of the effect based on strategic, top-down biasing of attention to explain. In a second experiment we tested a stimulus-driven account of the response set effect by manipulating the number of colour-words that make up the non-response set of distractors. The results show that the greater the number of non-response set colour concepts, the smaller the response set effect. Alternative accounts of the data and its implications for research debating the automaticity of reading are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

  15. Quality of life after burns in childhood (5-15 years): children experience substantial problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baar, M E; Polinder, S; Essink-Bot, M L; van Loey, N E E; Oen, I M M H; Dokter, J; Boxma, H; van Beeck, E F

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to assess prevalence and correlates related to sub optimal outcome after pediatric burns and to make a comparison with pediatric injuries not related to burns. We conducted a cross-sectional study on quality of life (QOL) after burns in a sample (n=138; median 24 months post-burn) of Dutch and Flemish children (5-15 years) with an admission to a burn center. QOL was assessed with the Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ). The generic EuroQol-5D was used to allow for a comparison with children after injuries not related to burns. More than half of the children had long-term limitations. According to the BOQ, children frequently (>50%) experienced sub optimal functioning on 5 out of 12 dimensions, concerning 'appearance', 'parental concern', 'itch', 'emotional health' and 'satisfaction with current state'. Children with a high total burned surface area (TBSA ≥10%) showed significantly more sub optimal functioning on 'upper extremity function' (OR=5.3; ≥20% TBSA), 'appearance' (OR=5.5; ≥10-20% TBSA), 'satisfaction with current state' (OR=3.4; ≥10-20% TBSA) and 'parental concern' (OR=3.4; ≥10-20% TBSA), compared to children with less than 10% TBSA. Burn victims at 9 months post-injury appeared to be worse off at several health dimensions. After 24 months generic quality of life of in pediatric burns was more comparable to pediatric injuries not related to burns. Children after burns experience substantial problems, mainly on itch and appearance and several psychosocial dimensions. More extensive burns are related to sub optimal functioning. These problems are in part specific for burns and not picked up by generic measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in upper gastrointestinal diagnosis over four decades in Lusaka, Zambia: a retrospective analysis of endoscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Soko, Rose; Kawimbe, Boniface; Amadi, Beatrice; Zulu, Isaac; Nzaisenga, Jean-Baptiste; Banda, Themba; Mumbwe, Chipasha; Phiri, Evans; Munkonge, Philip; Kelly, Paul

    2015-10-06

    There a shortage of robust information about profiles of gastrointestinal disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The endoscopy unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka has been running without interruption since 1977 and this 38-year record is largely intact. We report an analysis of endoscopic findings over this period. Written endoscopy records from 29th September 1977 to 16th December 2014 were recovered, computerised, coded by two experienced endoscopists and analysed. Temporal trends were analysed using tables, graphs, and unconditional logistic regression, with age, sex of patient, decade, and endoscopist as independent variables to adjust for inter-observer variation. Sixteen thousand nine hundred fifty-three records were identified and analysed. Diagnosis of gastric ulcer rose by 22 %, and that of duodenal ulcer fell by 14 % per decade. Endoscopically diagnosed oesophageal cancer increased by 32 % per decade, but gastric cancer rose only in patients under 60 years of age (21 % per decade). Oesophageal varices were the commonest finding in patients presenting with haematemesis, increasing by 14 % per decade in that patient group. Two HIV-related diagnoses, oesophageal candidiasis and Kaposi's sarcoma, rose from almost zero to very high levels in the 1990s but fell substantially after 2005 when anti-retroviral therapy became widely available. This useful dataset suggests that there are important trends in some endoscopic findings over four decades. These trends are not explained by inter-observer variation. Reasons for the divergent trends in incidence of peptic ulceration and apparent trends in diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal cancers merit further exploration.

  17. A decade of sustainability reporting: developments and significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the publication of the first separate environmental reports in 1989, the number of companies that has started to publish information on its environmental, social or sustainability policies and/or impacts has increased substantially. This article gives an overview of worldwide trends in the

  18. Predictive value of inflammatory factors on contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients who underwent an emergency percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Qiu, Hong; Hu, Xiaoying; Luo, Tong; Gao, Xiaojin; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Yuan; Qiao, Shubin; Yang, Yuejin; Gao, Runlin

    2017-09-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the most serious complications in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially in those with acute coronary syndrome. It has been shown that inflammation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of CI-AKI. Inflammatory factors may play a predominant role in the prediction of CI-AKI in patients who undergo emergency PCI. Patients who underwent emergency PCI from 2013 to 2015 were consecutively enrolled and were divided into CI-AKI and non-CI-AKI groups. Logistic analysis was used to identify the risk factors of CI-AKI. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the area under the curve (AUC) and to establish the optimal cutoff. A total of 1061 patients were included, and the CI-AKI rate was 5.47% (58/1061). Logistic analysis showed that the white blood cell (WBC) count (odds ratio [OR]: 1.103, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.018-1.195, P = 0.016), neutrophil (N) count (OR: 1.134, 95% CI: 1.045-1.232, P = 0.003), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (OR: 1.105, 95% CI: 1.044-1.169, P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (OR: 1.006, 95% CI: 1.001-1.011, P = 0.020), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (OR: 1.099, 95% CI: 1.020-1.184, P = 0.013), and big endothelin-1 (ET-1) level (OR: 4.030, 95% CI: 1.989-8.165, P < 0.001) were all significant predictors for CI-AKI, as was the left ventricular ejection fraction and diuretic administration. The AUC of the big ET-1 level was the highest (0.793, 95% CI: 0.733-0.853), followed by the NLR (0.708, 95% CI: 0.641-0.774), hs-CRP level (0.705, 95% CI: 0.627-0.782), CRP level (0.684, 95% CI: 0.607-0.761), N count (0.655, 95% CI: 0.584-0.726), WBC count (0.620, 95% CI: 0.544-0.695), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0.611, 95% CI: 0.527-0.695). The WBC count, N count, NLR, CRP level, hs-CRP level, and big ET-1 level are all associated with an increased risk of CI-AKI, and among which, the

  19. PATHOGENESIS OF OSTEOARTHRITIS AND SUBSTANTIATION OF THE USE OF STRONTIUM RANELATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mikhailovna Zaitseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common diseases, pain and joint dysfunction being its main symptoms. Although OA is a progressive disease causing disability, rapid progression is observed only in some patients. According to the data obtained by different authors, the progressive course of gonarthrosis is typical of 34–55% patients, which is likely to be attributed to variability of the risk factors of disease progression that every single patient has. As the reasons behind OA progression have been studied more thoroughly, the notion of the disease pathogenesis has recently changed. While articular cartilage lesion was considered to be the main reason and the joint space narrowing and concomitant changes in the subchondral bone (SCB were regarded as a secondary process SCB is now believed to play the initiating role in disease evolution. It was found that acceleration of metabolic processes in SCB in OA patients causes incomplete mineralization of bone and reduces its biomechanical properties. These data initiated the search for new approaches to therapy for OA. A large number of medications that are potentially able to inhibit disease progression are being actively studied. Special attention is paid to the agents affecting the processes of bone tissue remodeling. In addition to bisphosphonates and calcitonin (whose effectiveness in treating OA has been studied over the past decades, much attention has recently been paid to strontium derivatives, in particular, to strontium ranelate (SR. It has been proved that SR stimulates preosteoblast replication, osteoblast differentiation, type 1 collagen synthesis, and mineralization of bone matrix. Meanwhile, SR inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity, resulting in the reduction of SCB resorption, which is a potentially significant effect in OA therapy. In addition to its effect on SCB, SR can influence the bone tissue. It wasfound during the studies that SR reliably enhances

  20. Holocene Multi-Decadal to Millennial-Scale Hydrologic Variability on the South American Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, S. C.; Baker, P. A.; Ekdahl, E.; Burns, S.

    2006-12-01

    On orbital timescales, lacustrine sediment records in the tropical central Andes show massive changes in lake level due to mechanisms related to global-scale drivers, varying at precessional timescales. Here we use stable isotopic and diatom records from two lakes in the Lake Titicaca drainage basin to reconstruct multi- decadal to millennial scale precipitation variability during the last 7000 to 8000 years. The records are tightly coupled at multi-decadal to millennial scales with each other and with lake-level fluctuations in Lake Titicaca, indicating that the lakes are recording a regional climate signal. A quantitative reconstruction of precipitation from stable isotopic data indicates that the central Andes underwent significant wet to dry alternations at multi- centennial frequencies with an amplitude of 30 to 40% of total precipitation. A strong millennial-scale component, similar in duration to periods of increased ice rafted debris flux in the North Atlantic, is observed in both lake records, suggesting that tropical North Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) variability may partly control regional precipitation. No clear relationship is evident between these records and the inferred ENSO history from Lago Pallcacocha in the northern tropical Andes. In the instrumental period, regional precipitation variability on inter-annual timescales is clearly influenced by Pacific modes; for example, most El Ninos produce dry and warm conditions in this part of the central Andes. However, on longer timescales, the control of tropical Pacific modes is less clear. Our reconstructions suggest that the cold intervals of the Holocene Bond events are periods of increased precipitation in the central Andes, thus indicating an anti-phasing of precipitation variation in the southern tropics of South America relative to the Northern Hemisphere monsoon region.

  1. DECADES Tools. User's manual for version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Comprehensive comparative assessment studies of electricity options and strategies rely upon methodological approaches integrating technical, economic and human health, environmental and social aspects, and on comprehensive, reliable and up-to-date information covering all relevant characteristics of the energy chains for electricity generation. Often, however, the information available for national or regional studies cannot be directly compared or adapted to new conditions because it has been collected in different formats or is based on different assumptions. Some countries, particularly developing countries, lack sufficient resources to explore the benefits of applying new technologies and to carry out comprehensive comparative assessments of different energy sources. The inter-agency joint project on databases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation, in short DECADES, was established at the beginning of 1993, when nine international organizations (EC, ESCAP, IAEA, IIASA, IBRD, OECD/NEA, OPEC, UNIDO and WMO) agreed to join their efforts towards a common objective of enhancing the capabilities for comparative assessment of different energy sources in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. One of the major achievements of the project is that an integrated software package for use on personal computers (PCs), called DECADES Tools, was developed to provide senior analysts and energy planners with an easy to use tool for carrying out decision support studies for the power sector. These tools consist of: several databases providing a comprehensive, harmonized set of technical, economic and environmental data for energy chains that use fossil fuels, nuclear power and, renewable energy sources for electricity generation; a data management system which provides user friendly access to the DECADES databases; an analytical software designed to access the information stored in the

  2. Decadal variability of surface solar radiation over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Observations show that national average surface solar radiation (Rs) decreased by -8.0 W m-2 per decade from 1960 to 1990 and sharply increased from 1990 to 1993. However, none of the state-of-the-art climate models can reproduce such decrease/increase of Rs. This study shows that Rs observations over China have significant inhomogeneity. Before 1989, Rs was calculated as a sum of direct (Rsdir) and diffuse (Rsdif) solar radiation observations measured by pyrheliometers and shaded pyranometers separately. Due to technical limitations and irregular calibration, pyranometers before 1990 had a strong sensitivity drift problem, which introduced crucial spurious decreasing trends into Rsdif and Rs data. From 1990 to 1993, instruments and measurement methods were replaced and measuring stations were restructured in China, which resulted in an abrupt increase in the observed Rs. Rs calculated from Sunshine duration (SunDu) provide a reliable reference in assessing decadal variability of Rs. SunDu derived Rs have no sensitivity drift problem because of its daily changed recording material. SunDu-derived Rs averaged over China decreased by -2.9 W m-2 per decade from 1961 to 1990, and had a negligible trend afterward. During the period of 1994-2012 when Rs observations were free of inhomogeneity mentioned above, the observed and SunDu-derived Rs consistently show a negligible trend, being less than 0.1 W m-2 per decade. These trends can be reproduced by high-quality CMIP5 Earth System Models (ESM). This level of agreement is due to the incorporation of a near real emission inventory of atmospheric aerosols by CMIP5 ESMs. Rs from ERA-Interim has a good agreement with SunDu-derived Rs. However, ERA-interim does not allow aerosol loading to change annually. ERA-Interim Rs shows an unreliable increasing trend of 1.9 W m-2 per decade from 1990 to 2013 because it does not include the impact of recent increased atmospheric aerosols over China. GEWEX Rs calculated from ISCCP cloud

  3. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@dent.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Masahiro [Department of Aging and Geriatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masato [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  4. Substantially improved pharmacokinetics of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase by fusion to human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierson Janice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human butyrylcholinesterase (huBChE has been shown to be an effective antidote against multiple LD50 of organophosphorus compounds. A prerequisite for such use of huBChE is a prolonged circulatory half-life. This study was undertaken to produce recombinant huBChE fused to human serum albumin (hSA and characterize the fusion protein. Results Secretion level of the fusion protein produced in vitro in BHK cells was ~30 mg/liter. Transgenic mice and goats generated with the fusion constructs expressed in their milk a bioactive protein at concentrations of 0.04–1.1 g/liter. BChE activity gel staining and a size exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC revealed that the fusion protein consisted of predominant dimers and some monomers. The protein was confirmed to have expected molecular mass of ~150 kDa by Western blot. The purified fusion protein produced in vitro was injected intravenously into juvenile pigs for pharmacokinetic study. Analysis of a series of blood samples using the Ellman assay revealed a substantial enhancement of the plasma half-life of the fusion protein (~32 h when compared with a transgenically produced huBChE preparation containing >70% tetramer (~3 h. In vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition experiments indicated that the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic mice had similar inhibition characteristics compared to human plasma BChE against the nerve agents tested. Conclusion Both the pharmacokinetic study and the in vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition assay suggested that a fusion protein retaining both properties of huBChE and hSA is produced in vitro and in vivo. The production of the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic goats provided further evidence that sufficient quantities of BChE/hSA can be produced to serve as a cost-effective and reliable source of BChE for prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment.

  5. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  6. Evidence that global evapotranspiration makes a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric temperature slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, L. Mark W.; Ball, David A.

    2018-02-01

    The difference between the time series trend for temperature expected from the increasing level of atmospheric CO2 and that for the (more slowly rising) observed temperature has been termed the global surface temperature slowdown. In this paper, we characterise the single time series made from the subtraction of these two time series as the `global surface temperature gap'. We also develop an analogous atmospheric CO2 gap series from the difference between the level of CO2 and first-difference CO2 (that is, the change in CO2 from one period to the next). This paper provides three further pieces of evidence concerning the global surface temperature slowdown. First, we find that the present size of both the global surface temperature gap and the CO2 gap is unprecedented over a period starting at least as far back as the 1860s. Second, ARDL and Granger causality analyses involving the global surface temperature gap against the major candidate physical drivers of the ocean heat sink and biosphere evapotranspiration are conducted. In each case where ocean heat data was available, it was significant in the models: however, evapotranspiration, or its argued surrogate precipitation, also remained significant in the models alongside ocean heat. In terms of relative scale, the standardised regression coefficient for evapotranspiration was repeatedly of the same order of magnitude as—typically as much as half that for—ocean heat. The foregoing is evidence that, alongside the ocean heat sink, evapotranspiration is also likely to be making a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric temperature outcome. Third, there is evidence that both the ocean heat sink and the evapotranspiration process might be able to continue into the future to keep the temperature lower than the level-of-CO2 models would suggest. It is shown that this means there can be benefit in using the first-difference CO2 to temperature relationship shown in Leggett and Ball (Atmos Chem Phys 15

  7. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. ► Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  8. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  9. Clinical and neurophysiological study of peroneal nerve mononeuropathy after substantial weight loss in patients suffering from major depressive and schizophrenic disorder: Suggestions on patients' management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koulouris George C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroneal nerve is susceptible to injuries due to its anatomical course. Excessive weight loss, which reduces the fatty cushion protecting the nerve, is considered a common underlying cause of peroneal palsy. Other predisposing factors, such as prolonged postures, traumas of the region or concomitant pathologies (for example diabetes mellitus contribute to the nerve damage. This study aims to reveal the multiple predisposing factors of peroneal nerve mononeuropathy after substantial weight loss that coexist in psychiatric patients and to make suggestions on their management. Methods Nine psychiatric inpatients, major depressive or schizophrenic, with foot drop underwent a complete clinical neurological and neurophysiological examination. All had excessive weight loss, which was completed in a short period of time and had not resulted from a well-balanced low-calorie diet, but was due to their psychiatric illness. Data regarding predisposing factors to peroneal nerve mononeuropathy were gathered, such as habitual leg crossing, squatting or other prolonged postures. Results The clinical examination and the neurophysiological evaluation in all patients were indicative of a focal lesion of the peroneal nerve at the fibular head. Conclusion Patients with major depressive and schizophrenic disorders gather multiple predisposing factors to peroneal palsy, adequate to classify them at a high risk group. The better focus of the attendant medical and nursing staff on this condition, the early clinical and neurophysiologic evaluation and surgical interventions may enable an improved management and prognosis of these patients.

  10. A Standardized Evaluation System for Decadal Climate Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, C.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    The evaluation of decadal prediction systems is a scientific challenge as well as a technical challenge in the climate research. The major project MiKlip (www.fona-miklip.de) for medium-term climate prediction funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) has the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal forecasts on climate and weather. The model system to be developed will be novel in several aspects, with great challenges for the methodology development. This concerns especially the determination of the initial conditions, the inclusion into the model of processes relevant to decadal predictions, the increase of the spatial resolution through regionalisation, the improvement or adjustment of statistical post-processing, and finally the synthesis and validation of the entire model system. Therefore, a standardized evaluation system will be part of the MiKlip system to validate it - developed by the project 'Integrated data and evaluation system for decadal scale prediction' (INTEGRATION). The presentation gives an overview of the different linkages of such a project, shows the different development stages and gives an outlook for users and possible end users in climate service. The technical interface combines all projects inside of MiKlip and invites them to participate in a common evaluation system. The system design and the validation strategy from a standalone tool in the beginning to a user friendly web based system using GRID technologies to an integrated part of the operational MiKlip system for industry and society will give the opportunity to enhance the MiKlip strategy. First results of different possibilities of such a system will be shown to present the scientific background through Taylor diagrams, ensemble skill scores and e.g. climatological means to show the usability and possibilities of MiKlip and the INTEGRATION project.

  11. Changes in a box turtle population during three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of a Maryland population of marked box-turtles (Terrapene carolina) in 1945, 1955, 1965 and 1975 showed a pronounced decline in population size during the three decades; the greatest change came between 1965 and 1975, when numbers were reduced by half. Proportions of females and of young also declined. Fifteen % of the males and 11% of the females that were more than 20 years old in 1945 still were present in 1975; some probably were more than 80 years old.

  12. Cannabis and psychopathology: The meandering journey of the last decade

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Basu, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception cannabis has been observed to be associated with various psycho-pathology. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the advancement made in this area over the last decade. The association between cannabis and schizophrenia has been researched more intensively. The controversy regarding the reliability, clinical utility, and the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome has also been settled. Recent studies also buttressed the possibility of acute and chronic effect of ca...

  13. Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, C. Le; Bopp, L.; Heimann, M.; Prentice, I.C.; Aumont, O.; Bousquet, P.; Ciais, P.; Francey, R.; Rayner, P.J.; Keeling, C.D.; Keeling, R.F.; Piper, S.C.; Kheshgi, H.; Peyliln, P.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 has increased at a nearly identical average rate of 3.3 and 3.2 Pg C/yr for the decades of the 1980s and the 1990s, in spite of a large increase in fossil fuel emissions from 5.4 to 6.3 Pg C/yr. Thus, the sum of the ocean and land CO 2 sinks was 1 Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in to the 1980s. Here we quantify the ocean and land sinks for these two decades using recent atmospheric inversions and ocean models. The ocean and land sinks are estimated to be, respectively, 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6) and 0.7 (0.4 to 0.9) Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in the 1980s. When variability less than 5 yr is removed, all estimates show a global oceanic sink more or less steadily increasing with time, and a large anomaly in the land sink during 1990-1994. For year-to-year variability, all estimates show 1/3 to 1/2 less variability in the ocean than on land, but the amplitude and phase of the oceanic variability remain poorly determined. A mean oceanic sink of 1.9 Pg C/yr for the 1990s based on O 2 observations corrected for ocean outgassing is supported by these estimates, but an uncertainty on the mean value of the order of ±0.7 Pg C/yr remains. The difference between the two decades appears to be more robust than the absolute value of either of the two decades

  14. Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.

  15. Decadal-Interdecadal SST Variability and Regional Climate Teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Weng, H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Dominant modes of decadal and interdecadal SST variability and their impacts on summertime rainfall variability over East Asia and the North America are studied. Two dominant modes of interdecadal SST variability, one associated with El Nino-like warming in the global oceans and one with an east-west seesaw variation in the equatorial Pacific have been identified. The first mode is associated in part with a long-term warming trend in the topical oceans and cooling over the northern Pacific. The second mode suggests an westward shift and strengthening of the Walker circulation from 1960s to the 1980s. Over East Asian, the first SST mode is correlated with reduced rainfall in northern China and excessive rainfall in central China. This SST mode is also associated with the tendency for increased rainfall over the midwest region, and reduced rainfall over the east Coast of the US. The results suggest a teleconnection pattern which links the occurrences of drought and floods over the Asian monsoon and the US summertime time climate. This teleconnection is likely to be associated with decadal variability of the East Asian jetstream, which are affected by strong land surface heating over the Siberian region, as well as El Nino-like SST forcings. The occurrences of major droughts and floods in the East Asian and US continent in recent decades are discussed in light of the above teleconnection patterns.

  16. Evaluating decadal predictions of northern hemispheric cyclone frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kruschke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mid-latitudinal cyclones are a key factor for understanding regional anomalies in primary meteorological parameters such as temperature or precipitation. Extreme cyclones can produce notable impacts on human society and economy, for example, by causing enormous economic losses through wind damage. Based on 41 annually initialised (1961–2001 hindcast ensembles, this study evaluates the ability of a single-model decadal forecast system (MPI-ESM-LR to provide skilful probabilistic three-category forecasts (enhanced, normal or decreased of winter (ONDJFM extra-tropical cyclone frequency over the Northern Hemisphere with lead times from 1 yr up to a decade. It is shown that these predictions exhibit some significant skill, mainly for lead times of 2–5 yr, especially over the North Atlantic and Pacific. Skill for intense cyclones is generally higher than for all detected systems. A comparison of decadal hindcasts from two different initialisation techniques indicates that initialising from reanalysis fields yields slightly better results for the first forecast winter (month 10–15, while initialisation based on an assimilation experiment provides better skill for lead times between 2 and 5 yr. The reasons and mechanisms behind this predictive skill are subject to future work. Preliminary analyses suggest a strong relationship of the model's skill over the North Atlantic with the ability to predict upper ocean temperatures modulating lower troposphere baroclinicity for the respective area and time scales.

  17. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  18. Decadal changes in salinity in the oceanic subtropical gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Bryce A.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed spatial and temporal salinity trends in five subtropical gyre regions over the past six decades using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis with a focus on the subsurface salinity of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. Our results indicate an overall salinity increase within the mixed layer, and a salinity decrease at depths greater than 200 m in the global subtropical gyres over 61 years, of which each individual gyre was analyzed in further detail. We determine that freshwater fluxes at the air-sea interface are the primary drivers of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature over these open ocean regions by quantifying the advective contribution within the surface layer. This was demonstrated through a mixed layer salinity budget in each subtropical gyre based on the vertically integrated advection and entrainment of salt. Our analysis of decadal variability of fluxes into and out of the gyres reveals little change in the strength of the mean currents through this region despite an increase in the annual export of salt in all subtropical gyres, with the meridional component dominating the zonal. This study reveals that the salt content of E-P maximum waters advected into the subtropical gyres is increasing over time. A combination of increasing direct evaporation over the regions with increasing remote evaporation over nearby E-P maxima is believed to be the main driver in increasing salinity of the subtropical oceans, suggesting an intensification of the global water cycle over decadal time scales.

  19. Decadal trends in Red Sea maximum surface temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2017-08-09

    Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade-1 over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century1. However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance. Although the Red Sea is one of the warmest ecosystems on earth, its historical warming trends and thermal evolution remain largely understudied. We characterized the Red Sea\\'s thermal regimes at the basin scale, with a focus on the spatial distribution and changes over time of sea surface temperature maxima, using remotely sensed sea surface temperature data from 1982 - 2015. The overall rate of warming for the Red Sea is 0.17 ± 0.07 °C decade-1, while the northern Red Sea is warming between 0.40 and 0.45 °C decade-1, all exceeding the global rate. Our findings show that the Red Sea is fast warming, which may in the future challenge its organisms and communities.

  20. Multi-decadal Decline of Southeast United States Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootle, G. A.; Lakshmi, V.; Therrell, M.; Huffaker, R.; Elliott, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Unprecedented population growth combined with environmental and energy demands have led to water conflict in the Southeastern United States. The states of Florida, Georgia and Alabama have recently engaged in litigation on minimum in-stream flows to maintain ecosystems, fisheries and energy demands while satisfying a growing thirst in metropolitan Atlanta. A study of Southeastern United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee) streamflow identified a declining pattern of flow over the past 25 years with increased dry periods being observed in the last decade. When evaluating calendar year streamflow for (56) unimpaired streamflow stations, a robust period of streamflow in the 1970's was followed by a consistent decline in streamflow from 1990 to present. In evaluating 20-year, 10-year and 5-year time periods of annual streamflow volume, the past decade reveals historic lows for each of these periods. When evaluating the influence of high frequency (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation - ENSO) and low frequency (e.g., Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation - AMO) climatic phenomenon, the shift of the AMO from a cold phase to a warm phase in the 1990's combined with multiple La Nina events may be associated with the streamflow decline.

  1. New Zealand’s School Dental Service over the Decades: Its Response to Social, Political, and Economic Influences, and the Effect on Oral Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Moffat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand’s School Dental Service (SDS was founded in 1921, partly as a response to the “appalling” state of children’s teeth, but also at a time when social policy became centered on children’s health and welfare. Referring to the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH conceptual framework, this review reflects upon how SDS policy evolved in response to contemporary constraints, challenges, and opportunities and, in turn, affected oral health. Although the SDS played a crucial role in improving oral health for New Zealanders overall and, in particular, children, challenges in addressing oral health inequalities remain to this day.Supported by New Zealand’s Welfare State policies, the SDS expanded over several decades. Economic depression, war, and the “baby boom” affected its growth to some extent but, by 1976, all primary-aged children and most preschoolers were under its care. Despite SDS care, and the introduction of water fluoridation in the 1950s, oral health surveys in the 1970s observed that New Zealand children had heavily-filled teeth, and that adults lost their teeth early. Changes to SDS preventive and restorative practices reduced the average number of fillings per child by the early 1980s, but statistics then revealed substantial inequalities in child oral health, with Ma¯ ori and Pacific Island children faring worse than other children.In the 1990s, New Zealand underwent a series of major structural “reforms,” including changes to the health system and a degree of withdrawal of the Welfare State. As a result, children’s oral health deteriorated and inequalities not only persisted but also widened. By the beginning of the new millennium, reviews of the SDS noted that, as well as worsening oral health, equipment and facilities were run-down and the workforce was aging. In 2006, the New Zealand Government invested in a “reorientation” of the SDS to a Community Oral Health Service (COHS

  2. Comparison of output-based approaches used to substantiate bovine tuberculosis free status in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Rosenbaum Nielsen, Liza; Willeberg, Preben

    2015-01-01

    We compared two published studies based on different output-based surveillance models, which were used for evaluating the performance oftwo meatinspection systems in cattle and to substantiate freedom from bovine tuberculosis (bTB)in Denmark. The systems were the current meatinspection methods (CMI......) vs. the visual-only inspection (VOI). In one study, the surveillance system sensitivity (SSe) was estimated to substantiate the bTB free status. The other study used SSe in the estimation ofthe probability offreedom (PFree), based on the epidemiological concept of negative predictive value...... to substantiate the bTB free status. Both studies found that changing from CMI to VOI would markedly decrease the SSe. However, the two studies reported diverging conclusions regarding the effect on the substantiation of Denmark as a bTB free country, if VOI were to be introduced. The objectives of this work were...

  3. Interannual and Decadal Variability of Summer Rainfall over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiayu; Lau, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    Using the CPC (Climate Prediction Center) Merged Analysis of Precipitation product along with the Goddard Earth Observing System reanalysis and the Climate Analysis Center sea surface temperature (SST) data, we conduct a diagnostic study of the interannual and decadal scale variability of summer rainfall over South America. Results show three leading modes of rainfall variation identified with interannual, decadal, and long-term trend variability. Together, these modes explain more than half the total variance. The first mode is highly correlated with El Nino/southern oscillation (ENSO), showing severe drought over Northeast Brazil and copious rainfall over the Ecuador coast and the area of Uruguay-Southern Brazil in El Nino years. This pattern is attributed to the large scale zonal shift of the Walker circulation and local Hadley cell anomaly induced by positive (negative) SST anomaly over the eastern (western) equatorial Pacific. In El Nino years, two convective belts indicated by upper tropospheric velocity potential trough and mid-tropospheric rising motion, which are somewhat symmetric about the equator, extend toward the northeast and the southeast into the tropical North and South Atlantic respectively. Sandwiched between the ascent is a region of descending motion over Northeast Brazil. The southern branch of the anomalous Hadley cell is dynamically linked to the increase of rainfall over Uruguay-Southern Brazil. The regional response of anomalous circulation shows a stronger South American summer monsoon and an enhanced (weakened) subtropical high over the South Atlantic (South Pacific) Ocean. The decadal variation displays a meridional shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which is tie to the anomalous cross-equatorial SST gradient over the Atlantic and the eastern Pacific. In conjunction with this mode is a large scale mass swing between the polar regions and midlatitudes in both hemispheres. Over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific

  4. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  5. Role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in decadal temperature trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Carley; Hegerl, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Global temperatures have undergone periods of enhanced warming and pauses over the last century, with greater variations at local scales due to internal variability of the climate system. Here we investigate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in decadal temperature trends in the Northern Hemisphere for periods with large decadal NAO trends. Using a regression based technique we find a best estimate that trends in the NAO more than halved (reduced by 57%, 5%–95%: 47%–63%) the winter warming over the Northern Hemisphere extratropics (NH; 30N–90N) from 1920–1971 and account for 45% (±14%) of the warming there from 1963–1995, with larger impacts on regional scales. Over the period leading into the so-called warming hiatus, 1989–2013, the NAO reduced NH winter warming to around one quarter (24%; 19%–31%) of what it would have been, and caused large negative regional trends, for example, in Northern Eurasia. Warming is more spatially uniform across the Northern Hemisphere after removing the NAO influence in winter, and agreement with multi-model mean simulated trends improves. The impact of the summer NAO is much weaker, but still discernible over Europe, North America and Greenland, with the downward trend in the summer NAO from 1988–2012 reducing warming by about a third in Northern Europe and a half in North America. A composite analysis using CMIP5 control runs suggests that the ocean response to prolonged NAO trends may increase the influence of decadal NAO trends compared to estimates based on interannual regressions, particularly in the Arctic. Results imply that the long-term NAO trends over the 20th century alternately masked or enhanced anthropogenic warming, and will continue to temporarily offset or enhance its effects in the future.

  6. Vegetation Change in Interior Alaska Over the Last Four Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, H.; Dewitz, J.; Cristobal, J.; Prakash, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic has become a generally warmer place over the past decades leading to earlier snowmelt, permafrost degradation and changing plant communities. One area in particular, vegetation change, is responding relatively rapidly to climate change, impacting the surrounding environment with changes to forest fire regime, forest type, forest resiliency, habitat availability for subsistence flora and fauna, hydrology, among others. To quantify changes in vegetation in the interior Alaska boreal forest over the last four decades, this study uses the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) decision-tree based classification methods, using both C5 and ERDAS Imagine software, to classify Landsat Surface Reflectance Images into the following NLCD-consistent vegetation classes: planted, herbaceous, shrubland, and forest (deciduous, evergreen and mixed). The results of this process are a total of four vegetation cover maps, that are freely accessible to the public, one for each decade in the 1980's, 1990's, 2000's, and a current map for 2017. These maps focus on Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding area covering approximately 36,140 square miles. The maps are validated with over 4,000 ground truth points collected through organizations such as the Landfire Project and the Long Term Ecological Research Network, as well as vegetation and soil spectra collected from the study area concurrent with the Landsat satellite over-passes with a Spectral Evolution PSR+ 3500 spectro-radiometer (0.35 - 2.5 μm). We anticipate these maps to be viewed by a wide user-community and may aid in preparing the residents of Alaska for changes in their subsistence food sources and will contribute to the scientific community in understanding the variety of changes that can occur in response to changing vegetation.

  7. Decadal oxygen change in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hahn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeat shipboard and multi-year moored observations obtained in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA were used to study the decadal change in oxygen for the period 2006–2015. Along 23° W between 6 and 14° N, oxygen decreased with a rate of −5.9 ± 3.5 µmol kg−1 decade−1 within the depth covering the deep oxycline (200–400 m, while below the OMZ core (400–1000 m oxygen increased by 4.0 ± 1.6 µmol kg−1 decade−1 on average. The inclusion of these decadal oxygen trends in the recently estimated oxygen budget for the ETNA OMZ suggests a weakened ventilation of the upper 400 m, whereas the ventilation strengthened homogeneously below 400 m. The changed ventilation resulted in a shoaling of the ETNA OMZ of −0.03 ± 0.02 kg m−3 decade−1 in density space, which was only partly compensated by a deepening of isopycnal surfaces, thus pointing to a shoaling of the OMZ in depth space as well (−22 ± 17 m decade−1. Based on the improved oxygen budget, possible causes for the changed ventilation are analyzed and discussed. Largely ruling out other ventilation processes, the zonal advective oxygen supply stands out as the most probable budget term responsible for the decadal oxygen changes.

  8. ESRD management in Africa during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Matri, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This study was initiated under the auspices of the African Association of Nephrology to evaluate end-stage renal disease (ESRD) development by using data collected in 3 successive surveys performed during the last decade. Questionnaires were sent in 2004, 2006, and 2012 to national renal societies and to leading nephrologists. Data were also collected from dialysis supply companies, personal communication, and by using research on Medline, Pubmed, etc. So data could be obtained from 33 countries. During the last decade the total number of nephrologists increased from 1,022 to 2,500 in 33 countries - i.e., an average growth rate of 15% per year. But there are still few hospital units dedicated to renal healthcare. The number of dialysis units increased from 1,200 to 1,600 and the number of dialysis patients (97% on hemodialysis) grew from 36,000 to 87,400 i.e., an average growth rate of 14% per year. Peritoneal dialysis, which covers less than 3% of RRT, increased from 1,300 to 2,400 with a yearly growth rate of 8% but it is still located in few countries. Renal transplant is implemented mainly in public hospitals in 5 North African and 7 sub. Saharan and South African countries. Only 5 countries have sustained programs that perform more than 100 operations per year. During the last decade, several countries improved the quality and quantity of care offered to ESRD patients. It is hoped that there will be a sustained improvement with a greater emphasis on education and development of kidney transplantation.

  9. Decadal-Scale Forecasting of Climate Drivers for Marine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, J; Hobday, A J; Matear, R J; O'Kane, T J; Risbey, J S; Dunstan, P; Eveson, J P; Fulton, E A; Feng, M; Plagányi, É E; Poloczanska, E S; Marshall, A G; Thompson, P A

    Climate influences marine ecosystems on a range of time scales, from weather-scale (days) through to climate-scale (hundreds of years). Understanding of interannual to decadal climate variability and impacts on marine industries has received less attention. Predictability up to 10 years ahead may come from large-scale climate modes in the ocean that can persist over these time scales. In Australia the key drivers of climate variability affecting the marine environment are the Southern Annular Mode, the Indian Ocean Dipole, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, each has phases that are associated with different ocean circulation patterns and regional environmental variables. The roles of these drivers are illustrated with three case studies of extreme events-a marine heatwave in Western Australia, a coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef, and flooding in Queensland. Statistical and dynamical approaches are described to generate forecasts of climate drivers that can subsequently be translated to useful information for marine end users making decisions at these time scales. Considerable investment is still needed to support decadal forecasting including improvement of ocean-atmosphere models, enhancement of observing systems on all scales to support initiation of forecasting models, collection of important biological data, and integration of forecasts into decision support tools. Collaboration between forecast developers and marine resource sectors-fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, biodiversity management, infrastructure-is needed to support forecast-based tactical and strategic decisions that reduce environmental risk over annual to decadal time scales. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electronic HRM: four decades of research on adoption and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarouk, Tanya; Parry, Emma; Furtmueller, Elfi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of a number of recent reviews of e-HRM research, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting the adoption and consequences of e-HRM. This paper therefore provides a review of four decades of research in this area with the aim to provide a summary and integrative framework as a basis for future research. We found that the factors affecting the adoption of e-HRM can be divided into three areas: technology; organization; and people – we refer to thi...

  11. Dishing up the Data: A Decade of Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkissian, John

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen Parkes once again involved in a wide range of space tracking activities that have added to its illustrious legacy. This contribution is a personal recollection of those tracking efforts - both real and celluloid. We begin in a light-hearted vein with some behind-the-scenes views of the popular film, "The DISH", and then turn to more serious contributions; discussing the vital role of the telescope in alleviating the great "traffic jam" at Mars in 2003/04 and salvaging...

  12. Trinidad and Tobago: A decade of dementia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelleen Baboolal

    Full Text Available In 2003, academic staff members at The University of the West Indies Faculty of Medical Sciences St Augustine Trinidad and Tobago combined their expertise to make strides in Alzheimer's and Dementia research in Trinidad and Tobago. Dr. Nelleen Baboolal, Dr. Gershwin Davis and Professor Amanda McRae began developing a project that has produced significant results by examining not only the epidemiology of dementia, but the associated risk factors; caregiver burden and ultimately establishing biomarkers for the disease. This review is an account of our results from a decade of dementia research and how they are contributing toward mitigating the dementia tsunami in Trinidad and Tobago.

  13. Youth Work in Ireland – A Decade On

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Jenkinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of youth work policy and practice in Ireland over the past decade. The paper emerged from a research project carried out by the author which sought to establish the main issues and themes which have characterised youth work in Ireland since the passing of the Youth Work Act in 2001. Themes such as the increased professional identity of youth work; greater unity within the sector; the impact of changing economic conditions; and a move towards outcomes led and evidence based work are explored. The paper also examines future challenges facing voluntary youth work organisations in Ireland.

  14. Adult Mammalian Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis: Five Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Allison M.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adult somatic stem cells in various organs maintain homeostatic tissue regeneration and enhance plasticity. Since its initial discovery five decades ago, investigations of adult neurogenesis and neural stem cells have led to an established and expanding field that has significantly influenced many facets of neuroscience, developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Here we review recent progress and focus on questions related to adult mammalian neural stem cells that also apply to other somatic stem cells. We further discuss emerging topics that are guiding the field toward better understanding adult neural stem cells and ultimately applying these principles to improve human health. PMID:26431181

  15. Road transportation challenges and systems for the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welbourne, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the historical evolution in road transport systems technology and regulations, and of developments foreseen in the next decade, in the contexts of safety, energy consumption and emissions, and the environment. Collision reduction technology including high centre mounted stop lights, antilock braking systems, headlight glare reduction, crashworthiness, and impact modes are discussed. Technology for reducing energy consumption, global climate change implications, chlorofluorocarbons, urban air quality impacts, and the conflict between improved safety and the environment (larger cars tend to be safer) are discussed. 13 refs

  16. Historiography of psychology in Spain: the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, Helio; Lafuente, Enrique; Quintana, José; Ruiz, Gabriel; Sáiz, Dolors; Sáiz, Milagros; Sánchez, Natividad

    2010-08-01

    History of psychology has been an extremely active field for many years in Spain. Both the great expansion of psychological studies and the inclusion of history as a compulsory subject in the psychology curriculum are crucial factors helping to understand the current state of affairs. The aim of this paper is to provide a survey of the work done in this area over the last decade, covering research, teaching, and institutional developments. The study includes consideration of aspects such as main research lines, major theoretical and methodological trends, teaching materials, relevant archives and exhibits, and significant websites.

  17. Looking Backward and Forward: A Decadal View of Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    In many scientific fields, decades are the time intervals of choice for retrospective and prospective reflections and speculations. AGU Session V02 seeks to apply this perspective to the assessment of where volcanology has been since 2000 and where it is headed in the next ten years. Most sciences progress through incremental observational, experimental and theoretical steps, accelerated by the identification of new socially-relevant applications, technological breakthroughs or conceptual insights, and jolted by largely unanticipated events. Volcanology is unusual in the dominant role that unpredictable eruptive observations play in controlling the evolution of the discipline. As a result, the most important constraints on how the field will change are virtually unknowable. At a session at the Fall AGU meeting in 2000 on "Volcanology 2010" a dozen talks sought to forecast how volcano science and policy would change in the next ten years, focusing on such topics as seismology, petrology, remote sensing, deformation, volcano-tectonic interactions, communications, graduate education, international cooperation, numerical modeling, database querying, and networking of observatories. While progress occurred in many of these areas, what was perhaps the most important influence on volcanology was not mentioned: for the first 9.5 years of the decade, there were no eruptions disastrous or novel enough to garner global public or political attention, with associated prioritization by funding agencies. The notable exception was the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in mid-2010, which captured the western world’s attention due to the magnitude of the disruption, the frustrating inability of scientists to provide guidance, and the fortunate lack of casualties. We can expect continuing technical advances in all aspects of geoscience to improve the understanding of volcanic processes in the coming decade. However, another natural disaster in 2010 might hold more relevance for how

  18. A decade of molecular cell biology: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Asifa; Fuchs, Elaine; Mitchison, Tim; Shaw, Reuben J; St Johnston, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Taylor, Susan; Walczak, Claire; Zerial, Marino

    2011-09-23

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.

  19. The potential for prevention of dementia across two decades: the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Bos, Michiel J; Portegies, Marileen L P; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2015-07-21

    Cardiovascular factors and low education are important risk factors of dementia. We provide contemporary estimates of the proportion of dementia cases that could be prevented if modifiable risk factors were eliminated, i.e., population attributable risk (PAR). Furthermore, we studied whether the PAR has changed across the last two decades. We included 7,003 participants of the original cohort (starting in 1990) and 2,953 participants of the extended cohort (starting in 2000) of the Rotterdam Study. Both cohorts were followed for dementia until ten years after baseline. We calculated the PAR of overweight, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol, smoking, and education. Additionally, we assessed the PAR of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. We calculated the PAR for each risk factor separately and the combined PAR taking into account the interaction of risk factors. During 57,996 person-years, 624 participants of the original cohort developed dementia, and during 26,177 person-years, 145 participants of the extended cohort developed dementia. The combined PAR in the original cohort was 0.23 (95 % CI, 0.05-0.62). The PAR in the extended cohort was slightly higher at 0.30 (95 % CI, 0.06-0.76). The combined PAR including cardiovascular diseases was 0.25 (95 % CI, 0.07-0.62) in the original cohort and 0.33 (95 % CI, 0.07-0.77) in the extended cohort. A substantial part of dementia cases could be prevented if modifiable risk factors would be eliminated. Although prevention and treatment options of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases have improved, the preventive potential for dementia has not declined over the last two decades.

  20. Decadal changes in aerosol absorption across Brazil resulting from changes in biomass burning practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Morgan, W.; Darbyshire, E.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Liu, D.; Langridge, J.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Highwood, E.; Mollard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Open biomass burning makes a substantial contribution to the global budget of black carbon, yet models significantly underestimate absorption aerosol optical depth compared to observations by approximately a factor of two over South America. These large differences need to be addressed. Recent work has shown that the number of deforestation fires has decreased across Amazonia over the last decade, giving rise to a decrease in the abundance of biomass burning aerosol across the region. At the same time there has been an increase in the frequency of agricultural burning across regions that have previously been deforested, as well as increased burning in the east of Brazil in the Cerrado regions. We sampled both of these types of open burning extensively during a recent aircraft experiment. Significant concentrations of organic carbon as well as black carbon were observed, with this ratio providing the main control on the single scattering albedo (SSA).Deforestation fires and wild forest fires are prevalent across the south west of the Amazon Basin, where smouldering burning dominates. In the east of Brazil, agricultural burning proceeds via a much more efficient form of combustion and as a result, black carbon is a much larger fraction of the aerosol mass and SSAs are much lower than in the west. We have analysed MISR data across the region to show that whilst aerosol optical depths have decreased during the dry season over the last decade, with greater rates of reduction occurring over the south western margins of Amazonia, absorption aerosol optical depths have significantly increased over the Cerrado and remained constant over south western Amazonia. This has led to a decline in SSA across the whole of the region with greater reductions occurring over the eastern states. This finding is consistent with our aircraft measurements. We will discuss the implications of these changes for air quality and climate across the region.

  1. More than two decades of research on insect neuropeptide GPCRs: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eCaers

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the state of the art on neuropeptide receptors in insects. Most of these receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and are involved in the regulation of virtually all physiological processes during an insect’s life. More than twenty years ago a milestone in invertebrate endocrinology was achieved with the characterization of the first insect neuropeptide receptor, i.e. the Drosophila tachykinin-like receptor. However, it took until the release of the Drosophila genome in 2000 that research on neuropeptide receptors boosted. In the last decade a plethora of genomic information of other insect species also became available, leading to a better insight in the functions and evolution of the neuropeptide signaling systems and their intracellular pathways. It became clear that some of these systems are conserved among all insect species, indicating that they fulfill crucial roles in their physiological processes. Meanwhile, other signaling systems seem to be lost in several insect orders or species, suggesting that their actions were superfluous in those insects, or that other neuropeptides have taken over their functions. It is striking that the deorphanization of neuropeptide GPCRs gets much attention, but the subsequent unraveling of the intracellular pathways they elicit, or their physiological functions are often hardly examined. Especially in insects besides Drosophila this information is scarce if not absent. And although great progress made in characterizing neuropeptide signaling systems, even in Drosophila several predicted neuropeptide receptors remain orphan, awaiting for their endogenous ligand to be determined. The present review gives a précis of the insect neuropeptide receptor research of the last two decades. But it has to be emphasized that the work done so far is only the tip of the iceberg and our comprehensive understanding of these important signaling systems will still increase substantially in

  2. Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  3. Understanding wind turbine price trends in the U.S. over the past decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    On a $/kW basis, wind turbine prices in the U.S. have declined by nearly one-third on average since 2008, after having previously doubled over the period from 2002 through 2008. These two substantial and opposing trends over the past decade – and particularly the earlier price doubling – run counter to the smooth, gradually declining cost trajectories predicted by standard learning curve theory. Taking a bottom-up approach, we examine seven possible drivers of wind turbine prices in the U.S., with the goal of estimating the degree to which each contributed to the doubling in turbine prices from 2002 through 2008, as well as the subsequent decline in prices through 2010. In aggregate, these seven drivers – which include changes in labor costs, warranty provisions, manufacturer profitability, turbine scaling, raw materials prices, energy prices, and foreign exchange rates – explain from 70% to 90% (depending on the year) of empirically observed wind turbine price movements in the U.S. through 2010. Turbine scaling is found to have been the largest single contributor to the price doubling through 2008, although the incremental cost of scaling has been justified by greater energy capture, resulting in a lower cost of wind generation. - Highlights: ► Having doubled from 2002 to 2008, wind turbine prices have since fallen by one-third. ► We analyze seven potential drivers of wind turbine prices over the past decade. ► Turbine scaling has had the largest influence, followed by weakness in the dollar. ► Changes in the price of energy inputs had the smallest impact.

  4. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation: A decade nationwide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlalizadeh, Reza; Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Demirjian, Aram N; Imagawa, David K; Foster, Clarence E; Lakey, Jonathan R; Stamos, Michael J; Ichii, Hirohito

    2016-03-24

    To investigate outcomes and predictors of in-hospital morbidity and mortality after total pancreatectomy (TP) and islet autotransplantation. The nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) database was used to identify patients who underwent TP and islet autotransplantation (IAT) between 2002-2012 in the United States. Variables of interest were inherent variables of NIS database which included demographic data (age, sex, and race), comorbidities (such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and deficiency anemia), and admission type (elective vs non-elective). The primary endpoints were mortality and postoperative complications according to the ICD-9 diagnosis codes which were reported as the second to 25(th) diagnosis of patients in the database. Risk adjusted analysis was performed to investigate morbidity predictors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of in-hospital morbidity. We evaluated a total of 923 patients who underwent IAT after pancreatectomy during 2002-2012. Among them, there were 754 patients who had TP + IAT. The most common indication of surgery was chronic pancreatitis (86%) followed by acute pancreatitis (12%). The number of patients undergoing TP + IAT annually significantly increased during the 11 years of study from 53 cases in 2002 to 155 cases in 2012. Overall mortality and morbidity of patients were 0% and 57.8 %, respectively. Post-surgical hypoinsulinemia was reported in 42.3% of patients, indicating that 57.7% of patients were insulin independent during hospitalization. Predictors of in-hospital morbidity were obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.02, P = 0.01], fluid and electrolyte disorders (AOR: 2.71, P < 0.01), alcohol abuse (AOR: 2.63, P < 0.01), and weight loss (AOR: 2.43, P < 0.01). TP + IAT is a safe procedure with no mortality, acceptable morbidity, and achieved high rate of early insulin independence. Obesity is the most significant predictor of in-hospital morbidity.

  5. Seasonal and decadal information towards climate services: EUPORIAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Hewitt, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Societies have always faced challenges and opportunities arising from variations in climate, and have often flourished or collapsed depending on their ability to adapt to such changes. Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability and climate change have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. The European Commission have recently commissioned a major four year long project (EUPORIAS) to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The paper describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  6. Complex licences: a decade of experience with internal inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, Hielke Freerk; Bunskoeke, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In 2008 the University of Groningen has ten years of experience with the system of complex broad licences. This system was introduced on a larger scale in the Netherlands in the last decade of the twentieth century. Its main characteristics are an internal radiation protection organization and a system of internal permits or licences for all applications of ionizing radiation along with periodical inspections. Since 1998/9 we yearly conduct inspections of all users of ionizing radiation within the University of Groningen. In our presentation we will discuss the general scheme for these inspections as well as the development of its results over the past decade. Following a period of habituation the last few years show a adequate and continuous level of radiation protection. It is also concluded that continuation of the inspection projects is a prerequisite to preserve this situation. Combined with the inspection project of 2007 an informal study of the 'customer'-satisfaction with respect to various aspects of the radiation protection organization was performed. Our data were collected using a questionnaire filled out by local radiation safety officers. In this contribution detailed results of this investigation will be presented. Preliminary results show that the overall appreciation of the radiation protection organization is qualified as 'good'. (author)

  7. Survey of Four Decades of Addiction Prevalence Researches in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sarrami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this research is the survey of addiction and drug abuse and psychotropic drugs prevalence researches which have been done in our country in last decades Method: To do this research all addiction and drug abuse prevalence researches that have been taken place were collected and analyzed. Results: the results of the researches show that the statistics of addiction has been in an oscillation as in 1390, the survey in 15 to 64 years old people (according to 1385 census that is 50 million people, is equal to one million and three hundred thousand and twenty five persons. Conclusion: the results of the four decades of addiction prevalence in Iran show that in according to the size of the threat of drugs and psychotropic drugs and addiction prevalence and also the change of gender, matrimony, age, job and the level of addicts education, less attention has been given to the drug abuse prevalence researches in public, youngsters, students and governmental and governmental non- officials.

  8. The Asian battery market—a decade of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckfeld, S.; Manders, J. E.; Stevenson, M. W.

    The Asian battery industry will undergo significant change over the next decade as it adapts to the enormous economic and technological pressures of our rapidly changing world. Europe and North America in recent years have seen significant rationalisation in battery manufacturing capacity and ownership for a variety of reasons. Into the future, Asia will be no exception, but the rate and magnitude of change may conceivably be greater than that already experienced elsewhere. Rationalisation in battery manufacturing plants will occur as a result of the establishment of super plants to manufacture batteries in order to improve the economies of scale and to facilitate the heavy investment in new capital and equipment that will be required to supply the newer technology battery types. The impact of 42 V automotive systems and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries will be influential on this scenario. It is expected that China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand will feature heavily in the future Asian battery scene at the expense of some established countries and producers. The current state of the battery industry in Asia, factors driving change in Asia, and the likely implications for those companies that are currently manufacturing batteries in Asia or considering a future role in Asia within the coming decade are examined in this paper.

  9. Tourette syndrome and tic disorders: a decade of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E; Scahill, Lawrence; Lombroso, Paul J; King, Robert A; Leckman, James F

    2007-08-01

    This is a review of progress made in the understanding of Tourette syndrome (TS) during the past decade including models of pathogenesis, state-of-the-art assessment techniques, and treatment. Computerized literature searches were conducted under the key words "Tourette syndrome," "Tourette disorder," and "tics." Only references from 1996-2006 were included. Studies have documented the natural history of TS and the finding that tics usually improve by the end of the second decade of life. It has also become clear that TS frequently co-occurs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and a range of other mood and anxiety disorders. These comorbid conditions are often the major source of impairment for the affected child. Advances have also been made in understanding the underlying neurobiology of TS using in vivo neuroimaging and neurophysiology techniques. Progress on the genetic front has been less rapid. Proper diagnosis and education (involving the affected child and his or her parents, teachers, and peers) are essential prerequisites to the successful management of children with TS. When necessary, modestly effective antitic medications are available, although intervening to treat the comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder is usually the place to start. Prospective longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials have led to the refinement of several models of pathogenesis and advanced our evidence base regarding treatment options. However, fully explanatory models are needed that would allow for more accurate prognosis and the development of targeted and efficacious treatments.

  10. Biotechnology: Two Decades of Experimentation with Genetically Modified Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Ajami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Over the recent years, genetically modified food in varieties of corn, soybeans, canola and cotton have been introduced to the global market. This study reviews the health and nutritional value of genetically modified foods in the past two decades.Results and Conclusions: Contrary to the present biotechnological claims, transgenic products did not prove to be so flawless, and actually failed to maintain social satisfaction. Genetically modified foods could not gain an increase in the yield potential. Planting natural products and genetically modified products in parallel lines will absolutely result in genetic infection from the side of genetically modified foods. One of the major anxieties of the anti- genetically modified foods activism is the claim that genetically modified crops would alter the consumable parts of the plant quality and safety. Genetically modified foods have shown to have inadequate efficiency and potential adverse effects in both fields of health and biodiversity. This review has presented studies of genetically modified foods performances in the past two decades, and concludes that the wide application and the over generalization of genetically modified foods are not fundamentally recommended.Conflict of interest: Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  11. A decade of industrial tracer applications in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The application of radiotracer technology to the solution of problems in Australian industry dates back to the 1950's and has been well chronicled elsewhere. However, it may confidently be asserted that the most significant growth in industrial applications has taken place over the last decade. This is no accident. In the last Quarter of 1989, Tracerco Australasia was established as a partnership between ICI Australia and ANSTO with the specific remit of promoting and selling radioisotope applications to industry. Effectively, this marked the commencement of the 'commercialisation' of industrial radiotracing in Australia. Though organisational and ownership changes have subsequently taken place, the business established in 1989 continues to flourish and now, one decade after its inception, it is appropriate both to review the achievements of the last ten years and to identify the challenges and opportunities of the future. Accordingly, this paper describes the growth of the radiotracer applications business, analyses its current activities both geographically and by industrial sector and examines trends in technology utilisation. The criteria which need to be met to ensure the continuing expansions and development of industrial radiotracer applications are also discussed

  12. A fruitful decade from 2005 to 2014 for anthraquinone patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hidayat; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Green, Ivan R; Csuk, René; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Shah, Afzah; Abbas, Ghulam; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are aromatic compounds whose structures are related to anthracene (parent structure: 9,10-dioxoanthracene) for which various methods for their synthesis have been developed. In the past decade (2005 - 2014), much work has been done regarding anthraquinone chemistry in order to discover new compounds related to this scaffold as anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiviral, anti-HCV, antifibrotic, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory agents. This review covers the patents on therapeutic activities of anthraquinones and their derivatives in the years between 2005 and 2014. A large portion of the therapeutic applications that were reported in international patents will be presented and discussed. Although a large number of patents have been registered over the last decade, this review is focused on important patents related to cancer, inflammation, infectious diseases, diabetic conditions and hepatitis C. The tricyclic planar ring system of anthraquinones displays a wide range of important pharmaceutical properties. By linking active anthraquinone analogs to other important pharmacophores or conjugates such as oximes, N-heterocycles, benzodiazepines or glycosyl ethers, their anticancer potential is enhanced. The ability of anthraquinone analogs to become more prominent as novel pharmaceutical agents may further be enhanced by fusing functionalized heterocyclic rings onto established anthraquinone cores.

  13. Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B D; Reager, J T; Lo, M-H; Karnauskas, K B; Leben, R R

    2017-04-20

    Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both the detection and attribution of sea level rise. Here, we use a suite of observations to quantify and map the contribution of TWS variability to sea level variability on decadal timescales. In particular, we find that decadal sea level variability centered in the Pacific Ocean is closely tied to low frequency variability of TWS in key areas across the globe. The unambiguous identification and clean separation of this component of variability is the missing step in uncovering the anthropogenic trend in sea level and understanding the potential for low-frequency modulation of future TWS impacts including flooding and drought.

  14. Hydroxyurea revisited: a decade of clinical effects studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    Over a decade ago hydroxyurea was shown to selectively kill cells in the S phase in a proliferating cell population and to block cells at the G 1 -S border. Consequently, blocked cells became sensitized to irradiation and were further sensitized when the drug was present after exposure. In the ensuing decade, many in vivo studies on hydroxyurea have confirmed that the main properties of hydroxyurea identified in the dish are also evident in vivo. During a period of about ten years, a considerable number of clinical studies have been performed, the results of which have been mixed, ranging from indeterminate to encouraging, depending to some extent on the site treated and whether careful randomized studies were done. The question arises whether the clinical studies have represented adequate tests, by laboratory standards, of the likely effectiveness of the drug in clinical circumstances. The clinical studies with hydroxyurea have been examined in this light, since the results might also bear on the use of many other such agents in combination therapy. This examination revealed that no attempts have been made to determine the concentration of hydroxyurea in the tumor and other relevant tissues as a function of time or to assess the cell kinetic features of the tumor and thus estimate the appropriate dose regimen. It would seem that a wide gap still exists between laboratory research and clinical application

  15. Two Decades of International Climate Negotiations - Carbon Budget Allocation Approach to Re-shaping Developing Country Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Yedla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate negotiations have been going on for the last two decades and the awareness for impacts of climate change has improved substantially. However, the trends of global CO2 emissions did not reveal any encouraging signs, with developing countries emitting even more CO2 and industrialized nations showing no signs of reducing emissions to below their 1990 levels. In order to meet the ambitious targets set by the Stern report for the next two decades, it is important to find new and path-breaking approaches to climate change. This paper attempts to analyze the use of carbon/development space historically, at present and in the future with a focus on equity. Trends analysis focuses on the last two decades (Post Rio and the carbon budget based analysis considers a period of 1850-2050. Industrialized countries are found to have significantly overshot their budgeted allocation for the last 160 years. Both the developing and industrialized countries are overshooting the present budget estimates based on world per capita budget for the next forty years and proportional to the population of each country. It is important for the industrialized countries to bring down their emissions to meet their carbon budgets while the developing countries use their development space as a guideline for their development path. Furthermore, this paper presents aggressive and regressive scenarios for the industrialized countries to compensate for the climate debt they have created.

  16. Interannual-to-decadal variability of the North Atlantic from an ocean data assimilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, S.; Di Pietro, P.; Navarra, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    substantial and monotonic warming trend during the last two decades of the analysis period. The maximum correlation is found between the leading principal component of winter HC anomalies and NAO index at 1 year lag with NAO leading. For SST anomalies significant correlation is found only for winter conditions. In contrast, for HC anomalies high correlations are found also in the summer suggesting that the summer HC keeps a memory of winter conditions. (orig.)

  17. An overview of cyanobacterial bloom occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlela, L L; Oberholster, P J; Van Wyk, J H; Cheng, P H

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a current cause for concern globally, with vital water sources experiencing frequent and increasingly toxic blooms in the past decade. These increases are resultant of both anthropogenic and natural factors, with climate change being the central concern. Of the more affected parts of the world, Africa has been considered particularly vulnerable due to its historical predisposition and lag in social economic development. This review collectively assesses the available information on cyanobacterial blooms in Africa as well as any visible trends associated with reported occurrences over the last decade. Of the 54 countries in Africa, only 21 have notable research information in the area of cyanobacterial blooms within the last decade, although there is substantial reason to attribute these blooms as some of the major water quality threats in Africa collectively. The collected information suggests that civil wars, disease outbreaks and inadequate infrastructure are at the core of Africa's delayed advancement. This is even more so in the area of cyanobacteria related research, with 11 out of 21 countries having recorded toxicity and physicochemical parameters related to cyanobacterial blooms. Compared to the rest of the continent, peripheral countries are at the forefront of research related to cyanobacteria, with countries such as Angola having sufficient rainfall, but poor water quality with limited information on bloom occurrences. An assessment of the reported blooms found nitrogen concentrations to be higher in the water column of more toxic blooms, validating recent global studies and indicating that phosphorous is not the only factor to be monitored in bloom mitigation. Blooms occurred at low TN: TP ratios and at temperatures above 12°C. Nitrogen was linked to toxicity and temperature also had a positive effect on bloom occurrence and toxicity. Microcystis was the most ubiquitous of the cyanobacterial strains reported in Africa and the

  18. People attending pulmonary rehabilitation demonstrate a substantial engagement with technology and willingness to use telerehabilitation: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Seidman

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: People attending metropolitan pulmonary rehabilitation, maintenance exercise classes and support groups had substantial technology engagement, with high device access and use, and good self-rated technology competence. The majority of participants were willing to use telerehabilitation, especially if they were regular users of technology devices. [Seidman Z, McNamara R, Wootton S, Leung R, Spencer L, Dale M, Dennis S, McKeough Z (2017 People attending pulmonary rehabilitation demonstrate a substantial engagement with technology and willingness to use telerehabilitation: a survey. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 175–181

  19. Top-down regulation, climate and multi-decadal changes in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic Sea areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.

  20. Pattern of death in a Nigerian teaching hospital; 3-decade analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While death from neoplasia increased from 112 in the first decade to 354 in the last decade of the study period. Conclusion: Our study shows that death from infectious disease in the present decade has reduced to almost half that was recorded in first decade. Similarly death from trauma has also reduced compared to the ...

  1. Forecasting fluid milk and cheese demands for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, T M; Kaiser, H M

    2006-12-01

    Predictions of future market demands and farm prices for dairy products are important determinants in developing marketing strategies and farm-production planning decisions. The objective of this report was to use current aggregate forecast data, combined with existing econometric models of demand and supply, to forecast retail demands for fluid milk and cheese and the supply and price of farm milk over the next decade. In doing so, we can investigate whether projections of population and consumer food-spending patterns will extend or alter current consumption trends and examine the implications of future generic advertising strategies for dairy products. To conduct the forecast simulations and appropriately allocate the farm milk supply to various uses, we used a partial equilibrium model of the US domestic dairy sector that segmented the industry into retail, wholesale, and farm markets. Model simulation results indicated that declines in retail per capita demand would persist but at a reduced rate from years past and that retail per capita demand for cheese would continue to grow and strengthen over the next decade. These predictions rely on expected changes in the size of populations of various ages, races, and ethnicities and on existing patterns of spending on food at home and away from home. The combined effect of these forecasted changes in demand levels was reflected in annualized growth in the total farm-milk supply that was similar to growth realized during the past few years. Although we expect nominal farm milk prices to increase over the next decade, we expect real prices (relative to assumed growth in feed costs) to remain relatively stable and show no increase until the end of the forecast period. Supplemental industry model simulations also suggested that net losses in producer revenues would result if only nominal levels of generic advertising spending were maintained in forthcoming years. In fact, if real generic advertising expenditures are

  2. Decadal prediction skill in a multi-model ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van; Wouters, Bert; Hazeleger, Wilco [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Institut Catala de Ciencies del Clima (IC3), Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Decadal climate predictions may have skill due to predictable components in boundary conditions (mainly greenhouse gas concentrations but also tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol distributions) and initial conditions (mainly the ocean state). We investigate the skill of temperature and precipitation hindcasts from a multi-model ensemble of four climate forecast systems based on coupled ocean-atmosphere models. Regional variations in skill with and without trend are compared with similarly analysed uninitialised experiments to separate the trend due to monotonically increasing forcings from fluctuations around the trend due to the ocean initial state and aerosol forcings. In temperature most of the skill in both multi-model ensembles comes from the externally forced trends. The rise of the global mean temperature is represented well in the initialised hindcasts, but variations around the trend show little skill beyond the first year due to the absence of volcanic aerosols in the hindcasts and the unpredictability of ENSO. The models have non-trivial skill in hindcasts of North Atlantic sea surface temperature beyond the trend. This skill is highest in the northern North Atlantic in initialised experiments and in the subtropical North Atlantic in uninitialised simulations. A similar result is found in the Pacific Ocean, although the signal is less clear. The uninitialised simulations have good skill beyond the trend in the western North Pacific. The initialised experiments show some skill in the decadal ENSO region in the eastern Pacific, in agreement with previous studies. However, the results in this study are not statistically significant (p {approx} 0.1) by themselves. The initialised models also show some skill in forecasting 4-year mean Sahel rainfall at lead times of 1 and 5 years, in agreement with the observed teleconnection from the Atlantic Ocean. Again, the skill is not statistically significant (p {approx} 0.2). Furthermore, uninitialised simulations

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology: a decade of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhong; Inoue, Haruhisa; Wu, Joseph C; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    Since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology a decade ago, enormous progress has been made in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Human iPSCs have been widely used for disease modelling, drug discovery and cell therapy development. Novel pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, new drugs originating from iPSC screens are in the pipeline and the first clinical trial using human iPSC-derived products has been initiated. In particular, the combination of human iPSC technology with recent developments in gene editing and 3D organoids makes iPSC-based platforms even more powerful in each area of their application, including precision medicine. In this Review, we discuss the progress in applications of iPSC technology that are particularly relevant to drug discovery and regenerative medicine, and consider the remaining challenges and the emerging opportunities in the field.

  4. Does education improve cognitive performance four decades after school completion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Skirbekk, Vegard; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of secondary education on cognitive performance toward the end of working age. We exploit the exogenous variation in years of schooling arising from compulsory schooling reforms implemented in six European countries during the 1950s and 1960s. Using data of individuals, approximately age 60, from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we assess the causal effect of education on memory, fluency, numeracy, and orientation-to-date. Furthermore, we study education effects on cognitive decline. We find a positive impact of schooling on memory scores. One year of education increases the memory score approximately four decades later by about 0.2, which amounts to 10 % of a standard deviation. Furthermore, we find some evidence for a protective effect of schooling on cognitive decline in terms of verbal fluency.

  5. 2010-2020: a decisive decade for our climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Kitous, Alban

    2012-04-01

    The long term future of the planet's climate will depend of the policies implemented in the next decades. While economic development in the last two centuries has been based on an intensive use of fossil energy resources, the major challenge for the 21. century is the transition towards low carbon energy systems. This will impose drastic changes in the dynamics of some fundamentals variables of energy development in every region, in particular the energy intensity of GDP and the carbon intensity of the energy mix. The accumulation of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and consequently the climate for the future generations will directly depend of the capability of the international community to implement the required changes in economic development patterns. (authors)

  6. A Decade of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Improvements at DTU Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Brodersen, Karen; Chen, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) can efficiently convert electrical energy (e.g. surplus wind power) to energy stored in fuels such as hydrogen or other synthetic fuels. Performance and durability of the SOEC has increased orders of magnitudes within the last decade. This paper presents....... All together, these improvements have led to a decrease in long-term degradation rate from ∼40 %/kh to ∼0.4 %/kh for steam electrolysis at -1 A/cm2, while the initial area specific resistance has been decreased from 0.44 Ωcm2 to 0.15 Ωcm2 at -0.5 A/cm2 and 750 °C....

  7. Multifunctional organic nitrates: A decade of TD-LIF Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    With our first observations of total RONO2 in 1999 a relatively routine and quantitative basis for assessing the prominent role RONO2s chemistry plays in our atmosphere emerged. In the decade since our ambient measurements have inspired us to think carefully about how RONO2 chemistry suppresses ozone formation in urban atmospheres (and more recently in regions dominated by oil and gas drilling), how RONO2 formation ss the dominant sink of NOx in rural continental locations affects the NOx lifetime, how RONO2 fits into our models of the NOy budget and the extent to which RONO2 aerosol are important. In this talk I will review the development of these ideas.

  8. Plan for gas overcrowding; Development in last decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    The plan for gas overcrowding, is one of the most important determinations of energy politics in last decade. It is an integral plan of consumption of combustible gas; that is to say, cover the natural gas and the liquefied gas of petroleum. In this article, the UPME wants to show the results of the implementation of this measure. The analysis shows, in the first place the impact achieved in the diversification of the energetic basket, with the penetration of the combustible gas. Facts and indicators of development of the plan are given that include an evaluation of the direct financial benefit that receive the homes, when using a more economic fuel. On the other hand, it puts on of present the government effort carried out through ECOPETROL and that of some private agents to start the plan. Finally, the investments made until today and the problems of low use of some nets of transport, related with the development of the market

  9. Breast cancer in the Arctic - changes over the past decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Stine Overvad; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    , the known established risk factors alone cannot account for the increasing trend observed. Studies suggest that environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including perfluorinated compounds increase the risk of BC possibly in conjunction with certain genetic polymorphisms......Abstract The purpose of this study is to review the current literatures on breast cancer (BC) in the Arctic, especially the trends in incidence during the last decades and the possible explanations. The design of this study is a literature review. The scientific literature concerning BC were....... In Greenland, the age at menarche has diminished by 3 years during the course of 100 years, and the number of children per women as well as the duration of breastfeeding is decreasing. Obesity and intake of saturated fat is increasing and the intake of traditional food rich in unsaturated fat and vitamin D...

  10. Physics in China: the Past and Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enge

    2010-03-01

    In assessing the current status and future direction of physics research and education in China, one critical period receiving particular attention is the past and next decade. Riding with China's wave of unprecedented pace and stability of economical developments, the various natural sciences disciplines, including physics, have been experiencing a golden period as well for developments and advances. In this talk, I will review the recent progresses of physics in China, including those drawn from my own personal experience, and also share some prospective view on its future directions. Some of the examples are based on my own experience while working at the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and in the School of Physics at Peking University.

  11. Lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel: Two decades of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, J.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes a series of studies dealing with lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel in the years 1974-1997. In the first years of research we focused on a tolerant epilithic crustose species, Caloplaca aurantia in an attempt to classify locations according to their level of contamination by airborne heavy metals accumulated in the lichen. Later on our studies centered around the epiphytic fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei which is rather sensitive to air pollution. This lichen has the capability to absorb and accumulate remarkable amounts of airborne mineral elements but undergoes physiological deterioration by their impact. The presence of airborne pollutants leads to a degradation of cell membranes and chlorophyll, a decrease of ATP content and an increase of stress-ethylene formation. Suggested by the compilation of data available upon two decades of research, we proposed the application of an element enrichment factor (EEF) to distinguish between polluted and unpolluted sites. (author)

  12. Older Adults’ Attitudes Toward Cohabitation: Two Decades of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Our study tracks cohort change in the attitudes of adults aged 50 and older toward cohabitation from 1994 to 2012. Method: We used data from the 1994, 2002, and 2012 waves of the General Social Survey to examine the roles of cohort replacement and intracohort change in the trend toward favorable cohabitation attitudes and to examine sociodemographic variation in patterns of support for cohabitation. Results: Support for cohabitation accelerated over time with nearly half (46%) of older adults reporting favorable attitudes toward cohabitation in 2012 versus just 20% in 1994. This shift in older adults’ attitudes largely reflected cohort replacement rather than intracohort change. Some of the factors associated with later life cohabitation experience were linked to supportive attitudes. Discussion: Cohort succession is fueling the growing acceptance of cohabitation among older adults and coincides with the rapid growth in later life cohabitation that has occurred in recent decades. PMID:26307489

  13. Neurokinin B and pre-eclampsia: a decade of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Nigel M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At the start of the last decade, we provided evidence that levels of the peptide neurokinin B were highly elevated in pre-eclampsia. We hypothesized that elevated levels of neurokinin B may be an indicator of pre-eclampsia and that treatment with certain neurokinin receptor antagonists may be useful in alleviating the symptoms. At the time of the original hypothesis many questions remained outstanding. These included - Does neurokinin B have any diagnostic value in the detection and diagnosis of pre-eclampsia? - What is the cause of the elevated levels of neurokinin B during pre-eclampsia? - What is the physiological significance of neurokinin B in the placenta? This review discusses the answers to these questions taking into account the subsequent developments of the past ten years and analyzing the plethora of discoveries that have arisen from those initial observations.

  14. Two Decades After: ``After The Wake: Postpositivistic Educational Thought''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. C.

    This essay is an updating of one that was published exactly two decades ago; in the intervening years there has been a revival of interest in positivism as a historical phenomenon in epistemology and philosophy of science (some references to which are given), but there also has been heightened awareness of the various weaknesses of the positivist position. But the main themes of the original essay are still valid - the tendency persists (and may even have grown stronger) for individuals to charge their opponents indiscriminately with being ``positivists'' without being clear what actually characterizes this position; and there is still a failure to recognize that positivism was a complex ``position'' some of whose theses can be held by individuals who strongly oppose other theses and thus often do not deserve this label. Indeed, some present-day opponents of positivism do not realize that they share its important anti-realism or instrumentalism.

  15. Predictability of Pacific Decadal Climate Variability and Climate Impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Predictability of Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) climate variations and climate impacts on time scales of 1-10 years is discussed, using a global linear inverse model (LIM) as an empirical benchmark for decadal surface temperature forecast skill. Constructed from the observed simultaneous and 1-yr lag covariability statistics of annually averaged sea surface temperature (SST) and surface (2 m) land temperature global anomalies during 1901-2009, the LIM has hindcast skill for leads of 2-5 yr and 6-9 yr comparable to and sometimes even better than skill of the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) model hindcasts initialized annually over the period 1960-2000 and has skill far better than damped persistence (e.g., a local univariate AR1 process). Pronounced similarity in geographical variations of skill between LIM and CMIP5 hindcasts suggests similarity in their sources of skill as well, supporting additional evaluation of LIM predictability. For forecast leads above 1-2 yr, LIM skill almost entirely results from three nonorthogonal patterns: one corresponding to the secular trend and two more, each with about 10-yr decorrelation time scales but no trend, that represent most of the predictable portions of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) indices, respectively. In contrast, for forecasts greater than about two years, ENSO acts as noise and degrades forecast skill. These results suggest that current coupled model decadal forecasts may not yet have much skill beyond that captured by multivariate, predictably linear dynamics. A particular focus will be on the predictability of the PDO, which represents the dominant mode of Pacific decadal SST variability. The PDO is shown to represent a few different physical processes, including wind-driven changes of SSTs that can occur either due to daily weather variability or to tropical forcing, and variations in the North Pacific western boundary

  16. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  17. Human papillomaviruses: research priorities for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsfeld, Erika; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2016-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses are the causative agents of cervical, anal as well as many oropharyngeal cancers. While prophylactic vaccines have been developed, uptake is low in the US and other Western countries, and access is limited in less developed countries. A number of areas are emerging as critical for future study. These include investigation of the mechanisms regulating infection and progression to cancer at both cervical and oropharyngeal sites as these appear to be distinct. HPV-induced cancers also may be susceptible to immune therapy, revealing opportunities for treating advanced cervical disease and reducing the morbidity of treatments for oropharyngeal cancers. We believe these areas are critical focal points for HPV cancer research in the next decade.

  18. ACCULTURATION STUDIES IN SPAIN IN THE LAST DECADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Martín Julián

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, numerous groups of people come into permanent contact with each other and experience psychosocial changes. These changes, produced during contact between culturally different groups, are called acculturation. In the present study, a systematic review was carried out of 18 journal articles that have researched this phenomenon over the last decade (2005-2015 in Spain. The results show that the main topics studied are the areas of nuclear and peripheral acculturation, the role of prejudice in the adoption of one acculturation style or another, the influence of the acculturation strategies adopted on people’s mental health and other variables that influence the process of acculturation. To sum up, there is general agreement on the importance of developing variables such as empathy, managing emotions or social skills in order to promote solidarity and intercultural sensitivity from an early age.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma in the first two decades of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.S.L.

    1983-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma occurs rarely in the first two decades of life. This paper reviews the clinical and radiographgic features of 17 such patients (10F:7M, mean age=12 years) seen in a 24 year period. The almost equal sex incidence contrasts with the male preponderance in adults. All patients presented with symptoms and signs referable to the primary lesion. In comparison to Wilms' tumor, renal cell carcinoma in childhood and adolescence usually presents with a smaller abdominal mass which is frequently not palpable or visible on plain abdominal radiographs. Ultrasound and CT showed non-specific solid intrarenal masses. This rare tumor of childhood should be included in the differential diagnosis of intrarenal mass lesions, particularly in older children with hematuria and renal calification on plain radiographs. One child in this series had tuberous sclerosis. The prognosis depends on the stage of disease at presentation. (orig.)

  20. The Global Pattern of Urbanization and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process. PMID:25099392