WorldWideScience

Sample records for underwent oral glucose

  1. Glucose in vaginal secretions before and after oral glucose tolerance testing in women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sophia; Yu, Anna; Rylander, Eva

    2006-12-01

    To measure the change of glucose in vaginal secretions during glucose tolerance testing in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and in healthy control subjects. Thirty-eight women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 45 healthy, age-matched controls completed a health questionnaire regarding general and gynecologic health and food and alcohol habits. They all underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a vaginal examination. Vaginal secretion was collected from the proximal part of the vagina. Glucose in plasma and in vaginal secretions were measured at fasting and after 2 hours and analyzed with the hexokinase method. A sample size analysis showed that the number of subjects included in the study was sufficient for a beta value of 0.80, at the significance level of alpha=.05, at a difference in glucose in vaginal secretions of 30% after oral glucose tolerance test. In healthy women, the median level of glucose in vaginal secretions was 5.2 mM before and 3.7 mM after oral glucose tolerance test, and plasma glucose was 5.0 mM before and 5.8 mM after oral glucose tolerance test. No significant difference was seen regarding change of glucose level in vaginal secretions and plasma glucose after testing, compared with before oral glucose tolerance testing. There were no differences between women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control subjects regarding change in glucose level in vaginal secretions or in plasma during oral glucose tolerance test. II-2.

  2. Characterisation of oral and i.v. glucose handling in truncally vagotomised subjects with pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, Astrid; Veedfald, Simon; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2013-01-01

    =16) and matched controls (n=10) underwent 50 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)±vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor (DPP4i) and isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (IIGI), copying the OGTT without DPP4i. RESULTS: Isoglycaemia was obtained with 25±2 g glucose in vagotomised subjects and 18±2 g in controls...

  3. [Contribution of Perioperative Oral Health Care and Management for Patients who Underwent General Thoracic Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent advances in radiological diagnostic technology, the role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in thoracic disease has expanded, surgical indication extended to the elderly patients. Cancer patients receiving surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may encounter complications in conjunction with the oral cavity such as aspiration pneumonia, surgical site infection and various type of infection. Recently, it is recognized that oral health care management is effective to prevent the postoperative infectious complications, especially pneumonia. Therefore, oral management should be scheduled before start of therapy to prevent these complications as supportive therapy of the cancer treatment. In this background, perioperative oral function management is highlighted in the remuneration for dental treatment revision of 2012,and the importance of oral care has been recognized in generally. In this manuscript, we introduce the several opinions and evidence based on the recent previous reports about the perioperative oral health care and management on thoracic surgery.

  4. Prediction of Glucose Tolerance without an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Babbar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionImpaired glucose tolerance (IGT is diagnosed by a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. However, the OGTT is laborious, and when not performed, glucose tolerance cannot be determined from fasting samples retrospectively. We tested if glucose tolerance status is reasonably predictable from a combination of demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data assessed at one time point in a fasting state.MethodsGiven a set of 22 variables selected upon clinical feasibility such as sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum potassium, fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, proinsulin, prolactin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, uric acid, liver transaminases, and ferritin, we used supervised machine learning to estimate glucose tolerance status in 2,337 participants of the TUEF study who were recruited before 2012. We tested the performance of 10 different machine learning classifiers on data from 929 participants in the test set who were recruited after 2012. In addition, reproducibility of IGT was analyzed in 78 participants who had 2 repeated OGTTs within 1 year.ResultsThe most accurate prediction of IGT was reached with the recursive partitioning method (accuracy = 0.78. For all classifiers, mean accuracy was 0.73 ± 0.04. The most important model variable was fasting glucose in all models. Using mean variable importance across all models, fasting glucose was followed by NEFA, triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-peptide. The accuracy of predicting IGT from a previous OGTT was 0.77.ConclusionMachine learning methods yield moderate accuracy in predicting glucose tolerance from a wide set of clinical and laboratory variables. A substitution of OGTT does not currently seem to be feasible. An important constraint could be the limited reproducibility of glucose tolerance status during a

  5. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......OGTT, and Rd (all P value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P

  6. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V

    2012-09-01

    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 continuous glucose monitoring system ( CGMS), IFG was detected in 4 cases, the maximum serum blood glucose (BG : 2h or more after meal) was >7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of 2.6 and QUICKI values obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  7. Adverse effects during the oral glucose tolerance test in post-bariatric surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Heliana Fernanda de Albuquerque; Pedrosa,William; Diniz,Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Passos,Valéria Maria Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used in the screening of gestational diabetes, in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in conjunction with fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors of adverse effects of OGTT in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, in addition to proposing standardization for ordering the OGTT in these patients. Subjects and methods This study assessed the incidence of adverse ...

  8. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak......We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...

  9. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  10. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Revisted | Mshelia | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present review was undertaken to create the required utilization of oral glucose tolerance test in a developing country with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Sources of data: This review is primarily based on available literature on local and international studies on oral glucose ...

  11. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620)......Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6...

  12. Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Vidarsdottir, S.; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Viergever, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Grond, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that hypothalamic neuronal activity, as measured by the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal, declines in response to oral glucose intake. To further explore the mechanism driving changes in hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to an oral glucose load,

  13. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Richa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); C. Langenberg (Claudia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Pankow (James); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); J. Dupuis (Josée); A.U. Jackson (Anne); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Li (Man); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); A.K. Manning (Alisa); J. Anluan (Jian); H.M. Stringham (Heather); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Johnson (Toby); N. Grarup (Niels); T.W. Boesgaard (Trine); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); P. Shrader (Peter); J.R. O´Connell; E. Ingelsson (Erik); D.J. Couper (David); K. Rice (Kenneth); K. Song (Kijoung); C.H. Andreasen (Camilla); C. Dina (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); O.L. Bacquer (Olivier); F. Pattou (François); J. Taneera (Jalal); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); D. Rybin (Denis); K.G. Ardlie (Kristin); M.J. Sampson (Michael); L. Qi (Lu); M.V. Hoek; M.N. Weedon (Michael); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); H. Grallert (Harald); B. Balkau (Beverley); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.J. Bielinski (Suzette); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); K. Borch-Johnsen; Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); E. Brunner (Eric); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); P.S. Chines (Peter); F.S. Collins (Francis); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); G. Crawford (Gabe); J. Delplanque (Jerome); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); J.M. Egan (Josephine); M.R. Erdos (Michael); M. Firmann (Mathieu); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C.S. Fox (Caroline); M. Goodarzi (Mark); J. Graessler (Jürgen); A. Hingorani (Aroon); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Kovacs (Peter); K. Krohn (Knut); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Lauritzen (Torsten); C. Lévy-Marchal (Claire); V. Mayor (Vladimir); J.B. McAteer (Jarred); D. Meyre (David); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); M.A. Morken (Mario); N. Narisu (Narisu); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); R. Pakyz (Ruth); L. Pascoe (Laura); F. Payne (Felicity); D. Pearson (Daniel); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); A. Sandbaek (Annelli); A.A. Sayer; L.J. Scott (Laura); S.J. Sharp (Stephen); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); T. Sparsø (Thomas); A.J. Swift (Amy); H. Syddall (Holly); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tönjes (Anke); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); G. Waeber (Gérard); A. Walley (Andrew); D. Waterworth (Dawn); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); G. Consortium (Giant); T. Illig (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); J.F. Wilson (James); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); F.B. Hu (Frank); A.D. Morris (Andrew); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); P. Nilsson (Peter); A.C. Syvänen; A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); M. Walker (Mark); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); P. Schwarz (Peter); G.H. Williams (Gordon); D.M. Nathan (David); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); M. Laakso (Markku); C. Cooper (Charles); M. Marmot (Michael); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); V. Mooser (Vincent); M. Stumvoll (Michael); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); D. Altshuler (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); T. Hansen (Torben); O. Pedersen (Oluf); J.C. Florez (Jose); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.E. Barroso (Inês); R. Sladek (Rob); P. Froguel (Philippe); J.B. Meigs (James); L. Groop (Leif); N.J. Wareham (Nick); R.M. Watanabe (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n =

  14. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was done for a cohort of 68 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with impaired fasting blood glucose detected at a school screening. Age, sex, anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and BMI percentiles were determined using appropriate methods. Blood pressure and family ...

  15. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F; Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Bonora, E; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying deterioration of glucose tolerance associated with hyperthyroidism are not completely understood. Increases in glucagon and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been previously found in hyperthyroid subjects, and could play a crucial role in this phenomenon. However, studies have not yet established the time sequence of changes in plasma glucose on the one hand and glucagon and GH on the other. To assess the early effects of thyroid hormone excess on glucose tolerance and plasma concentrations of the main glucoregulatory hormones, 12 nondiabetic euthyroid subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after triiodothyronine ([T3] 120 micrograms/d) was administered for 10 days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GH were determined at fasting and after the glucose load. T3 administration caused a marked increase in serum T3 (8.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L), with clinical and biochemical signs of thyrotoxicosis. During the treatment, plasma glucose significantly increased both at fasting and after the glucose load (basal, 5.3 +/- 0.1 v 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P hormone excess rapidly impairs glucose tolerance. Altered secretion of GH is an early event in thyrotoxicosis accompanying the onset of hyperglycemia, whereas plasma glucagon is appropriately suppressed by the increased plasma glucose levels. Thus, GH but not glucagon may contribute to the early hyperglycemic effect of thyrotoxicosis.

  16. Changes in blood glucose level during and after light sedations using propofol-fentanyl and midazolam-fentanyl in diabetic patients who underwent cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Naghibi, Khosro; Niknam, Negar

    2015-01-01

    Surgeries may trigger the stress response which leads to changes in blood glucose level, and studies suggest that different sedation and anesthesia methods have different effects on blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to investigate changes of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients and compare them in two sedation methods of propofol + fentanyl and midazolam + fentanyl. Totally, 80 diabetic candidates for cataract surgery who had all the inclusion criteria, underwent cataract surgery using two methods of propofol (1 mg/kg/h) + fentanyl (2 μg/kg) (Group P) and midazolam (0.03 mg/kg) + fentanyl (2 μg/kg) (Group M) for light sedation. In the end, 70 patients (Group P n = 35 and Group M n = 35) remained in the study. Patients' blood glucose levels, vital signs, and hemodynamic data were assessed 30 min prior to the surgery, each 15 min during surgery and at the end of surgery. Hemodynamic parameters did not have a statistically significant difference between the two groups mean blood glucose level in Group M was 149.15 mg/dl and in Group P was 149.2 mg/dl, and based on repeated measures analysis of variance test, significant differences were not observed between the two groups (P = 0.99). T-test showed no significant differences in the blood glucose level at any time of the study between the two groups. Light sedation methods of propofol + fentanyl and midazolam + fentanyl did not have any differences in alteration of blood glucose level.

  17. Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Vidarsdottir, S.; Graaf, de C.; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P.; Viergever, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Grond, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E754-E758, 2007. First published June 12, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00231.2007. - We previously showed that hypothalamic neuronal activity, as measured by the blood

  18. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......-h (≥7.8 mmol/L) glucose for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, vascular complications, and mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Median age was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-49). During...

  19. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Impact of laser therapy on the condition of oral cavity mucosa in chemotherapy treated patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Krzysztof Bąk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Patological disorders within oral mucosa (so called mucositis are the most common stomatological complications among chemotherapy treated leukemic patients scheduled for bone marrow transplantation. Early diagnosis of such oral disorders leads to numerous side effects, decreasing quality of life and systemic complications is required. Furthermore, most patients require analgesic treatment, very often using narcotic pain medications. Presently the largest role of prevention and treatment of mucositis is preventative dentistry along with maintaining strict oral hygiene. This course of action aims to reduce pain and prevention of infections. Investigation of novel non-invasive therapeutic methods that could improve treatment outcomes seems justified. Among the most promising methods, the Low-level Laser Therapy (LLLT treatment demonstrates many beneficial effects for patients suffering from chemotherapy complications. It promotes mucosal healing and helps improve patients' quality of life. These advantages may be a result of a LLLT anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. LLLT also promotes tissue regeneration through chemical changes in cells (cell repair. In recent clinical studies conducted on a group of patients with oral mucositis, the significant acceleration of mentioned disorders regression was noted. Moreover, reduction of pain after application of LLLT was recorded. Discussed in the article LLLT is easily accessible for clinical practice . Mentioned arguments justify a wider use of such a tool in non-invasive treatment of acute oral cavity inflammation.

  1. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Tamunopriye Jaja, Boma Okoh. Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers. State ... history of diabetes mellitus and 17(25%) had hypertension. Seven (10.3%) of the ... Oral Glucose Tolerance among Adolescents - Jaja T, Okoh B degree of insulin resistance leading to ...

  2. Effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiologic basis of bleeding is a function of normal platelets and coagulation factors. This study is aimed at ascertaining the effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during menstruation. Forty menstruating students between the ages of 18 and 25 from ...

  3. The Biological Activity of Propolis-Containing Toothpaste on Oral Health Environment in Patients Who Underwent Implant-Supported Prosthodontic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Morawiec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft and periodontal tissues surrounding dental implants are particularly susceptible to bacteria invasion and inflammatory reactions due to complex histological structures. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Sixteen subjects who underwent an oral rehabilitation with dental implants were selected and randomly assigned into two groups, which received a newly formulated propolis-containing toothpaste (3% (CA or a negative control without an active ingredient (CC. Approximal plaque index (API, oral hygiene index (OHI, debris component, and sulcus bleeding index (SBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During the first and last examinations, the swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation. Propolis-containing toothpaste was found to be distinctively effective in improving oral health and the occurrence of gingivitis triggered by dental plaque. The qualitative and quantitative changes in oral bacteria spectrum were observed. Antibacterial measures containing propolis might be used as a natural adjuvant to other active substances in individuals with a high risk of periodontal problems against pathogenic oral microflora.

  4. Prediction of clamp-derived insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, Andrea; Chemello, Gaetano; Szendroedi, Julia

    2018-01-01

    that underwent both a clamp and an OGTT or meal test, thereby allowing calculation of both the M value and OGIS. The population was divided into a training and a validation cohort (n = 359 and n = 154, respectively). After a stepwise selection approach, the best model for M value prediction was applied......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp is the gold-standard method for measuring insulin sensitivity, but is less suitable for large clinical trials. Thus, several indices have been developed for evaluating insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However......, most of them yield values different from those obtained by the clamp method. The aim of this study was to develop a new index to predict clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (M value) from the OGTT-derived oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (OGIS). METHODS: We analysed datasets of people...

  5. Preparation of patients submitted to thyroidectomy with oral glucose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libiszewski, Michał; Drozda, Rafał; Smigielski, Janusz; Kuzdak, Krzysztof; Kołomecki, Krzysztof

    2012-05-01

    The AIM OF THE STUDY was to determine postoperative insulin-resistance in patients subject to total thyroidectomy, the prevalence of subjective feelings of hunger immediately before surgery, and the incidence of nausea/vomiting after surgery in patients prepared for elective operations by means of oral glucose solutions. The study group comprised 115 patients, including 71 patients prepared for surgery by means of oral glucose solutions (12.5% glucose) administered 12 and 3 hours before the procedure, at a dose of 800 and 400 ml. The control group comprised 44 patients prepared for surgery by means of the traditional manner- the last meal was served before 2pm the day before the surgical procedure, while fluids before 10pm. Considering both groups, we evaluated glucose and insulin levels three times, as well as determined the insulin-resistance ratio (HOMA-IR) 24 before, and 12 hours and 7 days after surgery. The incidence of nausea and vomiting after surgery, and the subjective feeling of hunger before surgery were also evaluated. Statistically significant differences considering insulin level and HOMA-IR values were observed during the II and III measurements. The glucose and insulin values, and the HOMA-IR insulin-resistance ratio, showed no statistically significant differences during measurement I. No statistically significant glucose level differences were observed during measurements II and III. A significantly greater subjective feeling of hunger before surgery and nausea/vomiting afterwards were observed in the control group. The preparation of patients with oral glucose solutions decreases the incidence of postoperative (thyroidectomy) insulin-resistance, and occurrence of nausea/vomiting during the postoperative period.

  6. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  7. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of oral glucose load on endothelial function and on insulin and glucose fluctuations in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S

    2008-01-01

    to better understand and cope with the postprandial state in insulin resistant individuals. METHODS: We assessed post-oral glucose load endothelial function (flow mediated dilation), plasma insulin, and blood glucose in 9 healthy subjects. RESULTS: The largest increases in delta FMD values (fasting FMD......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postprandial hyperglycemia, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. We studied the effect of oral glucose load on insulin and glucose fluctuations, and on postprandial endothelial function in healthy individuals in order...... value subtracted from postprandial FMD value) occurred at 3 hours after both glucose or placebo load, respectively: 4.80 +/- 1.41 (P = .009) and 2.34 +/- 1.47 (P = .15). Glucose and insulin concentrations achieved maximum peaks at one hour post-glucose load. CONCLUSION: Oral glucose load does not induce...

  9. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  10. Insulin response to oral glucose in healthy, lean young women and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Ganie, Mohammed Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan Pulikkanath; Gupta, Nandita; Lal Khurana, Madan; Seith, Ashu; Dwivedi, Sadanand N; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2008-11-01

    Insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinemia are common among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ethnicity and dietary habits affect insulin levels. There is little published information from India on insulin levels in PCOS patients. Thus the present study aimed to determine the insulin response to oral glucose in women with PCOS and healthy women. In a case-control study design, women with PCOS and lean healthy women without a family history of diabetes mellitus underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. Samples were collected at 0, 1 and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Two hundred and eighty-five women with PCOS and 27 lean healthy young women were enrolled into the study. The mean age of controls was 22.8 +/- 4.5 years (range 15-32 years) and their mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.7 +/- 2.6 kg/m(2). Mean blood glucose at 0, 1 and 2 h was 88.2 +/- 7.2, 115.5 +/- 25.5 and 91.8 +/- 20.5 mg/dl, respectively. Corresponding plasma insulin levels were 5.8 +/- 1.1, 32.7 +/- 26.5 and 14.6 +/- 9.6 mIU/l. Peak insulin levels were seen at 1 h and these came down to less than 40% of the peak value by 2 h. Glucose/insulin ratio at 0, 1 and 2 h was 15.6 +/- 3.1, 7.0 +/- 3.1 and 11.4 +/- 7.0. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 1.2 +/- 0.2. The age of the PCOS women ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 23.4 +/- 6.2 years) and their BMI ranged from 16.4 to 50.4 kg/m(2) (mean 27.7 +/- 6.3 kg/m(2)). One hundred and seventy-six (62%) PCOS patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 39 (14%) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 49 (17%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 21 (7%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin response was higher in women with PCOS. Peak insulin was observed at 1 h. The difference between 1-h and 2-h post-glucose insulin decreased with worsening glucose tolerance. Both plasma insulin and BMI showed a rising trend from NGT to IFG to IGT. There was no further increase in either insulin or BMI from IGT to T2DM

  11. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  12. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  13. Effects of Oral Glucose Load on Endothelial Function and on Insulin and Glucose Fluctuations in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Major-Pedersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims. Postprandial hyperglycemia, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. We studied the effect of oral glucose load on insulin and glucose fluctuations, and on postprandial endothelial function in healthy individuals in order to better understand and cope with the postprandial state in insulin resistant individuals. Methods. We assessed post-oral glucose load endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, plasma insulin, and blood glucose in 9 healthy subjects. Results. The largest increases in delta FMD values (fasting FMD value subtracted from postprandial FMD value occurred at 3 hours after both glucose or placebo load, respectively: 4.80±1.41 (P = .009 and 2.34±1.47 (P = .15. Glucose and insulin concentrations achieved maximum peaks at one hour post-glucose load. Conclusion. Oral glucose load does not induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy individuals with mean insulin and glucose values of 5.6 mmol/L and 27.2 mmol/L, respectively, 2 hours after glucose load.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Insulin during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-03-15

    Blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were measured during oral glucose tolerance test in 15 thyrotoxic patients and 8 normal controls, to study the glucose metabolism in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results;1) In thyrotoxicosis, there is noticed late rise and late fall of plasma IRI during oral glucose tolerance test, like as phenomenon of mild diabetes mellitus. 2) When the thyrotoxic patients were divided into normal and abnormal responsive groups after the level of blood glucose by Wilkerson Criteria, no significant difference in plasma IRI levels were noticed between two groups. 3) This result may be interpreted as relative deficiency of insulin secretion from panaceas and suggest genetically related defects.

  15. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects.

  16. Glucoregulatory and order effects on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents after oral glucose administration

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael; Foster, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The ingestion of oral glucose has been observed to facilitate memory performance in both elderly individuals and in young adults. However, fewer studies have investigated the effect of glucose on memory in children or adolescents. In the present study, the ingestion of a glucose laden drink was observed to enhance verbal episodic memory performance in healthy adolescents under conditions of divided attention, relative to a placebo drink. Further analyses found that this glucose memory facilit...

  17. Effects of an oral insulin nanoparticle administration on hepatic glucose metabolism assessed by 13C and 2H isotopomer analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, C.P.; Neufeld, R.; Veiga, F.; Figueiredo, I.V.; Jones, J.; Soares, A.F.; Nunes, P.M.; Damg\\'e, C.; Carvalho, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic glucose metabolism of diabetic induced rats after a daily oral load of insulin nanoparticles over 2 weeks. After the 2-week treatment, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed with [U-��C] glucose and �H2O. Plasma glucose �H and ��C enrichments

  18. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk...... indicators. Information on oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcomes were collected from medical records. RESULTS: There was an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant in women with 2-h capillary blood glucose of 7.8-8.9 mmol/l compared with women with 2-h glucose ... mellitus. Until these results are available, a 2-h threshold level of 9.0 mmol/l after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test seems acceptable....

  19. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Added Value of Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Pre-Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Serlie, Mireille J.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Soeters, Maarten R.

    2011-01-01

    With the increased acceptance of glycated hemoglobin measurement as the test of choice for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes, doubts which surround the use of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in detecting disturbances in glucose levels have become even more apparent. Metabolically, there

  1. Ascorbic acid prevents vascular dysfunction induced by oral glucose load in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Sergio; Prior, Manlio; Rigoni, Anna; Zecchetto, Sara; Rulfo, Fanny; Arosio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of oral glucose load on forearm circulatory regulation before and after ascorbic acid administration in healthy subjects. Microcirculation study with laser Doppler was performed at the hand in basal conditions, after ischemia and after acetylcholine and nitroprusside; strain gauge plethysmography was performed at basal and after ischemia. The tests were repeated in the same sequence 2 hour after oral administration of glucose (75 g). The subjects were randomised for administration of ascorbic acid (1 g bid) or placebo (sodium bicarbonate 1 g bid) for 10 days. After that, the tests were repeated before and after a new oral glucose load. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Macrocirculatory flux, pressure values and heart rate were unvaried throughout the study. The glucose load caused a reduction in the hyperemic peak flow with laser Doppler and plethysmography; it reduced flux recovery time and hyperemic curve area after ischemia; acetylcholine elicited a minor increase in flux with laser Doppler. The response to nitroprusside was unvaried after glucose load as compared to basal conditions. Treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the decrease in hyperemia after glucose, detected with laser Doppler and plethysmography. Ascorbic acid prevented the decreased response to acetylcholine after glucose, the response to nitroprusside was unaffected by ascorbic acid. Results after placebo were unvaried. Oral glucose load impairs endothelium dependent dilation and hyperaemia at microcirculation, probably via oxidative stress; ascorbic acid can prevent it. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  3. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean......Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... over the whole 180-minute period was higher in IGT (26.2 +/- 2.4 v 20.0 +/- 2.0 nmol/L; P =.035). Hepatic insulin extraction correlated linearly with OGIS (r = 0.71; P

  4. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet......-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...

  6. Dissociated incretin response to oral glucose at 1 year after restrictive vs. malabsorptive bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldstrand, M; Ahrén, B; Näslund, E

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Compare the response to oral glucose of the two incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) at 1 year after restrictive vs. malabsorptive bariatric surgery. METHODS: Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG, n = 7) or jejunoileal bypass...... (JIB, n = 5) was performed in 12 women, aged 26-39 years, with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) 46.6 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2)]. After 1 year, 75 g glucose was administered and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, GIP and GLP-1 were determined regularly during the following 2 h. RESULTS: At 1 year after...

  7. Hepatic glycogen in humans. II. Gluconeogenetic formation after oral and intravenous glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of glycogen that is formed by gluconeogenetic pathways during glucose loading was quantitated in human subjects. Oral glucose loading was compared with its intravenous administration. Overnight-fasted subjects received a constant infusion or [3- 3 H]glucose and a marker for gluconeogenesis, [U- 14 C]lactate or sodium [ 14 C]bicarbonate [ 14 C]bicarbonate. An unlabeled glucose load was then administered. Postabsorptively, or after glucose infusion was terminated, a third tracer ([6- 3 H]glucose) infusion was initiated along with a three-step glucagon infusion. Without correcting for background stimulation of [ 14 C]glucose production or for dilution of 14 C with citric acid cycle carbon in the oxaloacetate pool, the amount of glycogen mobilized by the glucagon infusion that was produced by gluconeogenesis during oral glucose loading was 2.9 +/- 0.7 g calculated from [U- 14 C]-lactate incorporation and 7.4 +/- 1.3 g calculated using [ 14 C]bicarbonate as a gluconeogenetic marker. During intravenous glucose administration the latter measurement also yielded 7.2 +/- 1.1 g. When the two corrections above are applied, the respective quantities became 5.3 +/- 1.7 g for [U- 14 C]lactate as tracer and 14.7 +/- 4.3 and 13.9 +/- 3.6 g for oral and intravenous glucose with [ 14 C]bicarbonate as tracer (P less than 0.05, vs. [ 14 C]-lactate as tracer). When [2- 14 C]acetate was infused, the same amount of label was incorporated into mobilized glycogen regardless of which route of glucose administration was used. Comparison with previous data also suggests that 14 CO 2 is a potentially useful marker for the gluconeogenetic process in vivo

  8. Glucoregulatory and order effects on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents after oral glucose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    The ingestion of oral glucose has been observed to facilitate memory performance in both elderly individuals and in young adults. However, fewer studies have investigated the effect of glucose on memory in children or adolescents. In the present study, the ingestion of a glucose laden drink was observed to enhance verbal episodic memory performance in healthy adolescents under conditions of divided attention, relative to a placebo drink. Further analyses found that this glucose memory facilitation effect was observed only in adolescents exhibiting better glucoregulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the glucose memory facilitation effect can be generalised to younger individuals. The importance of controlling for treatment order in within-subjects designs investigating the glucose memory enhancement effect is also discussed.

  9. Assessment of time to glucose peak during an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    We read with interest the article from Chung et al. on the association between time to glucose peak and prediabetes.(1) We agree with the authors in that the morphology of the glucose curve is worth investigating as an additional indicator of prediabetes and diabetes risk. This is a rather well...

  10. Association of serum orosomucoid with 30-min plasma glucose and glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance tests in non-obese young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Minato, Satomi; Yano, Megumu; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Kurata, Miki; Yoshino, Gen; Wu, Bin; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are elevated in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We tested whether serum orosomucoid (ORM) is associated with postload glucose, β-cell dysfunction and IR inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30-120 min period in 168 non-obese Japanese women (aged 18-24 years). OGTT responses, serum adiponectin and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were cross-sectionally analyzed by analysis of variance and then Bonferroni's multiple comparison procedure. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify most important determinants of ORM. Of 168 women, 161 had normal glucose tolerance. Postload glucose levels and the area under the glucose curve (AUCg) increased in a stepwise fashion from the first through the third ORM tertile. In contrast, there was no or modest, if any, association with fat mass index, trunk/leg fat ratio, adiponectin, hsCRP, postload insulinemia, the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment IR. In multivariable models, which incorporated the insulinogenic index, the Matsuda index and HOMA-IR, 30 min glucose (standardized β: 0.517) and AUCg (standardized β: 0.495) explained 92.8% of ORM variations. Elevated circulating orosomucoid was associated with elevated 30 min glucose and glucose excursion in non-obese young Japanese women independently of adiposity, IR, insulin secretion, adiponectin and other investigated markers of inflammation. Although further research is needed, these results may suggest a clue to identify novel pathways that may have utility in monitoring dysglycemia within normal glucose tolerance.

  11. Clinical outcomes for T1-2N0-1 oral tongue cancer patients underwent surgery with and without postoperative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Eun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the results of curative surgery with and without radiotherapy in patients with T1-2N0-1 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and to evaluate survival and prognostic factors. Methods Retrospective analysis of 86 patients with T1-2N0-1 OSCC who received surgery between January 2000 and December 2006. Fourteen patients (16.3% received postoperative radiotherapy (PORT. Patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, treatment modality, failure patterns, and survival rates were analyzed. Results The median follow-up was 45 months. The five-year overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were 80.8% and 80.2%, respectively. Higher tumor grade and invasion depth ≥ 0.5 cm were the significant prognostic factors affecting five-year OS and DFS (OS rate; 65% vs. 91%, p = 0.001 for grade; 66% vs. 92%, p = 0.01 for invasion depth: DFS rate; 69% vs. 88%, p = 0.005 for grade; 66% vs. 92%, p = 0.013 for invasion depth. In the risk group, there was no local failure in patients with postoperative radiotherapy. Conclusions In T1-2N0-1 OSCC, factors that affected prognosis after primary surgery were higher tumor grade and deep invasion depth over 0.5 cm. Postoperative radiotherapy should be considered in early oral tongue cancer patients with these high-risk pathologic features.

  12. Clinical outcomes for T1-2N0-1 oral tongue cancer patients underwent surgery with and without postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Su Jung; Cha, Jihye; Koom, Woong Sub; Kim, Gwi Eon; Lee, Chang Geol; Choi, Eun Chang; Keum, Ki Chang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the results of curative surgery with and without radiotherapy in patients with T 1-2 N 0-1 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to evaluate survival and prognostic factors. Retrospective analysis of 86 patients with T 1-2 N 0-1 OSCC who received surgery between January 2000 and December 2006. Fourteen patients (16.3%) received postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). Patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, treatment modality, failure patterns, and survival rates were analyzed. The median follow-up was 45 months. The five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 80.8% and 80.2%, respectively. Higher tumor grade and invasion depth ≥ 0.5 cm were the significant prognostic factors affecting five-year OS and DFS (OS rate; 65% vs. 91%, p = 0.001 for grade; 66% vs. 92%, p = 0.01 for invasion depth: DFS rate; 69% vs. 88%, p = 0.005 for grade; 66% vs. 92%, p = 0.013 for invasion depth). In the risk group, there was no local failure in patients with postoperative radiotherapy. In T 1-2 N 0-1 OSCC, factors that affected prognosis after primary surgery were higher tumor grade and deep invasion depth over 0.5 cm. Postoperative radiotherapy should be considered in early oral tongue cancer patients with these high-risk pathologic features

  13. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  14. Effects of sitagliptin and metformin treatment on incretin hormone and insulin secretory responses to oral and "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardarli, Irfan; Arndt, Elisabeth; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2014-01-01

    ,000 mg/day), sitagliptin (100 mg/day), or their combination, on GLP-1 responses and on the incretin effect in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing an oral glucose challenge (75 g, day 5) and an "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose infusion (day 6). Fasting total GLP-1 was significantly increased...... by metformin and not changed by sitagliptin. After oral glucose, metformin increased and sitagliptin significantly decreased (by 53%) total GLP-1. Fasting and postload intact GLP-1 increased with sitagliptin but not with metformin. After oral glucose, only sitagliptin, but not metformin, significantly...... the numerical contribution of the incretin effect. Insulin secretion with sitagliptin treatment was similarly stimulated with oral and "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose. This points to an important contribution of small changes in incretin concentrations within the basal range or to additional insulinotropic...

  15. Effects of metformin hydrochloride on blood glucose and insulin responses to oral dextrose in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendle, D I; Rutledge, F; Hughes, K J; Heller, J; Durham, A E

    2013-11-01

    Metformin is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of insulin resistance (IR). In laboratory animals, orally administered metformin reduces intestinal glucose absorption and may therefore affect insulinaemic responses to oral carbohydrate ingestion. To determine whether pretreatment with metformin reduces plasma glucose concentration and insulin responses following consumption of dextrose in horses. Therapeutic cross-over study. Seven healthy Standardbred and Thoroughbred geldings were subjected to an oral dextrose challenge test on 4 occasions: with and without metformin, before and after induction of IR with dexamethasone. Metformin was administered by nasogastric tube at 30 mg/kg bwt 1 h before administration of dextrose. Glucose and insulin concentrations in plasma/serum were measured at regular intervals during each test. Linear mixed models were specified for each predetermined outcome variable, and for each model the 'treatment' was included as a fixed effect with 4 categorical levels (none, metformin, dexamethasone and dexamethasone with metformin) and horse accounted for as a random effect. In healthy horses, the administration of metformin resulted in a statistically significant reduction in peak glucose concentration (P = 0.002), area under the glucose curve (Pdextrose administration (P = 0.011). Following the induction of IR, administration of metformin was associated with significant differences in peak glucose concentration (Pdextrose administration (P = 0.014). Metformin resulted in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic responses both in healthy horses and in horses with experimentally induced IR. Metformin may benefit horses with naturally acquired IR by reducing glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. Further investigations into the mechanisms of action of metformin in horses and controlled clinical trials are warranted. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Interaction of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with glucose on young rats after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Tian; Li, Yang; Zhang, Wenxiao; Gao, Xin; Li, Ping; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have a broad application prospect in replace with TiO2 used as a food additive, especially used in sweets. Understanding the interaction of TiO2 NPs with sugar is meaningful for health promotion. We used a young animal model to study the toxicological effect of orally administrated TiO2 NPs at doses of 0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg per day with or without daily consumption of 1.8 g/kg glucose for 30 days and 90 days. The results showed that oral exposure to TiO2 NPs and TiO2 NPs+glucose both induced liver, kidney, and heart injuries as well as changes in the count of white and red blood cells in a dose, time and gender-dependent manner. The toxicological interactions between orally-administrated TiO2 NPs and glucose were evident, but differed among target organs. These results suggest that it is necessary to limit dietary co-exposure to TiO2 NPs and sugar. Nanotechnology has gained entrance in the food industry, with the presence of nanoparticles now in many food items. Despite this increasing trend, the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles to human remain unknown. In this article, the authors studied titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), which are commonly used as food additive, together with glucose. The findings of possible adverse effects on liver, kidney, and heart might point to a rethink of using glucose and TiO2 NPs combination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  18. Change of Oral to Topical Corticosteroid Therapy Exacerbated Glucose Tolerance in a Patient with Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Yui; Ashida, Kenji; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Yamaguchi, Miyuki; Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Emoto, Akiko; Yamanouchi, Hiroko; Takagi, Satoko; Mori, Hitoe; Kawata, Nozomi; Hisata, Yoshio; Sakanishi, Yuta; Izumi, Kenichi; Sugioka, Takashi; Anzai, Keizo

    2017-11-13

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is known as the most frequent disease treated by long-term topical steroids. It is also known that patients with thick, chronic plaques require the highest potency topical steroids. However, the treatment is limited to up to four weeks due to risk of systemic absorption. CASE REPORT An 80-year-old man was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 16 years before, and was being administered insulin combined with alpha glucosidase inhibitor. He was diagnosed with plaque psoriasis and his oral steroid treatment was switched to topical steroid treatment due to lack of improvement and poorly controlled blood glucose level. The hypoglycemic events improved after the psoriatic lesions improved. CONCLUSIONS Control of blood glucose level is difficult at the very beginning of topical steroid treatment for psoriasis especially if a patient is receiving insulin treatment. Intense monitoring of blood glucose level during initiation of topical steroid treatment is necessary to prevent unfavorable complications.

  19. Hepatic glycogen in humans. I. Direct formation after oral and intravenous glucose or after a 24-h fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of hepatic glycogen by the direct pathway is assessed in humans after a 12-h fast and oral loading (100 g) or intravenous infusion (90 g) and after a 24-h fast and the same oral glucose load. The methodology used is based on the double tracer method. [3- 3 H]glucose is infused at a constant rate for the determination of the metabolic clearance of glucose. [1- 14 C]glucose is administered with the glucose load. One hour after absorption or the intravenous glucose infusion is terminated, a glucagon infusion is initiated to mobilize the glycogen labeled with [1- 14 C]glucose and formed during the absorptive period. At this time a third tracer, [6- 3 H]glucose, is administered to measure glucose clearance. It was found that after the 12-h fast and oral glucose loading 7.2 +/- 1.1 g of hepatic glycogen appears to be formed directly from glucose compared with 8.4 +/- 1.0 g after the same load and a 24-h fast and 8.5 +/- 0.4 g after a 12-h fast and an equivalent intravenous glucose infusion. When the amount of label ([ 14 C]glucose) mobilized that was not corrected for metabolic recycling was calculated, the data suggested that the amount of glycogen formed by gluconeogenic pathways was probably at least equal to that formed by direct uptake. It was also approximately 60% greater after a 24-h fast. It can be concluded that the amount of hepatic glycogen formed directly from glucose during glucose loading is not significantly altered by the route of entry or the extension of the fasting period to 24 h. The data suggest, however, that gluconeogenetic formation of glycogen increases with fasting

  20. Enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response to oral glucose in glucose-intolerant HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP were determined frequently during a 3-h, 75-g glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion rates (ISRs) were calculated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. RESULTS: The incremental area under the curve (incrAUC) for GLP-1 was increased by 250% in IGT patients compared...... without adjustment (r=0.38, Pglucose incrAUC (r=0.49, Pglucose-intolerant, HIV-infected male patients may display enhanced GLP-1 responses to oral glucose compared with normal glucose-tolerant HIV-infected male patients......OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which are major regulators of glucose tolerance through the stimulation of insulin secretion, contribute to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among HIV...

  1. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Glucose Transporter Type 1 in Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Feitosa, Sthefane Gomes; Lima, Ana Thayssa Tomaz; Luna, Ealber Carvalho Macedo; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity and some of these have been documented in association or preceded by oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Aggressive cancers with fast growth have demonstrated overexpression of some glucose transporters (GLUTs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporter, GLUT-1, in OEDs and OSCCs, seeking to better elucidate the biological behavior of neoplasias. Fifteen cases were selected this research of both lesions. Five areas were analyzed from each case by counting the percentage of positive cells at 400x magnification. Immunoreactivity of GLUT-1 was observed in 100% of the samples ranging from 54.2% to 86.2% for the OSCC and 73.9% to 97.4% for the OED. Statistical test revealed that there was greater overexpression of GLUT-1 in OED than the OSCC (p=0.01). It is believed the high expression of GLUT-1 may reflect the involvement of GLUT-1 in early stages of oral carcinogenesis.

  2. A variant in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose, increased basal hepatic glucose production and increased insulin release after oral and intravenous glucose loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, C S; Grarup, N; Krarup, N T

    2009-01-01

    An association between elevated fasting plasma glucose and the common rs560887 G allele in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus has been reported. In Danes we aimed to examine rs560887 in relation to plasma glucose and serum insulin responses following oral and i.v. glucose loads and in relation to hepatic...... glucose production during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Furthermore, we examined rs560887 for association with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes and components of the metabolic syndrome....

  3. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P glucose load RQ increased to a maximum level at 0.95 (0.22) and decreased then gradually to baseline level. The experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  4. Effect of orally administered dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate on oral glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Svetlana E Nikoulina1, Dietmar Fuchs2, Phillip Moheno11SanRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, AustriaAbstract: Calcium pterins have been shown to be significant immunotherapeutic agents in models of breast cancer, hepatitis B, and tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin mycobacteria. These compunds modulate the immuno-enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and the blood levels of several identified inflammatory cytokines. Recent research into the pathology of diabetes implicates inflammatory factors in the progression of the disease, leading the authors to study its possible control by one of the calcium pterins, dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP.The investigators tested DCP as a novel therapeutic for type 2 diabetes. Female C57BL/6 J mice with diet-induced obesity were fed a high-fat diet and were administered DCP in 0.4% carboxymethylcellulose for 21 days. Blood glucose was followed during the dosing period, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was carried out on day 21. Measurements of plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase metabolites (tryptophan and kynurenine and certain cytokines and chemokines were also taken. DCP 7 mg/kg/day reduced OGTT area under the curve (OGTT/AUC by 50% (P < 0.05. A significant multivariate regression (P = 0.013; R2 = 0.571 of OGTT/AUC was derived from DCP dosage and plasma Trp. Elevated plasma Trp concentration, likely from heterogeneity in diet and/or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, was found to correlate with higher OGTT/AUC diabetic measures, possibly via inhibition of histamine degradation. In conclusion, an optimum dose of DCP 7 mg/kg/day significantly improved the OGTT diabetic state in these female diet-induced obese mice.Keywords: diabetes, immunotherapy, oral glucose tolerance test, tryptophan, kynurenine

  5. Increasing ICA512 autoantibody titers predict development of abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Srinath

    2018-03-01

    Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dynamics of Nampt/visfatin and high molecular weight adiponectin in response to oral glucose load in obese and lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlütürk, Uğur; Harmanci, Ayla; Yildiz, Bülent Okan; Bayraktar, Miyase

    2010-04-01

    High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) is the active circulating form of adiponectin. Nampt/visfatin is the enzyme secreted from adipocytes in an active form and is one of the putative regulators of insulin secretion. To investigate the dynamics of total adiponectin (TA), HMWA and Nampt/visfatin in obese and lean women during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We studied normal glucose-tolerant (NGT), age-matched, 30 obese and 30 lean women. All subjects underwent a standard 75 g, 2-h OGTT, and area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT for glucose, insulin, Nampt/visfatin, TA and HMWA was calculated. Body fat mass was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Results Obese women had significantly higher basal and AUC values for insulin and Nampt/visfatin, whereas basal and AUC-HMWA were significantly lower in this group. Alternatively, obese and lean groups had similar basal and AUC values for glucose and TA. Basal insulin levels were negatively correlated with HMWA levels, but not with basal Nampt/visfatin. AUC-insulin was correlated positively with AUC-visfatin, and negatively with AUC-HMWA. Total and truncal body fat mass showed positive correlation with basal and AUC-visfatin, and negative correlation with basal and AUC-HMWA. In the NGT state, obese women have higher Nampt/visfatin and lower HMWA levels, both basally and in response to oral glucose challenge. The dynamics of Nampt/visfatin and HMWA during OGTT appear to be linked with insulin and adiposity. Counter-regulatory adaptations in HMWA and Nampt/visfatin might have an impact on suggested adipoinsular axis, contributing to maintenance of normal glucose tolerance.

  7. What Happens to Blood Glucose Concentrations After Oral Treatment for Neonatal Hypoglycemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Deborah L; Gamble, Greg D; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E

    2017-11-01

    To determine the change in blood glucose concentration after oral treatment of infants with hypoglycemia in the first 48 hours after birth. We analyzed data from 227 infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose dextrose or placebo gel plus feeding with formula, expressed breast milk, or breast feeding. The overall mean increase in blood glucose concentration was 11.7 mg/dL (95% CI 10.4-12.8). The increase was greater after buccal dextrose gel than after placebo gel (+3.0 mg/dL; 95% CI 0.7-5.3; P = .01) and greater after infant formula than after other feedings (+3.8 mg/dL; 95% CI 0.8-6.7; P = .01). The increase in blood glucose concentration was not affected by breast feeding (+2.0 mg/dL; 95% CI -0.3 to 44.2; P = .09) or expressed breast milk (-1.4 mg/dL; 95% CI -3.7 to 0.9; P = .25). However, breast feeding was associated with reduced requirement for repeat gel treatment (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.28-0.94; P = .03). Treatment of infants with hypoglycemia with dextrose gel or formula is associated with increased blood glucose concentration and breast feeding with reduced need for further treatment. Dextrose gel and breast feeding should be considered for first-line oral treatment of infants with hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Appropriate uptake period for myocardial PET imaging with 18F-FDG after oral glucose loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, I.; Hentschell, M.; Hoegerle, S.; Moser, E.; Nitzsche, E.U.; Mix, M.; Schindler, T.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Identification of a rationale for the appropriate uptake period for myocardial 18 F-FDG-PET imaging of patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Methods: In a subset of 27 patients, static 2D-PET examination was performed of patients with chronic coronary artery disease and known myocardial infarction. The patients fasted (at least 4 h) before examination. 18 F-FDG (330 ± 20 MBq) was injected intravenously. The image quality was semiquantitativly determined by ROI-analysis and the myocardium-to-blood pool activity ratio (M/B) was calculated. I.) Scans 30, 60, and 90 min p. i. of 10 non-diabetic patients (60 g oral glucose loading one hour before FDG-injection, low-dose intravenous insulin bolus if necessary). II.) Scans 30, 60, and 90 min p. i. of 10 patients with known non-insulin dependent diabetes (20 g glucose, insulin bolus). III.) Scans 90 min p. i. of 7 patients with known non-insulin dependent diabetes and elevated fasting serum glucose level (140-200 mg/dl; insulin bolus, no glucose). Results: I.) The M/B ratio significantly increases in non-diabetic patients with the uptake time (30 min 1.95 ± 0.20; 60 min 2.96 ± 0.36; 90 min 3.78 ± 0.43). II.) In patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes the M/B ratio also significantly increases with uptake time. Compared to non-diabetic patients group II reached smaller M/B values (30 min 1.56 ± 0.10; 60 min 2.15 ± 0.14; 90 min 2.71 ± 0.19). III.) In the group of patients with elevated fasting serum glucose level (who only got insulin but no glucose loading) the M/B activity ratio 90 min p. i. was clearly inferior compared with diabetic patients after oral glucose loading and insulin administration (M/B 2.71 ± 0.19 versus 2.16 ± 0.07). Conclusions: In static myocardial viability PET studies with 18 F-FDG an uptake time of 90 min yields image quality superior to that obtained after shorter uptake time. (orig.) [de

  10. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Navghare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels also contain vital phytoconstituents including gallocatechin. Previously banana pulp has been studied for antihyperglycemic effects, and in the present investigation antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of inner peels of Musa sapientum (EMS, Musa paradisiaca (EMP, Musa cavendish (EMC and Musa acuminata (EMA fruit was evaluated using oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic rats. In vitro antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH, H2O2 radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Wistar rats were divided into fourteen groups and twelve groups received different doses of aforementioned extracts, while control group received gum acacia solution and remaining group received standard drug, glimepiride. All the rats received glucose load at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Groups treated with EMC and EMA showed significant decrease in glucose level (p < 0.01 at 150 min as compared to control group. In hypoglycemic study, only EMP 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in glucose level at 120 min, while other groups did not show any sign of hypoglycemia. In glucose tolerance test, animals treated with EMC and EMA depicted dose dependent antihyperglycemic effect at 150 min while EMS and EMP showed significant reduction in plasma glucose at higher doses. In a similar fashion, EMA i.e. M. acuminata demonstrated highest antioxidant activity followed by EMC against DPPH radical. In ferric reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay, EMA demonstrated maximal antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts.

  11. Pancreatic α- and β-Cell Function and Metabolic Changes during Oral L-Alanine and Glucose Administration: Comparative Studies between Normal, Diabetic and Cirrhotic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    HATTORI, TADAKAZU; HOTTA, NIGISHI; OHARA, KIYOJI; SHINODA, HIROSHI; KUNIEDA, TAKEHIDE; NOMURA, TAKAHIDE; KAKUTA, HIRONOBU; TAMAGAWA, TATSUO; SAKAMOTO, NOBUO

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated whether or not, in addition to the oral glucose tolerance test, oral alanine loading was a useful diagnostic tool for hormonal and metabolic diseases. Fifty g of L-alanine was administered orally in 14 normal, 12 diabetic, and 8 liver cirrhotic subjects. The influence of oral alanine loading on hormones and metabolites was compared with the results of 100g oral glucose loading. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In the normal subjects and cirrhotics, lacta...

  12. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  13. [Comparative study on oral candidal infection in individuals with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong-wei

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the positive rate, infection rate and bearing rate of salivary candida in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), individuals with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and their predisposing factors. Questionnaire was given to 145 patients with DM, 142 individuals with IGR and 149 NGT individuals. Oral examination was carried out, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level and plasma glucose level of 2 hours post glucose-load (PG2h), resting salivary flow, salivary pH value were tested. Salivary candida was cultured. In DM, IGR and NGT groups, the positive rates of salivary candida were 21.4% (31/145), 7.0% (10/142), 4.7% (7/149) respectively, the infection rates were 7.6% (11/145), 1.4% (2/142), 1.3% (2/149) respectively, and the bearing rates of salivary candida were 13.8% (20/145), 5.6% (8/142), 3.4% (5/149) respectively. The candida positive rate, candida infection rate in DM group were higher than those of IGR and NGT groups respectively (P 0.05). Resting salivary flow in DM [(1.30 ± 1.20) ml/10 min] and IGR [(1.40 ± 1.17) ml/10 min]groups were lower than that in NGT group [(1.93 ± 1.66) ml/10 min], salivary pH values in DM (7.11 ± 0.56) and IGR (7.05 ± 0.48) groups were lower than that in NGT group (7.38 ± 0.48) (P salivary candida was influenced to some degree by age, FPG level and bearing denture (OR value = 1.106, 1.258, 3.166). The patients with DM were more subjected to bearing or infection of candida than individuals with IGR and NGT. To control the plasma glucose level will help to decrease the positive rate and infection rate of oral candida.

  14. Continuous glucose monitoring and its relationship to hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing in obese and prediabetic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine L; Pyle, Laura; Newnes, Lindsey; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Kelsey, Megan M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors. Participants (n = 118) with BMI 85th percentile or greater, not on medications for glucose management, were recruited from primary care and pediatric endocrinology clinics around Denver, Colorado. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were collected and all participants wore a blinded CGM for 72 hours. CGM outcomes were determined and descriptive statistics calculated. Performance characteristics at current American Diabetes Association cutpoints were compared with CGM outcomes. CGM data were successfully collected on 98 obese youth. Those with prediabetes had significantly higher average glucose, area under the curve (AUC), peak glucose, and time greater than 120 and greater than 140 mg/dL (P obese youth, HbA1c and 2-hour glucose performed equally well at predicting free-living glycemia on CGM, suggesting that both are valid tests for dysglycemia screening.

  15. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  16. Review of Pre-Analytical Errors in Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Rachita; Patel, Suprava; Sahoo, Sibashish; Mohapatra, Eli

    2018-03-13

    The pre-pre-analytical and pre-analytical phases form a major chunk of the errors in a laboratory. The process has taken into consideration a very common procedure which is the oral glucose tolerance test to identify the pre-pre-analytical errors. Quality indicators provide evidence of quality, support accountability and help in the decision making of laboratory personnel. The aim of this research is to evaluate pre-analytical performance of the oral glucose tolerance test procedure. An observational study that was conducted overa period of three months, in the phlebotomy and accessioning unit of our laboratory using questionnaire that examined the pre-pre-analytical errors through a scoring system. The pre-analytical phase was analyzed for each sample collected as per seven quality indicators. About 25% of the population gave wrong answer with regard to the question that tested the knowledge of patient preparation. The appropriateness of test result QI-1 had the most error. Although QI-5 for sample collection had a low error rate, it is a very important indicator as any wrongly collected sample can alter the test result. Evaluating the pre-analytical and pre-pre-analytical phase is essential and must be conducted routinely on a yearly basis to identify errors and take corrective action and to facilitate their gradual introduction into routine practice.

  17. [Role of classical oral glucose-lowering medications in current treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carramiñana Barrera, F C

    2014-07-01

    Classical oral glucose were discovered in the mid twentieth century. Despite the time elapsed since then and the lack of large studies to support the use of some of these drugs, they continue to be employed, are indicated in all clinical practice guidelines and consensus documents and, overall, remain among the most widely prescribed drugs in the national health system. The main arguments for their continued use are their widespread and prolonged prescription, their effectiveness, and cost. Their main disadvantages have always been and continue to be their adverse gastrointestinal effects, weight gain, the risk of hypoglycemia and other adverse effects, which have encouraged the development of new glucose-lowering drugs with an improved pharmacological profile that would cover the various mechanisms of hyperglycemia. Currently, deep knowledge of glucose-lowering drugs is required in the patient-centered management of diabetes. Furthermore, this knowledge should be adapted to each individual patient to acquire the experience necessary to achieve effective metabolic control, delay the development of chronic complications, and improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal insulin sensitivity is associated with oral glucose-induced changes in fetal brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Katarzyna; Schleger, Franziska; Ketterer, Caroline; Fritsche, Louise; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Hennige, Anita; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Fetal programming plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes during OGTT influence fetal brain activity. Thirteen healthy pregnant women underwent an OGTT (75 g). Insulin sensitivity was determined by glucose and insulin measurements at 0, 60 and 120 min. At each time point, fetal auditory evoked fields were recorded with a fetal magnetoencephalographic device and response latencies were determined. Maternal insulin increased from a fasting level of 67 ± 25 pmol/l (mean ± SD) to 918 ± 492 pmol/l 60 min after glucose ingestion and glucose levels increased from 4.4 ± 0.3 to 7.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l. Over the same time period, fetal response latencies decreased from 297 ± 99 to 235 ± 84 ms (p = 0.01) and then remained stable until 120 min (235 ± 84 vs 251 ± 91 ms, p = 0.39). There was a negative correlation between maternal insulin sensitivity and fetal response latencies 60 min after glucose ingestion (r = 0.68, p = 0.02). After a median split of the group based on maternal insulin sensitivity, fetuses of insulin-resistant mothers showed a slower response to auditory stimuli (283 ± 79 ms) than those of insulin-sensitive mothers (178 ± 46 ms, p = 0.03). Lower maternal insulin sensitivity is associated with slower fetal brain responses. These findings provide the first evidence of a direct effect of maternal metabolism on fetal brain activity and suggest that central insulin resistance may be programmed during fetal development.

  19. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Puttaswamy, Kavitha A.; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H.; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30?60 year...

  20. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  1. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Oral glucose ingestion attenuates exercise-induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard

    2006-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a 'metabolic master switch' regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK...... activation. We hypothesized that oral glucose ingestion during exercise would attenuate muscle AMPK activation. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 60% of maximal workload. The subjects were randomly assigned to either consume a glucose containing drink or a placebo...... drink during the two trials. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 2 h of exercise. Plasma glucose was higher (6.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, P

  3. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8...... mmol/l) before the glucose challenge the increase in blood glucose from 4.2 +/- 1.7 to 15.2 +/- 2.3 mmol/l was accompanied by an enhancement of GFR from 128 +/- 15 to 132 +/- 14 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.030) and of RPF from 534 +/- 116 to 562 +/- 105 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.023). By contrast oral...... glucose load to the nine patients with hyperglycaemia (greater than 8 mmol/l) during baseline conditions raising blood glucose from 11.9 +/- 2.0 to 19.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l was accompanied by a reduction in GFR from 149 +/- 15 to 139 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p less than 0.001) while RPF was unchanged...

  4. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce......CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral...... antihyperglycemic agents in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The degree of DPP-4 inhibition and the level of active incretin augmentation required for glucose lowering efficacy after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine...... concentrations; and sitagliptin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Sitagliptin dose-dependently inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity over 24 h, enhanced active GLP-1 and GIP levels, increased insulin/C-peptide, decreased glucagon, and reduced glycemic excursion after OGTTs administered at 2 and 24 h after single oral 25...

  5. CD36 expression and lipid metabolism following an oral glucose challenge in South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jeetesh V; Banerjee, Amitava; Montoro-Garcia, Silvia; Shantsila, Eduard; Alam, Mushfique; Flinders, Paul; Houlton, Kathleen Al; Hughes, Elizabeth A; Lip, Gregory Yh; Gill, Paramjit S

    2015-07-10

    To investigate lipid metabolism and the relationship with monocyte expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 in South Asians. An observational study of South Asians whom as an ethnic group have - a higher risk of developing diabetes. The susceptibility to diabetes is coupled with an earlier and more rapid progression of micro-, and macro-vascular complications. Twenty-nine healthy South Asian participants [mean age 34.6 (8.9) years, 76.2% male, mean body-mass index 25.0 (5.2) kg/m(2)] were recruited from an urban residential area of central Birmingham (United Kingdom). The main outcomes measured were post prandial (30 min) and post absorptive (120 min) changes from fasting (0 min) in circulating lipoproteins, lipds and hormones, and monocyte expression of CD36 post injection of a 75 g oral glucose challenge. The inducements of variations of monocyte CD36 expression were analysed. Our results showed evident changes in monocyte CD36 expression following the glucose challenge (P challenge (P lifestyle exposures have a role in moderating the expression of CD36.

  6. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up: The Hoorn Meal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, F.; Rauh, S. P.; Nijpels, G.; Holst, J. J.; Beulens, J. W.; Alssema, M.; Dekker, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest tertile: -0.32 (0.61;-0.04) mmol/l as compared to the lowest tertile). No significant associations were observed for GLP-1 responses following MMT. In conclusion, within our non-diabetic population-based cohort, a low GLP-1 response to OGTT was associated with a steeper increase in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up. This suggests that a reduced GLP-1 response precedes glucose deterioration and may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:29324870

  7. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  8. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of beta-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  9. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS−) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  10. Application of the Oral Minimal Model to Korean Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyuk Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe oral minimal model is a simple, useful tool for the assessment of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans.MethodsPlasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured during a 180-minute, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 24 Korean subjects with NGT (n=10 and T2DM (n=14. The parameters in the computational model were estimated, and the indexes for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were compared between the NGT and T2DM groups.ResultsThe insulin sensitivity index was lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The basal index of β-cell responsivity, basal hepatic insulin extraction ratio, and post-glucose challenge hepatic insulin extraction ratio were not different between the NGT and T2DM groups. The dynamic, static, and total β-cell responsivity indexes were significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The dynamic, static, and total disposition indexes were also significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group.ConclusionThe oral minimal model can be reproducibly applied to evaluate β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in Koreans.

  11. Oral salmon calcitonin enhances insulin action and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T; Andreassen, Kim V

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that oral delivery of salmon calcitonin (sCT) improved energy and glucose homeostasis and attenuated diabetic progression in animal models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes, although the glucoregulatory mode of action was not fully elucidated. In the present...

  12. The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and central pulse pressure after an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Chen, Chen-Huan; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffening blunts postprandial vasodilatation. We hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may modulate postprandial central pulse pressure, a surrogate marker for arterial stiffening. A total of 82 non-diabetic subjects received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after overnight fasting. Serum BDNF concentrations were determined at 0, 30, and 120min to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Brachial and central blood pressures were measured using a noninvasive central blood pressure monitor before blood withdrawals at 0 and 120min. With the median AUC of BDNF of 45(ng/ml)∗h as the cutoff value, the central pulse pressure after glucose intake was significantly higher in the subjects with a low BDNF than in those with a high BDNF (63±16 vs. 53±11mmHg, P=0.003), while the brachial pulse pressure was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.099). In a multivariate linear regression model, a lower AUC of BDNF was an independent predictor of a higher central pulse pressure after oral glucose intake (linear regression coefficient-0.202, 95% confidence interval-0.340 to -0.065, P=0.004). After oral glucose challenge, a lower serum BDNF response is significantly associated with a higher central pulse pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Kavitha A; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30-60 years were included in the study. RCBG was estimated using glucometer and UWSG was estimated using photocolorimeter. Salivary parameters such as flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity were assessed using GC ® Saliva kit. Oral health status was recorded using the Russell's periodontal index (RPI) and the Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RCBG levels and UWSG. Type 2 diabetics had low mean salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RPI. Among the salivary factors studied, salivary glucose significantly influenced the periodontal status in Type 2 diabetics.

  14. Comparison of the Efficacy of Oral 25% Glucose with Oral 24% Sucrose for Pain Relief during Heel Lance in Preterm Neonates: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sweta; Datta, Vikram; Rehan, Harmeet

    2017-02-01

    To study the analgesic effect of oral 25% glucose as compared with oral 24% sucrose during heel lance in preterm neonates. Stable preterm neonates within first 48 hours of life were randomized to receive either 24% sucrose or 25% glucose before heel lance. Primary outcome assessed was painful response by the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score at 30 seconds after heel lance, and the secondary outcome was immediate adverse events associated with the administration of two solutions and duration of crying immediately following the procedure. A total of 94 neonates were randomly assigned into 24% sucrose and 25% glucose group. The baseline characteristics between the two groups were comparable. No significant difference was observed between the two study groups with respect to PIPP scores, duration of crying and rate of adverse events. When assessed by PIPP score, 25% glucose and 24% sucrose provided comparable analgesia during heel lance in preterm neonates. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Fasting TC and TG levels in the GDM group were significantly higher than those with NGT (P = 0.031 and P = 0.025, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that TG and TC levels were positively correlated with homoeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.67 and r = 0.78, respectively; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that insulin sensitivity in women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  16. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E

    2017-01-01

    were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal...... responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge....

  17. Assessing oral candidal carriage with mixed salivary glucose levels as non-invasive diagnostic tool in type-2 diabetics of davangere, karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rashmi; Mujib B R, Ahmed; Raaju, U R; Telagi, Neethu

    2014-07-01

    The health of oral tissues is known to be related to salivary flow and its composition which may be altered in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to correlate mixed salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage and to assess the prevalence of candidal carriage in diabetics and controls. Thirty adults with type-2 diabetes and 30 without diabetes (control subjects), aged 30-60 yr, participated in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected and investigated for glucose levels (using glucose oxidase method) and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida, this was stained with two stains, periodic acid-schiff stain and Grocott Gomori stain. In the present study mixed salivary glucose concentration in diabetics was significantly higher (pCandida was not isolated. The diabetics without intraoral candidal carriage had lower salivary glucose levels (mean = 5.36±2.24 mg/dl). This relationship could be seen in controls (non-diabetics) also. Diabetics showed an oral candidal carriage rate of 80% which was significantly higher compared to nondiabetics who showed an oral candidal carriage rate of 40%. Mixed salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in diabetics. The possible high salivary glucose level could predispose to oral candidal infection. So saliva can be used as a quick, non-invasive tool to assess the oral candidal status and possible infection.

  18. Insulin and GH signaling in human skeletal muscle in vivo following exogenous GH exposure: impact of an oral glucose load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krusenstjerna-Hafstrøm

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available GH induces acute insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vivo, which in rodent models has been attributed to crosstalk between GH and insulin signaling pathways. Our objective was to characterize time course changes in signaling pathways for GH and insulin in human skeletal muscle in vivo following GH exposure in the presence and absence of an oral glucose load.Eight young men were studied in a single-blinded randomized crossover design on 3 occasions: 1 after an intravenous GH bolus 2 after an intravenous GH bolus plus an oral glucose load (OGTT, and 3 after intravenous saline plus OGTT. Muscle biopsies were taken at t = 0, 30, 60, and 120. Blood was sampled at frequent intervals for assessment of GH, insulin, glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA.GH increased AUC(glucose after an OGTT (p<0.05 without significant changes in serum insulin levels. GH induced phosphorylation of STAT5 independently of the OGTT. Conversely, the OGTT induced acute phosphorylation of the insulin signaling proteins Akt (ser(473 and thr(308, and AS160.The combination of OGTT and GH suppressed Akt activation, whereas the downstream expression of AS160 was amplified by GH. WE CONCLUDED THE FOLLOWING: 1 A physiological GH bolus activates STAT5 signaling pathways in skeletal muscle irrespective of ambient glucose and insulin levels 2 Insulin resistance induced by GH occurs without a distinct suppression of insulin signaling proteins 3 The accentuation of the glucose-stimulated activation of AS 160 by GH does however indicate a potential crosstalk between insulin and GH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00477997.

  19. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  20. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jonas B; Overgaard, Rune V; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Ingwersen, Steen H

    2010-02-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of the OGTT is a difficult problem in need of further investigation. The present work aimed at investigating the power of SDEs to predict the first phase insulin secretion (AIR (0-8)) in the IVGTT based on parameters obtained from the minimal model of the OGTT, published by Breda et al. (Diabetes 50(1):150-158, 2001). In total 174 subjects underwent both an OGTT and a tolbutamide modified IVGTT. Estimation of parameters in the oral minimal model (OMM) was performed using the FOCE-method in NONMEM VI on insulin and C-peptide measurements. The suggested SDE models were based on a continuous AR(1) process, i.e. the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and the extended Kalman filter was implemented in order to estimate the parameters of the models. Inclusion of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process caused improved description of the variation in the data as measured by the autocorrelation function (ACF) of one-step prediction errors. A main result was that application of SDE models improved the correlation between the individual first phase indexes obtained from OGTT and AIR (0-8) (r = 0.36 to r = 0.49 and r = 0.32 to r = 0.47 with C-peptide and insulin measurements, respectively). In addition to the increased correlation also the properties of the indexes obtained using the SDE models more correctly assessed the properties of the first phase indexes obtained from the IVGTT. In general it is concluded that the presented SDE approach not only caused autocorrelation of errors to decrease but also improved estimation of clinical measures obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method

  1. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p1), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. NCT02612675.

  2. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...

  3. Incretin Effect and Glucagon Responses to Oral and Intravenous Glucose in Patients with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young - Type 2 and Type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoft, Signe H; Bagger, Jonatan I; Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous subgroup of non-autoimmune diabetes, constituting 1-2% of all diabetes. Because little is known about incretin function in patients with MODY, we studied the incretin effect and hormone responses to oral...... and intravenous glucose loads in patients with glucokinase (GCK)-diabetes (MODY2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A)-diabetes (MODY3), respectively, and in matched healthy control individuals (CTRLs). Both MODY groups exhibited glucose intolerance after oral glucose (most pronounced in patients with HNF1A-diabetes...... incretin effect and inappropriate glucagon responses, whereas incretin effect and glucagon response to oral glucose remain unaffected in GCK-diabetes, reflecting important pathogenetic differences between the two MODY forms....

  4. Oral salmon calcitonin protects against impaired fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and obesity induced by high-fat diet and ovariectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigh, Michael; Andreassen, Kim V; Hjuler, Sara T; Nielsen, Rasmus H; Christiansen, Claus; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2013-07-01

    Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) has demonstrated clinical efficacy in treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal state is also associated with obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of oral sCT on energy and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet (HFD)- and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced obese rats. Furthermore, the weight-regulatory and gluco-regulatory effects of short-term oral sCT intervention on HFD-induced obese rats were explored. For prevention, female rats exposed to HFD with or without OVX were treated with oral sCT for 5 weeks. As intervention, HFD-induced obese male rats were treated with oral sCT for 4 days. Body weight, food intake, and plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were measured, and the clinical homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. In addition, oral glucose tolerance was evaluated in the systemic and portal circulations. For prevention, oral sCT reduced body weight by ∼16% to 19% (P fasting glycemia (P obesity. Furthermore, oral sCT significantly reduced the incremental area under the curve for plasma glucose and insulin by ∼40% and ∼70%, respectively, during glucose tolerance testing. As intervention in HFD-induced obese rats, oral sCT reduced body weight, fasting glycemia, and insulinemia in conjunction with HOMA-IR (P obese rats, indicating the clinical usefulness of oral sCT in postmenopausal obesity-related IR and type 2 diabetes.

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORAL OLANZAPINE AND ORAL HALOPERIDOL ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N S Sangeetha Lakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by persistent defects in the perception, thinking or the expression of reality. The term “schizophrenia” translates roughly as “shattered mind,” and comes from the Greek (schizo, “to split” or “to divide” and (phrēn, “mind”. Material and Methods: The study was designed to be a prospective control study. Schizophrenic patients taking Olanzapine and Haloperidol were selected and follow up at three weeks and six weeks was done. Results: In this prospective control study, Olanzapine and Haloperidol were associated with an increase in Blood Glucose Levels. The mean changes in Glucose remained within clinically normal range in this six week study. Conclusion: Antipsychotic treatmemt leads to the development of Diabetes mellitus in a significant 10.1% of patients within 6 weeks. Given the serious implications for morbidity and mortality attributable to diabetes mellitus, clinicians need to be aware of these risk factors when treating patients with chronic schizophrenia

  6. Serum proatrial natriuretic peptide concentrations during oral glucose-induced acute hyperinsulinemia in lean and obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2018-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is primarily seen as a hormone involved in salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Evidence supports a link between metabolism and ANP. Circulating ANP concentrations are low in obese individuals with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia....... The dynamic relationship between insulin and ANP has been sparsely studied. We therefore measured circulating concentrations of midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), a stable marker of ANP secretion, and insulin in lean and obese men during an oral glucose challenge. One hundred and three...... obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥30.0 kg/m2) were compared with 27 lean men (BMI = 20.0-24.9 kg/m2). During a 75 g oral glucose challenge, circulating concentrations of MR-proANP and insulin were measured at baseline and every half hour for 2 h. Fasting MR-proANP concentrations were lower in the obese...

  7. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  8. Proglucagon products in plasma of noninsulin-dependent diabetics and nondiabetic controls in the fasting state and after oral glucose and intravenous arginine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Jeppesen, J; Madsbad, S

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the major products of proglucagon (PG) processing in plasma in the fasting state, after intravenous arginine and after an oral glucose load in noninsulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM) and in weight matched controls using specific radioimmunoassays and analytical gel filtration...... integrated incremental responses after intravenous arginine were identical in the two groups. After oral glucose the insulin concentrations in plasma were lower and the concentrations of all proglucagon products were higher in the NIDDM group compared to the control group. The gel filtration analysis showed....... In the fasting state the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) immunoreactivity was significantly elevated in the NIDDM group compared with the control group. Both after intravenous arginine and after an oral glucose load a rise in the plasma concentrations of all immunoreactive moieties measured was seen. All...

  9. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models.

  10. Preserved glucagon-like peptide-1 responses to oral glucose, but reduced incretin effect, insulin secretion and sensitivity in young Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    are scarce. We examined the insulin resistance, β-cell function (BC), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 hormone and incretin effect in Asian YT2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This case-control study recruited 25 Asian YT2DM and 15 healthy controls, matched for gender, ethnicity and body mass index. Serum......OBJECTIVE: Youth onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (YT2DM) is a globally rising phenomenon with substantial Asians representation. The understanding of its pathophysiology is derived largely from studies in the obese African-American and Caucasian populations, while studies on incretin effect...... glucose, insulin, C peptide and GLP-1 were sampled during 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and 1-hour intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs). Insulin sensitivity was derived from the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), Oral Glucose Insulin Sensitivity Index (OGIS...

  11. Greater Glycaemic Response to an Oral Glucose Load in Healthy, Lean, Active and Young Chinese Adults Compared to Matched Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Simper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of a group of Chinese participants (n = 49 with a group of similar Caucasians, (n = 48 aged 23.8 (±4.35 years, body mass index (BMI 22.7 (±2.6 kg/m2, healthy (free from non-communicable disease, and lean (body fat % 23.28% (±5.04. Participants undertook an oral glucose tolerance test to identify any significant differences in postprandial blood glucose response. Body fat percentage, body mass, age, physical activity, baseline glucose and HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups. Data from food frequency questionnaires indicated that the Chinese participants consumed less starchy foods, candy and “other” sweets and sugary drinks, and more rice than the Caucasians (all p ≤ 0.001, but not a greater overall intake of carbohydrates or any other macronutrient (all p > 0.05. The two groups’ postprandial blood glucose responses and 2-h incremental area under the curve values (iAUC—156.67 (74.12 mmol/L 120 min for Caucasians versus 214.03 (77.49 mmol/L 120 min for Chinese—indicate significant differences (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively between groups. Findings suggest that the difference between the two groups’ iAUC values do not relate to obvious lifestyle factors. The Chinese group were eating the least sugary and starchy food but had the highest iAUC. It is argued that the Chinese group in this investigation have the most favourable BMI, body fat percentage, and body mass, yet “poorest” glycaemic response.

  12. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marlene Coelho da; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Barbara Gastal Borges; Fortes Filho, João Borges; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight relief.

  13. Co-ordination of hepatic and adipose tissue lipid metabolism after oral glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Simonsen, L; Wiggins, D

    1999-01-01

    The integration of lipid metabolism in the splanchnic bed and in subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after ingestion of a 75 g glucose load was studied by Fick's principle in seven healthy subjects. Six additional subjects were studied during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Release of non...

  14. A minimally invasive system for glucose area under the curve measurement using interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of the accuracy and usefulness with oral glucose tolerance tests in subjects with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of managing postprandial hyperglycemia, but adequate monitoring of postprandial glucose remains difficult because of wide variations in levels. We have therefore developed a minimally invasive system to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC). This system involves no blood sampling and uses interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC (IG-AUC) as a surrogate marker of postprandial glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this system by comparing data with the findings of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in subjects with and without diabetes. The glucose AUC monitoring system was validated by OGTTs in 37 subjects with and 10 subjects without diabetes. A plastic microneedle array was stamped on the forearm to extract IG. A hydrogel patch was then placed on the pretreated area to accumulate IG. Glucose and sodium ion concentrations in the hydrogel were measured to calculate IG-AUC at 2-h postload glucose. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min to calculate reference PG-AUC. IG-AUC correlated strongly with reference PG-AUC (r=0.93) over a wide range. The level of correlation between IG-AUC and maximum PG level was also high (r=0.86). The painless nature of the technique was confirmed by the response of patients to questionnaires. The glucose AUC monitoring system using IG provided good estimates of reference PG-AUC and maximum PG level during OGTTs in subjects with and without diabetes. This system provides easy-to-use monitoring of glucose AUC, which is a good indicator of postprandial glucose.

  15. CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J Mice Differ in Their Oral and Postoral Attraction to Glucose and Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Vural, Austin S; Ackroff, Karen

    2017-03-01

    A recent study indicated that CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J mice differ in their taste preferences for maltodextrin but display similar sucrose preferences. The present study revealed strain differences in preferences for the constituent sugars of sucrose. Whereas B6 mice preferred 8% glucose to 8% fructose in 2-day tests, the CAST mice preferred fructose to glucose. These preferences emerged with repeated testing which suggested post-oral influences. In a second experiment, 2-day choice tests were conducted with the sugars versus a sucralose + saccharin (SS) mixture which is highly preferred in brief access tests. B6 mice strongly preferred glucose but not fructose to the non-nutritive SS whereas CAST mice preferred SS to both glucose and fructose even when food restricted. This implied that CAST mice are insensitive to the postoral appetite stimulating actions of the 2 sugars. A third experiment revealed, however, that intragastric glucose and fructose infusions conditioned significant but mild flavor preferences in CAST mice, whereas in B6 mice glucose conditioned a robust preference but fructose was ineffective. Thus, unlike other mouse strains and rats, glucose is not more reinforcing than fructose in CAST mice. Their oral preference for fructose over glucose may be related to a subsensitive maltodextrin receptor or glucose-specific receptor which is stimulated by glucose but not fructose. The failure of CAST mice to prefer glucose to a non-nutritive sweetener distinguishes this strain from other mouse strains and rats. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. ["Entero-insular axis" and regulation of blood sugar and insulin levels following oral glucose loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, B G

    1978-11-01

    The mineral water Essentuki 17 administered per so with glucose exerted a modifying effect on the regulation of glycaemia and insulinaemia in intact rats. This effect undergoes a few phases of changing and disappears by the 30th day. Under conditions of this adaptation, the glycaemia regulation is somewhat worsening. After i.v. administration of glucose during this period the regulation of glycaemia and insulinaemia remains unaltered. This suggests that the mineral water exerts its biological effect, mainly, on the entero-insular axis system (Unger and Eisentraut, 1969) and that the modifying effect is due not to a concrete complex of the mineral water electrolytes but rather to the unspecific factor of "perturbation" in the enteral medium.

  17. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  18. Cordyceps sinensis Oral Liquid Inhibits Damage Induced by Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Xin; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ruan, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jia-Chun; Chu, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It has been demonstrated to have a variety of biological activities, and an extract of it has been demonstrated to possess a protective effect in occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia of the middle cerebral artery in rats. It could be explored as an agent for treatment of ischemic stroke, and the mechanisms need to be studied further. The study intended to investigate the protective effects of the Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) against damage induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in SH-SY5Y cells. DESIGN • The research team designed an in vitro study. The study occurred at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Shanghai, China. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to CSOL in doses of 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL, creating 5 intervention groups. The OGD condition was induced by transfer of the cells from high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in a box gassed with air containing 5% CO2 to glucose-free DMEM in a box gassed with 94% N2, 5% CO2, and 1% O2. Like the cells for the interventions groups, the cells for a model group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM and were transferred to the OGD, but they received no dose of COSL. Cells in a control group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM, were not transferred to the OGD condition, and did not receive any dose of COSL. Cell viability was assayed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by flow cytometry, and the protein expression of caspase-3 was observed by western blot. After exposure to OGD, the cell viability of cells treated with 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL of CSOL increased in a dose-effect relationship. Compared with the cells in the model group, the treatment of CSOL at all the experimental concentrations significantly inhibited both the cell apoptosis

  19. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  20. Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, William R; Fletcher, Emily A; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better controlled are warranted to further explore these findings.

  1. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S V; Tillin, T; Mayet, J; Shibata, D K; Wright, A; Heasman, J; Beauchamp, N; Forouhi, N G; Hughes, A D; Chaturvedi, N

    2016-03-01

    We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South Asian origin. For 682 European and 520 South Asian men and women, aged 58-85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist-hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c -defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c -defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P = 0.04]. Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the South Asian than in the European

  2. Factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus: decision-curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M; Nagao, Y; Mahbub, M H; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Y

    2018-04-29

    To identify factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus, using decision-curve analysis. A retrospective cohort study was performed. The participants were 123 Japanese women with gestational diabetes who underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests at 8-12 weeks after delivery. They were divided into a glucose intolerance and a normal glucose tolerance group based on postpartum oral glucose tolerance test results. Analysis of the pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results showed predictive factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. We also evaluated the clinical usefulness of the prediction model based on decision-curve analysis. Of 123 women, 78 (63.4%) had normoglycaemia and 45 (36.6%) had glucose intolerance. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin and summation of glucose levels, assessed during pregnancy oral glucose tolerance tests (total glucose), to be independent risk factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. Evaluating the regression models, the best discrimination (area under the curve 0.725) was obtained using the basic model (i.e. age, family history of diabetes, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and use of insulin during pregnancy) plus insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin intolerance. Insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin calculated using oral glucose tolerance test results during pregnancy is potentially useful for predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Change of Oral to Topical Corticosteroid Therapy Exacerbated Glucose Tolerance in a Patient with Plaque Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Yui; Ashida, Kenji; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Yamaguchi, Miyuki; Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Emoto, Akiko; Yamanouchi, Hiroko; Takagi, Satoko; Mori, Hitoe; Kawata, Nozomi; Hisata, Yoshio; Sakanishi, Yuta; Izumi, Kenichi; Sugioka, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 80 Final Diagnosis: Plaque psoriasis• drug induced diabetes Symptoms: Hyperglycemia• adrenocortical dysfunction Medication: Oral steroid• Topical steroid• Insulin Clinical Procedure: Changing route and strength of steroid administration Specialty: Endocrinology• Dermatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Psoriasis is known as the most frequent disease treated by long-term topical steroids. It is also known that patients with thick, chronic plaques require the highest poten...

  4. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    classes. Results: Four distinct glucose patterns during the OGTT were identified. One pattern was characterised by high 30 min but low 2 h glucose values. Participants with this pattern had an increased risk of developing diabetes compared with participants with lower 30 min and 2 h glucose levels (HR 4...

  5. Insulin monotherapy compared with the addition of oral glucose-lowering agents to insulin for people with type 2 diabetes already on insulin therapy and inadequate glycaemic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C; van Avendonk, Mariëlle JP; Jansen, Hanneke; Goudswaard, Alexander N; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees; Kerssen, Anneloes; Rutten, Guy EHM

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether people with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy who do not achieve adequate glycaemic control should continue insulin as monotherapy or can benefit from adding oral glucose-lowering agents to the insulin therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of

  6. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haoming; Fu Qiang; Tian Xiaoping; Su Cainu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  7. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally......GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  9. GLP-1 Response to Oral Glucose is Reduced in Pre-diabetes, Screen-detected Type 2 Diabetes, and Obesity and Influenced by Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kristine; Torekov, Signe S; Vistisen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    concentrations of glucose, insulin and GLP-1 during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were analyzed in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=774), pre-diabetes (n=523) or screen-detected type 2 diabetes (n=163) who attended the Danish ADDITION-PRO study (n=1,462). Compared with individuals...... with NGT, women with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes had 25% lower GLP-1 response to an OGTT, and both men and women with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes had 16-21% lower 120-min GLP-1 concentrations independent of age and obesity. Obese and overweight individuals had 20% reduced GLP-1 response to oral...

  10. Secretion of incretin hormones (GIP and GLP-1) and incretin effect after oral glucose in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Gabrys, Bartholomäus

    2004-01-01

    ) and an "isoglycaemic" intravenous glucose infusion. Blood was drawn over 240 min for plasma glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1; specific immunoassays). RESULTS: The pattern of glucose concentrations could precisely be copied by the intravenous glucose infusion (p=0......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Since insulin secretion in response to exogenous gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished not only in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also in their normal glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives, it was the aim to investigate the integrity of the entero-insular axis...... in such subjects. METHODS: Sixteen first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (4 male, 12 female, age 50+/-12 years, BMI 26.1+/-3.8 kg/m(2)) and 10 matched healthy controls (negative family history, 6 male, 4 female, 45+/-13 years, 26.1+/-4.2 kg/m(2)) were examined with an oral glucose load (75 g...

  11. TNFα dynamics during the oral glucose tolerance test vary according to the level of insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2014-05-01

    TNFα is suspected to play a role in inflammation and insulin resistance leading to higher risk of metabolic impairment. Controversies exist concerning the role of TNFα in gestational insulin resistance. We investigated the interrelations between TNFα and insulin resistance in a large population-based cohort of pregnant women. Women (n = 756) were followed prospectively at 5-16 weeks and 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were collected at both visits. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted at the second trimester to assess insulin sensitivity status (homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index). TNFα was measured at the first trimester (nonfasting) and at each time point of the OGTT. Participants were 28.4 ± 4.4 years old and had a mean body mass index of 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2) at first trimester. Median TNFα levels were 1.56 (interquartile range, 1.18-2.06) pg/mL at first trimester and 1.61 (interquartile range, 1.12-2.13) pg/mL at second trimester (1 h after glucose load). At second trimester, higher TNFα levels were associated with higher insulin resistance index levels (r = 0.37 and -0.30 for homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index, respectively; P insulin resistance showed a continuing decrease in TNFα levels during the OGTT, whereas women who were more insulin sensitive showed an increase in TNFα at hour 1 and a decrease at hour 2 of the test. Higher insulin resistance is associated with higher levels of circulating TNFα at first and second trimesters of pregnancy. TNFα level dynamics during an OGTT at second trimester vary according to insulin-resistance state.

  12. Glucose-reducing effect of the ORMD-0801 oral insulin preparation in patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Eldor

    Full Text Available The unpredictable behavior of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes often involves frequent swings in blood glucose levels that impact maintenance of a daily routine. An intensified insulin regimen is often unsuccessful, while other therapeutic options, such as amylin analog injections, use of continuous glucose sensors, and islet or pancreas transplantation are of limited clinical use. In efforts to provide patients with a more compliable treatment method, Oramed Pharmaceuticals tested the capacity of its oral insulin capsule (ORMD-0801, 8 mg insulin in addressing this resistant clinical state. Eight Type I diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c: 7.5-10% were monitored throughout the 15-day study period by means of a blind continuous glucose monitoring device. Baseline patient blood glucose behavior was monitored and recorded over a five-day pretreatment screening period. During the ensuing ten-day treatment phase, patients were asked to conduct themselves as usual and to self-administer an oral insulin capsule three times daily, just prior to meal intake. CGM data sufficient for pharmacodynamics analyses were obtained from 6 of the 8 subjects. Treatment with ORMD-0801 was associated with a significant 24.4% reduction in the frequencies of glucose readings >200 mg/dL (60.1 ± 7.9% pretreatment vs. 45.4 ± 4.9% during ORMD-0801 treatment; p = 0.023 and a significant mean 16.6% decrease in glucose area under the curve (AUC (66055 ± 5547 mg/dL/24 hours vs. 55060 ± 3068 mg/dL/24 hours, p = 0.023, with a greater decrease during the early evening hours. In conclusion, ORMD-0801 oral insulin capsules in conjunction with subcutaneous insulin injections, well tolerated and effectively reduced glycemia throughout the day.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00867594.

  13. Oral glucose tolerance test significantly impacts the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from a large database of two tertiary care centers on the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Dhingra, Atul; Nisar, Sobia; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Rashid, Aafia; Masoodi, Shariq; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and analyze the role of oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) test on its estimation. Cross-sectional clinical study. Tertiary care center. A total of 2,014 women with PCOS diagnosed on the basis of the Rotterdam 2003 criteria were enrolled, and the data of 1,746 subjects were analyzed. In addition to recording clinical, biochemical, and hormone parameters, a 75 g OGTT was administered. Prevalence of AGT and impact of age, body mass index (BMI), family history, and OGTT on its prevalence. The mean age of subjects was 23.8 ± 5.3 years, with a mean BMI of 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). The overall prevalence of AGT was 36.3% (6.3% diabetes and 30% impaired fasting plasma glucose/impaired glucose tolerance) using American Diabetes Association criteria. The glucose intolerance showed a rising trend with advancing age (30.3%, 35.4%, 51%, and 58.8% in the second, third, fourth, and fifth decades, respectively) and increasing BMI. Family history of diabetes mellitus was present in 54.6% (953/1,746) subjects, and it did not correlate with any of the studied parameters except waist circumference and BMI. Sensitivity was better with 2-hour post-OGTT glucose values as compared with fasting plasma glucose, since using fasting plasma glucose alone would have missed the diagnosis in 107 (6.1%) subjects. We conclude that AGT is high among young Indian women with PCOS and that it is not predicted by family history of type 2 DM. OGTT significantly improves the detection rate of AGT among Indian women with PCOS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Oral glucose and breast milk as a strategy for pain reduction during the heel lance procedure in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Mur Villar, Norma; García García, Inmaculada; Rodríguez López, María Ascensión; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on pain reduction in newborns that undergo painful medical procedures. This research analyzed the reactions of babies before and after the heel lance procedure, a diagnostic test performed to detect phenylketonuria. This test involved the extraction of a capillary blood sample with a heel lance, a medical procedure that is painful for neonates. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 24% oral glucose solution and breastfeeding during heal lance. An experimental study was thus conducted on a sample of 93 newborns in the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada in 2010. The babies in the sample were divided into three groups, depending on what they ingested during the heal lance. The results obtained showed that there was an association between the difference in HR and the time before the newborn's HR returned to normal after the heel lance (r = 0.562; p = 0.000). Moreover, a positive relation was found between the absolute difference in HR and the difference in oxygen saturation (OS) (r = 0.538; p = 0.000). The OS was found to be greater in the group of newborns that received breast milk. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Roles of NMDA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences conditioned by oral glucose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Icaza-Cukali, D; Khalifa, N; Bodnar, R J

    2014-10-01

    Animals learn to prefer flavors associated with the intake of sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose) and fat (corn oil: CO) solutions. Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) have been elicited for sugars based on orosensory (flavor-flavor: e.g., fructose-CFP) and post-ingestive (flavor-nutrient: e.g., intragastric (IG) glucose-CFP) processes. Dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism differentially eliminate the acquisition and expression of fructose-CFP and IG glucose-CFP. However, pharmacological analysis of fat (CO)-CFP, mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes, indicated that acquisition and expression of fat-CFP were minimally affected by systemic DA D1 and D2 antagonists, and were reduced by NMDA antagonism. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic DA D1 (SCH23390), DA D2 (raclopride) or NMDA (MK-801) receptor antagonists altered acquisition and/or expression of CFP induced by oral glucose that should be mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. Oral glucose-CFP was elicited following by training rats to drink one novel flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) mixed in 8% glucose and another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) mixed in 2% glucose. In expression studies, food-restricted rats drank these solutions in one-bottle sessions (2 h) over 10 days. Subsequent two-bottle tests with the CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 2% glucose occurred 0.5 h after systemic administration of vehicle (VEH), SCH23390 (50-800 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-800 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (50-200 μg/kg). Rats displayed a robust CS+ preference following VEH treatment (94-95%) which was significantly though marginally attenuated by SCH23390 (67-70%), raclopride (77%) or MK-801 (70%) at doses that also markedly reduced overall CS intake. In separate acquisition studies, rats received VEH, SCH23390 (50-400 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-400 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (100 μg/kg) 0.5 h prior to ten 1-bottle training trials with CS+/8%G and CS-/2%G training solutions that was

  16. The Type 2 Diabetes Associated Minor Allele of rs2237895 KCNQ1 Associates with Reduced Insulin Release Following an Oral Glucose Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunak, Søren; Holmkvist, J; Banasik, K

    2009-01-01

    , and rs2237897) on estimates of glucose stimulated insulin release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes were examined for associations with serum insulin levels following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population-based sample of 6,039 middle-aged and treatment-naïve individuals. Insulin...... release indices estimated from the OGTT and the interplay between insulin sensitivity and insulin release were investigated using linear regression and Hotelling T2 analyses. Applying an additive genetic model the minor C-allele of rs2237895 was associated with reduced serum insulin levels 30 min (mean......,568 individuals who were glucose tolerant. Adjustment for the degree of insulin sensitivity had no effect on the measures of reduced insulin release. The rs2237895 genotype had a similar impact in the total sample of treatment-naïve individuals. No association with measures of insulin release were identified...

  17. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  18. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Kühn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT, whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings.

  19. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  20. Plasma levels of leptin, omentin, collagenous repeat-containing sequence of 26-kDa protein (CORS-26 and adiponectin before and after oral glucose uptake in slim adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäffler Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue secreted proteins are collectively named adipocytokines and include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, collagenous repeat-containing sequence of 26-kDa protein (CORS-26 and omentin. Several of these adipocytokines influence insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism and therefore systemic levels may be affected by oral glucose uptake. Whereas contradictory results have been published for leptin and adiponectin, resistin has not been extensively investigated and no reports on omentin and CORS-26 do exist. Methods Therefore the plasma levels of these proteins before and 120 min after an oral glucose load were analyzed in 20 highly-insulin sensitive, young adults by ELISA or immunoblot. Results Circulating leptin was reduced 2 h after glucose uptake whereas adiponectin and resistin levels are not changed. Distribution of adiponectin and CORS-26 isoforms were similar before and after glucose ingestion. Omentin is highly abundant in plasma and immunoblot analysis revealed no alterations when plasma levels before and 2 h after glucose intake were compared. Conclusion Taken together our data indicate that only leptin is reduced by glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive probands whereas adiponectin and resistin are not altered. CORS-26 was demonstrated for the first time to circulate as high molecular weight form in plasma and like omentin was not influenced by oral glucose load. Omentin was shown to enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake but systemic levels are not correlated to postprandial blood glucose.

  1. Response variability to glucose facilitation of cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew; Finnegan, Yvonne; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I

    2013-11-01

    Glucose facilitation of cognitive function has been widely reported in previous studies (including our own). However, several studies have also failed to detect glucose facilitation. There is sparsity of research examining the factors that modify the effect of glucose on cognition. The aims of the present study were to (1) demonstrate the previously observed enhancement of cognition through glucose administration and (2) investigate some of the factors that may exert moderating roles on the behavioural response to glucose, including glucose regulation, body composition (BC) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response. A total of twenty-four participants took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, repeated-measures study, which examined the effect of 25 and 60 g glucose compared with placebo on cognitive function. At 1 week before the study commencement, all participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose facilitated performance on tasks of numeric and spatial working memory, verbal declarative memory and speed of recognition. Moderating variables were examined using several indices of glucoregulation and BC. Poorer glucoregulation predicted improved immediate word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. Those with better glucoregulation showed performance decrements on word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. These findings are in line with accumulating evidence that glucose load may preferentially enhance cognition in those with poorer glucoregulation. Furthermore, the finding that individuals with better glucoregulation may suffer impaired performance following a glucose load is novel and requires further substantiation.

  2. A Study of the Insulin and the C-Peptide Responses to Oral Glucose Load in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sung Jae; Kim, Eung Jin; Koh, Chang Soon; Min, Hun Ki [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1977-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of the insulin and the C-peptide response to oral glucose loads in normal and diabetic subjects and to establish the effects of the obesity. In this study, the authors have measured plasma insulin and C-peptide by means of radioimmunoassay in 10 nonobese normal, 5 obese normal, 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, 9 obese moderate diabetic patients and 9 severe diabetic patients. The results obtained were as follows; 1) In 10 nonobese normal subjects, the plasma insulin level at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after oral glucose loads were 15.7+-3.4, 48.3+-9.8, 40.4+-6.7, 37.4+-6.5 and 26.0+-4.2 uU/ml (Mean+-S.E.) and C-peptide were 1.9+-0.3, 3.9+-0.6, 6.3+-0.6, 5.7+-0.5 and 4.0+-0.5 ng/ml. The change of C-peptide was found to go almost parallel with that of insulin and the insulin value reaches to the highest level at 30 min whereas C-peptide reaches to its peak at 60 min.. 2) The plasma insulin level in 5 obese normal subjects were 38.9+-12.3, 59.5+-12.3, 59.2+-17.1, 56.1+-20.0 and 48.4+-17.2 uU/ml and the C-peptide were 5.5+-0.4, 6.8+-0.5, 7.9+-0.8, 7.9+-0.8 and 7.8+-2.0 ng/ml. The insulin response appeared to be greater than nonobese normal subjects. 3) In 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 27.1+-4.9, 44.1+-6.0, 37.3+-6.6, 35.5+-8.1 and 34.7+-10.7 uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 2.7+-0.4, 4.9+-0.7, 6.5+-0.5, 7.0+-0.3 and 6.7+-1.0 ng/ml. There was little significance compared to nonobese normal groups but delayed pattern is noted. 4) In 9 obese moderated diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 22.1+-7.9, 80.0+-19.3, 108.0+-27.0, 62.0+-17.6 and 55.5+-10.l uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 5.2+-0.4, 8.0+-1.0, 10.4+-1.6, 10.4+-1.7 and 10.1+-1.0 ng/ml and its response was also greater than that of nonobese moderate diabetic patients. 5) The plasma insulin concentrations in 9 severe diabetic subjects were 8.0+-3.8, 12.1+-3.5, 16.8+-4.6, 19

  3. [Impact of area under the curve of oral glucose tolerance test on pregnant woman with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyue; Su, Shiping; Liu, Chunhong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Huixia

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether area under the curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could work as a predictor of outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on condition that blood glucose is controlled. A total of 1 796 women who had a standard antenatal care in Peking University First Hospital and gave single live births from July 1, 2011 to December 31, 2 013 were included. They should be diagnosed of GDM by the diagnosis criteria of gestational diabetes published by the Ministry of Health of PRC and diabetes pre-pregnancy excluded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0, grouping by AUC. (1) Women with higher AUC had a rising trend of age and a downward trend of gestational weight gain, however, not statistically significant [specifically, in the four group of less than 15.00 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹, 15.00 to 16.79 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹, 16.80 to 17.99 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹ and 18.00 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹ or more, gestational weight gain was (15.3 ± 5.2), (14.1 ± 4.8), (13.5 ± 4.7) and (13.1 ± 4.8) kg]. The prevalence of macrosomia raised while AUC increased. Those with an AUC of lower than 15.00 (mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹) had a lower risk of macrosomia (P = 0.04). But those with an AUC of 18.00 (mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹) or more had a higher risk of macrosomia (P = 0.02). There was a rising trend in premature birth and preeclampsia with AUC increasing but not significant (the prevalence of premature birth was 4.38%, 5.36%, 7.71% and 7.94% while that of preeclampsia was 2.85%, 4.69%, 4.67% and 5.08% in these four groups). (2) The prevalence of macrosomia was 12.76% (54/423) when overweight pre-pregnancy, significantly higher compared with 5.87% (65/1 107) in normal group. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 5.91% (25/423) and 3.34% (37/1 107) in those two groups, which was also significantly different. The obese group had a statistically highest prevalence of preeclampsia of 9.23% (12/130). (3) AUC (P AUC, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI and

  4. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  5. Chapter 10: Glucose control: insulin therapy*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin and its analogues lower blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, especially by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin inhibits ... control on 2 or 3 oral glucose lowering drugs.

  6. Metabolic and haemodynamic effects of oral glucose loading in young healthy men carrying the 825T-allele of the G protein β3 subunit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Rene R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A C825T polymorphism was recently identified in the gene encoding the β3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins (GNB3. The T-allele is significantly associated with essential hypertension and obesity. In order to further explore a possible pathogenetic link between the T-allele and impaired glucose tolerance we studied metabolic and haemodynamic responses to oral glucose loading in young, healthy subjects with and without the 825T-allele. Methods Twelve subjects with and 10 without the 825T-allele were investigated at rest and following glucose ingestion (75 g. Blood glucose, serum insulin and haemodynamics were determined prior to and over 2 hours following glucose ingestion. We non-invasively measured stroke volume (SV, by impedance-cardiography, blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, and systolic-time-intervals. Cardiac output (CO was calculated from HR and SV. Total peripheral resistance was calculated from CO and BP. Metabolic and haemodynamic changes were quantified by maximal responses and by calculation of areas under the concentration time profile (AUC. Significances of differences between subjects with and without the T-allele were determined by unpaired two-tailed t-tests. A p Results Metabolic and haemodynamic parameters at baseline were very similar between both groups. The presence of the T-allele did not alter the response of any metabolic or haemodynamic parameter to glucose loading. Conclusions In conclusion, this study does not support the hypothesis that the C825T polymorphism may serve as a genetic marker of early impaired glucose tolerance.

  7. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E; Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Eliasson, B; Räsänen, S M; Rivellese, A; Patti, L; Prinster, A; Riccardi, G; Després, J-P; Alméras, N; Holst, J J; Deacon, C F; Borén, J; Taskinen, M-R

    2017-06-01

    Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m 2 ) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal were unchanged. Postprandial TG response increased significantly, p = 0.004, and we observed small but significant increases in weight and liver fat content, but not in visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. However, even the subgroups who gained weight or liver fat during fructose intervention did not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  8. Evaluation of fasting state-/oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin release for the detection of genetically impaired β-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke A Herzberg-Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05. The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30 as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, corrected insulin response (CIR, AUC(C-Peptide(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120, two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0-30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI(2 and IGI(1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05. AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120 was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With AUC(Insulin(0

  9. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, A D M; Rutters, F; Rauh, S P

    2018-01-01

    . We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline...... and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC...... responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest...

  10. Drug-drug interactions with sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, new oral glucose-lowering agents for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment.

  11. Effects of oral glucose-lowering drugs on long term outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus following myocardial infarction not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention--a retrospective nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Casper H; Gislason, Gunnar H; Andersson, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The optimum oral pharmacological treatment of diabetes mellitus to reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality following myocardial infarction has not been established. We therefore set out to investigate the association between individual oral glucose-lowering drugs and cardiovascular outcomes...... following myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention....

  12. Role of various indices derived from an oral glucose tolerance test in the prediction of conversion from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye An; Ku, Eu Jeong; Khang, Ah Reum; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2014-11-01

    The clinical implications of prediabetes for development of type 2 diabetes may differ for Asian ethnicity. We investigated various indices derived from a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with prediabetes to predict their future risk of diabetes. We recruited 406 consecutive subjects with prediabetes from 2005 to 2006 and followed them up every 3-6 months for up to 9 years. Prediabetes was defined as isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), combined glucose intolerance (CGI), or isolated elevated HbA1c (5.7-6.4%, 39-46 mmol/mol) without IFG or IGT. The rate of diabetes conversion was compared between prediabetes categories. The association of glycemic indices with development of diabetes was also investigated. Eighty-one patients were diagnosed with diabetes during the 9-year follow-up (median 46.0 months). The rate of diabetes conversion was higher in subjects with CGI (31.9%), or isolated IGT (18.5%) than in those with isolated IFG (15.2%) or isolated elevated HbA1c (10.9%). Surrogate markers reflecting β-cell dysfunction were more closely associated with diabetes conversion than insulin resistance indices. Subjects with a 30-min postload glucose ≥ 165 mg/dL and a 30-min C-peptide prediabetic subjects. In Asians, at least Koreans, β-cell dysfunction seems to be the major determinant for diabetes conversion. A combination of high glucose and low C-peptide levels at 30 min after OGTT may be a good predictor for diabetes conversion in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen on IGF1, IGFBP3, IGFBP1, serum lipids, and glucose in patients with hypopituitarism during GH treatment: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotton, Ana Lúcia; Wender, Maria Celeste Osorio; Casagrande, Alessandra; Rollin, Guilherme; Czepielewski, Mauro Antônio

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral estradiol and transdermal 17β-estradiol on serum concentrations of IGF1 and its binding proteins in women with hypopituitarism. Prospective, comparative study. Eleven patients with hypopituitarism were randomly allocated to receive 2 mg oral estradiol (n=6) or 50 μg/day of transdermal 17β-estradiol (n=5) for 3 months. The oral estrogen group showed a significant reduction in IGF1 levels (mean: 42.7%±41.4, P=0.046); no difference was observed in the transdermal estrogen group. There was a significant increase in IGFBP1 levels (mean: 170.2%±230.9, P=0.028) in the oral group, but not in the transdermal group. There was no significant difference within either group in terms of median IGFBP3 levels. In relation to lipid profiles, there was a significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the oral group after 3 months of treatment, (27.8±9.3, P=0.003). We found no differences in the anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, or the homeostasis model assessment index after treatment. Our preliminary data indicate that different estrogen administration routes can influence IGF1 and IGFBP1 levels. These findings in patients with hypopituitarism have an impact on their response to treatment with GH, since patients receiving oral estrogen require increased GH dosage. These results suggest that oral estrogens may reduce the beneficial effects of GH replacement on fat and protein metabolism, body composition, and quality of life.

  14. Dietary patterns predict changes in two-hour post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose concentrations in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cathrine; Toft, Ulla; Tetens, Inge; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-03-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and whether a potential association was dependent on baseline glucose tolerance status. Through principal component analysis, a score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of high-fat sandwich spreads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, sandwich meat, and sauces) and a score for a modern dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, vegetable oil/vinegar dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals) were estimated for each person at baseline. Random effect models adjusting for relevant confounders were used to estimate changes in repetitive measures of FPG and 2h-PG. A higher modern score (of 1 SD) predicted an annual decrease in 2h-PG of 0.015 mmol/L (P dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals.

  15. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The minor C-allele of rs2014355 in ACADS is associated with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbak, Malene; Banasik, Karina; Justesen, Johanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    -aged Danish individuals (nACADS=4,324; nACADM=4,337). The T2D-case-control study involved a total of ~8,300 Danish individuals (nACADS=8,313; nACADM=8,344). Results In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS associated with reduced measures of serum insulin at 30 min following...... an oral glucose load (per allele effect (beta)=-3.8% (-6.3%;-1.3%), P=0.003), reduced incremental area under the insulin curve (beta=-3.6% (-6.3%;-0.9%), P=0.009), reduced acute insulin response (beta=-2.2% (-4.2%;0.2%), P=0.03), and with increased insulin sensitivity ISIMatsuda (beta= 2.9% (0.5%;5.2%), P...

  17. A Study of the Insulin and the C-Peptide Responses to Oral Glucose Load in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sung Jae; Kim, Eung Jin; Koh, Chang Soon; Min, Hun Ki

    1977-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of the insulin and the C-peptide response to oral glucose loads in normal and diabetic subjects and to establish the effects of the obesity. In this study, the authors have measured plasma insulin and C-peptide by means of radioimmunoassay in 10 nonobese normal, 5 obese normal, 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, 9 obese moderate diabetic patients and 9 severe diabetic patients. The results obtained were as follows; 1) In 10 nonobese normal subjects, the plasma insulin level at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after oral glucose loads were 15.7±3.4, 48.3±9.8, 40.4±6.7, 37.4±6.5 and 26.0±4.2 uU/ml (Mean±S.E.) and C-peptide were 1.9±0.3, 3.9±0.6, 6.3±0.6, 5.7±0.5 and 4.0±0.5 ng/ml. The change of C-peptide was found to go almost parallel with that of insulin and the insulin value reaches to the highest level at 30 min whereas C-peptide reaches to its peak at 60 min.. 2) The plasma insulin level in 5 obese normal subjects were 38.9±12.3, 59.5±12.3, 59.2±17.1, 56.1±20.0 and 48.4±17.2 uU/ml and the C-peptide were 5.5±0.4, 6.8±0.5, 7.9±0.8, 7.9±0.8 and 7.8±2.0 ng/ml. The insulin response appeared to be greater than nonobese normal subjects. 3) In 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 27.1±4.9, 44.1±6.0, 37.3±6.6, 35.5±8.1 and 34.7±10.7 uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 2.7±0.4, 4.9±0.7, 6.5±0.5, 7.0±0.3 and 6.7±1.0 ng/ml. There was little significance compared to nonobese normal groups but delayed pattern is noted. 4) In 9 obese moderated diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 22.1±7.9, 80.0±19.3, 108.0±27.0, 62.0±17.6 and 55.5±10.l uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 5.2±0.4, 8.0±1.0, 10.4±1.6, 10.4±1.7 and 10.1±1.0 ng/ml and its response was also greater than that of nonobese moderate diabetic patients. 5) The plasma insulin concentrations in 9 severe diabetic subjects were 8.0±3.8, 12.1±3.5, 16.8±4.6, 19

  18. The type 2 diabetes associated minor allele of rs2237895 KCNQ1 associates with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Holmkvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the potassium channel, voltage-gated, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1 have recently been reported to associate with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the putative impact of these KCNQ1 polymorphisms (rs2283228, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897 on estimates of glucose stimulated insulin release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes were examined for associations with serum insulin levels following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in a population-based sample of 6,039 middle-aged and treatment-naïve individuals. Insulin release indices estimated from the OGTT and the interplay between insulin sensitivity and insulin release were investigated using linear regression and Hotelling T2 analyses. Applying an additive genetic model the minor C-allele of rs2237895 was associated with reduced serum insulin levels 30 min (mean+/-SD: (CC 277+/-160 vs. (AC 280+/-164 vs. (AA 299+/-200 pmol/l, p = 0.008 after an oral glucose load, insulinogenic index (29.6+/-17.4 vs. 30.2+/-18.7vs. 32.2+/-22.1, p = 0.007, incremental area under the insulin curve (20,477+/-12,491 vs. 20,503+/-12,386 vs. 21,810+/-14,685, p = 0.02 among the 4,568 individuals who were glucose tolerant. Adjustment for the degree of insulin sensitivity had no effect on the measures of reduced insulin release. The rs2237895 genotype had a similar impact in the total sample of treatment-naïve individuals. No association with measures of insulin release were identified for the less common diabetes risk alleles of rs2237892, rs2237897, or rs2283228. CONCLUSION: The minor C-allele of rs2237895 of KCNQ1, which has a prevalence of about 42% among Caucasians was associated with reduced measures of insulin release following an oral glucose load suggesting that the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, previously reported for this variant, likely is mediated through an impaired beta cell function.

  19. Gastric emptying of orally administered glucose solutions and incretin hormone responses are unaffected by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Hansen, Katrine B; Kristiansen, Viggo B

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) provides weight loss in obese individuals and is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and resolution of type 2 diabetes. However, in most available reports, potentially inappropriate methodology has been applied when measuring the impact...

  20. Heterogeneity of high-density lipoprotein particles and insulin output during oral glucose tolerance test in men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, J; Kwaśniak, M; Wybrańska, I; Hartwich, J; Guevara, I; Zdzienicka, A; Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska, O; Piwowarska, W; Miszczuk-Jamska, B; Dembińska-Kieć, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and particle heterogeneity in 60 nonobese (normal body mass index, BMI) men suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) with normolipemia and normoinsulinemia with lower and higher insulin output during the oral glucose tolerance test (silent hyperinsulinemia). The apolipoprotein apoAI, apoAII, and apoE levels were higher in the high insulin response (HI) group than in low insulin response (LI) group. The ratio of apoAI versus total protein and the ratio of apoAI versus total cholesterol were increased in HI compared with LI. The lipid components in HDL were higher in LI than in HI, while for HDL2 they were higher in HI. The fractioning of HDL by gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a different pattern of HDL particles in both groups. The larger particles, HDL2b and HDL2a (mean particle diameters 10.6 and 9.2 nm, respectively), occur more frequently in HI patients (up to 60%) than in LI patients, whereas the smaller particles, HDL3a and HDL3b (mean particle diameters 8.6 and 7.8 nm, respectively), predominate in LI patients. Our results demonstrate that even in the normoglycemic, normocholesterolemic CAD patients, a high insulin output observed during the oral glucose tolerance test may be connected with a different HDL particle pattern, which suggests changes in the reverse cholesterol transport.

  1. The Various Forms of Insulin Secretion Response to the Intravenous and Oral Administration of Glucose in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Les Differentes Modalites de Reponse Insulino-Secretrice Lors de Charges Veineuse et Orale en Glucose dans le Diabete Sucre Non Insulino-Dependant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirouze, J.; Orsetti, A.; Lapinski, H. [Clinique des Maladies Metaboliques et Endocriniennes, Hopital St-Eloi, Montpellier (France)

    1970-02-15

    On the basis of 68 observations on advanced diabetes mellitus (20 cases), latent diabetes with obesity (12 cases), chemical diabetes with subjective symptoms (26 cases) and 10 observations of obesity without diabetes, the authors have analysed the various forms of insulin secretion response to the intravenous and oral administration of glucose. The response appeared to be totally withdrawn in advanced diabetes mellitus although the patients were still capable of responding to stimulation with glucagon. In the two other forms of diabetes described, the response to stimulation by intravenous administration was less marked than in normal subjects. With oral administration, on the other hand, the response was greater, although the insulin secreted in this case appeared ineffective in cases of obesity but effective in conditions without obesity due to the hypoglycaemic effect. (author) [French] A l'aide de 68 observations de diabete sucre evolue (20 cas), latent avec obesite (12 cas), chimique avec malaises (26 cas) et de 10 observations d'obesite sans diabete, les auteurs analysent les differentes modalites de riposte insulino- secretrice lors des charges en glucose, veineuse et orale. La riposte s'avere totalement effondree dans le diabete evolue, mais susceptible de repondre encore a la stimulation par le glucagon. Dans les deux autres formes de diabete decrites, la stimulation par charge veineuse est reduite par rapport au sujet normal alors qu'elle est majoree apres charge orale mais l'insuline ainsi secretee parait inefficace dans l'obesite et efficace puisque hypoglycemiante lors de malaises sans obesite. (author)

  2. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild

    2015-01-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean...... age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain...... significant associations were found for white matter. Thus, while higher glucose was associated with macro-structural damage, impaired insulin action was associated more strongly with reduced micro-structural brain parenchymal homogeneity. These findings offer some insight into the association between...

  3. Postchallenge responses of nitrotyrosine and TNF-alpha during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test are associated with the presence of coronary artery diseases in patients with prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chih-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis has demonstrated an exponential relationship between 2-hr postchallenge hyperglycemia and coronary artery disease (CAD. Pulsatile hyperglycemia can acutely increase proinflammatory cytokines by oxidative stress. We hypothesized that postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses after 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (75 g-OGTT might be associated with CAD in patients without previously recognized type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods Serial changes of plasma glucose (PG, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels were analyzed during 75 g-OGTT in 120 patients (81 male; age 62 ± 11 years before coronary angiography. Patients were classified as normal (NGT; 42%, impaired (IGT; 34% and diabetic (T2DM; 24% glucose tolerance by 75 g-OGTT. Results Postchallenge hyperglycemia elicited TNF-α, IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels time-dependently, and 2-hr median levels of TNF-α (7.1 versus 6.4 pg/ml; P μmol/l; P P Conclusions These results highlight postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses by 75 g-OGTT, rather than hyperglycemia per se, are associated with CAD in patients without previous recognized diabetes.

  4. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  5. Oral administration of soybean peptide Vglycin normalizes fasting glucose and restores impaired pancreatic function in Type 2 diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, Jueping; Du, Zhongxia; Zhen, Hui; Lin, Mei; Jia, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Huang, Xinyuan; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Chen, Zhengwang

    2014-09-01

    Vglycin, a natural 37-residue polypeptide isolated from pea seeds in which six half-cysteine residues are embedded in three pairs of disulfide bonds, is resistant to digestive enzymes and has antidiabetic potential. To investigate the pharmacological activity of Vglycin in vivo and to examine the mechanisms involved, the therapeutic effect of Vglycin in diabetic rats was examined. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by high-fat diet and multiple streptozotocin intraperitoneal injections. Diabetic rats were treated daily with Vglycin for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assayed weekly. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted on Day 29. Subsequently, levels of p-Akt in the liver and pancreas and cleaved PARP, Pdx-1 and insulin in the pancreas were detected by immunoblotting. The morphology of the pancreas and the insulin expression in the pancreas were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, human liver-derived cell lines were used to explore the in vitro effects of Vglycin on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Chronic treatment with Vglycin normalized fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. The improvement in glucose homeostasis and the increased insulin sensitivity mediated by restored insulin signaling likely contributed to decreased food intake and reduced body weight. Vglycin protected pancreatic cells from damage by streptozotocin. Although insulin synthesis and secretion in impaired β-cell were not significantly elevated, islets morphology was improved in the Vglycin-treated groups. These results suggest that Vglycin could be useful in Type 2 diabetes for restoring impaired insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and pancreatic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perricone Nicholas V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that elevated circulating levels of glucose and insulin accelerate risk factors for a wide range of disorders. Low-risk interventions that could suppress glucose without raising insulin levels could offer significant long-term health benefits. Methods To address this issue, we conducted two sequential studies, the first with two phases. In the first phase of Study 1, baseline fasting blood glucose was measured in 20 subjects who consumed 70 grams of sucrose in water and subsequently completed capillary glucose measurements at 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes (Control. On day-2 the same procedure was followed, but with subjects simultaneously consuming a novel formula containing l-arabinose and a trivalent patented food source of chromium (LA-Cr (Treatment. The presence or absence of the LA-Cr was blinded to the subjects and testing technician. Comparisons of changes from baseline were made between Control and Treatment periods. In the second phase of Study 1, 10 subjects selected from the original 20 competed baseline measures of body composition (DXA, a 43-blood chemistry panel and a Quality of Life Inventory. These subjects subsequently took LA-Cr daily for 4 weeks completing daily tracking forms and repeating the baseline capillary tests at the end of each of the four weeks. In Study 2, the same procedures used in the first phase were repeated for 50 subjects, but with added circulating insulin measurements at 30 and 60 minutes from baseline. Results In both studies, as compared to Control, the Treatment group had significantly lower glucose responses for all four testing times (AUC = P P = Conclusions As compared to a placebo control, consumption of a LA-Cr formula after a 70-gram sucrose challenge was effective in safely lowering both circulating glucose and insulin levels. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT0110743

  7. [The monophasic pattern in oral glucose tolerance test as a predictive risk factor of type 2 diabetes in obese paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-10-01

    The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11.1±2years, and of whom 90.3% were Caucasian. Risk factors for T2D were compared in patients with a monophasic or biphasic pattern during the performance of an OGTT, as well as anthropometric and biochemical variables, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function. The shape of the glucose curve was monophasic in 50.2% of patients (50.8% male), biphasic in 48.5% (47.6% males), and indeterminate in 1.3%. The monophasic pattern showed lower insulin-sensitivity and worse beta-cell function. Patients with a biphasic pattern had a higher BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure, although the results were not significant. Latin-American patients had significantly lower serum glucose levels with higher insulin levels during the OGTT. The pattern of response to an OGTT reflects different metabolic phenotypes. Paediatric patients with a biphasic pattern have lower risk-profiling for T2D. The performing of an OGTT could be useful to implement early intervention strategies in children and adolescents with obesity, in order to prevent the development of pre-diabetes or T2D. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and inactivation are differently modulated by oral fat and protein in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, P Thomas; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2006-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), and certain milk proteins, especially whey protein (WP), have insulinotropic effects and can reduce postprandial glycemia. This effect may involve the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like pepti...

  10. A common variant in the MTNR1b gene is associated with increased risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in youth with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Groop, Leif; Zhao, Hongyu; Bale, Allen E; Shaw, Melissa; Duran, Elvira; Pierpont, Bridget; Caprio, Sonia; Santoro, Nicola

    2015-05-01

    To explore the role of MTNR1B rs10830963 and G6PC2 rs560887 variants in the pathogenesis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in obese adolescents. A total of 346 Caucasians, 218 African-Americans, and 217 Hispanics obese children and adolescents underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 518 underwent the evaluation of insulin secretion by the oral minimal model (OMM). Also, 274 subjects underwent a second OGTT after 3.0 ± 2.1 years. The MTNR1B rs10830963 variant was associated with higher fasting glucose levels and lower dynamic beta-cell response in Caucasians and Hispanics (P fasting glucose levels (P  0.10). It has been shown for the first time in obese youth that the MTNR1B variant is associated with an increased risk of IFG. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  11. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of ...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  12. Biokinetics of 13C in the human body after oral administration of 13C-labeled glucose as an index for the biokinetics of 14C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kensaku; Takeda, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The retention of 13 C in the human body after oral administration of 13 C-labeled glucose was studied in three healthy volunteer subjects to estimate the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C as an index of the committed dose of the radioisotope 14 C. After administration of 13 C-labeled glucose, the volunteers ingested controlled diets with a fixed number of calories for 112 d. Samples of breath and urine were collected up to 112 d after administration. Samples of feces were collected up to 14 d after administration. Hair samples were obtained at 119 d after administration and analyzed as a representative index of the rate of excretion of organic 13 C via pathways such as skin cell exfoliation and mucus secretion. All samples were analyzed for 13 C/ 12 C atomic ratio to determine the rate of excretion via each pathway. We then constructed a metabolic model with a total of four pathways (breath, urine, feces, and other) comprising seven compartments. We determined the values of the biokinetic parameters in the model by using the obtained excretion data. From 74% to 94% of the 13 C administered was excreted in breath, whereas    0.1). In addition, the dataset for one of the three subjects was markedly different from those of the other two. When we estimated the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C by using our model and we included non-statistically significant parameters, a considerable cumulative body burden was found in the compartments excreting to the other pathway. Although our results on the cumulative body burden of 13 C from orally administered carbon as glucose were inconclusive, we found that the compartments excreting to the other pathway had a markedly long residence time and therefore should be studied further to clarify the fate of carbon in the human body. In addition to excreta, data for serum and blood cell samples were also collected from the subjects to examine the metabolism of 13 C in human body.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ... updated, this is the "take-you-by-the-hand" guide that will become a trusted friend and ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health ...

  17. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Nityanandam, Ramya; New, James S; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion but is rapidly degraded (half-life: 2 min in circulation). GLP-1 analogue, exenatide (Byetta) has a longer half-life (3.3-4 h) with potent insulinotropic effects but requires cold storage, daily abdominal injections with short shelf life. Because patients with diabetes take >60 000 injections in their life time, alternative delivery methods are highly desired. Exenatide is ideal for oral delivery because insulinotropism is glucose dependent, with reduced risk of hypoglycaemia even at higher doses. Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery in the gut via GM1 receptors present in the intestinal epithelium. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Expression level of CTB-EX4 reached up to 14.3% of total leaf protein (TLP). Lyophilization of leaf material increased therapeutic protein concentration by 12- to 24-fold, extended their shelf life up to 15 months when stored at room temperature and eliminated microbes present in fresh leaves. The pentameric structure, disulphide bonds and functionality of CTB-EX4 were well preserved in lyophilized materials. Chloroplast-derived CTB-EX4 showed increased insulin secretion similar to the commercial EX4 in beta-TC6, a mouse pancreatic cell line. Even when 5000-fold excess dose of CTB-EX4 was orally delivered, it stimulated insulin secretion similar to the intraperitoneal injection of commercial EX4 but did not cause hypoglycaemia in mice. Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effect of an aqueous Russian tarragon extract on glucose tolerance in response to an oral dextrose load in non-diabetic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Bloomer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Richard J Bloomer1, Robert E Canale1, Ivo Pischel21Cardiorespiratory/Metabolic Laboratory, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; 2PhytoLab GmbH & Co. KG, Vestenbergsgreuth, GermanyBackground: Russian tarragon extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic activity in animals. This pilot study aimed to investigate the acute effects of an aqueous extract of Russian tarragon (RT on serum glucose and insulin in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT.Methods: Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 12 non-diabetic men reported to the lab on 2 different mornings separated by 1 to 2 weeks, and ingested 75 g of dextrose in solution. Fifteen minutes before ingestion, subjects ingested either 2 g of RT or a placebo. Blood samples were collected before ingestion of the RT and placebo, and at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes post ingestion of the dextrose load. Samples were assayed for serum glucose and insulin.Results: For serum glucose, no condition (P = 0.19 or condition × time (P = 0.99 effect was noted. A time effect was noted (P < 0.0001, with values at 15 and 30 minutes higher than pre-ingestion (P < 0.05. No area under the curve (AUC effect (P = 0.54 was noted, although a 4.5% reduction in AUC was observed for RT (569 ± 92 mg · dL−1 · 75 min−1 vs placebo (596 ± 123 mg · dL−1 · 75 min−1. Similar findings were noted for serum insulin, with no condition (P = 0.24 or condition × time (P = 0.98 effect noted. A time effect was noted (P < 0.0001, with values at 15, 30, and 45 minutes higher than pre-ingestion (P < 0.05. No AUC effect (P = 0.53 was noted, although a 17.4% reduction in AUC was observed for RT (114 ± 22 µIU · mL−1 · 75 min−1 vs placebo (138 ± 30 µIU · mL−1 · 75 min−1. Approximately two-thirds of subjects ingesting the RT experienced attenuation in both the glucose and insulin response to the OGTT.Conclusion: These data indicate that acute ingestion of RT results in a slight

  19. Insulin dynamics and biochemical markers for predicting impaired glucose tolerance in obese Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabanchasak, Sirapassorn; Siripunthana, Sukumarn; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2015-09-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The predictors of IGT in obese youth are not well described. We studied 115 obese Thai children who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were calculated for assessment of β-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and clinical parameters were also used to determine predictors of IGT. We found that three patients had T2DM and 30 subjects had IGT. IGT patients had significantly higher fasting glucose (FG), 1-h postload glucose, 2-h postload insulin, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity indices than in normal glucose tolerance subjects whereas other indices were comparable. By ROC curve analyses, 1-h postload glucose was the best predictor of IGT, but FG or HbA1c represented a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes screening. Subjects with 1-h OGTT glucose > 155 mg/dL had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and more insulin resistance than those with 1-h postload glucose of ≤ 155 mg/dL. Abnormal glucose tolerance is highly prevalent in obese Thai youth. Several fasting indices and HbA1c fail to predict IGT. An 1-h OGTT glucose of > 155 mg/dL appears to be more associated with adverse insulin dynamics and metabolic profile than 2-h postload glucose.

  20. A importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos The importance of oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosis of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Pontes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral (TTGO no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose (IG e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM-2 em mulheres com SOP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram incluídas 247 pacientes portadoras de SOP, selecionadas de forma aleatória. O diagnóstico de IG foi obtido por meio do TTGO de duas horas com 75 gramas de glicose de acordo com os critérios do World Health Organization (WHO (IG: glicemia plasmática aos 120 minutos >140 mg/dL e 200 mg/dL quanto pela glicemia de jejum segundo os critérios da American Diabetes Association (glicemia de jejum alterada: glicemia plasmática >100 e 126 mg/dL. Para comparar o TTGO com a glicemia de jejum foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para medidas repetidas. Para a análise das características clínicas e bioquímicas das pacientes com e sem IG e/ou DM-2 foi utilizada a ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey. O valor pPURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance (GI and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 in women with PCOS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 247 patients with PCOS selected at random. The diagnosis of GI was obtained from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO (GI: 120 minutes for plasma glucose >140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL and fasting glucose using the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose >100 and 126 mg/dL. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was applied to compare the oral glucose tolerance test with fasting plasma glucose. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used for the analysis of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with and without GI and/or DM-2. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: PCOS patients had a mean age of 24.8±6.3, and body

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should ... associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  2. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study......, and the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression...

  3. Laser Acupuncture at Large Intestine 4 Compared with Oral Glucose Administration for Pain Prevention in Healthy Term Neonates Undergoing Routine Heel Lance: Study Protocol for an Observer-Blinded, Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Stadler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonpharmacological strategies have actually become more important in neonatal pain management during routinely applied minor painful procedures. However, commonly used nonpharmacological strategies are inferior to orally administered sweet solutions. Therefore, we will compare laser acupuncture, as a recent nonpharmacological method, with the standard care of oral glucose solution for pain prevention. Methods. Ninety-five healthy term neonates will be allocated into one of two groups. Before routine heel lance for metabolic screening, one group will receive laser acupuncture at acupuncture point Large Intestine 4 (LI 4 bilaterally for 60 seconds per point (acupuncture group and the other will receive the standard care with orally administered glucose solution (glucose group. The complete procedure of blood sampling will be recorded on video, excluding the intervention before heel lance. A paediatric nurse, blinded with respect to the allocation, will evaluate these video recordings and determine the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP for each neonate. Primary outcome will be the mean difference in PIPP scores between groups. Discussion. This observer-blinded randomised controlled trial has been designed to explore potential advantages of laser acupuncture in the management of neonatal pain because more data are required to provide information about its efficacy and safety. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with DRKS00010122.

  4. Laser Acupuncture at Large Intestine 4 Compared with Oral Glucose Administration for Pain Prevention in Healthy Term Neonates Undergoing Routine Heel Lance: Study Protocol for an Observer-Blinded, Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Jasmin; Avian, Alexander; Posch, Katrin; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raith, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Nonpharmacological strategies have actually become more important in neonatal pain management during routinely applied minor painful procedures. However, commonly used nonpharmacological strategies are inferior to orally administered sweet solutions. Therefore, we will compare laser acupuncture, as a recent nonpharmacological method, with the standard care of oral glucose solution for pain prevention. Ninety-five healthy term neonates will be allocated into one of two groups. Before routine heel lance for metabolic screening, one group will receive laser acupuncture at acupuncture point Large Intestine 4 (LI 4) bilaterally for 60 seconds per point (acupuncture group) and the other will receive the standard care with orally administered glucose solution (glucose group). The complete procedure of blood sampling will be recorded on video, excluding the intervention before heel lance. A paediatric nurse, blinded with respect to the allocation, will evaluate these video recordings and determine the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) for each neonate. Primary outcome will be the mean difference in PIPP scores between groups. This observer-blinded randomised controlled trial has been designed to explore potential advantages of laser acupuncture in the management of neonatal pain because more data are required to provide information about its efficacy and safety. This trial is registered with DRKS00010122.

  5. Hyperglycemic clamp and oral glucose tolerance test for 3-year prediction of clinical onset in persistently autoantibody-positive offspring and siblings of type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Eric V; Vandemeulebroucke, Evy; Weets, Ilse; Van De Velde, Ursule; Van Dalem, Annelien; Demeester, Simke; Verhaeghen, Katrijn; Gillard, Pieter; De Block, Christophe; Ruige, Johannes; Keymeulen, Bart; Pipeleers, Daniel G; Decochez, Katelijn; Gorus, Frans K

    2015-02-01

    In preparation of future prevention trials, we aimed to identify predictors of 3-year diabetes onset among oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)- and hyperglycemic clamp-derived metabolic markers in persistently islet autoantibody positive (autoAb(+)) offspring and siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The design is a registry-based study. Functional tests were performed in a hospital setting. Persistently autoAb(+) first-degree relatives of patients with T1D (n = 81; age 5-39 years). We assessed 3-year predictive ability of OGTT- and clamp-derived markers using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and Cox regression analysis. Area under the curve of clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release (AUC(5-10 min); min 5-10) was determined in all relatives and second-phase release (AUC(120-150 min); min 120-150) in those aged 12-39 years (n = 62). Overall, the predictive ability of AUC(5-10 min) was better than that of peak C-peptide, the best predictor among OGTT-derived parameters (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.89 [0.80-0.98] vs 0.81 [0.70-0.93]). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and AUC(5-10 min) provided the best combination of markers for prediction of diabetes within 3 years; (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.92 [0.84-1.00]). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, AUC(5-10 min)) (P = .001) was the strongest independent predictor and interacted significantly with all tested OGTT-derived parameters. AUC(5-10 min) below percentile 10 of controls was associated with 50-70% progression to T1D regardless of age. Similar results were obtained for AUC(120-150 min). Clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release can be used as an efficient and simple screening strategy in persistently autoAb(+) offspring and siblings of T1D patients to predict impending diabetes.

  6. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (HLP is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05 during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05 in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  7. The long-term follow up study of acute pancreatitis by means of pancreatic scintigraphy, secretin test and oral glucose tolerance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Harukuni

    1975-01-01

    Morphologic and functional alternations of the pancreas following acute pancreatitis were studied in 29 patients. At the time of attack a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had been confirmed by laparotomy in 27 cases, and by clinical picture and by serum amylase levels in 2 cases. The average duration of follow up was 56.3 months. Normal images were obtained in 17 of 29 cases. According to secretin tests, 4 of these had slight to moderately decreased exocrine function; the test were within normal limits. 12 cases with normal image had abnormal oral glucose tolerance curves similar to those fund in mild to moderate diabetes. 10 of the 12 cases with abnormal scintigrams showed decreased isotope uptake in all or part of the pancreas, while 2 showed no uptake at all. These changes were mast apparent in the tail of the pancreas. Ten of the 12 cases with abnormal images had some degree of decreased exocrine function. All 12 had the abnormal GTT curve of diabetes, 4 who had severe diabetes with markedly decreased exocrine function and poor image of the pancreas. In 4 cases the histopathological findings obtained at the time of laparotomy, were shown to be very consistent with the scintigraphic features. It was demonstrated by both scintigraphs and function tests that the alcoholic factor plays a very important role in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis resulted in chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases, (14 %) of the remaining 8 cases with abnormal scintigram, it is postulated that the inflamatory process subsided allowing time for cicatrical fibrosis to occur. Follow-up to trace and study of these alternations of the pancreas necessary in future. (Evans, J.)

  8. The long-term follow up study of acute pancreatitis by means of pancreatic scintigraphy, secretin test and oral glucose tolerance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Morphologic and functional alternations of the pancreas following acute pancreatitis were studied in 29 patients. At the time of attack a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had been confirmed by laparotomy in 27 cases, and by clinical picture and by serum amylase levels in 2 cases. The average duration of follow up was 56.3 months. Normal images were obtained in 17 of 29 cases. According to secretin tests, 4 of these had slight to moderately decreased exocrine function; the test were within normal limits. 12 cases with normal image had abnormal oral glucose tolerance curves similar to those fund in mild to moderate diabetes. 10 of the 12 cases with abnormal scintigrams showed decreased isotope uptake in all or part of the pancreas, while 2 showed no uptake at all. These changes were mast apparent in the tail of the pancreas. Ten of the 12 cases with abnormal images had some degree of decreased exocrine function. All 12 had the abnormal GTT curve of diabetes, 4 who had severe diabetes with markedly decreased exocrine function and poor image of the pancreas. In 4 cases the histopathological findings obtained at the time of laparotomy, were shown to be very consistent with the scintigraphic features. It was demonstrated by both scintigraphs and function tests that the alcoholic factor plays a very important role in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis resulted in chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases, (14 %) of the remaining 8 cases with abnormal scintigram, it is postulated that the inflamatory process subsided allowing time for cicatrical fibrosis to occur. Follow-up to trace and study of these alternations of the pancreas necessary in future.

  9. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Sex Influence Glucose Tolerance in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J. Hanson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose intolerance and apolipoprotein ε4 allele (E4+ are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Insulin sensitizers show promise for treating AD, but are less effective in E4+ individuals. Little is known about how the APOE genotype influences glucose metabolism. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 319 older adults who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests; a subset had insulin, amyloid beta (Aβ42, and Mini Mental Status Examination. Glucose and insulin patterns with respect to cognitive diagnosis, E4 status, and sex were examined with analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation. Results: People with cognitive impairment had higher fasting insulin levels. E4 status did not affect fasting glucose values, whereas men had higher fasting glucose levels than women. E4+ men had the lowest and E4+ women had the highest glucose levels, compared to E4- groups; insulin did not differ by sex or E4 group. E4 status and sex moderated correlations between metabolic measures and AD risk factors including age and Aβ. Conclusions: Insulin resistance was associated with cognitive impairment, and sex, E4 status, and glucose values are interrelated in older adults at risk of AD. Understanding glucose metabolism for different APOE and sex groups may help elucidate differences in therapeutic responses.

  10. Risk factor screening to identify women requiring oral glucose tolerance testing to diagnose gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis and analysis of two pregnancy cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Farrar

    Full Text Available Easily identifiable risk factors including: obesity and ethnicity at high risk of diabetes are commonly used to indicate which women should be offered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM. Evidence regarding these risk factors is limited however. We conducted a systematic review (SR and meta-analysis and individual participant data (IPD analysis to evaluate the performance of risk factors in identifying women with GDM.We searched MEDLINE, Medline in Process, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to August 2016 and conducted additional reference checking. We included observational, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting the performance characteristics of risk factors used to identify women at high risk of GDM. We had access to IPD from the Born in Bradford and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy cohorts, all pregnant women in the two cohorts with data on risk factors and OGTT results were included.Twenty nine published studies with 211,698 women for the SR and a further 14,103 women from two birth cohorts (Born in Bradford and the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy study for the IPD analysis were included. Six studies assessed the screening performance of guidelines; six examined combinations of risk factors; eight evaluated the number of risk factors and nine examined prediction models or scores. Meta-analysis using data from published studies suggests that irrespective of the method used, risk factors do not identify women with GDM well. Using IPD and combining risk factors to produce the highest sensitivities, results in low specificities (and so higher false positives. Strategies that use the risk factors of age (>25 or >30 and BMI (>25 or 30 perform as well as other strategies with additional risk factors included.Risk factor screening methods are poor predictors of which pregnant women will be diagnosed with GDM. A simple

  11. Impaired glucose regulation in adults in Jamaica: who should have the oral glucose tolerance test? Alteraciones del control de la glucemia: ¿a quiénes se les debe hacer la prueba de tolerancia a una dosis oral de glucosa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln A. Sargeant

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO fasting plasma glucose (FPG criteria and the WHO 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hPG criteria during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in identifying adults in Jamaica with hyperglycemia. As the OGTT is not commonly used in clinical practice, factors associated with the failure of the FPG criteria to detect persons with impaired 2hPG were investigated. METHODS: A random sample of 2 096 adults, 25-74 years old, living in the town of Spanish Town, Jamaica, was evaluated for diabetes. After excluding 215 individuals for reasons such as missing data, the remaining 1 881 persons were composed of 187 who were previously known to have diabetes and 1 694 who were screened for diabetes with both FPG and 2hPG. RESULTS: The FPG criteria detected 83 cases of diabetes, compared to 72 by the 2hPG criteria. The kappa statistic comparing the two criteria was 0.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.28- 0.34, indicating fair agreement. There were 261 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 92 cases of impaired fasting glucose (IFG. In those 92 with IFG, an OGTT would identify 34 cases of IGT and 14 cases of diabetes. Of those classified as normoglycemic by FPG criteria, 14% of them had IGT or diabetes by 2hPG criteria. The factors predicting the likelihood of nondetection of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes by FPG were age, body mass index, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, and female sex. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an FPG of 5.1 mmol/L would predict a 2hPG > 7.8 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: A few individuals classified as normal on FPG will have IGT or diabetes, and an OGTT will be needed to identify them. The yield of IGT detected by screening in Jamaica can be improved by lowering the threshold for IFG or by using clinical information to identify high-risk individuals.OBJETIVO: Comparar los criterios publicados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS en 1999

  12. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  13. Safety and Tolerability of Transitioning from Cangrelor to Ticagrelor in Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreldin, Hisham A; Carter, Danielle; Cook, Bryan M; Qamar, Arman; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-08-01

    The 3 phase 3 CHAMPION (Cangrelor vs Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition) trials collectively demonstrated the safety of transitioning from cangrelor, a potent, parenteral rapidly-acting P2Y 12 inhibitor, to clopidogrel in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, variation in timing of therapy, site-specific binding, and drug half-lives may theoretically complicate switching to other oral P2Y 12 inhibitors. Since regulatory approval, limited data are available regarding the "real-world" safety and tolerability of transitioning to these more potent oral P2Y 12 antagonists. From November 2015 to January 2017, we evaluated the clinical profiles and efficacy and safety outcomes in cangrelor-treated patients who underwent PCI transitioned to clopidogrel (n = 42) or ticagrelor (n = 82) at a large, tertiary care center. Most patients receiving cangrelor underwent PCI with a drug-eluting stent for acute coronary syndrome via a radial approach in the background of unfractionated heparin. Stent thrombosis within 48 hours was rare and occurred in 1 patient treated with ticagrelor. Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries-defined bleeding occurred in 20% of patients switched to ticagrelor and 29% of patients switched to clopidogrel, but none were severe or life-threatening. In conclusion, rates of stent thrombosis and severe/life-threatening bleeding were low and comparable with those identified in the CHAMPION program, despite use of more potent oral P2Y 12 inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is type 2 diabetes really resolved after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy? Glucose variability studied by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoccia, D; Coccia, F; Guida, A; Rizzello, M; De Angelis, F; Silecchia, G; Leonetti, F

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out on type 2 diabetic obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Patients underwent regular glycemic controls throughout 3 years and all patients were defined cured from diabetes according to conventional criteria defined as normalization of fasting glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin in absence of antidiabetic therapy. After 3 years of follow-up, Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) was performed in each patient to better clarify the remission of diabetes. In this study, we found that the diabetes resolution after LSG occurred in 40% of patients; in the other 60%, even if they showed a normal fasting glycemia and A1c, patients spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia. During the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), we found that 2 h postload glucose determinations revealed overt diabetes only in a small group of patients and might be insufficient to exclude the diagnosis of diabetes in the other patients who spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia, even if they showed a normal glycemia (<140 mg/dL) at 120 minutes OGTT. These interesting data could help clinicians to better individualize patients in which diabetes is not resolved and who could need more attention in order to prevent chronic complications of diabetes.

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association ...

  16. Metabolomic analysis reveals amino-acid responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in women with prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bentley-Lewis, MD, MBA, MMSc

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Greater change in metabolite levels after a glucose challenge was significantly associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding and higher BMI. Further exploration of these preliminary observations and closer examination of the specific pathways implicated are warranted.

  17. Megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impact action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, C.; Gomez del Valle, M.; Caraballo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Seven patients with megarectumsigma underwent surgery for chronic faecal impaction,reviewing clinical diagnosis, aetiology and medical and surgical management.It is suggested medical management of chronic faecal impaction trying to achieve elective surgery.The curative surgery should include the resection of all pathologic bowel, but in Duhamel procedure and its modifications distal rectal tran section should be at the peritoneal reflection.Habr-Gama modification has shown to be technically easier and it has been communicated good functional results.Local unfavourable conditions may be resolve by staged surgery,which allows outline definitive bowel reconstruction after functional assessment

  18. Can 3'-Deoxy-3'-((18)F) Fluorothymidine Out Perform 2-Deoxy-2-((18)F) Fluoro-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Cervical Lymphadenopathy in Patients With Oral/Head and Neck Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefferkoetter, Joshua D; Carlson, Eric R; Heidel, Robert E

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the performance of cellular metabolism imaging with 2-deoxy-2-((18)F) fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) versus cellular proliferation imaging with 3'-deoxy-3'-((18)F) fluorothymidine (FLT) in the detection of cervical lymph node metastases in oral/head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess a head-to-head performance of FLT imaging and clinical FDG imaging for characterizing cervical lymph node metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral/head and neck region. The primary predictor variable of the study was the presence of FDG or FLT avidity within the cervical lymph nodes. The primary outcome variable was the histologic presence of metastatic SCC in the cervical lymph nodes. The performance was reported in terms of the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values. The overall accuracy for discriminating positive from negative lymph nodes was evaluated as a function of the positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value (SUV). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for both tracers. Eleven patients undergoing surgical resection of SCC of the oral/head and neck region underwent preoperative FDG and FLT PET-computed tomography (CT) scans on separate days. The interpretation of the FDG PET-CT imaging resulted in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 43.2, 99.5, 94.4, 88.9, and 94.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for FLT PET-CT imaging was 75.7, 99.2, 97.1, 90.3, and 97.7%, respectively. The areas under the curve for the ROC curves were 0.9 and 0.84 for FDG and FLT, respectively. Poor correlation was observed between the SUV for FDG and FLT within the lymph nodes and tumors. FLT showed better overall performance for detecting lymphadenopathy on qualitative assessment within the total

  19. Glucose metabolism during rotational shift-work in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Laurenti, Marcello C; Dalla Man, Chiara; Varghese, Ron T; Cobelli, Claudio; Rizza, Robert A; Matveyenko, Aleksey; Vella, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Shift-work is associated with circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine the effect of rotational shift-work on glucose metabolism in humans. We studied 12 otherwise healthy nurses performing rotational shift-work using a randomised crossover study design. On each occasion, participants underwent an isotope-labelled mixed meal test during a simulated day shift and a simulated night shift, enabling simultaneous measurement of glucose flux and beta cell function using the oral minimal model. We sought to determine differences in fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism during the day shift vs the night shift. Postprandial glycaemic excursion was higher during the night shift (381±33 vs 580±48 mmol/l per 5 h, pshift. While insulin action did not differ between study days, the beta cell responsivity to glucose (59±5 vs 44±4 × 10 -9  min -1 ; pshift. Impaired beta cell function during the night shift may result from normal circadian variation, the effect of rotational shift-work or a combination of both. As a consequence, higher postprandial glucose concentrations are observed during the night shift.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  1. Successful strategy to improve glucose tolerance in Thai obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2010-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.

  2. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  3. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  4. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  5. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Matuszek

    Full Text Available To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities.Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians.There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000, triglycerides (P = .050, low density lipoprotein (P = .009 and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min (P = .024 were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC. Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min, in South East/East Asians (60-120 min, and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006. The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045 and adiponectin (P = .037 were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022 and rs10830963 (P = 0.009, which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B.Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszek, Maria A; Anton, Angelyn; Thillainathan, Sobana; Armstrong, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities. Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians. There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000), triglycerides (P = .050), low density lipoprotein (P = .009) and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min) (P = .024) were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC). Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min), in South East/East Asians (60-120 min), and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006). The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045) and adiponectin (P = .037) were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022) and rs10830963 (P = 0.009), which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B. Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. The Birth Weight Lowering C-Allele of rs900400 Near LEKR1 and CCNL1 Associates with Elevated Insulin Release following an Oral Glucose Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ehm A; Harder, Marie N; Pilgaard, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    participants, midwife journals were traced through the Danish State Archives and association of rs900400 with birth weight was examined. Associations between rs900400 and fasting serum insulin, fasting plasma glucose, insulinogenic index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR...

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of impaired glucose metabolism in patients referred to comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation: the DANSUK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas Soja, Anne Merete; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Melchior, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    and mortality. We studied the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (T2DM, IGT and impaired fasting glucose; IFG) in patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation, and further studied whether we could identify groups in which an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) need not be performed. METHODS: As part...... of a cardiac rehabilitation trial, 201 patients participated. Patients without a diagnosis of T2DM (N=159) underwent an OGTT 3 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (21%) had known T2DM at enrolment. Based on the OGTT, 26 patients (13%) had unrecognized T2DM, 36 (18%) had IGT and 19 (9%) were...... predictive value of 39%. CONCLUSION: More than 60% of the patients (123/201) referred to cardiac rehabilitation had impaired glucose metabolism and 18% of the screened patients (29/159) would be misclassified if an OGTT was omitted. IFG and IGT did not identify the same patients or the same cardiovascular...

  9. Intraoperative seizures and seizures outcome in patients underwent awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Peizhi, Zhou; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Shu, Jiang; Qing, Mao

    2016-11-25

    Awake craniotomies (AC) could reduce neurological deficits compared with patients under general anesthesia, however, intraoperative seizure is a major reason causing awake surgery failure. The purpose of the study was to give a comprehensive overview the published articles focused on seizure incidence in awake craniotomy. Bibliographic searches of the EMBASE, MEDLINE,were performed to identify articles and conference abstracts that investigated the intraoperative seizure frequency of patients underwent AC. Twenty-five studies were included in this meta-analysis. Among the 25 included studies, one was randomized controlled trials and 5 of them were comparable studies. The pooled data suggested the general intraoperative seizure(IOS) rate for patients with AC was 8%(fixed effect model), sub-group analysis identified IOS rate for glioma patients was 8% and low grade patients was 10%. The pooled data showed early seizure rates of AC patients was 11% and late seizure rates was 35%. This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that awake craniotomy is a safe technique with relatively low intraoperative seizure occurrence. However, few RCTs were available, and the acquisition of further evidence through high-quality RCTs is highly recommended.

  10. The Effect of Specific Oral Nutritional Supplements Compared to Tea with Sugar on Gastric Emptying Time, Blood Glucose Level, and Hunger Response in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Evangeline Bela

    2017-09-01

    Methods: This study was a clinical, parallel, random allocation, and single-blind trial. This study was conducted at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The subjects were 12 healthy adults divided into 2 groups: intervention group (n = 6 and control group (n = 6. Patients in the intervention group received 200 mL S-ONS (200 kcal, 18% protein, 20% fat and 62% carbohydrate and control group received 200 mL of tea with 10 grams of sugar (40 kcal. Gastric volume was measured using 2D-sonography every 30 minutes. Blood glucose level was measured using blood peripheral sample. Hunger response was measured using visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Gastric emptying time in the intervention group was <90 minutes, and in the control group <60 minutes. Blood glucose level was increased in the intervention group and decreased in control group. Hunger response was decreased in intervention group and increased in control group. Conclusion: Gastric emptying time after either drinking S-ONS and drinking tea with sugar in healthy adults subjects were less than 2 hours. Patients receiving S-ONS had significantly higher blood glucose level and were less hungry than the control group.

  11. Fasting plasma glucose and serum uric acid levels in a general Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance: A U-shaped curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyang Wang

    Full Text Available Although several epidemiological studies assessed the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG and serum uric acid (SUA levels, the results were inconsistent. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate this relationship in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance.A total of 5,726 women and 5,457 men with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Generalized additive models and two-piecewise linear regression models were applied to assess the relationship.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA was observed. After adjusting for potential confounders, the inflection points of FPG levels in the curves were 4.6 mmol/L in women and 4.7 mmol/L in men respectively. SUA levels decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose concentrations before the inflection points (regression coefficient [β] = -36.4, P < 0.001 for women; β = -33.5, P < 0.001 for men, then SUA levels increased (β = 17.8, P < 0.001 for women; β = 13.9, P < 0.001 for men. Additionally, serum insulin levels were positively associated with FPG and SUA (P < 0.05.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA levels existed in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance. The association is partly mediated through serum insulin levels.

  12. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperglycemic mice and improved oral glucose tolerance. The serum and ... Inhibition of α-glucosidase and stimulation of glucose consumption by muscles may account for ..... induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and fibrinolysis ...

  13. Indomethacin stimulates basal glucose production in humans without changes in concentrations of glucoregulatory hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corssmit, E. P.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. To investigate whether indomethacin affects basal glucose production, we measured hepatic glucose production in six healthy postabsorptive subjects on two occasions: once after administration of indomethacin (150 mg orally) and once after administration of placebo. 2. Glucose production was

  14. Oral glucose tolerance testing in an outpatient heart failure clinic reveals a high proportion of undiagnosed diabetic patients with an adverse prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, Michael; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Ida

    2011-01-01

    = 413) were included in this study. An OGTT was conducted in patients without a history of diabetes. Information on NYHA class, aetiology of SHF, LVEF, treatment, and biochemical parameters were collected at baseline. The survival status was obtained after a median follow-up time of 591 days. Of the 413...... prevalence of unrecognized diabetes among the patients who refused OGTT, the prevalence of diabetes in the total population was 34%. If only fasting blood glucose had been used, 16 of the 40 newly diagnosed diabetic patients would have been undiagnosed. During follow-up, 24 (29%) patients with known diabetes...

  15. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess effects of the single ingestion of a tablet containing lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and glucose oxidase on oral malodor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Manabu; Shimizu, Eiju; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-03-22

    The main components of oral malodor have been identified as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH). VSCs also play an important role in the progression of periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the single ingestion of a tablet containing 20 mg of lactoferrin, 2.6 mg of lactoperoxidase, and 2.6 mg of glucose oxidase on VSCs in the mouth. Subjects with VSCs greater than the olfactory threshold in their mouth air ingested a test or placebo tablet in two crossover phases. The concentrations of VSCs were monitored at baseline and 10 and 30 min after ingestion of the tablets using portable gas chromatography. Thirty-nine subjects were included in the efficacy analysis based on a full analysis set (FAS). The concentrations of total VSCs and H2S at 10 min were significantly lower in the test group than in the placebo group (-0.246 log ng/10 ml [95 % CI -0.395 to -0.098], P = 0.002; -0.349 log ng/10 ml; 95 % CI -0.506 to -0.192; P oxidase has suppressive effects on oral malodor. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry (number: UMIN000015140 , date of registration: 16/09/2014).

  16. [A survey of perioperative asthmatic attack among patients with bronchial asthma underwent general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Yoshizawa, Atsuto; Hirano, Satoru; Izumi, Sinyuu; Hojo, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayasi, Nobuyuki; Kudou, Kouichirou; Maehara, Yasuhiro; Kawachi, Masaharu; Miyakoshi, Kouichi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the risk factor of perioperative asthmatic attack and effectiveness of preventing treatment for asthmatic attack before operation. We performed retrospective chart review of one hundred eleven patients with asthma underwent general anesthesia and surgical intervention from January 2006 to October 2007 in our hospital. The rate of perioperative asthmatic attack were as follows; 10.2% (5 in 49 cases) in no pretreatment group, 7.5% (3 in 40 cases) in any pretreatments except for systemic steroid, and 4.5% (1 in 22 cases) in systemic steroid pretreatment group. Neither preoperative asthma severity nor duration from the last attack had significant relevancy to perioperative attack rate. The otolaryngological surgery, especially those have nasal polyp and oral surgery had high perioperative asthma attack rate, although there was no significant difference. We recommend the systemic steroid pretreatment for asthmatic patients, especially when they have known risk factor such as administration of the systemic steroid within 6 months, or possibly new risk factor such as nasal polyp, otolaryngological and oral surgery.

  17. Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose Less Than or Equal to 70 mg/dL Is Not Uncommon in Young Japanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Minato, Satomi; Kurata, Miki; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Background Post-breakfast/post-challenge plasma glucose (PG) concentrations were studied less in young normal weight Japanese women. We addressed these issues. Methods Two separate groups of female collegiate athletes and female untrained students underwent either a standardized meal test or a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, but not both. Frequency of women whose post-breakfast/post-load PG fell to 70 mg/dL or lower (termed as low glycemia) was compared between athletes and non-ath...

  18. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose......In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  19. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajngot, A.; Khan, A.; Giacca, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S.

    1990-01-01

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with [2-3H]glucose and HGP with [6-3H]glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). [2-3H]- minus [6-3H]glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP

  20. Glucagon suppression during OGTT worsens while suppression during IVGTT sustains alongside development of glucose intolerance in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T; Larsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    To examine plasma glucagon responses to oral and intravenous (iv) glucose in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), secondary impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or secondary diabetes mellitus (DM)....

  1. Sluggish glucose tolerance in tuberculosis patients | Bell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in both groups in the morning after an overnight fast. Anticoagulant-treated blood was analysed for glucose and insulin using Peridochrome Glucose (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Diagnostic Products Corporation, ...

  2. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when.......RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  3. Glucose Homeostasis, Pancreatic Endocrine Function, and Outcomes in Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Benes, Jan; Franekova, Janka; Kovar, Jan; Borlaug, Barry A; Segetova, Marketa; Tura, Andrea; Pelikanova, Tereza

    2017-08-07

    The mechanisms and relevance of impaired glucose homeostasis in advanced heart failure (HF) are poorly understood. The study goals were to examine glucose regulation, pancreatic endocrine function, and metabolic factors related to prognosis in patients with nondiabetic advanced HF. In total, 140 advanced HF patients without known diabetes mellitus and 21 sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched controls underwent body composition assessment, oral glucose tolerance testing, and measurement of glucose-regulating hormones to model pancreatic β-cell secretory response. Compared with controls, HF patients had similar fasting glucose and insulin levels but higher levels after oral glucose tolerance testing. Insulin secretion was not impaired, but with increasing HF severity, there was a reduction in glucose, insulin, and insulin/glucagon ratio-a signature of starvation. The insulin/C-peptide ratio was decreased in HF, indicating enhanced insulin clearance, and this was correlated with lower cardiac output, hepatic insufficiency, right ventricular dysfunction, and body wasting. After a median of 449 days, 41% of patients experienced an adverse event (death, urgent transplant, or assist device). Increased glucagon and, paradoxically, low fasting plasma glucose displayed the strongest relations to outcome ( P =0.01). Patients in the lowest quartile of fasting plasma glucose (3.8-5.1 mmol·L -1 , 68-101 mg·dL -1 ) had 3-times higher event risk than in the top quartile (6.0-7.9 mmol·L -1 , 108-142 mg·dL -1 ; relative risk: 3.05 [95% confidence interval, 1.46-6.77]; P =0.002). Low fasting plasma glucose and increased glucagon are robust metabolic predictors of adverse events in advanced HF. Pancreatic insulin secretion is preserved in advanced HF, but levels decrease with increasing HF severity due to enhanced insulin clearance that is coupled with right heart failure and cardiac cachexia. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc

  4. Impaired Glucose Metabolism Is Associated with Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Participants without Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Sasaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated data from 10,088 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD who underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests and had more than four visits during the first 5 years following the test to investigate the association between impaired glucose metabolism and visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP variability. Participants were classified into groups of normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and diabetes. Visit-to-visit BP variability was estimated for each individual using standard deviation (SD and coefficients of variation (CV, defined as SD/mean. SDs and CVs of systolic BP (SBP values were divided into quartiles. The samples falling in the highest quartile were considered as having high SD/CV. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for high SD of SBP in the IFG (OR, 1.39; P<0.003, IGT (OR, 1.26; P<0.001, and diabetes (OR, 1.54; P<0.001 groups was significantly higher than that for high SD of SBP in the NGT group. Similarly, the OR for high CV of SBP in the IGT and diabetes groups was significantly higher than that for high CV of SBP in the NGT group. In participants without CVD, impaired glucose metabolism may modulate visit-to-visit BP variability.

  5. Prevalence of insulin resistance and prediction of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbikova, Jana; Dvorakova, Katerina; Grimmichova, Tereza; Hill, Martin; Stanicka, Sona; Cibula, David; Bendlova, Bela; Starka, Luboslav; Vondra, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) affects 10% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of clinical and fasting biochemical parameters in screening for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and DM2. Women with PCOS [n=244, age 27.4+/-7.5 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.5+/-6.9 kg/m(2)] and healthy women (n=57, age 26.8+/-5.8 years, BMI 21.3+/-2.1 kg/m(2)) underwent basal blood sampling and an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). Insulin resistance was identified in 40.2% of PCOS women. Impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) was found in 30 subjects (12.3%), but the oGTT revealed IGT in only six of these cases and DM2 in one subject. IGT was found in 23 (9.4%) and DM2 in four (1.6%) of the women with PCOS. The conventional upper limits for total cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose revealed low sensitivity for the identification of impaired glucose metabolism. No single parameter nor any combination of them showed an accuracy sufficient for screening of IGT or DM2 in PCOS patients. All PCOS patients should be screened using an oGTT to identify disturbances in glucose metabolism.

  6. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  7. Early Glucose Derangement Detected by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Progression of Liver Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Independent Predictive Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffini, Riccardo; Liccardo, Daniela; Alisi, Anna; Benevento, Danila; Cappa, Marco; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Glucose derangement has been reported to increase oxidative stress, one of the most important factors underlying the progression of hepatic fibrosis in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To date, careful evaluation of the glucose profile in pediatric NAFLD has not been performed. A total of 30 severely obese children (15 males; mean age 12.87 ± 2.19 years) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled in this study from September to December 2013. All patients underwent anthropometric and laboratory evaluation, including the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Our study reveals some differences between OGTT and CGM in detecting NAFLD children with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). OGTT showed 2 (6.67%) patients with IFG and 1 (3.34%) with IGT, while CGM showed 5 (16.67%) patients with IFG and 6 (20%) with IGT. The daily blood glucose profile positively correlated with the baseline blood glucose (r = 0.39, p = 0.04) and the homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.56, p = 0.05). A positive correlation between hyperglycemia and liver fibrosis was found (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). Mean glucose values (F3-F4 group: 163.2 ± 35.92 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 136.58 ± 46.83 mg/dl and F2 group: 154.12 ± 22.51 mg/dl) and the difference between the minimum and maximum blood glucose levels (F3-F4 group: 110.21 ± 25.26 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 91.67 ± 15.97 mg/dl and F2 group: 92 ± 15.48 mg/dl) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the F3-F4 group compared to the F1 and F2 groups. Glucose profile derangement as detected by CGM is associated with the severity of hepatic fibrosis in children with NAFLD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. High fat diet-induced glucose intolerance impairs myocardial function, but not myocardial perfusion during hyperaemia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Brom Charissa E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose intolerance is a major health problem and is associated with increased risk of progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. However, whether glucose intolerance is related to impaired myocardial perfusion is not known. The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of diet-induced glucose intolerance on myocardial function and perfusion during baseline and pharmacological induced hyperaemia. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly exposed to a high fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD (n = 8 per group. After 4 weeks, rats underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Subsequently, rats underwent (contrast echocardiography to determine myocardial function and perfusion during baseline and dipyridamole-induced hyperaemia (20 mg/kg for 10 min. Results Four weeks of HFD feeding resulted in glucose intolerance compared to CD-feeding. Contractile function as represented by fractional shortening was not altered in HFD-fed rats compared to CD-fed rats under baseline conditions. However, dipyridamole increased fractional shortening in CD-fed rats, but not in HFD-fed rats. Basal myocardial perfusion, as measured by estimate of perfusion, was similar in CD- and HFD-fed rats, whereas dipyridamole increased estimate of perfusion in CD-fed rats, but not in HFD-fed rats. However, flow reserve was not different between CD- and HFD-fed rats. Conclusions Diet-induced glucose intolerance is associated with impaired myocardial function during conditions of hyperaemia, but myocardial perfusion is maintained. These findings may result in new insights into the effect of glucose intolerance on myocardial function and perfusion during hyperaemia.

  9. Pre-gravid physical activity and reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy: the role of insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Qi, Ying; Sermer, Mathew; Connelly, Philip W; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J G

    2009-04-01

    Pre-gravid physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), although neither the types of exercise nor the physiologic mechanisms underlying this protective effect have been well-studied. Thus, we sought to study the relationships between types of pre-gravid physical activity and metabolic parameters in pregnancy, including glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. A total of 851 women underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT) and a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in late pregnancy, yielding four glucose tolerance groups: (i) GDM; (ii) gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT); (iii) abnormal GCT with normal glucose tolerance on OGTT (abnormal GCT NGT); and (iv) normal GCT with NGT on OGTT (normal GCT NGT). Pre-gravid physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire, which measures (i) total physical activity and (ii) its three component domains: work, nonsport leisure-time, and vigorous/sports activity. Glucose tolerance status improved across increasing quartiles of pre-gravid total physical activity (P = 0.0244). Whereas neither work nor nonsport leisure-time activity differed between glucose tolerance groups, pre-gravid vigorous/sports activity was significantly higher in women with normal GCT NGT compared to women with (i) abnormal GCT NGT (P = 0.0018) (ii) GIGT (P = 0.0025), and (iii) GDM (P = 0.0044). In particular, vigorous/sports activity correlated with insulin sensitivity (measured by IS(OGTT)) (r = 0.21, P sports activity emerged as a significant independent predictor of IS(OGTT) in pregnancy (t = 4.97, P sports activity is associated with a reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, an effect likely mediated by enhanced insulin sensitivity.

  10. Elevated 1-hour postload plasma glucose levels identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance but impaired β-cell function, insulin resistance, and worse cardiovascular risk profile: the GENFIEV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Cristina; Miccoli, Roberto; Trombetta, Maddalena; Giorgino, Francesco; Frontoni, Simona; Faloia, Emanuela; Marchesini, Giulio; Dolci, Maria A; Cavalot, Franco; Cavallo, Gisella; Leonetti, Frida; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Del Prato, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    In subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) 1-hour postload plasma glucose (1-h oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) of >155 mg/dL predicts type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate β-cell function, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile in subjects with NGT with a 1-h OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL. The GENFIEV (Genetics, PHYsiopathology, and Evolution of Type 2 diabetes) study is a multicenter study recruiting individuals at high risk of T2DM. A total of 926 subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT for assessment of plasma glucose and C-peptide for mathematical modeling of β-cell function (derivative and proportional control). Fasting insulin, lipid profile, and clinical parameters were determined as well. A 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL was found in 39% of subjects with NGT, 76% with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 90% with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 99% and 98% with IFG + IGT or newly diagnosed T2DM, respectively. Among subjects with NGT (n = 474), those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL were more insulin-resistant and had worse β-cell function than those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Moreover, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were higher in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower compared with that in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Compared with subjects with IGT, those with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL had comparable cardiovascular risk profile and insulin resistance but slightly better β-cell function. Among subjects with NGT, those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL showed lower insulin sensitivity, impaired β-cell function, and worse cardiovascular risk profile and therefore are at greater risk of developing T2DM and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain: a magnetization transfer imaging study of brain macro- and micro-structure in older adults without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; Jansen, Steffy W; van Buchem, Mark A; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-08-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain MRI was used to detect macro-structural damage (atrophy, white matter hyper-intensities, infarcts and/or micro-bleeds) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) to detect loss of micro-structural homogeneity that remains otherwise invisible on conventional MRI. Macro-structurally, higher fasted glucose was significantly associated with white matter atrophy (P = 0.028). Micro-structurally, decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) peak height in gray matter was associated with higher fasted insulin (P = 0.010), AUCinsulin (P = 0.001), insulinogenic index (P = 0.008) and lower HOMA-IS index (P glucose was associated with macro-structural damage, impaired insulin action was associated more strongly with reduced micro-structural brain parenchymal homogeneity. These findings offer some insight into the association between different parameters of glucose metabolism (impairment of which is characteristic of diabetes mellitus) and brain aging.

  12. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance...... test (OGTT) during 1997-2002 (baseline) and during 2003-2004 (re-evaluation). The observation period was (median; range) 4 (2-7) years. During re-evaluation, body mass index (BMI) was 24.9 (22.4-29.0) kg/m(2) and total Ferriman-Gallwey score was 10 (7-15) (median; 25-75% quartile). The women had...... unchanged BMI compared to baseline but increased fasting and 2 hour glucose levels. Impaired OGTT outcome during follow-up was seen in 14/66 (21.2%) women, 5/66 (7.6%) developed diabetes. Women who took oral contraceptives had a significantly decreased area under the curve (AUC) for insulin during follow...

  13. Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. The causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis B in one case, hepatitis C in 20 cases, alcohol in 15 cases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in eight cases, and other conditions in four cases. The Child-Pugh classes were A in 24 cases, B in 23 cases, and C in one case. The indication for BRTO was gastric varices in 40 cases and hepatic encephalopathy in eight cases. Testing was conducted before and 1 month after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of a clinically significant decline in ammonia levels after BRTO. Occlusion of PSS resulted in a clinically significant decrease in ammonia levels accompanied by increased portal venous flow and improved Child-Pugh score. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in ammonia levels due to BRTO was significantly related to lower plasma glucose levels, higher RBC counts, and higher hemoglobin concentration before the treatment. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative plasma glucose level as the strongest independent predictor of a significant ammonia reduction in response to BRTO. In addition, although BRTO resulted in significantly declined ammonia levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance before the procedure, ammonia levels were not significantly decreased after shunt occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance before BRTO, according to 75-g oral glucose tolerance test results. Preoperative plasma glucose level is a useful predictor of clinically significant ammonia reduction resulting from occlusion of PSS in patients with cirrhosis. Even if PSS are present, control

  14. Effects of Insulin on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Nesterov, Sergey V.; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism, but this effect of insulin is already maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects. It is not known whether insulin is able to stimulate glucose metabolism above fasting concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the effects of insulin on brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow in 13 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and nine healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET). All subjects underwent PET with both [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for brain glucose metabolism) and [15O]H2O (for cerebral blood flow) in two separate conditions (in the fasting state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp). Arterial blood samples were acquired during the PET scans to allow fully quantitative modeling. RESULTS The hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism only in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (whole brain: +18%, P = 0.001) but not in healthy subjects (whole brain: +3.9%, P = 0.373). The hyperinsulinemic clamp did not alter cerebral blood flow in either group. CONCLUSIONS We found that insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism at physiological postprandial levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance but not in healthy subjects. These results suggest that insulin stimulation of brain glucose metabolism is maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects but not in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:21270256

  15. Preoperative fluid and electrolyte management with oral rehydration therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae; Takamori, Mina; Kawasaki, Rieko; Momiyama, Yukinori; Takano, Osami; Shibata, Toshinari; Goto, Takahisa

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that oral rehydration therapy using an oral rehydration solution may be effective for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management in surgical patients before the induction of general anesthesia, and we investigated the safety and effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy as compared with intravenous therapy. Fifty female patients who underwent breast surgery were randomly allocated to two groups. Before entry to the operation room and the induction of general anesthesia, 25 patients drank 1000 ml of an oral rehydration solution ("oral group") and 25 patients were infused with 1000 ml of an intravenous electrolyte solution ("intravenous group"). Parameters such as electrolyte concentrations in serum and urine, urine volume, vital signs, vomiting and aspiration, volumes of esophageal-pharyngeal fluid and gastric fluid (EPGF), and patient satisfaction with the therapy (as surveyed by a questionnaire) were assessed. After treatment, the serum sodium concentration and the hematocrit value, which both declined within the normal limits, were significantly higher in the oral group than in the intravenous group (sodium, 140.8 +/- 2.9 mEq x l(-1) in the oral group and 138.7 +/- 1.9 mEq x l(-1) in the intravenous group; P = 0.005; hematocrit, 39.03 +/- 4.16% in the oral group and 36.15 +/- 3.41% in the intravenous group; P = 0.01). No significant difference was observed in serum glucose values. Urine volume was significantly larger in the oral group (864.9 +/- 211.5 ml) than in the intravenous group (561.5 +/- 216.0 ml; P rehydration therapy, as judged by factors such as "feeling of hunger", "occurrence of dry mouth", and "less restriction in physical activity". The volume of EPGF collected following the induction of anesthesia was significantly smaller in the oral group than in the intravenous group (6.03 +/- 9.14 ml in the oral group and 21.76 +/- 30.56 ml in the intravenous group; P rehydration therapy with an oral rehydration solution before surgery is

  16. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose

  17. Serum Zn levels in dysphagic patients who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy for long term enteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Santos, Carla; Fonseca, Jorge; Brito, José; Fernandes, Tânia; Gonçalves, Luísa; Sousa Guerreiro, António

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Dysphagic patients who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) usually present protein-energy malnutrition, but little is known about micronutrient malnutrition. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of serum zinc in patients who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy and its relationship with serum proteins, whole blood zinc, and the nature of underlying disorder. Methods: From patients that underwent gastrostomy a blood sample was obtained minutes before the procedur...

  18. Higher Endogenous Glucose Production during OGTT vs Isoglycemic Intravenous Glucose Infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Oral glucose ingestion elicits a larger insulin response and delayed suppression of glucagon compared to isoglycemic intravenous (iv) glucose infusion (IIGI). OBJECTIVE: We studied whether these differences translate into effects on endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucose disposal......); HbA1c 53.8 ± 11.0 mmol/mol; duration of diabetes 9.2 ± 5.0 years) and 10 matched non-diabetic control subjects (age 56.0±10.7 years; BMI 29.8 ± 2.9 kg/m(2); HbA1c 33.8 ± 5.5 mmol/mol) Interventions: Three experimental days: 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), IIGI and IIGI+glucagon (IIGI...

  19. Ferritin as a Risk Factor for Glucose Intolerance amongst Men and Women Originating from the Indian Subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Hughes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum ferritin predicts the onset of diabetes; however, this relationship is not clear amongst South Asians, a population susceptible to glucose intolerance and anaemia. Objective. This study tests whether ferritin levels reflect glucose tolerance in South Asians, independent of lifestyle exposures associated with Indian or British residence. Methods. We randomly sampled 227 Gujaratis in Britain (49.8 (14.4 years, 50% men and 277 contemporaries living in Gujarati villages (47.6 (11.8 years, 41% men. Both groups underwent a 75 g oral-glucose-tolerance test. We evaluated lifestyle parameters with standardised questionnaires and conducted comprehensive clinical and lab measurements. Results. Across sites, the age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 9.8%. Serum ferritin was higher amongst diabetics (P=0.005, irrespective of site, gender, and central obesity (P≤0.02, and was associated with fasting and postchallenge glucose, anthropometry, blood pressure, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids (P<0.001. Diabetes was less in those with low ferritin (<20 mg/mL, P<0.008, and risk estimate = 0.35 (95% CI 0.15–0.81, as were blood pressure and metabolic risk factors. On multivariate analysis, diabetes was independently associated with ferritin (P=0.001 and age (P<0.001. Conclusion. Ferritin levels are positively associated with glucose intolerance in our test groups, independent of gender and Indian or UK lifestyle factors.

  20. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC 50  = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU 50  = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU 50  = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  1. Clinical Observations of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Hong Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    Plasma glucose levels before and after oral glucose administration have been compared in g group of 76 thyrotoxic subjects and a group of 8 normal control subjects in order to study the effect of glucose loading in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results: 1) The mean fasting plasma glucose level was elevated in thyrotoxic group (95.5 mg%) compared to normal control group (88 mg%). 2) The peak of glucose tolerance curve is at 30 minutes after glucose administration in both groups, but its mean value was 44 mg% higher in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 3) The plasma glucose levels returned towards the fasting level in the later stage of the test more rapidly in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 4) 69.6% of oral glucose tolerance tests were impaired in the thyrotoxic group, and the occurrence of abnormal glucose tolerance could be related to the degree of thyrotoxicity, sex and age. 5) The mechanisms of the impaired glucose tolerance in thyrotoxicosis are thought to be related to an increased rate of glucose absorption from gastrointestinal tract, abnormal liver function with decreased hepatic glycogenesis, increased glucose oxidation, decreased pancreatic release of insulin, and genetic relationship between diabetes and thyrotoxicosis.

  2. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  3. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was determined in 479 urbanised South African blacks (141 men and 338 women) of Zulu descent selected by cluster sampling in a suburb of Durban. All subjects underwent a modified glucose tolerance test whereby fasting and 2-hour postglucose ...

  4. Local anesthesia with epinephrine is safe and effective for oral surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary disease: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Alves dos Santos-Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variations in blood glucose levels, hemodynamic effects and patient anxiety scores during tooth extraction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM and coronary disease under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with or without epinephrine. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective randomized study of 70 patients with T2DM with coronary disease who underwent oral surgery. The study was double blind with respect to the glycemia measurements. Blood glucose levels were continuously monitored for 24 hours using the MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Patients were randomized into two groups: 35 patients received 5.4 mL of 2% lidocaine, and 35 patients received 5.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Hemodynamic parameters (blood pressure and heart rate and anxiety levels were also evaluated. RESULTS: There was no difference in blood glucose levels between the groups at each time point evaluated. Surprisingly, both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in blood glucose levels over time. The groups showed no significant differences in hemodynamic and anxiety status parameters. CONCLUSION: The administration of 5.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine neither caused hyperglycemia nor had any significant impact on hemodynamic or anxiety parameters. However, lower blood glucose levels were observed. This is the first report using continuous blood glucose monitoring to show the benefits and lack of side effects of local anesthesia with epinephrine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary disease.

  5. Ovarian SAHA syndrome is associated with a more insulin-resistant profile and represents an independent risk factor for glucose abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamaga, Maria; Papadavid, Evangelia; Basios, Georgios; Vaggopoulos, Vassilios; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Trakakis, Eftihios

    2013-12-01

    SAHA syndrome is characterized by the tetrad: seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. No previous study has examined the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in ovarian SAHA and explored whether it may be an independent risk factor for glucose abnormalities. In a prospective controlled study, we investigated the spectrum of glucose abnormalities in ovarian SAHA and explored whether it is associated with a more insulin-resistant profile. In all, 316 patients with a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (56 with SAHA) and 102 age-matched healthy women were examined and underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Serum glucose homeostasis parameters, hormones, and adipokines were determined. SAHA prevalence was 17.7% in patients with PCOS and predominance of the severe PCOS phenotype. Ovarian SAHA was independently associated with a more insulin-resistant profile (higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score, lower quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI] and MATSUDA indices, and relative hypoadiponectinemia), and represented an independent risk factor for glucose abnormalities regardless of anthropometric features, age, and PCOS phenotype. There was no performance of skin biopsies. The prompt recognition of SAHA syndrome in women with PCOS permits an earlier diagnosis and surveillance of metabolic abnormalities, especially in Mediterranean PCOS population exhibiting a lower prevalence of glucose abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  7. Ultra-long-acting insulin degludec has a flat and stable glucose-lowering effect in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, T; Nosek, L; Bøttcher, S G; Hastrup, H; Haahr, H

    2012-10-01

    Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a new-generation, ultra-long-acting basal insulin that forms soluble multihexamers upon subcutaneous injection, resulting in a depot from which IDeg is absorbed slowly and continuously into circulation. This double-blind, two-period, incomplete block cross-over trial investigated the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of IDeg at steady state (SS) in people with type 2 diabetes. Forty-nine subjects treated with insulin without concomitant oral anti-diabetic drugs were given IDeg (0.4, 0.6 and/or 0.8 U/kg) once daily for two 6-day periods, separated by an interval of 13-21 days. Following dosing on Day 6, subjects underwent a 26-h euglycaemic glucose clamp (Biostator®; clamp blood glucose level: 90 mg/dl; 5.0 mmol/l). Pharmacokinetic samples were taken until 120 h after last dosing. For all dose levels, the mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) profiles were flat and stable. The glucose-lowering effect of IDeg was evenly distributed over the dosing interval τ, with area under the curve (AUC) for each of the four 6-h intervals being approximately 25% of the total AUC (AUC(GIR) (,τ,) (SS) ). Total glucose-lowering effect increased linearly with increasing dose. The blood glucose levels of all subjects stayed very close to the clamp target until end of clamp. The terminal half-life of IDeg was approximately 25 h at steady state. IDeg was well tolerated and no safety concerns were identified. No injection site reactions were reported. IDeg has a flat and consistent glucose-lowering effect in people with type 2 diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Glucose Metabolism in High-Risk Subjects for Type 2 Diabetes Carrying the rs7903146 TCF7L2 Gene Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Gaggini, Melania; Comassi, Mario; Bianchi, Cristina; Basta, Giuseppina; Dardano, Angela; Miccoli, Roberto; Mari, Andrea; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Del Prato, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for contribution of variants in the gene TFC7L2 to the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains far from being completely understood, and available studies have generated nonunivocal results. We investigated the postprandial glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for T2DM carrying the TCF7L2 risk allele. Twenty-three subjects carrying the risk-conferring TCF7L2 genotypes (11 TT and 12 CT at rs7901346) and 13 subjects with wild-type genotype (CC) underwent a standard mixed-meal test (MMT) in combination with stable isotope tracers. We evaluated endogenous and exogenous glucose fluxes and hormonal responses. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, endogenous glucose production, and plasma glucose clearance were similar in the three groups, whereas plasma glucagon levels were lower in both CT and TT than in CC (64 ± 20, 63 ± 18 and 90 ± 29 pg/mL, respectively; both P = .01). In response to the MMT, TT subjects had lower plasma glucose levels than CC subjects [mean area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) 6.1 ± 3.9 vs 7.1 ± 12.0 mmol/L, P = .04] and lower insulin secretion rate (mean AUC 385 ± 95 vs 530 ± 159 pmol/m(2) · min, P = .02). Initial (0-60 min) rate of appearance (Ra) of oral glucose was lower in TT compared with CT/CC (AUC 2.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.8 ± 1.2 μmol/kg · min, P = .02) with no difference among the three groups in endogenous glucose production. The AUC0-60min for Ra of exogenous glucose (Raex) was positively correlated with the plasma glucose AUC0-60min. Total Raex AUC0-120min was correlated with total AUC0-120min of plasma glucose (r = 0.45, P glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide levels in response to the MMT were not affected by genotype. In subjects at risk for T2DM, the TCF7L2 polymorphisms were associated with reduced Raex into systemic circulation, causing reduced postprandial blood glucose increase and, in turn, lower insulin secretion rate with no impairment in β-cell function

  9. The product of triglycerides and glucose in comparison with fasting plasma glucose did not improve diabetes prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghorbani, Mohsen; Almasi, Siedeh Zinab; Amini, Masoud

    2015-08-01

    Previous study has reported that triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index, a product of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), might be useful in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated the ability of the TyG index compared to FPG and OGTT as possible diabetes predictor in nondiabetic first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with T2D. A total of 1,488 FDRs without diabetes of consecutive patients with T2D 30-70 years old (361 men and 1,127 women) were examined and followed for a mean (SD) of 6.9 (1.7) years for diabetes incidence. We examined the incidence of diabetes across quartiles of the TyG index and plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess discrimination. At baseline and through follow-up, participants underwent a standard 75-g two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. During 10,124 person-years of follow-up, 41 men and 154 women developed T2D. Those in the top quartile of TyG index were 3.4 times more likely to develop T2D than those in the bottom quartile (odds ratio 3.36; 95 % CI 1.83, 6.19). On ROC curve analysis, a higher area under the ROC was found for FPG (76.2; 95 % CI 71.9, 80.6), 1-hPG (81.0, 95 % CI 77.2, 84.9) and 2-hPG (76.5; 95 % CI 72.3, 80.8) than for TyG index (65.1; 95 % CI 60.5, 69.7). TyG index is predicted T2D in high-risk individuals in Iran but FPG, 1-hPG and 2-hPG appeared to be more robust predictor of T2D in our study population.

  10. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  11. Underestimation of glucose turnover corrected with high-performance liquid chromatography purification of [6-3H]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, W.F.; Butler, P.C.; Haymond, M.W.; Rizza, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently reported that during infusion of commercially available [6-3H]glucose, a radioactive nonglucose contaminant may accumulate in plasma causing errors in the measurement of glucose turnover. To determine whether purification of this tracer by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) before infusion would eliminate the contaminant in plasma and remove the underestimation of glucose turnover reported during hyperinsulinemia, four normal subjects each underwent two 5-h euglycemic clamps during infusion of insulin (1 mU.kg-1.min-1). Glucose turnover was measured with either commercially available [6-3H]glucose or with HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. HPLC analysis of samples from the clamps done with commercially available [6-3H]glucose showed that 9.7% of the infused tracer and 26% of the plasma glucose 3H radioactivity were contaminants. In contrast, no contaminant was observed in the plasma during infusion of HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. During the last hour of the clamp, mean glucose turnover using commercially available [6-3H]glucose was less (P less than 0.01) than the mean glucose infusion rate (7.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 10.5 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1) yielding apparent negative (P less than 0.001) hepatic glucose release. In contrast, when HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose was employed, glucose turnover equaled the glucose infusion rate (10.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 10.2 +/- 0.9 mg.kg-1.min-1) and hepatic glucose release was no longer negative. We conclude that removal of a tritiated nonglucose contaminant in [6-3H]glucose by HPLC yields correct estimations of glucose turnover at steady state

  12. Glucose metabolism disorder in obese children assessed by continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao-Chun; Liang, Li; Hong, Fang; Zhao, Zheng-Yan

    2008-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) can measure glucose levels at 5-minute intervals over a few days, and may be used to detect hypoglycemia, guide insulin therapy, and control glucose levels. This study was undertaken to assess the glucose metabolism disorder by CGMS in obese children. Eighty-four obese children were studied. Interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose levels were measured by CGMS for 24 hours covering the time for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hypoglycemia were assessed by CGMS. Five children failed to complete CGMS test. The glucose levels in ISF measured by CGMS were highly correlated with those in capillary samples (r=0.775, Pobese children who finished the CGMS, 2 children had IFG, 2 had IGT, 3 had IFG + IGT, and 2 had T2DM. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was noted during the overnight fasting in 11 children (13.92%). Our data suggest that glucose metabolism disorder including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is very common in obese children. Further studies are required to improve the precision of the CGMS in children.

  13. Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose transport in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yo; Kawamata, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was ∼64% higher (P < 0.001) after isomaltulose ingestion, which results in an increased insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P < 0.001) compared with sucrose. The cumulative amount of systemic glucose appearance was ∼35% lower after isomaltulose than after sucrose (P = 0.003) because of the reduction in orally derived and endogenously produced glucose and a higher first-pass splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU). Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  15. The capsaicin analog nonivamide decreases total energy intake from a standardized breakfast and enhances plasma serotonin levels in moderately overweight men after administered in an oral glucose tolerance test: a randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkogler, Christina M; Rohm, Barbara; Hojdar, Karin; Pignitter, Marc; Widder, Sabine; Ley, Jakob P; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Since bolus administration of capsaicin has been shown to reduce appetite and ad libitum energy intake, this study elucidated the satiating effect of the less pungent capsaicin analog, nonivamide, on subjective feelings of hunger, ad libitum food intake, and satiating hormones in moderately overweight male subjects. Following a randomized, crossover design, 24 male subjects (BMI 27.5 ± 1.53 kg/m(2) ) received either 75 g glucose in 300 mL water (control treatment, CT) or the same glucose solution supplemented with 0.15 mg nonivamide (nonivamide treatment, NT). Ratings of hunger were assessed before and 2 h after each intervention by means of visual analog scales. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes from a standardized breakfast 2 h postintervention were calculated. Plasma glucose, insulin, peptide YY (3-36), glucagon-like peptide 1, and serotonin were quantified in blood samples drawn before and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each intervention. NT reduced subjective feelings of hunger and ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes from a standardized breakfast compared to CT. Plasma analysis revealed higher mean plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and serotonin concentrations after NT versus CT. Addition of 0.15 mg nonivamide to a glucose solution reduced ad libitum energy intake from a standardized breakfast in moderately overweight men. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Inhibition of DPP-4 with vildagliptin improved insulin secretion in response to oral as well as "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose without numerically changing the incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardarli, Irfan; Nauck, Michael A; Köthe, Lars D

    2011-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors block the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively assess the incretin effect after treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (V) or placebo (P...

  17. Incretin hormone and insulin responses to oral versus intravenous lipid administration in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Carr, Richard D; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2011-01-01

    Context: The incretin effect is responsible for the higher insulin response to oral glucose than to iv glucose at matching glucose levels. It is notknownwhetherthis effect is restricted to glucose only. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine whether insulin and incretin hormone responses ...

  18. RETINOPATHY, GLUCOSE, AND INSULIN IN AN ELDERLY POPULATION - THE ROTTERDAM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STOLK, RP; VINGERLING, [No Value; DEJONG, PTVM; DIELEMANS, Hubertus J.A.; HOFMAN, A; LAMBERTS, SWJ; POLS, HAP; GROBBEE, DE

    We studied the association between retinopathy and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of elderly men and women, Glucose metabolism was assessed by serum fructosamine and a nonfasting oral glucose tolerance test, and retinopathy was evaluated by fundus photography, Retinopathy was present

  19. Assessment of the effects of scaling and root planing on blood glucose levels in type II diabetes patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Rieyazulhuq Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of the scaling and root planing of some blood glucose levels in Type II Diabetes patients. Study Population and Methods: The clinical study was conducted in 15 Type II diabetic patients of Dr. D Y Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune. All the participants underwent a baseline examination for periodontal status using the community periodontal index of treatment needs and also estimation of fasting and post-prandial blood sugar levels. The participants received the intervention of scaling and root planing, as also routine oral hygiene instructions, and were recalled after one month for a final periodontal examination and blood sugar level investigation. The significance of difference between the means of the baseline and the final examination was tested using the paired ′t′ test. Results and Conclusion: There was no significant change in the fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels in patients treated with scaling and root planing.

  20. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  1. Maternal OGTT Glucose Levels at 26–30 Gestational Weeks with Offspring Growth and Development in Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Sun, Shurong; Wen, Jing; Lyu, Fengjun; Gao, Wen; Li, Lili; Chen, Fang; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to evaluate the association of maternal gestational oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose concentrations with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months in Tianjin, China. Methods. A total of 27,157 pregnant women underwent OGTT during 26–30 weeks gestation, and their children had body weight/length measured from birth to 12 months old. Results. Maternal OGTT glucose concentrations at 26–30 gestational weeks were positively associated with Z-scores for birth length-for-gestational age and birth weight-for-length. Compared with infants born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance, infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (impaired glucose tolerance/new diabetes) had higher mean values of Z-scores for birth length-for-gestational age (0.07/0.23; normal group −0.08) and birth weight-for-length (0.27/0.57; normal group −0.001), smaller changes in mean values of Z-scores for length-for-age (0.75/0.62; normal group 0.94) and weight-for-length (0.18/−0.17; normal group 0.37) from birth to month 3, and bigger changes in mean values in Z-scores for weight-for-length (0.07/0.12; normal group 0.02) from month 9 to 12. Conclusions. Abnormal maternal glucose tolerance during pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight and birth length, less weight and length gain in the first 3 months of life, and more weight gain in the months 9–12 of life. PMID:24689042

  2. More symptoms but similar blood glucose curve after oral carbohydrate provocation in patients with a history of hypoglycemia-like symptoms compared to asymptomatic patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, Anna; Werling, Malin; Le Roux, Carel W; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an effective treatment for obesity through altering several physiologic mechanisms. Some patients experience symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia after LRYGB, but whether these symptoms always are associated with low blood glucose are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia, plasma glucose levels and gut hormones involved in glycemic control. Eight LRYGB patients with hypglycemia-like symptoms (SY) and 8 patients with no hypglycemia-like symptoms (ASY) ingested a liquid carbohydrate meal. Insulin, plasma-glucose, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon were measured intermittently 180 minutes postprandially. In addition, pulse rate, blood pressure and symptoms were assessed. Plasma glucose at 120 min was lower in the ASY mean (95% CI) 2.4 (1.6,3.3) mmol/L (43.2 mg/dL) compared to the SY group 3.0 (3.1,4.6) mmol/L (54.6 mg/dL), (P = .050). The ASY group had larger reduction in plasma glucose than the SY group from pre- to 120 min postmeal -2.2 (-2.8,-1.7) mmol/L (-39.6 mg/dL) versus -1.1 (-1.7,-0.4) mmol/L (-19.8 mg/dL), (P = .011). The concentrations of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon did not differ significantly between groups. Blood pressure was similar between groups, but the AUC for pulse rate was higher in the SY than ASY group 13009 (11148,14870) versus 11569 (10837,12300) beats/180 minutes, (P = .038). The SY group reported more symptoms than the ASY group, AUC for Sigstad scale 60 to 180 minutes was 970 (-274,1667) for SY versus 170 for ASY (-39,379), (P = .028). Patients with a history of symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia after LRYGB neither demonstrated lower plasma glucose nor greater insulin response compared to asymptomatic patients in response to a liquid carbohydrate meal, but perceived more symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  4. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  5. [A Distal Bile Duct Carcinoma Patient Who Underwent Surgical Resection for Liver Metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Sosuke; Izumiya, Yasuhito; Kimura, Yu; Nakashima, Shingo; Kin, Syuichi; Kawakami, Sadao

    2018-03-01

    A 70-year-old man with distal bile duct carcinoma underwent a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy without adjuvant chemotherapy. One and a half years after the surgery, elevated levels of serum SPan-1(38.1 U/mL)were observed and CT scans demonstrated a solitary metastasis, 25mm in size, in segment 8 of the liver. The patient received 2 courses of gemcitabine-cisplatin combination chemotherapy. No new lesions were detected after chemotherapy and the patient underwent a partial liver resection of segment 8. The pathological examination revealed a metachronous distant metastasis originating from the bile duct carcinoma. Subsequently, the patient received S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months. Following completion of all therapies, the patient survived without tumor recurrence for 3 years and 10 months after the initial operation. Thus, surgical interventions might be effective in improving prognosis among selected patients with postoperative liver metastasis of bile duct carcinoma.

  6. Dysphagia among Adult Patients who Underwent Surgery for Esophageal Atresia at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Huynh-Trudeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and/or anatomical anomalies.

  7. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özülkü

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results: The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump as compared to Group 2 (off-pump. But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893, P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006. Conclusion: Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  8. Incidence of Bradycardia and Outcomes of Patients Who Underwent Orbital Atherectomy Without a Temporary Pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Nguyen, Heajung; Shlofmitz, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed the incidence of bradycardia and the safety of patients with severely calcified coronary lesions who underwent orbital atherectomy without the insertion of a temporary pacemaker. The presence of severely calcified coronary lesions can increase the complexity of percutaneous coronary intervention due to the difficulty in advancing and optimally expanding the stent. High-pressure inflations to predilate calcified lesions may cause angiographic complications like perforation and dissection. Suboptimal stent expansion is associated with stent thrombosis and restenosis. Orbital atherectomy safely and effectively modifies calcified plaque to facilitate optimal stent expansion. The incidence of bradycardia in orbital atherectomy is unknown. Fifty consecutive patients underwent orbital atherectomy from February 2014 to September 2016 at our institution, none of whom underwent insertion of a temporary pacemaker. The final analysis included 47 patients in this retrospective study as 3 patients were excluded because of permanent pacemaker implantation. The primary endpoint was significant bradycardia, defined as bradycardia requiring emergent pacemaker placement or a heart rate pacemaker appears to be safe.

  9. Comparison of Voice Quality Between Patients Who Underwent Inferior Turbinoplasty or Radiofrequency Cauterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göker, Ayşe Enise; Aydoğdu, İmran; Saltürk, Ziya; Berkiten, Güler; Atar, Yavuz; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Uyar, Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the vocal quality in patients who underwent either submucosal turbinectomy or radiofrequency cauterization. In this study, we enrolled 60 patients diagnosed with inferior concha hypertrophy. These patients were divided into two groups by using computer program "Research Randomizer." Of the 60 patients, 30 underwent submucosal inferior turbinoplasty and 30 underwent radiofrequency cauterization. The control group was composed of 30 healthy adults with no nasal or upper aerodigestive system pathology. The patients were checked at weeks 1, 2, and 4. Voice records were taken before the procedure and at week 4 postprocedure. The mean age of patients in the inferior turbinoplasty group was 29.4 years (range: 19-42 years); in the radiofrequency group, it was 30.30 years (range: 18-50 years). There was no statistical difference in age between groups. In the inferior turbinoplasty group, there were 16 male and 14 female patients, and in the radiofrequency group, there were 13 male and 17 female patients. There was no significant difference in the number of males and females between groups. Voice professionals, especially singers, actors, and actresses, should be informed about possible voice changes before undergoing endonasal surgery because these individuals are more sensitive to changes in resonance organs. We believe that voice quality should be regarded as a highly important parameter when measuring the success of endonasal surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moré Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a steady increase in the number of elderly patients with severe cardiovascular diseases who require a surgical procedure to recover some quality of life that allows them a socially meaningful existence, despite the risks.Objectives: To analyze the behavior of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Method: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with patients over 65 years of age who underwent surgery at the Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara, in Santa Clara, from January 2013 to March 2014.Results: In the study, 73.1% of patients were men; and there was a predominance of subjects between 65 and 70 years of age, accounting for 67.3%. Coronary artery bypass graft was the most prevalent type of surgery and had the longest cardiopulmonary bypass times. Hypertension was present in 98.1% of patients. The most frequent postoperative complications were renal dysfunction and severe low cardiac output, with 44.2% and 34.6% respectively.Conclusions: There was a predominance of men, the age group of 65 to 70 years, hypertension, and patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft with prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. Renal dysfunction was the most frequent complication.

  11. Acute myocardial infarctation in patients with critical ischemia underwent lower limb revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdras Marques Lins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD of the lower limbs. Patients with PAOD often also have obstructive atherosclerosis in other arterial sites, mainly the coronary arteries. This means that patients who undergo infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia have a higher risk of AMI. There are, however, few reports in the literature that have assessed this risk properly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia of the lower limbs caused by PAOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent 82 infrainguinal bypass operations, from February 2011 to July 2012 were studied. All patients had electrocardiograms and troponin I blood assays during the postoperative period (within 72 hours. RESULTS: There were abnormal ECG findings and elevated blood troponin I levels suggestive of AMI in five (6% of the 82 operations performed. All five had conventional surgery. The incidence of AMI as a proportion of the 52 conventional surgery cases was 9.6%. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: There was a 6% AMI incidence among patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass due to PAOD. Considering only cases operated using conventional surgery, the incidence of AMI was 9.6%.

  12. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism even in Chinese PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiping; Li, Qifu

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the necessity of improving glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women as early as possible, 111 PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance and 92 healthy age-matched controls were recruited to investigate glucose levels distribution, insulin sensitivity and β cell function. 91 PCOS women and 33 controls underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess their insulin sensitivity, which was expressed as M value. β cell function was estimated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-β index after adjusting insulin sensitivity (HOMA-βad index). Compared with lean controls, lean PCOS women had similar fasting plasma glucose (FPG), higher postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) (6.03±1.05 vs. 5.44±0.97 mmol/L, PPCOS women had higher levels of both FPG (5.24±0.58 vs. 4.90±0.39, PPCOS women separately, and the cutoff of BMI indicating impaired β cell function of PCOS women was 25.545kg/m². In conclusion, insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose metabolism were common in Chinese PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance. BMI ≥ 25.545kg/m² indicated impaired β cell function in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  13. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption and ga...... model provides a better description and improves the understanding of dynamic glucose tests involving oral glucose....... and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge...... glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new...

  14. [A comparison of post-surgical plasma glucose levels in patients on fluids with different glucose concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carapeto, Isabel; López Castilla, José Domingo; Fresneda Gutiérrez, Reyes

    2017-11-11

    To compare plasma glucose levels and incidence of hyperglycaemia in the post-operative period after general surgery using fluids with different glucose. A randomised, open-label, non-blind, clinical trial was conducted on patients admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit after elective surgery. The inclusion criteria were from 6 months to 14 years of age, with a weight greater than 6kg, onset glucose level >60mg/dL, and a signed informed consent, with no oral intake and maintenance intravenous fluid therapy using fluids with 3.3% or 5% glucose. Plasma glucose levels were measured before surgery, on admission, and 8, 24, and 48h, with the mean glucose levels and incidence of hyperglycaemia (glucose level >150mg/dL) in both groups being compared. A total of 60 patients received glucose/saline 1/3 (51mEq/L sodium and 33g/L glucose), and 70 glucose/saline 5/0.9% (154mEq/L sodium and 50g/L glucose). Mean glucose levels were higher in the group receiving glucose 5%, with no statistical difference. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hyperglycaemia; 8h: 26% in the 3.3% group vs. 21.3% in the 5% group (P=.63); 24h: 20% vs. 22.7% (P=.8); and 48h: 19% vs. 23.1% (P=.78). The use of fluids with 3.3% glucose in the post-operative period of general surgery maintains mean glucose levels in a similar range to that of patients receiving fluids with 5% glucose, with no difference in the incidence of hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your ... glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, do not ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  2. Factors related to postoperative pain among patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-C.; Yap, Y.-S.; Hung, C.-H.; Chen, C.-H.; Lu, S.-N.; Wang, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of postoperative intense pain and haemodynamic changes during radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and methods: A total of 123 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation were prospectively recruited. Patient factors, tumour characteristics, procedural factors, intraoperative haemodynamic changes, complications, postoperative events, laboratory values before and after ablation, and postoperative pain were evaluated. Postoperative pain was scored using a visual analogue scale after the procedure. Results: The mean age of the patients was 65.6 ± 9.6 years. In multiple logistic regression analysis, patients who underwent general anaesthesia [odds ratio (95% CI): 2.68 (1.23–5.81); p = 0.013] and had more postoperative nausea and vomiting episodes [3.10 (1.11–8.63); p = 0.036] were associated with intense pain. These findings remain robust after propensity score matching. For mean difference values between before and after RFA, higher in change in aspartate transaminase (p = 0.026), alanine transaminase (p = 0.016) and white blood cell count (p = 0.015), and lower in change in haemoglobin (p = 0.009) were also correlated with intense pain. There was no significant difference in haemodynamic changes between the general anaesthesia and local anaesthesia group during ablation. Conclusion: General anaesthesia, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and laboratory factors were associated with postoperative intense pain in patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation. Counselling and modification of analgesics should be considered in patients with related factors for intense pain

  3. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  4. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  5. Surrogate pregnancy in a patient who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral transposition of ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azem, Foad; Yovel, Israel; Wagman, Israel; Kapostiansky, Rita; Lessing, Joseph B; Amit, Ami

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate IVF-surrogate pregnancy in a patient with ovarian transposition after radical hysterectomy for carcinoma of the cervix. Case report. A maternity hospital in Tel Aviv that is a major tertiary care and referral center. A 29-year-old woman who underwent Wertheim's hysterectomy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix and ovarian transposition before total pelvic irradiation. Standard IVF treatment, transabdominal oocyte retrieval, and transfer to surrogate mother. Outcome of IVF cycle. A twin pregnancy in the first cycle. This is the second reported case of controlled ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval performed on a transposed ovary.

  6. [A Case of Ascending Colon Cancer with Lynch Syndrome Who Underwent XELOX Adjuvant Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Koki; Murata, Kohei; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Nose, Yohei; Kawai, Kenji; Sakamoto, Takuya; Naito, Atsushi; Murakami, Kohei; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Omura, Yoshiaki; Takeno, Atsushi; Nakatsuka, Shinichi; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an inherited syndrome with the development of the colorectal and various other cancers. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair genes. A 33 year-old male underwent XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy for ascending colon cancer with Lynch syndrome. Although efficacy of 5-FU is not demonstrated in Lynch syndrome, MOSAIC trial had suggested a benefit from FOLFOX compared with 5-FU in patients who have colorectal cancer with Lynch syndrome. Oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy can be a therapeutic option for colorectal cancer in lynch syndrome patients.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  9. Electrocatalytic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U; Luft, G; Mund, K; Preidel, W; Richter, G J

    1983-01-01

    An artificial pancreas consists of an insulin depot, a dosage unit and a glucose sensor. The measurement of the actual glucose concentration in blood is still an unsolved problem. Two methods are described for an electrocatalytic glucose sensor. Under the interfering action of amino acids and urea in-vitro measurements show an error of between 10% and 20%.

  10. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  11. Methylphenidate decreased the amount of glucose needed by the brain to perform a cognitive task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine as cognitive enhancers by the general public is increasing and is controversial. It is still unclear how they work or why they improve performance in some individuals but impair it in others. To test the hypothesis that stimulants enhance signal to noise ratio of neuronal activity and thereby reduce cerebral activity by increasing efficiency, we measured the effects of methylphenidate on brain glucose utilization in healthy adults. We measured brain glucose metabolism (using Positron Emission Tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in 23 healthy adults who were tested at baseline and while performing an accuracy-controlled cognitive task (numerical calculations given with and without methylphenidate (20 mg, oral. Sixteen subjects underwent a fourth scan with methylphenidate but without cognitive stimulation. Compared to placebo methylphenidate significantly reduced the amount of glucose utilized by the brain when performing the cognitive task but methylphenidate did not affect brain metabolism when given without cognitive stimulation. Whole brain metabolism when the cognitive task was given with placebo increased 21% whereas with methylphenidate it increased 11% (50% less. This reflected both a decrease in magnitude of activation and in the regions activated by the task. Methylphenidate's reduction of the metabolic increases in regions from the default network (implicated in mind-wandering was associated with improvement in performance only in subjects who activated these regions when the cognitive task was given with placebo. These results corroborate prior findings that stimulant medications reduced the magnitude of regional activation to a task and in addition document a "focusing" of the activation. This effect may be beneficial when neuronal resources are diverted (i.e., mind-wandering or impaired (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but it could be detrimental when

  12. Ambient Air Pollutants Have Adverse Effects on Insulin and Glucose Homeostasis in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that air pollution plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms have yet to be established. We hypothesized that air pollution adversely affects insulin sensitivity and secretion and serum lipid levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were selected from BetaGene (n = 1,023), a study of insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function in Mexican Americans. All participants underwent DXA and oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and completed dietary and physical activity questionnaires. Ambient air pollutant concentrations (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) for short- and long-term periods were assigned by spatial interpolation (maximum interpolation radius of 50 km) of data from air quality monitors. Traffic-related air pollution from freeways (TRAP) was estimated using the dispersion model as NOx. Variance component models were used to analyze individual and multiple air pollutant associations with metabolic traits. RESULTS Short-term (up to 58 days cumulative lagged averages) exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and HDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio and higher fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P ≤ 0.036). Annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C (P ≤ 0.043). The effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on insulin sensitivity were largest among obese participants. No statistically significant associations were found between TRAP and metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to ambient air pollutants adversely affects glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood lipid concentrations. Our findings suggest that ambient air pollutants may contribute to the pathophysiology in the development of T2D and related sequelae. PMID:26868440

  13. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable chronic diseases, which is the combined action of genetic factors, environmental factors and lifestyle. Specific conditions occur in the oral cavity in the course of diabetes that cause changes in all oral tissues with different symptoms and signs. Increased salivary glucose level is followed by increased accumulation of dental plaque and decreased resistance to noxious agents. The most common oral manifestations in diabetic patients include higher prevalence of periodontal desease, burning mouth syndrome, disruption in salivary flow, opportunistic infections, higher prevalence of denture stomatitis, oral lichen planus, fissured tongue, angular cheilitis etc. Dental interventions in patients with well-controlled diabetes are not different from those applied to nondiabetic patients. Regular monitoring of these patients is required because of the complications that can occur.

  14. Coexistence of insulin resistance and increased glucose tolerance in pregnant rats: a physiological mechanism for glucose maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Marcia Aparecida; Batista, Márcia Regina; Saruhashi, Tiago Ribeiro; Felisberto, Antonio Machado; Guilhermetti, Marcio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2012-06-06

    The contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance to the maintenance of blood glucose levels in non diabetic pregnant Wistar rats (PWR) was investigated. PWR were submitted to conventional insulin tolerance test (ITT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) using blood sample collected 0, 10 and 60 min after intraperitoneal insulin (1 U/kg) or oral (gavage) glucose (1g/kg) administration. Moreover, ITT, GTT and the kinetics of glucose concentration changes in the fed and fasted states were evaluated with a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) technique. Furthermore, the contribution of the liver glucose production was investigated. Conventional ITT and GTT at 0, 7, 14 and 20 days of pregnancy revealed increased IR and glucose tolerance after 20 days of pregnancy. Thus, this period of pregnancy was used to investigate the kinetics of glucose changes with the RT-CGMS technique. PWR (day 20) exhibited a lower (pinsulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance during late pregnancy. In contrast to the general view that IR is a pathological process associated with gestational diabetes, a certain degree of IR may represent an important physiological mechanism for blood glucose maintenance during fasting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HLA-G regulatory haplotypes and implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cynthia Hernandes; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Vargas, Rafael Gustavo; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio; Schuffner, Alessandro; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    2012-09-01

    The role of HLA-G in several clinical conditions related to reproduction has been investigated. Important polymorphisms have been found within the 5'URR and 3'UTR regions of the HLA-G promoter. The aim of the present study was to investigate 16 SNPs in the 5'URR and 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism located in the 3'UTR region of the HLA-G gene and its possible association with the implantation outcome in couples who underwent assisted reproduction treatments (ART). The case group was composed of 25 ART couples. Ninety-four couples with two or more term pregnancies composed the control group. Polymorphism haplotype frequencies of the HLA-G were determined for both groups. The Haplotype 5, Haplotype 8 and Haplotype 11 were absolute absence in ART couples. The HLA-G*01:01:02a, HLA-G*01:01:02b alleles and the 14-bp ins polymorphism, Haplotype 2, showed an increased frequency in case women and similar distribution between case and control men. However, this susceptibility haplotype is significantly presented in case women and in couple with failure implantation after treatment, which led us to suggest a maternal effect, associated with this haplotype, once their presence in women is related to a higher number of couples who underwent ART. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Sarcopenia: a new predictor of postoperative complications for elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Min; Zhang, Fei-Yu; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Shen, Xian; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Chen, Xiao-Xi

    2017-05-01

    A geriatric assessment is needed to identify high-risk elderly patients with gastric cancer. However, the current geriatric assessment has been considered to be either time-consuming or subjective. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of sarcopenia on the postoperative complications for elderly patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. We conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from August 2014 to December 2015. Computed tomography-assessed lumbar skeletal muscle, handgrip strength, and gait speed were measured to define sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was present in 69 of 240 patients (28.8%) and was associated with lower body mass index, lower serum albumin, lower hemoglobin, and higher nutritional risk screening 2002 scores. Postoperative complications significantly increased in the sarcopenic patients (49.3% versus 24.6%, P sarcopenia (odds ratio: 2.959, 95% CI: 1.629-5.373, P Sarcopenia, presented as a new geriatric assessment factor, was a strong and independent risk factor for postoperative complications of elderly patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of different pneumoperitoneum pressure on stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Yun Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of different CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure on the stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy. Methods: A total of 90 patients who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2015 to October, 2015 for gynecological laparoscopy were included in the study and divided into groups A, B, and C according to different CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure. The changes of HR, BP, and PetCO2 during the operation process in the three groups were recorded. The changes of stress indicators before operation (T0, 30 min during operation (T1, and 12 h after operation (T2 were compared. Results: The difference of HR, BP, and PetCO2 levels before operation among the three groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05. HR, BP, and PetCO2 levels 30 min after pneumoperitoneum were significantly elevated when compared with before operation (P0.05. PetCO2 level 30 min after pneumoperitoneum in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P0.05. Conclusions: Low pneumoperitoneum pressure has a small effect on the stress state in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopy, will not affect the surgical operation, and can obtain a preferable muscular relaxation and vision field; therefore, it can be selected in preference.

  18. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Varrica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P0.05 have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations.

  19. Effects of indigestible dextrin on glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, S; Kishimoto, Y; Matsuoka, A

    1995-03-01

    A recently developed indigestible dextrin (IDex) was studied for its effects on glucose tolerance in male Sprague-Dawley rats. IDex is a low viscosity, water-soluble dietary fibre obtained by heating and enzyme treatment of potato starch. It has an average molecular weight of 1600. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted with 8-week-old rats to evaluate the effects of IDex on the increase in plasma glucose and insulin levels after a single administration of various sugars (1.5 g/kg body weight). The increase in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading was significantly reduced by IDex (0.15 g/kg body weight). This effect was not noted following glucose, high fructose syrup and lactose loading. To evaluate the effects of continual IDex ingestion on glucose tolerance, 5-week-old rats were kept for 8 weeks on a stock diet, a high sucrose diet or an IDex-supplemented high sucrose diet. An oral glucose (1.5 g/kg body weight) tolerance test was conducted in week 8. Increases in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following glucose loading were higher in the rats given a high sucrose diet than in the rats fed a stock diet. However, when IDex was included in the high sucrose diet, the impairment of glucose tolerance was alleviated. Moreover, IDex feeding also significantly reduced accumulation of body fat, regardless of changes in body weight. These findings suggest that IDex not only improves glucose tolerance following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading but also stops progressive decrease in glucose tolerance by preventing a high sucrose diet from causing obesity.

  20. Outcome of Patients Underwent Emergency Department Thoracotomy and Its Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Paydar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency department thoracotomy (EDT may serve as the last survival chance for patients who arrive at hospital in extremis. It is considered as an effective tool for improvement of traumatic patients’ outcome. The present study was done with the goal of assessing the outcome of patients who underwent EDT and its predictive factors. Methods: In the present study, medical charts of 50 retrospective and 8 prospective cases underwent emergency department thoracotomy (EDT were reviewed during November 2011 to June 2013. Comparisons between survived and died patients were performed by Mann-Whitney U test and the predictive factors of EDT outcome were measured using multivariate logistic regression analysis. P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty eight cases of EDT were enrolled (86.2% male. The mean age of patients was 43.27±19.85 years with the range of 18-85. The mean time duration of CPR was recorded as 37.12±12.49 minutes. Eleven cases (19% were alive to be transported to OR (defined as ED survived. The mean time of survival in ED survived patients was 223.5±450.8 hours. More than 24 hours survival rate (late survived was 6.9% (4 cases. Only one case (1.7% survived to discharge from hospital (mortality rate=98.3%. There were only a significant relation between ED survival and SBP, GCS, CPR duration, and chest trauma (p=0.04. The results demonstrated that initial SBP lower than 80 mmHg (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.001-1.05, p=0.04 and presence of chest trauma (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.75-3.16, p=0.02 were independent predictive factors of EDT mortality. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the survival rate of trauma patients underwent EDT was 1.7%. In addition, it was defined that falling systolic blood pressure below 80 mmHg and blunt trauma of chest are independent factors that along with poor outcome.

  1. LX4211 increases serum glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY levels by reducing sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated absorption of intestinal glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda; Greer, Jennifer; Harris, Angela; Zhao, Sharon; DaCosta, Christopher; Mseeh, Faika; Shadoan, Melanie K; Sands, Arthur; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    LX4211 [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(methylthio)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol], a dual sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and SGLT2 inhibitor, is thought to decrease both renal glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT2 and intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1. In clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), LX4211 treatment improved glycemic control while increasing circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). To better understand how LX4211 increases GLP-1 and PYY levels, we challenged SGLT1 knockout (-/-) mice, SGLT2-/- mice, and LX4211-treated mice with oral glucose. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice had increased levels of plasma GLP-1, plasma PYY, and intestinal glucose during the 6 hours after a glucose-containing meal, as reflected by area under the curve (AUC) values, whereas SGLT2-/- mice showed no response. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice also had increased GLP-1 AUC values, decreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) AUC values, and decreased blood glucose excursions during the 6 hours after a challenge with oral glucose alone. However, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not increased in LX4211-treated mice and were decreased in SGLT1-/- mice, 5 minutes after oral glucose, consistent with studies linking decreased intestinal SGLT1 activity with reduced GLP-1 and GIP levels 5 minutes after oral glucose. These data suggest that LX4211 reduces intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1, resulting in net increases in GLP-1 and PYY release and decreases in GIP release and blood glucose excursions. The ability to inhibit both intestinal SGLT1 and renal SGLT2 provides LX4211 with a novel dual mechanism of action for improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM.

  2. Correlation between location of transposed ovary and function in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Aera; Lee, Yoo-Young; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2015-05-01

    The study investigated the association between the location of transposed ovaries and posttreatment ovarian function in patients with early cervical cancer (IB1-IIA) who underwent radical hysterectomy and ovarian transposition with or without adjuvant therapies. Retrospective medical records were reviewed to enroll the patients with early cervical cancer who underwent ovarian transposition during radical hysterectomy at Samsung Medical Center between July 1995 and July 2012. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level was used as a surrogate marker for ovarian function. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The median age and body mass index (BMI) were 31 years (range, 24-39 years) and 21.3 kg/m² (range, 17.7-31.2 kg/m²), respectively. The median serum FSH level after treatment was 7.9 mIU/mL (range, 2.4-143.4 mIU/mL). The median distance from the iliac crest to transposed ovaries on erect plain abdominal x-ray was 0.5 cm (range, -2.7 to 5.2 cm). In multivariate analysis, posttreatment serum FSH levels were significantly associated with the location of transposed ovaries (β = -8.1, P = 0.032), concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) as an adjuvant therapy (β = 71.08, P = 0.006), and BMI before treatment (underweight: β = -59.93, P = 0.05; overweight: β = -40.62, P = 0.041). Location of transposed ovaries, adjuvant CCRT, and BMI before treatment may be associated with ovarian function after treatment. We suggest that ovaries should be transposed as highly as possible during radical hysterectomy to preserve ovarian function in young patients with early cervical cancer who might be a candidate for adjuvant CCRT and who have low BMI before treatment.

  3. Clinical outcomes for 14 consecutive patients with solid pseudopapillary neoplasms who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Sumiyoshi, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-02-01

    The postoperative results of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), including the effects of spleen-preserving resection, are still to be elucidated. Of the 139 patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatectomy for non-cancerous tumors, 14 consecutive patients (average age, 29.6 years; 1 man, 13 women) with solitary SPN who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy between March 2004 and June 2015 were enrolled. The tumors had a mean diameter of 4.8 cm. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in eight patients (spleen-preserving group), including two cases involving pancreatic tail preservation, and laparoscopic spleno-distal pancreatectomy was performed in six patients (standard resection group). The median operating time was 317 min, and the median blood loss was 50 mL. Postoperatively, grade B pancreatic fistulas appeared in two patients (14.3%) but resolved with conservative treatment. No patients had postoperative complications, other than pancreatic fistulas, or required reoperation. The median postoperative hospital stay was 11 days, and the postoperative mortality was zero.None of the patients had positive surgical margins or lymph nodes with metastasis. The median follow-up period did not significantly differ between the two groups (20 vs 39 months, P = 0.1368). All of the patients are alive and free from recurrent tumors without major late-phase complications. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy might be a suitable treatment for patients with SPN. A spleen-preserving operation is preferable for younger patients with SPN, and this study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the procedure compared to spleno-distal pancreatectomy. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Beneficial Effect of the Nutritional Support in Children Who Underwent Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Nevra; Gündüz, Mehmet; Tavil, Betül; Azik, M Fatih; Coşkun, Zeynep; Yardımcı, Hülya; Uçkan, Duygu; Tunç, Bahattin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status in children who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant compared with a healthy control group. A secondary aim was to utilize mid-upper arm circumference as a measure of nutritional status in these groups of children. Our study group included 40 children (18 girls, 22 boys) with mean age of 9.2 ± 4.6 years (range, 2-17 y) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Our control group consisted of 20 healthy children (9 girls, 11 boys). The children were evaluated at admission to the hospital and followed regularly 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after discharge from the hospital. In the study group, 27 of 40 patients (67.5%) received nutritional support during hematopoietic stem cell transplant, with 15 patients (56%) receiving enteral nutrition, 6 (22%) receiving total parenteral nutrition, and 6 (22%) receiving enteral and total parenteral nutrition. Chronic malnutrition rate in the study group was 47.5% on admission to the hospital, with the control group having a rate of 20%. One year after transplant, the rate decreased to 20% in the study group and 5% in the control group. The mid-upper arm circumference was lower in children in the study group versus the control group at the beginning of the study (P groups at follow-up examinations (P > .05). During follow-up, all anthropometric measurements increased significantly in both groups. Monitoring nutritional status and initiating appropriate nutritional support improved the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplant and provided a more comfortable process during the transplant period. Furthermore, mid-upper arm circumference is a more sensitive, useful, and safer parameter that can be used to measure nutritional status of children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

  5. Effect of meal frequency on glucose and insulin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, E; Kechribari, I; Mitrou, P; Trakakis, E; Vassiliadi, D; Georgousopoulou, E; Zampelas, A; Kontogianni, M D; Dimitriadis, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two-meal patterns (three vs six meals per day) on glucose and insulin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a randomised, crossover, 24-week study, 40 women with PCOS, aged 27±6 years, body mass index 27±6 kg/m(2), followed a weight maintenance diet (% carbohydrates:protein:fat, 40:25:35), consumed either as a three- or a six-meal pattern, with each intervention lasting for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, diet compliance and subjective hunger, satiety and desire to eat were assessed biweekly. All women underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g glucose for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin at the beginning and end of each intervention. HaemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), blood lipids and hepatic enzymes were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention. Body weight remained stable throughout the study. Six meals decreased significantly fasting insulin (P=0.014) and post-OGTT insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index, P=0.039) vs three meals. After incorporation of individual changes over time, with adjustment for potential confounders, the only variable that remained significant was the Matsuda index, which was then used in multivariate analysis and general linear models. Six meals improved post-OGTT insulin sensitivity independently of age and body weight vs three meals (P=0.012). No significant differences were found between six and three meals for glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, hepatic enzymes, subjective desire to eat and satiety. Six meals had a more favourable effect on post-OGTT insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS compared with isocaloric three meals.

  6. Effect of Cholera Toxin Administered Supraspinally or Spinally on the Blood Glucose Level in Pain and D-Glucose Fed Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to...

  7. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26939867

  8. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  10. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  11. Effect of cholera toxin administered supraspinally or spinally on the blood glucose level in pain and d-glucose fed animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to the control level at 120 min after D-glucose feeding. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner, whereas i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in a D-glucose fed group. In addition, the blood glucose level was increased in formalin-induced pain animal model. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX enhanced the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. On the other hand, i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. Our results suggest that CTX administered supraspinally or spinally differentially modulates the regulation of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model as well as in formalin-induced pain model.

  12. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change.

  13. Dysphagia among adult patients who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh Trudeau, Valérie; Maynard, Stéphanie; Terzic, Tatjana; Soucy, Geneviève; Bouin, Mickeal

    2015-03-01

    Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and⁄or anatomical anomalies. To determine the motor and anatomical causes of dysphagia. A total of 41 adults, followed at the Esophageal Atresia Clinic at Hôpital Saint-Luc (Montreal, Quebec), were approached to particpate in the present prospective study. Evaluation was completed using upper endoscopy, manometry and barium swallow for the participants who consented. The medical charts of respondents were systematically reviewed from the neonatal period to 18 years of age to assess medical and surgical history. All 41 patients followed at the clinic consented and were included in the study. Dysphagia was present in 73% of patients. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in 32 patients: hiatal hernia was present in 62% (n=20); esophageal diverticulum in 13% (n=4); macroscopic Barrett esophagus in 31% (n=10); and esophagitis in 19% (n=6). Histological esophagitis was present in 20% and intestinal metaplasia in 10%. There were no cases of dysplagia or adenocarcinoma. Esophageal manometry was performed on 56% of the patients (n=23). Manometry revealed hypomotility in 100% of patients and included an insufficient number of peristaltic waves in 96%, nonpropagating peristalsis in 78% and low-wave amplitude in 95%. Complete aperistalsis was present in 78%. The lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in 12 (52%) patients, with incomplete relaxation the most common anomaly. Of the 41 patients, 29 (71%) consented to a barium swallow, which was abnormal in 13 (45%). The anomalies found were short esophageal dilation in 28%, delay in esophageal emptying in 14%, diverticula in 14% and stenosis in 7

  14. Study of the seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Seo, Seok Jin; Lee, Je Hee

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing seroma volume changes in the patients who underwent Partial breast radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery, we try to contribute to the improvement of radiotherapy effect. Enrolled 20 patients who underwent partial breast radiation therapy by ViewRay MRIdian System were subject. After seeking for the size of the removed sample in the patients during surgery and obtained seroma volume changes on a weekly basis. On the Basis of acquired volume, it was compared with age, term from start of the first treatment after surgery, BMI (body mass index) and the extracted sample size during surgery. And using the ViewRay MRIdian RTP System, the figure was analyzed by PTV(=seroma volume + margin) to obtain a specific volume of the Partial breast radiation therapy. The changes of seroma volume from MR simulation to the first treatment (a week) is 0~5% in 8, 5~10% in 3, 10 to 15% in 2, and 20% or more in 5 people. Two patients(A, B patient) among subjects showed the biggest change. The A patient's 100% of the prescribed dose volume is 213.08 cc, PTV is 181.93 cc, seroma volume is 15.3 cc in initial plan. However, while seroma volume decreased 65.36% to 5.3 cc, 100% of the prescribed dose volume was reduced to 3.4% to 102.43 cc and PTV also did 43.6% to 102.54 cc. In the case of the B patient, seroma volume decreased 42.57% from 20.2 cc to 11.6 cc. Because of that, 100% of the prescribed dose volume decreased 8.1% and PTV also did to 40%. As the period between the first therapy and surgery is shorter, the patient is elder and the size of sample is smaller than 100 cc, the change grow bigger. It is desirable to establish an adaptive plan according to each patient's changes of seroma volume through continuous observation. Because partial breast patients is more sensitive than WBRT patients about dose conformity in accordance with the volume change

  15. Comparative analysis of pain in patients who underwent total knee replacement regarding the tourniquet pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate through the visual analog scale (VAS the pain in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR with different pressures of the pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: An observational, randomized, descriptive study on an analytical basis, with 60 patients who underwent TKR, divided into two groups, which were matched: a group where TKR was performed with tourniquet pressures of 350 mmHg (standard and the other with systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg (P + 100. These patients had their pain assessed by VAS at 48 h, and at the 5th and 15th days after procedure. Secondarily, the following were also measured: range of motion (ROM, complications, and blood drainage volume in each group; the data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: After data analysis, there was no statistical difference regarding the incidence of complications (p = 0.612, ROM (p = 0.202, bleeding after 24 and 48 h (p = 0.432 and p = 0.254 or in relation to VAS. No correlation was observed between time of ischemia compared to VAS and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the pneumatic tourniquet pressure at 350 mmHg or systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg did not influence the pain, blood loss, ROM, and complications. Therefore the pressures at these levels are safe and do not change the surgery outcomes; the time of ischemia must be closely observed to avoid major complications.

  16. Association of PTP1B with Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients Who Underwent Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Franco, Monica M; Leon Rodriguez, Eucario; Martinez Benitez, Braulio; Villanueva Rodriguez, Luisa G; de la Luz Sevilla Gonzalez, Maria; Armengol Alonso, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    PTP1B is involved in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy has been widely used in breast cancer; thus, a measurement to assess survival improvement could be pathological complete response (pCR). Our objective was to associate PTP1B overexpression with outcomes of breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-six specimens were included. Diagnostic biopsies were immunostained using anti-PTP1B antibody. Expression was categorized as negative (<5%) and overexpression (≥5%). Patients' responses were graded according to the Miller-Payne system. Sixty-three percent of patients overexpressed PTP1B. There was no significant association between PTP1B overexpression and pCR ( P = 0.2). However, when associated with intrinsic subtypes, overexpression was higher in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive-enriched specimens ( P = 0.02). Ten-year progression-free survival showed no differences. Our preliminary results do not show an association between PTP1B over-expression and pCR; however, given the limited sample and heterogeneous treatment in our cohort, this hypothesis cannot be excluded.

  17. Association of PTP1B with Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients who Underwent Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. Rivera Franco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PTP1B is involved in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy has been widely used in breast cancer; thus, a measurement to assess survival improvement could be pathological complete response (pCR. Our objective was to associate PTP1B overexpression with outcomes of breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-six specimens were included. Diagnostic biopsies were immunostained using anti-PTP1B antibody. Expression was categorized as negative (<5% and overexpression (≥5%. Patients' responses were graded according to the Miller-Payne system. Sixty-three percent of patients overexpressed PTP1B. There was no significant association between PTP1B overexpression and pCR (P = 0.2. However, when associated with intrinsic subtypes, overexpression was higher in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive-enriched specimens (P = 0.02. Ten-year progression-free survival showed no differences. Our preliminary results do not show an association between PTP1B overexpression and pCR; however, given the limited sample and heterogeneous treatment in our cohort, this hypothesis cannot be excluded.

  18. Stress and Quality of Life for Taiwanese Women Who Underwent Infertility Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Stevenson, Eleanor Lowndes; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2018-04-28

    To describe the psychological stress and quality of life experienced by women who underwent fertility treatment in Taiwan. Cross-sectional, correlational study. Recruitment was conducted and questionnaires administered at a reproductive medicine center in Chiayi City, Taiwan. Informed consent to participate was obtained from 126 women who sought fertility treatment at the center. The Chinese Fertility Problem Inventory and Fertility Quality of Life scale were used to measure participants' levels of fertility-related stress and fertility-related quality of life. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis were used. Overall, participants reported low levels of fertility-related stress and fertility-related quality of life; however, they had relatively high levels of stress related to need for parenthood. Women who were older, had greater body mass indexes, and consumed coffee regularly had lower fertility-related quality of life. Social and relationship concerns and stress related to need for parenthood were significant predictors of low fertility-related quality of life. In a culture in which childbearing is generally an expectation and an important part of family life, women who experience infertility are at risk to experience fertility-related stress. Social support and family consultation might be offered to improve women's fertility-related quality of life. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  1. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  2. Reduced circulating stem cells associate with excess fasting and post-load NEFA exposure in healthy adults with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Tura, Andrea; Pacini, Giovanni; Avogaro, Angelo; Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Saula

    2017-06-01

    Reduced levels of circulating stem cells (CSCs) predict cardiovascular events and death, but the factors underlying variability of CSCs in healthy adults are mostly unknown. Previous studies detected associations of CSCs with glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, while the role of fatty acids has been overlooked. We herein aimed to describe in better detail the metabolic abnormalities associated with a reduced CSC level. This was a cross-sectional study on 94 healthy male and female individuals with normal glucose tolerance, aged 18-65 years. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with blood samples collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Mathematical models were applied to plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations. CSCs were defined as CD34 + or CD133 + . Participants (mean ± SEM age 43.8 ± 0.7; 41% males) were divided according to CSC levels below (low) or above (high) the median value and metabolic parameters were compared. There was no significant baseline difference between groups except for higher concentrations of fasting NEFA in subjects with low CSCs. Upon OGTT, individuals with low CSCs had higher area under curve (AUC) of NEFA (p glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Several insulin sensitivity and beta cell function indexes were not significantly different, except for a decrease in the disposition index (DI) in subjects with low CSCs. CSCs were associated with excess NEFA levels independently from age and DI. We show for the first time that, in healthy adults with normal glucose tolerance, low CSCs are strongly associated with excess NEFA exposure. The pathophysiological consequence of this association needs to be interpreted in view of the prognostic role of CSCs. Future studies should explore whether excess NEFA and low CSCs and are causally interconnected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizkan, S; Deyneli, O; Yasar, M; Arpa, M; Gunes, M; Yazici, D; Sirikci, O; Haklar, G; Imeryuz, N; Yavuz, D G

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners were thought to be metabolically inactive, but after demonstrating that the gustatory mechanism was also localized in the small intestine, suspicions about the metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners have emerged. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of artificial sweeteners (aspartame and sucralose) on blood glucose, insulin, c-peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Eight newly diagnosed drug-naive type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 51.5±9.2 years; F/M: 4/4) and eight healthy subjects (mean age 45.0±4.1 years; F/M: 4/4) underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During OGTT, glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were measured at 15- min intervals for 120 min. The OGTTs were performed at three settings on different days, where subjects were given 72 mg of aspartame and 24 mg of sucralose in 200 ml of water or 200 ml of water alone 15 min before OGTT in a single-blinded randomized order. In healthy subjects, the total area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was statistically significantly lower in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.002). There was no difference between the aspartame setting and the water setting (P=0.53). Total AUC of insulin and c-peptide was similar in aspartame, sucralose and water settings. Total AUC of GLP-1 was significantly higher in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.04). Total AUC values of glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were not statistically different in three settings in type 2 diabetic patients. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.

  4. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  5. Association between ambient air pollution and pregnancy rate in women who underwent IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, S A; Jun, Y B; Lee, W S; Yoon, T K; Kim, S Y

    2018-04-05

    Are the concentrations of five criteria air pollutants associated with probabilities of biochemical pregnancy loss and intrauterine pregnancy in women? Increased concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and after embryo transfer were associated with a decreased probability of intrauterine pregnancy. Exposure to high ambient air pollution was suggested to be associated with low fertility and high early pregnancy loss in women. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we analysed 6621 cycles of 4581 patients who underwent one or more fresh IVF cycles at a fertility centre from January 2006 to December 2014, and lived in Seoul at the time of IVF treatment. To estimate patients' individual exposure to air pollution, we computed averages of hourly concentrations of five air pollutants including PM10, NO2, CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) measured at 40 regulatory monitoring sites in Seoul for each of the four exposure periods: period 1 (start of COS to oocyte retrieval), period 2 (oocyte retrieval to embryo transfer), period 3 (embryo transfer to hCG test), and period 4 (start of COS to hCG test). Hazard ratios (HRs) from the time-varying Cox-proportional hazards model were used to estimate probabilities of biochemical pregnancy loss and intrauterine pregnancy for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each air pollutant concentration during each period, after adjusting for individual characteristics. We tested the robustness of the result using generalised linear mixed model, accounting for within-woman correlation. Mean age of the women was 35 years. Average BMI was 20.9 kg/m2 and the study population underwent 1.4 IVF cycles on average. Cumulative pregnancy rate in multiple IVF cycles was 51.3% per person. Survival analysis showed that air pollution during periods 1 and 3 was generally associated with IVF outcomes. Increased NO2 (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI

  6. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  7. Predictors of weight regain in patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantavasinkul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai; Omotosho, Philip; Corsino, Leonor; Portenier, Dana; Torquati, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a highly effective treatment for obesity and results in long-term weight loss and resolution of co-morbidities. However, weight regain may occur as soon as 1-2 years after surgery. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of weight regain and possible preoperative predictors of this phenomenon after RYGB. An academic medical center in the United States. A total of 1426 obese patients (15.8% male) who underwent RYGB during January 2000 to 2012 and had at least a 2-year follow-up were reviewed. We included only patients who were initially successful, having achieved at least 50% excess weight loss at 1 year postoperatively. Patients were then categorized into either the weight regain group (WR) or sustained weight loss (SWL) group based upon whether they gained≥15% of their 1-year postoperative weight. Weight regain was observed in 244 patients (17.1%). Preoperative body mass index was similar between groups. Body mass index was significantly higher and percent excess weight loss was significantly lower in the WR group (Pweight regain was 19.5±9.3 kg and-.8±8.5 in the WR and SWL groups, respectively (Pweight loss. Moreover, a longer duration after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The present study confirmed that a longer interval after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The findings of this study underscore the complexity of the mechanisms underlying weight loss and regain after RYGB. Future prospective studies are needed to further explore the prevalence, predictors, and mechanisms of weight regain after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 μg) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 μmol/min ⋅ kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  10. A study of glucose handling by Buddhist monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T; Myint, H; Thein, M

    1988-04-01

    Fourteen Buddhist monks and comparable male subjects were studied in relation to their handling of glucose after a meal (consisting of 1190 kcal, 29 g protein, 21 g fat and 221 g carbohydrate) and afterwards subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). The time course of blood glucose levels after the meal indicated that the monks had enhanced absorption and utilization of glucose. The monks were also found to have increased tolerance to glucose on oGTT. In addition the mean total serum cholesterol level in the monks (157.2 +/- 5.53 mg/dl) was found to be significantly higher than that of the control subjects (117.4 +/- 2.85 mg/dl).

  11. [Prevalence of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance after gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Macias Rocha, Ana Laura; Puente Alvarez, Erika Isela

    2012-10-01

    gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2 to 10% of pregnancies and it has been postulated as a variant of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) because they share a similar pathophysioiogy. Approximately in 90% the carbohydrate intolerance resolves after pregnancy, however after 5 to 16 years after delivery women will have a risk of 17 to 63% to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. to determine the frequency of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance in women with previous GDM. 125 patients with diagnosis of GMD were included, general data were captured, type of control during pregnancy and complications occurred. The women were instructed to undergo a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test of 75 g and 2 h, 6 weeks after their delivery date and they were classified into five groups: normal patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and combined both. after follow up 13 women (10.4%) were diagnosed as DM2; 14 patients (11.2%) were classified as glucose intolerance; 16 (12.8%) were catalogued with impaired fasting glucose; 6 (4.8%) had both disorders; and 76 (60.8%) were diagnosed as healthy women. the detection with a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test is necessary for the identification of the various types of disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism including DM2.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    commonly confirmed by G6PC (GSDIa or SLC37A4 (GSDIb gene analysis, and the indications of liver biopsy to measure G6P activity are getting rarer and rarer. Differential diagnoses include the other GSDs, in particular type III (see this term. However, in GSDIII, glycemia and lactacidemia are high after a meal and low after a fast period (often with a later occurrence than that of type I. Primary liver tumors and Pepper syndrome (hepatic metastases of neuroblastoma may be evoked but are easily ruled out through clinical and ultrasound data. Antenatal diagnosis is possible through molecular analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villous cells. Pre-implantatory genetic diagnosis may also be discussed. Genetic counseling should be offered to patients and their families. The dietary treatment aims at avoiding hypoglycemia (frequent meals, nocturnal enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and later oral addition of uncooked starch and acidosis (restricted fructose and galactose intake. Liver transplantation, performed on the basis of poor metabolic control and/or hepatocarcinoma, corrects hypoglycemia, but renal involvement may continue to progress and neutropenia is not always corrected in type Ib. Kidney transplantation can be performed in case of severe renal insufficiency. Combined liver-kidney grafts have been performed in a few cases. Prognosis is usually good: late hepatic and renal complications may occur, however, with adapted management, patients have almost normal life span. Disease name and synonyms Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency or G6P deficiency or glycogen storage disease type I or GSDI or type I glycogenosis or Von Gierke disease or Hepatorenal glycogenosis.

  13. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  14. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  15. Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Sunitha, J D; Dawar, Geetanshu; Sinha, Nidhi; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to correlate blood glucose level (BGL) and salivary glucose level (SGL) in DM patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 patients, who were categorized as 40 controlled diabetics, 40 uncontrolled diabetics and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals constituted the controls. The blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals for fasting, random and postprandial levels. These samples were then subjected for analysis of glucose in blood and saliva using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent in HITACHI 902 (R) Automatic analyzer, and the results were recorded. The mean SGLs were higher in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups than in nondiabetic group. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose in all the groups. With increase in BGL, increase in SGL was observed in patients with diabetes suggesting that SGL can be used for monitoring glycemic level in DM.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  17. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  18. Risk factors for postoperative complications following oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Takechi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify significant risk factors for postoperative complications in the oral cavity in patients who underwent oral surgery, excluding those with oral cancer. This study reviewed the records of 324 patients who underwent mildly to moderately invasive oral surgery (e.g., impacted tooth extraction, cyst excision, fixation of mandibular and maxillary fractures, osteotomy, resection of a benign tumor, sinus lifting, bone grafting, removal of a sialolith, among others) under general anesthesia or intravenous sedation from 2012 to 2014 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Hiroshima University Hospital. Univariate analysis showed a statistical relationship between postoperative complications (i.e., surgical site infection, anastomotic leak) and diabetes (p=0.033), preoperative serum albumin level (p=0.009), and operation duration (p=0.0093). Furthermore, preoperative serum albumin level (oral cavity following oral surgery.

  19. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  20. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  1. suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    extend these findings by investigating the association of suPAR to glucose metabolic insufficiency during an oral glucose challenge (OGTT). METHODS: In 16 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and 15 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (ISI......PAR correlated inversely with ISI(composite) and positively with 2h plasma glucose, fasting insulin secretion, fasting intact proinsulin and FFA level during the OGTT (all P...-RNA, duration of HIV infection), and dyslipidemia (plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid level during the OGTT) were included, suPAR remained a significant marker of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Plasma suPAR exhibited a small CV (11%) during the 3h OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: su...

  2. Quality of life in locally advanced prostate cancer patients who underwent hormonal treatment combined with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Hirofumi; Naito, Seiji; Fukui, Iwao; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Matsuoka, Naoki; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the feasibility of quality of life (QOL) research and to evaluate the QOL prospectively in locally advanced prostate cancer patients treated with hormonal treatment combined with radiotherapy. The treatment schedule was that patients with decreasing prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels below 10 ng/ml after receiving 6 months of neoadjuvant hormonal treatment were randomly divided into two groups; one group was the continuous hormonal treatment group and the other was the intermittent hormonal treatment group. Both groups received a total dose of 72 Gy external beam radiotherapy with concomitant hormonal treatment followed by 6 months of adjuvant hormonal treatment following radiotherapy. At 14 months, patients either underwent continuous or intermittent hormonal treatment according to the random allocation. QOL was assessed at baseline, and at 6, 8, 14, and 20 months after treatment using functional assessment of cancer treatment-general (FACT-G), P with the other 3 items comprising bother of urination, bother of bowel movement, and bother of sexual activity. Between January 2000 and June 2003, a total of 188 patients were enrolled in this study. The rate of collection of baseline QOL sheets was 98.0%. The rate of answer to questions of QOL sheets was 99.0%. At baseline, the average score of FACT-G, P was 120.7 and the maximum score was more than twice the minimum score. Dysfunction of urination and bowel movement was correlated with the bother of urination and bowel movement, respectively. On the other hand, dysfunction of sexual activity was not correlated with the bother of sexual activity. In June 2003, all of the QOL sheets at baseline, and at 6, 8, and 14 months were completely collected from a total of 72 patients. Although QOL at 8 months was significantly affected compared with QOL at baseline and at 6 months, QOL at 14 months was significantly improved compared with that at 8 months and there was no significant

  3. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  4. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  5. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims  Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible...... associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. Methods  The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional ‘Health2008’ study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were...... measured by self-report. Markers of glucose homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test and included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA1c, two measures of insulin sensitivity (the insulin sensitivity index0,120 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity...

  6. Effect of chloroquine on insulin and glucose homoeostasis in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G D; Amos, T A; Mahler, R; Peters, T J

    1987-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C peptide concentrations were determined after an oral glucose load in normal subjects and in a group of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before and during a short course of treatment with chloroquine. In the control group there was a small but significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration but overall glucose tolerance and hormone concentrations were unaffected. In contrast, the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes melli...

  7. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  8. COMPARISON OF GLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ADRENALIN CONTAINING LOCAL ANESTHETIC IN DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC PATIENTS UNDERGOING MINOR ORAL SURGICAL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To compare the changes in blood glucose level associated with administration of adrenaline containing local anesthetic in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures. METHODS AND MATERIAL The study included 150 well controlled diabetic patients and 150 non-diabetic healthy patients in age group of 40-60 years who underwent minor oral surgical procedures (trans alveolar extractions, alveoplasty and flap surgeries. Patients in both the group were administered 1.8ml of local anesthetic agent containing 1:100,000 adrenaline for inferior alveolar nerve block and 0.2 ml of anesthetic agent for long buccal nerve block. Blood glucose levels were assessed and compared during pre-operative and one hour post-operative period. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The comparison of the random blood sugar levels preop and postop in both the groups were compared using paired t test and RBS levels between two groups were analysed using unpaired t test. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS No statistically significant change in post-operative blood glucose level was noted between the diabetic and non-diabetic patients. CONCLUSION The study concluded that it is safe to administer local anesthetic containing 1:100,000 adrenaline in smaller volumes to well controlled diabetic patients.

  9. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  10. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    production. Muscle and hepatic lipid contents were assessed by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and immune status, cytokines, and endotoxin were measured with specific assays. RESULTS: In glucose-tolerant volunteers, daily administration of L. reuteri SD5865 increased glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and GLP-2....... reuteri SD5865 or placebo over 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and isoglycemic glucose infusion tests were used to assess incretin effect and GLP-1 and GLP-2 secretion, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose were used to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose...... cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Enrichment of gut microbiota with L. reuteri increases insulin secretion, possibly due to augmented incretin release, but does not directly affect insulin sensitivity or body fat distribution. This suggests that oral ingestion of one specific strain may serve as a novel therapeutic...

  11. Nonsuppressed Glucagon After Glucose Challenge as a Potential Predictor for Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Róbert; Hakaste, Liisa H; Ahlqvist, Emma; Heni, Martin; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Stefan, Norbert; Gallwitz, Baptist; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Groop, Leif; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Glucagon levels are classically suppressed after glucose challenge. It is still not clear as to whether a lack of suppression contributes to hyperglycemia and thus to the development of diabetes. We investigated the association of postchallenge change in glucagon during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), hypothesizing that higher postchallenge glucagon levels are observed in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Glucagon levels were measured during OGTT in a total of 4,194 individuals without diabetes in three large European cohorts. Longitudinal changes in glucagon suppression were investigated in 50 participants undergoing a lifestyle intervention. Only 66-79% of participants showed suppression of glucagon at 120 min (fold change glucagon 120/0 change glucagon 120/0 ≥1). Participants with nonsuppressed glucagon 120 had a lower risk of IGT in all cohorts (odds ratio 0.44-0.53, P change glucagon 120/0 was associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity ( P = 0.003). We characterize nonsuppressed glucagon 120 during the OGTT. Lower glucagon suppression after oral glucose administration is associated with a metabolically healthier phenotype, suggesting that it is not an adverse phenomenon. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  13. Glucose patterns during the OGTT and risk of future diabetes in an urban Indian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Gujral, Unjali P; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Traditionally, fasting and 2-hour post challenge plasma glucose have been used to diagnose diabetes. However, evidence indicates that clinically relevant pathophysiological information can be obtained by adding intermediate time-points to a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHO...

  14. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  15. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  16. Insulin resistance and β-cell function influence postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Katsuno, Tomoyuki; Nakae, Rie; Watanabe, Kahori; Ochi, Fumihiro; Tokuda, Masaru; Akagami, Takafumi; Miuchi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was to evaluate the relationship of insulin resistance and secretion to area-under-the-sensor glucose concentration-time curve from before to 120 min postmeal (CGM-AUC(0-120 min)) as determined with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Immunoreactive insulin and HbA1c were determined in 22 Japanese patients with GDM undergoing a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Patients underwent CGM within 3 weeks of receiving a diagnosis of GDM. HbA1c (NGSP) was 5.5 ± 0.4%, BMI was 24.8 ± 5.3 kg/m(2), mean sensor glucose by CGM was 94.2 ± 10.3 mg/dL, standard deviation was 17.5 ± 4.4 mg/dL, and CGM-AUC(0-120 min) was 204.2 ± 23.8 h mg/dL. The insulin resistance indices the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and the Matsuda Index were correlated with CGM-AUC(0-120 min). The disposition index (DI), which was used to evaluate insulin secretion, was negatively correlated with CGM-AUC(0-120 min). Not only insulin resistance but also beta cell dysfunction contributes to postprandial hyperglycemia in Japanese patients with GDM.

  17. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after consumption of ready-to-eat mixed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsoutsoulopoulou, Konstantina; Kogkas, Stergios; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Efstathopoulou, Eirini

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effects of three ready-to-eat mixed meals, with a high fiber content and low glycemic index, on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic response in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study followed a prospective, three-way, cross-over design. Twenty-four patients with T2DM consumed three ready-to-eat mixed meals, i.e., "wild greens pie" (meal 1), "chicken burgers with boiled vegetables" (meal 2) and "vegetable moussaka" (meal 3) and an oral glucose load, all providing 50 g of carbohydrates. Venous blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandial. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and calculations of the area under the glucose and insulin curves (AUC) for each one of the test meals and the oral glucose load. Patients consuming each one of the three mixed meals showed better postprandial glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load (P meal 3 showed a better insulinemic response compared to the oral glucose load and meal 1, after 60 and 120 min postprandial, respectively (P meal 3, compared to the oral glucose load (P eat mixed meals examined in the present study were found to elicit significantly lower glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load in diabetic patients. The mixed meals examined in the present study could be proposed as effective, palatable and practical solutions for diabetics for glucose control.

  18. Mathematical modeling of the glucose-insulin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Bertuzzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    of pancreatic insulin production, with a oarser/finer level of detail ranging over cellular and subcellular scales, to short-term organ/tissue models accounting for the intra-venous and the oral glucose tolerance tests as well as for the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, to total-body, long-term diabetes...

  19. Metabolic products in pigeon tissues after feeding glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinking, A.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.

    1964-01-01

    [14C6]Glucose was given orally to pigeons. After 3 h, the state—other than glycogen or fatty acids—in which radioactive carbon was present in the tissues was investigated. Nearly all the radioactive material could be extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid. Most of the label thus extracted was

  20. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  1. Recurrent balanoposthitis of mixed etiology: relation to oral sex and selection of an efficient treatment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Demianova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To study the dependence between the recurrent balanoposthitis of mixed etiology and oral sex. To assess the efficacy, tolerance and cosmetic acceptability of a combination topical drug on the basis of a cream for the treatment of balanoposthitis of Candida and bacterial etiology. Materials and methods. An open-label single-arm non-randomized study involved 48 men aged 22-43 suffering from recurrent balanoposthitis of mixed etiology and their long-term sex partners. All of the subjects underwent the following tests: complete blood count, clinical urine test, blood biochemistry (AST, ALT, total bilirubin, thymol test and blood glucose, MRSA, blood tests for anti-hepatitis B and C virus antibodies, HIV-1/-2 antibody screening test, microscopy of urethral, vaginal and cervical canal materials, PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, N. gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma spp, bacterial swab tests based on urethral materials (in men, vaginal materials (in women and throat (in subjects of both sexes, and microscopy of tongue scrapings. 46 male patients used the Candiderm cream (Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd. for 10-14 days. Physicians assessed the efficacy based on the symptom intensity and patient’s opinion. Results. In people who practiced unprotected oral sex, a high contamination of mucous coats in the oral cavity, throat and genitals with yeast fungi and opportunistic bacteria was revealed. C. Аlbicans was often found in diagnostically significant amounts in couples. The authors substantiate the possibility of a contact-type transmission of opportunistic bacteria during oral sex resulting in balanoposthitis of mixed Candida and bacterial etiology or exacerbation of their condition after sexual contacts in men practicing unprotected oral sex. Evident clinical efficacy and safety of the combination as well as good tolerance and convenience of application of the combination topical drug comprising beclomethasone

  2. Skin autofluorescence based decision tree in detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J Smit

    Full Text Available Diabetes (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compared SAF and a SAF-based decision tree (SAF-DM with fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c, and additionally with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC questionnaire±FPG for detection of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT- or HbA1c-defined IGT and diabetes in intermediate risk persons.Participants had ≥1 metabolic syndrome criteria. They underwent an OGTT, HbA1c, SAF and FINDRISC, in adition to SAF-DM which includes SAF, age, BMI, and conditional questions on DM family history, antihypertensives, renal or cardiovascular disease events (CVE.218 persons, age 56 yr, 128M/90F, 97 with previous CVE, participated. With OGTT 28 had DM, 46 IGT, 41 impaired fasting glucose, 103 normal glucose tolerance. SAF alone revealed 23 false positives (FP, 34 false negatives (FN (sensitivity (S 68%; specificity (SP 86%. With SAF-DM, FP were reduced to 18, FN to 16 (5 with DM (S 82%; SP 89%. HbA1c scored 48 FP, 18 FN (S 80%; SP 75%. Using HbA1c-defined DM-IGT/suspicion ≥6%/42 mmol/mol, SAF-DM scored 33 FP, 24 FN (4 DM (S76%; SP72%, FPG 29 FP, 41 FN (S71%; SP80%. FINDRISC≥10 points as detection of HbA1c-based diabetes/suspicion scored 79 FP, 23 FN (S 69%; SP 45%.SAF-DM is superior to FPG and non-inferior to HbA1c to detect diabetes/IGT in intermediate-risk persons. SAF-DM's value for diabetes/IGT screening is further supported by its established performance in predicting diabetic complications.

  3. Imeglimin lowers glucose primarily by amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in high-fat-fed rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Cardone, Rebecca L; Petersen, Max C

    2016-01-01

    Imeglimin is a promising new oral antihyperglycemic agent that has been studied in clinical trials as a possible monotherapy or add-on therapy to lower fasting plasma glucose and improve hemoglobin A1c (1-3, 9). Imeglimin was shown to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemia and to increase...

  4. Evaluating the clinical accuracy of two continuous glucose sensors using continuous glucose-error grid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, William L; Anderson, Stacey; Farhy, Leon; Breton, Marc; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Cox, Daniel; Kovatchev, Boris

    2005-10-01

    To compare the clinical accuracy of two different continuous glucose sensors (CGS) during euglycemia and hypoglycemia using continuous glucose-error grid analysis (CG-EGA). FreeStyle Navigator (Abbott Laboratories, Alameda, CA) and MiniMed CGMS (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) CGSs were applied to the abdomens of 16 type 1 diabetic subjects (age 42 +/- 3 years) 12 h before the initiation of the study. Each system was calibrated according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Each subject underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (blood glucose goal 110 mg/dl) for 70-210 min followed by a 1-mg.dl(-1).min(-1) controlled reduction in blood glucose toward a nadir of 40 mg/dl. Arterialized blood glucose was determined every 5 min using a Beckman Glucose Analyzer (Fullerton, CA). CGS glucose recordings were matched to the reference blood glucose with 30-s precision, and rates of glucose change were calculated for 5-min intervals. CG-EGA was used to quantify the clinical accuracy of both systems by estimating combined point and rate accuracy of each system in the euglycemic (70-180 mg/dl) and hypoglycemic (<70 mg/dl) ranges. A total of 1,104 data pairs were recorded in the euglycemic range and 250 data pairs in the hypoglycemic range. Overall correlation between CGS and reference glucose was similar for both systems (Navigator, r = 0.84; CGMS, r = 0.79, NS). During euglycemia, both CGS systems had similar clinical accuracy (Navigator zones A + B, 88.8%; CGMS zones A + B, 89.3%, NS). However, during hypoglycemia, the Navigator was significantly more clinically accurate than the CGMS (zones A + B = 82.4 vs. 61.6%, Navigator and CGMS, respectively, P < 0.0005). CG-EGA is a helpful tool for evaluating and comparing the clinical accuracy of CGS systems in different blood glucose ranges. CG-EGA provides accuracy details beyond other methods of evaluation, including correlational analysis and the original EGA.

  5. Impaired glucose tolerance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Gordon, Paul H; Dupuis, Luc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Simon, Dominique; Salachas, Francois; Corcia, Philippe; Frochot, Vincent; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Jardel, Claude; Coussieu, Christiane; Le Forestier, Nadine; Lacomblez, Lucette; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Meininger, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to analyse carbohydrate metabolism in a series of ALS patients and to examine potential association with parameters of lipid metabolism and clinical features. Glucose tolerance was assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test in 21 non-diabetic ALS patients and compared with 21 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Lipids and lactate/pyruvate ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were also measured in ALS patients. Mann-Whitney U-tests analysed continuous data and Fisher's exact tests assessed categorical data. Blood glucose determined 120 min after the glucose bolus was significantly higher in patients with ALS (7.41 mmol/l+/-1.68) compared to controls (6.05+/-1.44, p=0.006). ALS patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) according to WHO criteria (n=7, 33%) were more likely to have elevated free fatty acids (FFA) levels compared to patients with normal glucose tolerance (0.77 nmol/l+/-0.30 vs. 0.57+/-0.19, p=0.04). IGT was not associated with disease duration or severity. In conclusion, patients with ALS show abnormal glucose tolerance that could be associated with increased FFA levels, a key determinant of insulin resistance. The origin of glucose homeostasis abnormalities in ALS may be multifactorial and deserves further investigation.

  6. Galanin enhances systemic glucose metabolism through enteric Nitric Oxide Synthase-expressed neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decreasing duodenal contraction is now considered as a major focus for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, identifying bioactive molecules able to target the enteric nervous system, which controls the motility of intestinal smooth muscle cells, represents a new therapeutic avenue. For this reason, we chose to study the impact of oral galanin on this system in diabetic mice. Methods: Enteric neurotransmission, duodenal contraction, glucose absorption, modification of gut–brain axis, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance, insulinemia, glucose entry in tissue, hepatic glucose metabolism were assessed. Results: We show that galanin, a neuropeptide expressed in the small intestine, decreases duodenal contraction by stimulating nitric oxide release from enteric neurons. This is associated with modification of hypothalamic nitric oxide release that favors glucose uptake in metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Oral chronic gavage with galanin in diabetic mice increases insulin sensitivity, which is associated with an improvement of several metabolic parameters such as glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, and insulin. Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate that oral galanin administration improves glucose homeostasis via the enteric nervous system and could be considered a therapeutic potential for the treatment of T2D. Keywords: Galanin, Enteric nervous system, Diabetes

  7. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  9. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect oral health. Poor blood glucose control in diabetes, for example, can put you at risk for periodontal (gum) disease. Cancer treatments can cause a host of oral problems. Medications can damage oral tissues and/or decrease salivary flow, causing dry mouth. It’s also important to know ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication ... Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp ... when ketones are present may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor ...

  15. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain. ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal results may be due to: Infection (bacterial or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  19. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for energy. When your body breaks down fats, waste products called ketones are produced. Your body cannot ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ... glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your body breaks ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ... compact USB drives that can carry a person's full medical record for use in an emergency. How ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ... lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness of breath Breath ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health ... EXPOs Awareness Programs Wellness Lives Here Become a Member American ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your best bet is to practice good diabetes management and learn to detect hyperglycemia so you can ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  16. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase assembled on graphene and application to glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Shao Qian; Hu Yaojuan; Jin Juan; Yin Yajing; Zhang Hui; Cai Chenxin

    2010-01-01

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOx) integrated with graphene was investigated. The voltammetric results indicated that GOx assembled on graphene retained its native structure and bioactivity, exhibited a surface-confined process, and underwent effective direct electron transfer (DET) reaction with an apparent rate constant (k s ) of 2.68 s -1 . This work also developed a novel approach for glucose detection based on the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at the GOx-graphene/GC electrode. The assembled GOx could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Upon the addition of glucose, the reduction current decreased, which could be used for glucose detection with a high sensitivity (ca. 110 ± 3 μA mM -1 cm -2 ), a wide linear range (0.1-10 mM), and a low detection limit (10 ± 2 μM). The developed approach can efficiently exclude the interference of commonly coexisting electroactive species due to the use of a low detection potential (-470 mV, versus SCE). Therefore, this study has not only successfully achieved DET reaction of GOx assembled on graphene, but also established a novel approach for glucose detection and provided a general route for fabricating graphene-based biosensing platform via assembling enzymes/proteins on graphene surface.

  17. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  18. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-04

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of buspirone: An anxiolytic drug on blood glucose in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, S. K.; Nandave, M.; Sharma, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of an antianxiety drug, buspirone on blood glucose and plasma insulin level concerning the role of 5-HT1A receptors in blood glucose regulation in healthy humans. Twelve healthy male volunteers were administered single oral doses of buspirone (10 mg) or placebo, in a randomized, crossover way, followed by oral glucose load (75 gm in 200 ml) at reported Tmax i.e. the time of peak plasma concentration of the respective administered drug. The blood sampl...

  20. The direct effect of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; P. Mortensen, Stefan; H. Knudsen, Sine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the insulin-independent effects of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics under eu- and hyperglycemic conditions. Young, healthy males (n=10) underwent three trials in a randomized, controlled, cross-over study. Each trial c...... hyperglycemia, GIP increases femoral artery blood flow with no effect on glucose metabolism, whereas GLP-1 increases glucose disposal, potentially, however, due to increased insulin levels....... consisted of a 2-stage (eu- and hyperglycemia) pancreatic clamp (using somatostatin to prevent endogenous insulin secretion). Glucose and lipid metabolism were measured via infusion of stable glucose and glycerol isotopic tracers. Hemodynamic variables (femoral, brachial and common carotid artery blood flow...... or glycerol kinetics were seen during euglycemia, whereas hyperglycemia resulted in increased GIR and glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) during GLP-1 compared to CON and GIP (Plevels, no differences between trials were seen for GIR or glucose Rd. Besides...

  1. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  2. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Symptomatic oral lesions may be associated with contact allergy to substances in oral hygiene products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristine Røn; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dental materials and oral hygiene products may be responsible for oral contact allergic reactions. We aimed to determine the occurrence of allergies in patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) and stomatitis and investigate if patch testing could...... identify contact allergies to dental materials and oral hygiene products in these patients. METHODS: Forty-nine patients (7 men, 42 women) aged 31 to 77 years (61 ± 10.3 years) with symptomatic OLP, OLL or stomatitis and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects were included. They underwent.......01). Avoidance cleared symptoms in all cases. CONCLUSION/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Allergic reactions to aroma substances in oral hygiene products are common in patients with symptomatic OLP, OLL and stomatitis....

  4. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with [14C]glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

  5. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  6. Use of deuterium labelled glucose in evaluating the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.N.; Masuoka, L.K.; deRopp, J.S.; Jones, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Deuterium labelled glucose has been used to study the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis during the fasted-refed transition in rats. Deuterium enrichment of liver glycogen was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance as well as mass spectroscopy. Sixty minutes after oral administration of deuterated glucose to fasted rats, the portal vein blood was fully enriched with deuterated glucose. Despite this, less than half of the glucose molecules incorporated into liver glycogen contained deuterium. The loss of deuterium label from glucose is consistent with hepatic glycogen synthesis by an indirect pathway requiring prior metabolism of glucose. The use of deuterium labelled glucose may prove to be a useful probe to study hepatic glycogen metabolism. Its use may also find application in the study of liver glycogen metabolism in humans by a noninvasive means

  7. Effect of glucocorticoid therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sihai; Wei Zhenggan; Huang Ming'an; Yao Jianguo; Li Hongsheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoids therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: Plasma glucose and insulin levels in COPD patients after intravenous administration of 10 mg dexamethasone daily for 5 days were determined oral with glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT). Results: 1) The levels of basal plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in severe hypoxemic group than those in moderate hypoxemic group (p 2 (r = -0.5242, p < 0.05). 2) The levels of plasma glucose in intermediate and severe hypoxemic groups were remarkable higher (p < 0.05) than those in mild group. The two peak times of glucose curve were observed at one and two hour after oral glucose load. 3) After the administration of glucocorticoids, at half an hour and one hour plasma glucose levels were significantly higher than those before, the peak time of glucose levels appeared earlier and the insulin release levels were higher than they were before therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COPD patients with acute exacerbation complicated with hypoxemia had problems of impaired glucose tolerance. The administration of glucocorticoids made the impairment worse

  8. Selective conversion of plasma glucose into CO2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the measurement of C-13 abundance by isotope ratio mass spectrometry : proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, Krzysztof P.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Stellaard, Frans

    2007-01-01

    To study carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, time-dependent C-13 enrichment in plasma glucose is measured after oral administration of naturally occurring C-13-enriched carbohydrates. The isotope enrichment of the administered carbohydrate is low (APE <0.1%) and plasma C-13 glucose

  9. Temporal Changes in Cortical and Hippocampal Expression of Genes Important for Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury. Expressions of several genes important for brain glucose utilization were determined by qRT-PCR. In results, (1 mRNA levels of three key enzymes in glucose metabolism [hexo kinase (HK 1, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH] were all increased 6 h after injury in the contralateral cortex, followed by decreases at subsequent times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (2 capillary glucose transporter Glut-1 mRNA increased, while neuronal glucose transporter Glut-3 mRNA decreased, at various times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (3 astrocyte lactate transporter MCT-1 mRNA increased, whereas neuronal lactate transporter MCT-2 mRNA decreased in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (4 HK2 (an isoform of hexokinase expression increased at all time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. GPR81 (lactate receptor mRNA increased at various time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. These temporal alterations in gene expression corresponded closely to the patterns of impaired brain glucose utilization reported in both TBI patients and experimental TBI rodents. The observed changes in hippocampal gene expression were delayed and prolonged, when compared with those in the cortex. The patterns of alterations were specific

  10. [Findings from Total Colonoscopy in Obstructive Colorectal Cancer Patients Who Underwent Stent Placement as a Bridge to Surgery(BTS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Tsuyuki, Hajime; Kojima, Tadahiro; Koreyasu, Ryohei; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Kota; Ikeda, Takashi; Takayanagi, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    We clinically investigated 34 patients with obstructive colorectal cancer who underwent placement of a colonic stent as a bridge to surgery(BTS), focusing on endoscopic findings after stent placement.Twenty -nine patients(85.3%)underwent colonoscopy after stent placement, and the entire large intestine could be observed in 28(96.6%).Coexisting lesions were observed in 22(78.6%)of these 28 patients.The lesions comprised adenomatous polyps in 17 patients(60.7%), synchronous colon cancers in 5 patients(17.9%), and obstructive colitis in 3 patients(10.7%), with some overlapping cases.All patients with multiple cancers underwent one-stage surgery, and all lesions were excised at the same time.Colonoscopy after colonic stent placement is important for preoperative diagnosis of coexisting lesions and planning the extent of resection. These considerations support the utility of colonic stenting for BTS.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health ... Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer ...

  13. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen B. Fung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05 and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048. Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL, showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05. Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient.

  15. Can HbA1c be Used to Screen for Glucose Abnormalities Among Adults with Severe Mental Illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, A J; Letendre, E; Akrass, Z; Avignon, A; Karelis, A D; Sultan, A; Abdel-Baki, A

    2017-04-01

    Aim: Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are highly prevalent among individuals with serious mental illness and increased by antipsychotic medication. Although widely recommended, many obstacles prevent these patients from obtaining a proper screening for dysglycemia. Currently, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, and 2-hour glucose levels from the oral glucose tolerance test are used for screening prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate if HbA1c could be used as the only screening test among individuals with serious mental illness. Methods: Cross sectional study comparing the sensitivity of HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to detect dysglycemias in serious mental illness participants referred for metabolic complications. Results: A total of 84 participants (43 female; aged: 38.5±12.8 years; BMI: 35.0±6.8 kg/m²) was included. Regarding prediabetes, 44, 44 and 76% were identified by HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2 h- oral glucose tolerance test respectively and for type 2 diabetes, 60, 53 and 66% were identified by HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2 h-oral glucose tolerance test. The overlap between the 3 markers was low (8% of participants for prediabetes and 26% for Type 2 diabetes). Sensitivity of HbA1c were moderate (range 40-62.5%), while its specificity was excellent (92-93%). Conclusion: The present study indicates a low agreement between HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. It appears that these markers do not identify the same participants. Thus, HbA1c may not be used alone to detect all glucose abnormalities among individuals with serious mental illness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Campetelli, German; Basualdo, Marta; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization there are over 220 million people in the world with diabetes and 3.4 million people died in 2004 as a consequence of this pathology. Development of an artificial pancreas would allow to restore control of blood glucose by coupling an infusion pump to a continuous glucose sensor in the blood. The design of such a device requires the development and application of mathematical models which represent the gluco-regulatory system. Models developed by other research groups describe very well the gluco-regulatory system but have a large number of mathematical equations and require complex methodologies for the estimation of its parameters. In this work we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy rats. The proposed model consists of three differential equations and 8 parameters that describe the variation of: blood glucose concentration, blood insulin concentration and amount of glucose in the intestine. All parameters were obtained by setting functions to the values of glucose and insulin in blood obtained after oral glucose administration. In vivo and in silico validations were performed. Additionally, a qualitative analysis has been done to verify the aforementioned model. We have shown that this model has a single, biologically consistent equilibrium point. This model is a first step in the development of a mathematical model for the type I diabetic rat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An imidazopyridine anxiolytic alters glucose tolerance in patients: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottaï, T; Cartault, F; Pouget, R; Blayac, J P; Petit, P

    1995-02-01

    We have recently shown that compounds with high affinity for peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in vitro. We therefore performed an oral glucose tolerance test in anxious inpatients treated with the imidazopyridine derivative alpidem, which has been shown to display high affinity for these binding sites. The test was performed before and after 1 week of daily administration of the drug. As compared with pretreatment values, a significant alteration of the insulin response to glucose was observed. It is suggested that daily administration of alpidem, at therapeutically effective doses for the treatment of anxiety, may alter glucose tolerance.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of spiral interdigitated electrodes based biosensor for salivary glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelyn, P. Y. P.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Kahar, S. M.; Huda, A. R. N.; Lee, H. Cheun

    2017-03-01

    This work introduces the non-invasive glucose monitoring technique by using the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technologically fabricated spiral Interdigitated Electrodes (IDE) based biosensor. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image explores the morphology of spiral IDE while Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) determines the elements induced in spiral IDE. Oral saliva of two patients are collected and tested on the spiral IDE sensor with electrical characterization as glucose detection results. However, both patients exhibit their glucose level characteristics inconsistently. Therefore, this work could be extended and enhanced by adding Glutaraldehyde in between 3-Aminoproply)triethoxysilane (APTES) modified and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme immobilized layer with FTIR validation for bonding attachment.

  19. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen R; Brooks, Latina M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; O'Leary, Valerie B; Kirwan, John P

    2009-06-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased beta-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo(2 max)) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 +/- 190, post: 1,269 +/- 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 +/- 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY(3-36), insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo(2 max) (P HYPO (-8.3 +/- 1.1 vs. -2.8 +/- 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY(3-36) response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  20. Impact of Polypharmacy on Adherence to Evidence-Based Medication in Patients who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shaban; Arabi, Abdulrahaman; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdulkarim, Sabir; AlJundi, Amer; Alqahtani, Awad; Arafa, Salah; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of polypharmacy on primary and secondary adherence to evidence-based medication (EBM) and to measure factors associated with non-adherence among patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We conducted a retrospective analysis for patients who underwent PCI at a tertiary cardiac care hospital in Qatar. Patients who had polypharmacy (defined as ≥6 medications) were compared with those who had no polypharmacy at hospital discharge in terms of primary and secondary adherence to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and statins. A total of 557 patients (mean age: 53±10 years; 85%; males) who underwent PCI were included. The majority of patients (84.6%) received ≥6 medications (polypharmacy group) while only 15.4% patients received ≥5 medications (nonpolypharmacy group). The two groups were comparable in term of gender, nationality, socioeconomic status and medical insurance. The non-polypharmacy patients had significantly higher adherence to first refill of DAPT compared with patients in the polypharmacy group (100 vs. 76.9%; p=0.001). Similarly, the non-polypharmacy patients were significantly more adherent to secondary preventive medications (BB, ACEI and statins) than the polypharmacy group. In patients who underwent PCI, polypharmacy at discharge could play a negative role in the adherence to the first refill of EBM. Further studies should investigate other parameters that contribute to long term non-adherence.

  1. Benefits of oral administration of an electrolyte solution interrupting a prolonged preoperatory fasting period in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyao-García, D; Corrales-Fernández, M A; Blanco-Rodríguez, G; Sánchez-Hernández, E; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of an oral isosmolar solution of electrolytes (ISE) administered to interrupt a prolonged fasting period in children undergoing an elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Forty unpremedicated children aged 3 to 12 years, ASA I, undergoing a surgical procedure requiring general anesthesia were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with an overnight fasting period for milk and solids of at least 8 hours. In group 2, patients under a similar fasting period received a volume of 4 mL/kg of an oral ISE 3 hours before completing the fasting period. After anesthetic induction, blood glucose level (BGL) was quantified, and patients underwent an endoscopic examination to obtain the gastric content to determine the residual gastric volume (RGV) and pH levels. In group 1, the RGV was 0.78 +/- 0.44 mL/kg, pH was 1.75 +/- 0.38, and BGL was 86.4 +/- 14.5. In group 2, the RGV was 0.40 +/- 0.29 mL/kg, pH was 3.18 +/- 0.61, and BGL was 85.1 +/- 12.6. Only RGV and pH were significantly different between groups. A prolonged fasting period interrupted with oral ISE administration resulted in an RGV of low risk, without counterbalancing a potential fasting-induced hypoglycemia.

  2. Hypothalamic and Striatal Insulin Action Suppresses Endogenous Glucose Production and May Stimulate Glucose Uptake During Hyperinsulinemia in Lean but Not in Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Wagner, Robert; Kullmann, Stephanie; Gancheva, Sofiya; Roden, Michael; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Preissl, Hubert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Intranasal spray application facilitates insulin delivery to the human brain. Although brain insulin modulates peripheral metabolism, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Twenty-one men underwent two hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with d-[6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose infusion to measure endogenous glucose production and glucose disappearance. On two separate days, participants received intranasal insulin or placebo. Insulin spillover into circulation after intranasal insulin application was mimicked by an intravenous insulin bolus on placebo day. On a different day, brain insulin sensitivity was assessed by functional MRI. Glucose infusion rates (GIRs) had to be increased more after nasal insulin than after placebo to maintain euglycemia in lean but not in overweight people. The increase in GIRs was associated with regional brain insulin action in hypothalamus and striatum. Suppression of endogenous glucose production by circulating insulin was more pronounced after administration of nasal insulin than after placebo. Furthermore, glucose uptake into tissue tended to be higher after nasal insulin application. No such effects were detected in overweight participants. By increasing insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production and stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, brain insulin may improve glucose metabolism during systemic hyperinsulinemia. Obese people appear to lack these mechanisms. Therefore, brain insulin resistance in obesity may have unfavorable consequences for whole-body glucose homeostasis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  5. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24 hours after the activity. Drinking too much alcohol without enough food Alcohol makes it harder for your body to keep ... t eaten in a while. The effects of alcohol can also keep you from feeling the ... able to eat as much or keep food down, which can cause low blood glucose. Learn ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  7. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are below 100 mg/dL before meals and fasting and are less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals. People with diabetes should consult their doctor or health care provider to set appropriate blood glucose goals. ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site ... Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose ... down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease ... than planned or exercised less than planned. You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or flu. You have ...

  15. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Calotropis procera leaf extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Sultan, Shamsuddin; Toma, Tanzila Taher; Lucky, Sayeda-A-Safa; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel; Annay, Eashmat Ara; Jahan, Rownak

    2009-12-30

    Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant) and Calotropis procera (leaves) are used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control blood sugar in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effects of methanol and chloroform extracts of whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, and methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera were investigated in oral glucose tolerance tests in Long Evans rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Both methanol and chloroform extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant demonstrated significant oral hypoglycemic activity in glucose-loaded rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera, when tested at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight did not demonstrate any oral hypoglycemic effect when tested in glucose-loaded mice.

  16. ' ORAL GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE TESTS AND SERUM INSULIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :s of the pellagra and kwashior- kor groups. on admission as well as after recovery, were compared with each other for significant differences at the 5°~ level of significance using variance analyses." The same tests were done in both groups to ...

  17. Control of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism by the Oral Hypoglycemic Sulfonylureas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-11

    diphosphate, 0.2 mM; 2,3 diphosphoglycerate , 0.1 mM; NADH, 0.2 mM; and 0.60 ml of deprotelnized sample. Pyruvate was measured by following the oxidation...J,; Rodgrlgues, L,M,; Whitton, P,A, and Hems, D,A, (1980) Control mechanisms in the acceleration of hepatic glycogen degradation during anoxia

  18. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V.V. Navghare

    2016-07-25

    Jul 25, 2016 ... Abstract Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels ... In Indian system of folk medicine, the peel of banana is also ..... Anti-hyperglycemic activity of the alcoholic extracts.

  19. A combination of physical activity and computerized brain training improves verbal memory and increases cerebral glucose metabolism in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, T; Verdile, G; Sohrabi, H; Campbell, A; Putland, E; Cheetham, C; Dhaliwal, S; Weinborn, M; Maruff, P; Darby, D; Martins, R N

    2014-12-02

    Physical exercise interventions and cognitive training programs have individually been reported to improve cognition in the healthy elderly population; however, the clinical significance of using a combined approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated whether physical activity (PA), computerized cognitive training and/or a combination of both could improve cognition. In this nonrandomized study, 224 healthy community-dwelling older adults (60-85 years) were assigned to 16 weeks home-based PA (n=64), computerized cognitive stimulation (n=62), a combination of both (combined, n=51) or a control group (n=47). Cognition was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test and the CogState computerized battery at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks post intervention. Physical fitness assessments were performed at all time points. A subset (total n=45) of participants underwent [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at 16 weeks (post-intervention). One hundred and ninety-one participants completed the study and the data of 172 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control group, the combined group showed improved verbal episodic memory and significantly higher brain glucose metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex after controlling for age, sex, premorbid IQ, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status and history of head injury. The higher cerebral glucose metabolism in this brain region was positively associated with improved verbal memory seen in the combined group only. Our study provides evidence that a specific combination of physical and mental exercises for 16 weeks can improve cognition and increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cognitively intact healthy older adults.

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  1. A randomised trial of glucose tablets to aid smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; May, Sylvia; McEwen, Andy; McRobbie, Hayden; Hajek, Peter; Vangeli, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Oral glucose has been found to decrease tobacco craving among abstaining smokers. One study has demonstrated an effect of glucose on short-term abstinence. There is a need to examine any long-term benefit of glucose on abstinence. To assess whether glucose tablets improve 6-month continuous abstinence rates compared with low-calorie placebo tablets. Smokers attempting to stop (n = 928) were randomised to receive glucose or sorbitol (placebo) in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. All participants received group-based psychological support, and approximately half (n = 474) received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), buproprion, or both. Smokers were seen weekly for 5 weeks and used tablets ad libitum, with a recommended minimum of 12 per day. Participants were recruited through general practitioner referral, word of mouth, and advertising. The participants were 38% male, smoked an average of 23.5 cigarettes per day, and had a mean age of 44 years. There were no significant pretreatment differences between groups. The primary outcome measure was continuous, CO-verified abstinence from the target quit date for 6 months. No significant effect of glucose tablets on abstinence was found (14.6% vs 13.4% abstinence in the glucose and placebo groups, respectively). However, there was a significant interaction with a glucose effect observed in smokers also receiving other medication (18.2% vs 12.6%, p < 0.05) but not otherwise (10.7% vs 14.3% ; p < 0.05 for the interaction). No significant effect of glucose tablets over and above sweet tasting tablets could be detected overall, but the possibility of an effect as an adjunct to NRT or bupropion merits further investigation.

  2. Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Tönjes

    Full Text Available AIM: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or T2D. METHODS: Based on 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, 124 individuals were divided into groups of IFG (n = 35, IGT (n = 45, or NGT (n = 43. Furthermore, 56 subjects with T2D were included. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, chemerin, fetuin-A, leptin, interleukin (IL-6, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, vaspin, progranulin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOBR were measured by ELISAs. RESULTS: Chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A, and RBP4, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin serum concentrations were differentially regulated among the four investigated groups but only circulating chemerin was significantly different in patients with IGT compared to those with IFG. Compared to T2D the IFG subjects had higher serum chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A and RBP4 levels which was not detectable in the comparison of the T2D and IGT group. CONCLUSION: Alterations in adipokine serum concentrations are already detectable in prediabetic states, mainly for chemerin, and may reflect adipose tissue dysfunction as an early pathogenetic event in T2D development. In addition, distinct adipokine serum patterns in individuals with IFG and IGT suggest a specific role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these prediabetic states.

  3. Loss of sugar detection by GLUT2 affects glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Stolarczyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  4. Preoperative octreotide therapy and surgery in acromegaly: associations between glucose homeostasis and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, R; Carlsen, S M; Bollerslev, J; Svartberg, J; Øksnes, M; Skeie, S; Fougner, S L

    2016-02-01

    In acromegaly, high GH/IGF-1 levels associate with abnormal glucose metabolism. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) reduce GH and IGF-1 but inhibit insulin secretion. We studied glucose homeostasis in de novo patients with acromegaly and changes in glucose metabolism after treatment with SSA and surgery. In this post hoc analysis from a randomized controlled trial, 55 de novo patients with acromegaly, not using antidiabetic medication, were included. Before surgery, 26 patients received SSAs for 6 months. HbA1c, fasting glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test were performed at baseline, after SSA pretreatment and at 3 months postoperative. Area under curve of glucose (AUC-G) was calculated. Glucose homeostasis was compared to baseline levels of GH and IGF-1, change after SSA pretreatment, and remission both after SSA pretreatment and 3 months postoperative. In de novo patients, IGF-1/GH levels did not associate with baseline glucose parameters. After SSA pretreatment, changes in GH/IGF-1 correlated positively to change in HbA1c levels (both p acromegaly, disease activity did not correlate with glucose homeostasis. Surgical treatment of acromegaly improved glucose metabolism in both cured and not cured patients, while SSA pretreatment led to deterioration in glucose homeostasis in patients not achieving biochemical control.

  5. Computer Simulation Model to Train Medical Personnel on Glucose Clamp Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghoul, Pooya; Boulet, Benoit; Tardif, Annie; Haidar, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    A glucose clamp procedure is the most reliable way to quantify insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but skilled and trained research personnel are required to frequently adjust the glucose infusion rate. A computer environment that simulates glucose clamp experiments can be used for efficient personnel training and development and testing of algorithms for automated glucose clamps. We built 17 virtual healthy subjects (mean age, 25±6 years; mean body mass index, 22.2±3 kg/m 2 ), each comprising a mathematical model of glucose regulation and a unique set of parameters. Each virtual subject simulates plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in response to intravenous insulin and glucose infusions. Each virtual subject provides a unique response, and its parameters were estimated from combined intravenous glucose tolerance test-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp data using the Bayesian approach. The virtual subjects were validated by comparing their simulated predictions against data from 12 healthy individuals who underwent a hyperglycemic glucose clamp procedure. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were predicted by the virtual subjects in response to glucose infusions determined by a trained research staff performing a simulated hyperglycemic clamp experiment. The total amount of glucose infusion was indifferent between the simulated and the real subjects (85±18 g vs. 83±23 g; p=NS) as well as plasma insulin levels (63±20 mU/L vs. 58±16 mU/L; p=NS). The virtual subjects can reliably predict glucose needs and plasma insulin profiles during hyperglycemic glucose clamp conditions. These virtual subjects can be used to train personnel to make glucose infusion adjustments during clamp experiments. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Green tea extract does not affect exogenous glucose appearance but reduces insulinemia with glucose ingestion in exercise recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian J; McGlory, Chris; MacInnis, Martin J; Allison, Mary K; Phillips, Stuart M; Gibala, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise, but via an unknown mechanism (Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Gillen JB, Skelly LE, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41: 1057-1063, 2016. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics on ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21 ± 2 yr old; body mass index = 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 , peak O 2 uptake = 38 ± 7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; means ± SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7 days in a double-blind, crossover design. In the fasted state, a primed constant infusion of [U- 13 C 6 ]glucose was started, and 1 h later, subjects performed a graded exercise test (25 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested a 75-g glucose beverage containing 2 g of [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, and blood samples were collected every 10 min for 3 h of recovery. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation was lower during exercise after GTE vs. PLA (1.26 ± 0.34 vs. 1.48 ± 0.51 g/min, P = 0.04). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was not different between treatments after drink ingestion (GTE = 1,067 ± 133 vs. PLA = 1,052 ± 91 mM/180 min, P = 0.91). Insulin AUC was lower after GTE vs. PLA (5,673 ± 2,153 vs. 7,039 ± 2,588 µIU/180 min, P = 0.05), despite similar rates of glucose appearance (GTE = 0.42 ± 0.16 vs. PLA = 0.43 ± 0.13 g/min, P = 0.74) and disappearance (GTE = 0.43 ± 0.14 vs. PLA = 0.44 ± 0.14 g/min, P = 0.57). We conclude that short-term GTE supplementation did not affect glucose kinetics following ingestion of an oral glucose load postexercise; however, GTE was associated with attenuated insulinemia. These findings suggest GTE lowers the insulin required for a given glucose load during postexercise recovery, which warrants further mechanistic studies in humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  8. Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced CL for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.

  9. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the develo...

  10. New diagnostic criteria for diabetes: is the change from glucose to HbA1c possible in all populations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a change of the diagnostic tool for diabetes from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been suggested. The aim of the study was to assess whether ethnicity modified the association between glucose levels and HbA1c and to compare diabetes prevalence accordi...

  11. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. The effect of acute beta-adrenergic inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Tuxen, C

    1994-01-01

    Seven patients with histologically verified small cell lung carcinoma were given an oral glucose load of 75 g on two occasions to examine the effect of glucose on whole body and forearm thermogenesis with and without acute beta-adrenergic inhibition with propranolol. Whole body energy expenditure...

  12. New diagnostic criteria for diabetes: is the change from glucose to HbA1c possible in all populations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a change of the diagnostic tool for diabetes from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been suggested. The aim of the study was to assess whether ethnicity modified the association between glucose levels and HbA1c and to compare diabetes prevalence according...

  13. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  14. APACHE II SCORING SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CHILDREN WHO UNDERWENT POLYCHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term disease prognosis should be considered for the appropriate treatment policy based on the assessment of disease severity in patients with acute disease. The adequate assessment of disease severity and prognosis allows the indications for transferring patients to the resuscitation and intensive care department to be defined more precisely. Disease severity of patients who underwent polychemotherapy was assessed using APACHE II scoring system.

  15. Use of an Oral Elemental Diet in Infants with Severe Intractable Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Joseph O.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Evaluated was the use of an oral elemental diet consisting of crystalline amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins to control severe intractable diarrhea in 27 infants (1-day to 9-months of age). (DB)

  16. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Jin, Kairui; Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  17. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses—A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. Methods A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40–60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18–28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Results Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Conclusions Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism. PMID:26247824

  18. The Demographics of Patients with Skin Cancer who Underwent Surgery in Diyarbakır and Performed Surgical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Özalp

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The major factor for developing malignant skin cancers is sunlight exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the demographics of patients with skin cancers who underwent surgery in Diyarbakır where the population is exposed to more sunlight than most other Turkish cities. Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for malignant skin cancer excision between 2011 and 2016 were searched using University Hospital’s patient database program. Data about patients’ demographics, cancer features, and the surgical techniques performed were collected. Results: Over a 5-year period, 190 patients underwent surgical excision. The male to female ratio was 1.56, and the mean age was 65.8 ± 15.7 (range, 20-94 years. The most common skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma (n=138, 72.7%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n=45, 23.7% and malignant melanoma (n=5, 2.6%. The most common surgery was primary excision, which was performed in 90 of 190 patients (47.36%; tissue reconstruction with a skin graft or flap surgery was required for the remaining 100 (52.63%, showing a significant difference (p<0.001. Conclusion: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, and less than half of the patients sought treatment immediately after they recognized the lesion. The public should be educated about skin cancers to increase early diagnosis and encourage timely treatment, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality from skin cancer.

  19. Microdose flare-up vs. flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocols for poor responder patients who underwent ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esinler, I

    2014-01-01

    To compare the performance of microdose flare-up (MF) and flexible-multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols in poor responder patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). One hundred and 12 consecutive patients (217 cycles) suspected to have poor ovarian response were enrolled. Group 1 (MF GnRH agonist group) constituted 64 patients (135 cycles) who underwent MF GnRH agonist protocol. Group 2 (flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist group) constituted 48 patients (82 cycles) who underwent flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol. The duration of stimulation (d) (11.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 10.4 +/- 2.7, p or = seven blastomeres and < 10% fragmentation at day 3 (35.9% vs. 65.1%, p < 0.05) were significantly lower in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. The number of embryos transferred (2.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.9), the clinical pregnancy per embryo transfer (16.3% vs. 25.8%), and the implantation rate (8.6% vs. 12.2%) were comparable between groups. Although the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol produced better oocyte and embryo parameters, the clinical pregnancy rate and the implantation rates were comparable between the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist and MF protocols in poor responder patients.

  20. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose

  1. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  2. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  3. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis and arterial norepinephrine response persist after weight reduction in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    A reduced thermic response and an impaired activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been reported after oral glucose in human obesity. It is, however, not known whether the reduced SNS activity returns to normal along with weight reduction. The thermic effect of glucose was lower...... in eight obese patients than in matched control subjects (1.7% vs 9.2%, p less than 0.002). The increase in arterial norepinephrine after glucose was also blunted in the obese patients. After a 30-kg weight loss their glucose and lipid profiles were markedly improved but the thermic effect of glucose...... was still lower than that of the control subjects (4.2%, p less than 0.001). The glucose-induced arterial norepinephrine response remained diminished in the reduced obese patients whereas the changes in plasma epinephrine were similar in all three groups. The results suggest that a defective SNS may...

  4. Impaired incretin effect is an early sign of glucose dysmetabolism in nondiabetic patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, M; Lauritsen, Tina Vilsbøll; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The gastrointestinal system plays a major role in normal glucose metabolism, and in healthy individuals, postprandial insulin secretion is largely mediated by the gut incretin hormones. This potentiation is termed...... the incretin effect and is reduced in type 2 diabetes. The impact of psoriasis on gastrointestinal factors involved in glucose metabolism has not previously been examined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the incretin effect, gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) and/or secretion of glucagon...... and gut incretin hormones are impaired in normal glucose-tolerant patients with psoriasis. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance tests and intravenous isoglycaemic glucose infusions were performed in 12 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and 12 healthy matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients...

  5. Continued glucose output after re-feeding contributes to glucose intolerance in hyperthyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Holness, M J; Sugden, M C

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism to elicit glucose intolerance after glucose administration were decreased under conditions where hepatic glucose output was suppressed. It is concluded that continued hepatic glucose output contributes to abnormal glucose tolerance in hyperthyroidism.

  6. Glucose production for cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Karube, I

    1977-04-16

    Glucose was produced from cellulose by passing a cellulose solution through a column of an immobilized cellulase which was prepared by coating an inorganic carrier such as macadam or stainless steel beads with collagen containing the cellulase. Thus, 4 mL of 5% cellulase T-AP (60,000 units/g) solution was dissolved in 100 g of 0.9% collagen solution and the solution mixed with 60 g of macadam (diam. = 0.5 to 1.5 mm) and stirred for 10 min. The treated beads were dried in air at 10/sup 0/ to yield an immobilized enzyme retaining 64% of its activity. Through a column (0.8 x 20 cm) packed with 3 g of the immobilized enzyme, 100 mL of 0.33% Avicel SF solution was circulated at 26.4 mL/min at 30/sup 0/ for 60 h. The Avicel SF conversion to glucose was 23%.

  7. Glucose tolerance in two unacculturated Indian tribes of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, R S; Fajans, S S; Neel, J V; Pek, S; Floyd, J C; Oliver, W J

    1982-08-01

    Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and pancreatic polypeptide in response to a standard oral glucose load were studied in the Yanomama and the Marubo, two relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes of the Brazilian Amazon. The findings in the two tribes differed significantly from each other and in the degree of deviation from control subjects. The average responses in both tribes differed significantly from those of age- and sex-matched Caucasoid control subjects studied in Ann Arbor, Michigan; however, of the two tribes, the Marubo, the more acculturated group, resembled the controls more closely. Plasma concentrations of glucose and the hormones at three time points (fasting, 1 h, 2 h) were compared by means of a multivariate analysis. When the Marubo were compared with the control subjects, the only highly significant difference was in the plasma glucose concentrations (all three points were higher in the Marubo); however, the Yanomama differed significantly from the control subjects with respect to all four plasma indicators (p less than 0.05). Unlike the Marubo, the Yanomama showed no significant rise in plasma glucose at 1 h and no decrease at 2 h. Neither tribe exhibited the bimodality of the 2 h glucose value characteristic of acculturated Amerindians, such as the Pima, but the samples studied were small.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance ... 2014 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: bg-and-a1c-hyperglycemia,tips-and-how-tos, . In this section ...

  9. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  10. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  11. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills. In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose is ... glucose. Always carry carbohydrate foods for treatment. Check blood glucose levels again in 15 minutes, and repeat treatment if ...

  12. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  13. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyparambil Aravindakshan Pramodkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143-<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05 compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT.

  14. Peritoneal clearances in hypertensive CAPD patients after oral administration of clonidine, enalapril, and nifedipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A; Motanaro, D; Messa, P; Antonucci, F; Gropuzzo, M; Mioni, G

    1992-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the reduction of arterial pressure, induced by the oral administration of clonidine (CLO), enalapril (EN), and nifedipine (NIF), has any effect on peritoneal transport rates. The study was performed in nine hypertensive patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patients were submitted to administration of CLO, EN, and NIF, each in randomized succession for two weeks, after withdrawal of any hypotensive therapy for eight days (washout period). The nine patients underwent a four-hour dwell exchange using a 2.27 g/dL glucose two-liter bag after washout and after each hypotensive period. The following parameters were analyzed: mean arterial pressure (MAP), performed in the sitting position; net ultrafiltration; effluent/initial dialysate glucose ratio (GL D/Do); peritoneal clearance of K, BUN, creatinine (Cr), phosphate, beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2), total proteins, and the ratio between beta 2 and Cr clearance. Moreover, residual renal Cr and beta 2 clearances were analyzed. The three drugs significantly reduced MAP at a similar rate. The peritoneal transport parameters after CLO were similar to the results in the washout period. On the contrary, after EN and NIF therapy, Cr and beta 2 clearances were significantly increased, and GL D/Do decreased in comparison to the washout period. The other peritoneal transport parameters after EN and NIF were similar to the washout period. Residual renal Cr and beta 2 clearances after the three drugs were similar to those in the washout. these data suggest that after two weeks of therapy with EN and NIF, glucose, Cr, and beta 2 peritoneal transports are influenced by these hypotensive drugs irrespective of the effect on the arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate how the blood glucose level affects the glucagon and insulin responses to GIP in healthy subjects (Study 1) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (Study 2), and more specifically to investigate the effects of GIP and GLP-1 at low blood glucose in patients with Type 1 diabetes without endogenous...... as his own control. Interventions were intravenous administration of hormones GIP, GLP-1 and placebo (saline) during different blood glucose levels maintained (clamped) at a certain level. The end-points were plasma concentrations of glucagon and insulin as well as the amount of glucose used to clamp...... the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The results from the three studies indicate that GIP has effects on insulin and glucagon responses highly dependent upon...

  16. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses......: During fasting glycemia (plasma glucose ∼8 mmol/L), GIP elicited significant increments in both insulin and glucagon levels, resulting in neutral effects on plasma glucose. During insulin-induced hypoglycemia (plasma glucose ∼3 mmol/L), GIP elicited a minor early-phase insulin response and increased...... glucagon levels during the initial 30 minutes, resulting in less glucose needed to be infused to maintain the clamp (29 ± 8 vs 49 ± 12 mg × kg(-1), P glucose ∼12 mmol/L), GIP augmented insulin secretion throughout the clamp, with slightly less glucagon...

  17. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    levels of intact GLP-1 but increased levels of intact GIP (from 4543 +/- 1880 to 9208 +/- 3267 pM x min; P glucose tolerance (area under the curve [AUC] for glucose reduced from 1904 +/- 480 to 1582 +/- 353 mM x min; P =.05). VP did not increase insulin levels during the oral......The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are important in blood glucose regulation. However, both incretin hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). The concept of DPPIV inhibition as a treatment...... glucose tolerance test (OGTT) but increased the insulinogenic index in normal animals (from 83 +/- 42 to 192 +/- 108; P

  18. Direct analysis of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose dry blood spot enrichments by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida; Mendes, Vera M; Lima, Inês S; Martins, Fátima O; Fernandes, Ana B; Macedo, M Paula; Jones, John G; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a triple-quadrupole scan mode was developed and comprehensively validated for the determination of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose enrichments from dried blood spots (DBS) without prior derivatization. The method is demonstrated with dried blood spots obtained from rats administered with a primed-constant infusion of [U-(13)C6]glucose and an oral glucose load enriched with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose. The sensitivity is sufficient for analysis of the equivalent to blood and the overall method was accurate and precise for the determination of DBS isotopic enrichments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired glucose-induced glucagon suppression after partial pancreatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Henning; Menge, Bjoern A; Breuer, Thomas G K

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The glucose-induced decline in glucagon levels is often lost in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this is due to an independent defect in alpha-cell function or secondary to the impairment in insulin secretion. We examined whether a partial pancreatectomy in humans...... would also impair postchallenge glucagon concentrations and, if so, whether this could be attributed to the reduction in insulin levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with pancreatic tumours or chronic pancreatitis were studied before and after approximately 50% pancreatectomy with a 240-min...... oral glucose challenge, and the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were determined. RESULTS: Fasting and postchallenge insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly lower after partial pancreatectomy (P

  20. Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, D.; Lin, J.; Kuo, S.; Wu, D.; Li, J.; Hsieh, C.; Wu, C.; Hung, Y.; Kuo, K.

    2007-01-01

    Surprisingly it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. All participants received a standard 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance and 6 had diabetes on isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (Clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance. (author)

  1. Tofogliflozin, a potent and highly specific sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control in diabetic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Honda, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Masanori; Ozawa, Kazuharu; Hagita, Hitoshi; Kawai, Takahiro; Takeda, Minako; Yata, Tatsuo; Kawai, Mio; Fukuzawa, Taku; Kobayashi, Takamitsu; Sato, Tsutomu; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Sachiya

    2012-06-01

    Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is the predominant mediator of renal glucose reabsorption and is an emerging molecular target for the treatment of diabetes. We identified a novel potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitor, tofogliflozin (CSG452), and examined its efficacy and pharmacological properties as an antidiabetic drug. Tofogliflozin competitively inhibited SGLT2 in cells overexpressing SGLT2, and K(i) values for human, rat, and mouse SGLT2 inhibition were 2.9, 14.9, and 6.4 nM, respectively. The selectivity of tofogliflozin toward human SGLT2 versus human SGLT1, SGLT6, and sodium/myo-inositol transporter 1 was the highest among the tested SGLT2 inhibitors under clinical development. Furthermore, no interaction with tofogliflozin was observed in any of a battery of tests examining glucose-related physiological processes, such as glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, glycogen synthesis, hepatic glucose production, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and glucosidase reactions. A single oral gavage of tofogliflozin increased renal glucose clearance and lowered the blood glucose level in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Tofogliflozin also improved postprandial glucose excursion in a meal tolerance test with GK rats. In db/db mice, 4-week tofogliflozin treatment reduced glycated hemoglobin and improved glucose tolerance in the oral glucose tolerance test 4 days after the final administration. No blood glucose reduction was observed in normoglycemic SD rats treated with tofogliflozin. These findings demonstrate that tofogliflozin inhibits SGLT2 in a specific manner, lowers blood glucose levels by increasing renal glucose clearance, and improves pathological conditions of type 2 diabetes with a low hypoglycemic potential.

  2. Clinical Outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease who underwent FFR evaluation of intermediate coronary lesionS– COFFRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In our experience, MACE events were not higher in patients with FFR > 0.8 and kept under medical therapy and were similarly lower in patients with FFR ≤0.8 and underwent revascularisation (p = 0.73. Also MACE events were higher in patients with FFR ≤ 0.8 and did not undergo revascularisation compared to other two appropriately treated groups (p = 0.03. FFR based revascularization decision appears to be a safe strategy in Indian patients.

  3. Glucose homeostasis in mice is transglutaminase 2 independent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri E Iismaa

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2 has been reported to be a candidate gene for maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY because three different mutations that impair TG2 transamidase activity have been found in 3 families with MODY. TG2 null (TG2(-/- mice have been reported to be glucose intolerant and have impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. Here we rigorously evaluated the role of TG2 in glucose metabolism using independently generated murine models of genetic TG2 disruption, which show no compensatory enhanced expression of other TGs in pancreatic islets or other tissues. First, we subjected chow- or fat-fed congenic SV129 or C57BL/6 wild type (WT and TG2(-/- littermates, to oral glucose gavage. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were similar for both genotypes. Pancreatic islets isolated from these animals and analysed in vitro for GSIS and cholinergic potentiation of GSIS, showed no significant difference between genotypes. Results from intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (GTTs and insulin tolerance tests (ITTs were similar for both genotypes. Second, we directly investigated the role of TG2 transamidase activity in insulin secretion using a coisogenic model that expresses a mutant form of TG2 (TG2(R579A, which is constitutively active for transamidase activity. Intraperitoneal GTTs and ITTs revealed no significant differences between WT and TG2(R579A/R579A mice. Given that neither deletion nor constitutive activation of TG2 transamidase activity altered basal responses, or responses to a glucose or insulin challenge, our data indicate that glucose homeostasis in mice is TG2 independent, and question a link between TG2 and diabetes.

  4. Exogenous thyroxine improves glucose intolerance in insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Anaya, Guillermo; Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-03-01

    Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with glucose intolerance, calling into question the contribution of thyroid hormones (TH) on glucose regulation. TH analogues and derivatives may be effective treatment options for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR), but their potential glucoregulatory effects during conditions of impaired metabolism are not well described. To assess the effects of thyroxine (T 4 ) on glucose intolerance in a model of insulin resistance, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed on three groups of rats (n = 8): (1) lean, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), (2) obese, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and (3) OLETF + T 4 (8.0 µg/100 g BM/day × 5 weeks). T 4 attenuated glucose intolerance by 15% and decreased IR index (IRI) by 34% in T 4 -treated OLETF compared to untreated OLETF despite a 31% decrease in muscle Glut4 mRNA expression. T 4 increased the mRNA expressions of muscle monocarboxylate transporter 10 (Mct10), deiodinase type 2 (Di2), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) by 1.8-, 2.2-, 2.7- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to OLETF. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor were not significantly altered suggesting that the improvements in glucose intolerance and IR were independent of enhanced insulin-mediated signaling. The results suggest that T 4 treatment increased the influx of T 4 in skeletal muscle and, with an increase of DI2, increased the availability of the biologically active T 3 to upregulate key factors such SIRT1 and UCP2 involved in cellular metabolism and glucose homeostasis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Metabolic Effects of Glucose-Fructose Co-Ingestion Compared to Glucose Alone during Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU with glucose alone (GLU in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO2max while ingesting combined glucose-fructose (GLUFRU or glucose alone (GLU to maintain stable glycaemia without insulin adjustment. GLUFRU and GLU were labelled with 13C-fructose and 13C-glucose, respectively. Metabolic assessments included measurements of hormones and metabolites, substrate oxidation, and stable isotopes. Exogenous carbohydrate requirements to maintain stable glycaemia were comparable between GLUFRU and GLU (p = 0.46. Fat oxidation was significantly higher (5.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 1.2 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001 and carbohydrate oxidation lower (18.1 ± 0.8 vs. 24.5 ± 0.8 mg·kg−1·min−1 p < 0.001 in GLUFRU compared to GLU, with decreased muscle glycogen oxidation in GLUFRU (10.2 ± 0.9 vs. 17.5 ± 1.0 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001. Lactate levels were higher (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L, p = 0.012 in GLUFRU, with comparable counter-regulatory hormones between GLUFRU and GLU (p > 0.05 for all. Glucose and insulin levels, and total glucose appearance and disappearance were comparable between interventions. Glucose-fructose co-ingestion may have a beneficial impact on fuel metabolism in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes without insulin adjustment, by increasing fat oxidation whilst sparing glycogen.

  6. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Hansen, A-L S; Christensen, D L; Vistisen, D; Aadahl, M; Linneberg, A; Witte, D R

    2012-09-01

    Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional 'Health2008' study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were measured by self-report. Markers of glucose homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test and included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA(1c), two measures of insulin sensitivity (the insulin sensitivity index(0,120) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity), the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and glucose tolerance status. Associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and tolerance were analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression. A 1-h increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.3 mmol/mol (0.3%) decrement in HbA(1c) and a 25% reduction in the risk of having impaired glucose regulation. Further, a 1-point increment in sleep quality was associated with a 2% increase in both the insulin sensitivity index(0,120) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity, as well as a 1% decrease in homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. In the present study, shorter sleep duration was mainly associated with later alterations in glucose homeostasis, whereas poorer sleep quality was mainly associated with earlier alterations in glucose homeostasis. Thus, adopting healthy sleep habits may benefit glucose metabolism in healthy populations. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  7. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Max Goodson

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (T2D has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects.We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175 and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537.HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83% of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64% were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness.HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  8. Patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during oral glucocorticoid treatment and observed for 14 years: all-cause mortality and clinical developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Dyring-Andersen, B.

    2011-01-01

    and sex and to 1.39 (0.92-2.11, p = 0.12, n = 1086) when risk factors, complications and cancer were added to the model. Apart from differences in age and overweight, patients in this relatively small sample of those diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during GC treatment were comparable at diagnosis...... treatment. A population-based sample of 1369 people newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes underwent a clinical examination at diagnosis, and surviving patients were followed up 6 and 14 years later. Patients receiving oral GC treatment at diagnosis were compared with the other patients. Of 1369......Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) has many side effects including glucose intolerance and diabetes and may accelerate the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. We studied the 14-year clinical development of diabetes in patients diagnosed with diabetes during GC...

  9. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin were isolated from C. aurantium. Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory function on cell growth. ROS production was increased in naringin- and hesperetin-treated groups after one day of culture while the level was always lowest in the naringenin-treated group after three days of culture. 95 osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgery were assigned into two groups: naringenin group (NG, received 20 mg naringenin daily, n=47 and control group (CG, received 20 mg placebo daily, n=48. After an average of two-year follow-up, osteosarcoma volumes were smaller in the NG group than in the CG group (P>0.01. The rate of osteosarcoma recurrence was also lower in the NG group than in CG group. ROS levels were lower in the NG group than in the CG group. Thus, naringenin from Citrus aurantium inhibits osteosarcoma progression and local recurrence in the patients who underwent osteosarcoma surgery by improving antioxidant capability.

  10. Citrus aurantium Naringenin Prevents Osteosarcoma Progression and Recurrence in the Patients Who Underwent Osteosarcoma Surgery by Improving Antioxidant Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Tiechao; Wu, Kunzhe; Ding, Chuanbo; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xuanhe; Yu, Tianhua; Song, Changlong

    2018-01-01

    Citrus aurantium is rich in flavonoids, which may prevent osteosarcoma progression, but its related molecular mechanism remains unclear. Flavonoids were extracted from C. aurantium and purified by reparative HPLC. Each fraction was identified by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Three main components (naringin, naringenin, and hesperetin) were isolated from C. aurantium . Naringenin inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells, whereas naringin and hesperetin had no inhibitory function on cell growth. ROS production was increased in naringin- and hesperetin-treated groups after one day of culture while the level was always lowest in the naringenin-treated group after three days of culture. 95 osteosarcoma patients who underwent surgery were assigned into two groups: naringenin group (NG, received 20 mg naringenin daily, n = 47) and control group (CG, received 20 mg placebo daily, n = 48). After an average of two-year follow-up, osteosarcoma volumes were smaller in the NG group than in the CG group ( P > 0.01). The rate of osteosarcoma recurrence was also lower in the NG group than in CG group. ROS levels were lower in the NG group than in the CG group. Thus, naringenin from Citrus aurantium inhibits osteosarcoma progression and local recurrence in the patients who underwent osteosarcoma surgery by improving antioxidant capability.

  11. Newly detected abnormal glucose regulation and long-term prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pararajasingam, Gokulan; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and/or glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) identify patients with increased mortality risk, but no comparison of the long-term prognostic values has yet been investigated. METHODS: This study...... to patients categorized as normal/impaired fasting glycaemia/impaired glucose tolerance by OGTT and HbA1c values. CONCLUSION: An OGTT is recommended in AMI patients without known DM...

  12. Quantifying temporal glucose variability in diabetes via continuous glucose monitoring: mathematical methods and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatchev, Boris P; Clarke, William L; Breton, Marc; Brayman, Kenneth; McCall, Anthony

    2005-12-01

    Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) collect detailed blood glucose (BG) time series, which carry significant information about the dynamics of BG fluctuations. In contrast, the methods for analysis of CGM data remain those developed for infrequent BG self-monitoring. As a result, important information about the temporal structure of the data is lost during the translation of raw sensor readings into clinically interpretable statistics and images. The following mathematical methods are introduced into the field of CGM data interpretation: (1) analysis of BG rate of change; (2) risk analysis using previously reported Low/High BG Indices and Poincare (lag) plot of risk associated with temporal BG variability; and (3) spatial aggregation of the process of BG fluctuations and its Markov chain visualization. The clinical application of these methods is illustrated by analysis of data of a patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent islet transplantation and with data from clinical trials. Normative data [12,025 reference (YSI device, Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH) BG determinations] in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent insulin and glucose challenges suggest that the 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence intervals of BG rate of change that could be maximally sustained over 15-30 min are [-2,2], [-3,3], and [-4,4] mg/dL/min, respectively. BG dynamics and risk parameters clearly differentiated the stages of transplantation and the effects of medication. Aspects of treatment were clearly visualized by graphs of BG rate of change and Low/High BG Indices, by a Poincare plot of risk for rapid BG fluctuations, and by a plot of the aggregated Markov process. Advanced analysis and visualization of CGM data allow for evaluation of dynamical characteristics of diabetes and reveal clinical information that is inaccessible via standard statistics, which do not take into account the temporal structure of the data. The use of such methods improves the

  13. A simple method for measuring glucose utilization of insulin-sensitive tissues by using the brain as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Iyo, Masaomi; Fukushi, Kiyoshi; Irie, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    A simple method, without measurement of the plasma input function, to obtain semiquantitative values of glucose utilization in tissues other than the brain with radioactive deoxyglucose is reported. The brain, in which glucose utilization is essentially insensitive to plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, was used as an internal reference. The effects of graded doses of oral glucose loading (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/g body weight) on insulin-sensitive tissues (heart, muscle and fat tissue) were studied in the rat. By using the brain-reference method, dose-dependent increases in glucose utilization were clearly shown in all the insulin-sensitive tissues examined. The method seems to be of value for measurement of glucose utilization using radioactive deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography in the heart or other insulin-sensitive tissues, especially during glucose loading. (orig.)

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  15. Acetaldehyde production by major oral microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritani, K; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Ninomiya, T; Kiyohara, Y; Yamashita, Y

    2015-09-01

    To assess acetaldehyde (ACH) production by bacteria constituting the oral microbiota and the inhibitory effects of sugar alcohols on ACH production. The predominant bacterial components of the salivary microbiota of 166 orally healthy subjects were determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial ACH production from ethanol or glucose was measured using gas chromatography. In addition, inhibition by four sugars and five sugar alcohols of ACH production was assayed. Forty-one species from 16 genera were selected as predominant and prevalent bacteria based on the following criteria: identification in ≥95% of the subjects, ≥1% of mean relative abundance or ≥5% of maximum relative abundance. All Neisseria species tested produced conspicuous amounts of ACH from ethanol, as did Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus mitis and Prevotella histicola exhibited the ability to produce ACH. In addition, xylitol and sorbitol inhibited ACH production by Neisseria mucosa by more than 90%. The oral microbiota of orally healthy subjects comprises considerable amounts of bacteria possessing the ability to produce ACH, an oral carcinogen. Consumption of sugar alcohols may regulate ACH production by oral microbes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (Pblood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Ahmad A; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Al-Aboosi, Mustafa M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oral Candida colonization and candidosis in a group of patients with psoriasis and controls. A total of 100 patients with psoriasis and matched controls underwent the concentrated oral rinse test for Candida isolation. Candida species were identified by the VITEK 2 Identification System. Categorical variables were evaluated using the χ(2) test. The median Candida count was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 3% of the patients with psoriasis. The Candida count and prevalence were significantly higher in the patients with psoriasis compared with controls (69% vs 44%, P Oral Candida was significantly higher in late-onset (at age ≥30 years) compared with early-onset psoriasis (at age oral Candida colonization and candidiasis. Further studies are needed to clarify the predisposing factor(s) for oral Candida in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. © FEMS 2015.

  19. Changes in glucose-induced plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels by co-administration of sodium–glucose cotransporter inhibitors with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Oguma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether structurally different sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT 2 inhibitors, when co-administered with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 inhibitors, could enhance glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs in rodents. Three different SGLT inhibitors—1-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl-4-chloro-3-[5-(6-fluoro-2-pyridyl-2-thienylmethyl]benzene (GTB, TA-1887, and canagliflozin—were examined to assess the effect of chemical structure. Oral treatment with GTB plus a DPP4 inhibitor enhanced glucose-induced plasma active GLP-1 (aGLP-1 elevation and suppressed glucose excursions in both normal and diabetic rodents. In DPP4-deficient rats, GTB enhanced glucose-induced aGLP-1 elevation without affecting the basal level, whereas metformin, previously reported to enhance GLP-1 secretion, increased both the basal level and glucose-induced elevation. Oral treatment with canagliflozin and TA-1887 also enhanced glucose-induced aGLP-1 elevation when co-administered with either teneligliptin or sitagliptin. These data suggest that structurally different SGLT2 inhibitors enhance plasma aGLP-1 elevation and suppress glucose excursions during OGTT when co-administered with DPP4 inhibitors, regardless of the difference in chemical structure. Combination treatment with DPP4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors having moderate SGLT1 inhibitory activity may be a promising therapeutic option for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Tumor deposit is a poor prognostic indicator in patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Q

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Qi Lin,# Ye Wei,# Li Ren,# Yunshi Zhong,# Chunzhi Qin, Peng Zheng, Pingping Xu, Dexiang Zhu, Meiling Ji, Jianmin XuDepartment of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China#These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Tumor deposits are one of the important influencing factors among the different editions of Tumor, Node, Metastasis classification. Incidence and prognosis of tumor deposits in stage I, II, and III colorectal cancer patients has been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of tumor deposits in stage IV colorectal cancer patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCRLM.Methods: Clinicopathological and outcome data of 146 consecutive SCRLM patients who underwent simultaneous R0 resection between July 2003 and July 2013 were collected from our prospectively established SCRLM database. The prognostic value of tumor deposits was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis.Results: Tumor deposits were detected in 41.8% (61/146 of these SCRLM patients. Tumor deposits were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and nerve invasion of the primary tumors (P=0.002, P=0.041; respectively. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS of SCRLM patients with tumor deposits were significantly poorer than those with no tumor deposits (P=0.039, P=0.001; respectively. And with multivariate analysis, we found that positive tumor deposits were significantly associated with shorter DFS independent of lymph node status (P=0.002. Subgroup analysis found that of the 57 SCRLM patients with negative lymph node status, the OS and DFS of patients with positive tumor deposits were significantly shorter than those with negative tumor deposits (P=0.002 and P=0.031, respectively. Of the 89 patients with positive lymph node status, the OS of