WorldWideScience

Sample records for underwent neuropsychological assessment

  1. Neuropsychological assessment: principles, rationale, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are increasingly in demand for a wide range of patients. This paper offers a survey of the basic aspects of neuropsychological assessment that are of greatest importance for professionals (e.g., psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and lawyers) who are not trained in neuropsychological testing, but who refer clients for neuropsychological assessment. This survey could also serve neuropsychologists in their early stages of training, by addressing some of the major issues related to the assessment process. The range of goals that neuropsychological assessment may attain is first outlined. Next, a model is presented that explains the rationale enabling generalization from assessment to real-world functions that are the focus of interest and the target of prediction. Issues that need to be considered before deciding to conduct a neuropsychological evaluation are then introduced, and sources of information available to the assessor are described. A description is provided of what a neuropsychological assessment includes, with an emphasis on its cognitive aspects. Finally, mention is made of some of the difficulties and challenges that must be confronted in the course of a neuropsychological assessment.

  2. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  3. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  4. Symptom validity testing, effort, and neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    Symptom validity testing (SVT) has become a major theme of contemporary neuropsychological research. However, many issues about the meaning and interpretation of SVT findings will require the best in research design and methods to more precisely characterize what SVT tasks measure and how SVT test findings are to be used in neuropsychological assessment. Major clinical and research issues are overviewed including the use of the “effort” term to connote validity of SVT performance, the use of cut-scores, the absence of lesion-localization studies in SVT research, neuropsychiatric status and SVT performance and the rigor of SVT research designs. Case studies that demonstrate critical issues involving SVT interpretation are presented.

  5. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  6. Neuropsychological assessment in kidney and liver transplantation candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, S S; Guimaro, M S; Prade, C V; Ferraz-Neto, B H; Karam, C H; Andreoli, P B A

    2008-04-01

    Chronic renal and liver diseases are associated with cognitive and intellectual impairment, which can be irreversible even after kidney or liver transplantation. We sought to investigate the presence of cognitive deficits in organ transplantation candidates. From May 2005 to March 2006, 35 organ transplantation candidates, of mean age 46.71 (+/- 13.01) years, 54.3% including females and 7.29 (+/- 4.22) years mean formal schooling. Of those, 27 (77%) were renal and 8 (23%), liver transplantation candidates. All subjects underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery designed to evaluate attention performance, executive functions, memory, language, visuaospatial, and intellectual skills. We found impairments in attention performance (attention span [34.3%], sustained attention [76.5%], and divided attention [77.8%]), executive functions (category formation [58.3%], errors [61.5%], and perseverative errors [30.4%]), memory (working memory [57.1%], verbal [37.1%] and visual short-term memory [31.4%], verbal [25.7%] and visual long-term memory [51.4], verbal learning [42.9%], interference susceptibility [42.9%], and verbal recognition memory [20.6%]), language (comprehension [38.1%], and vocabulary [30.8%]), visuaospatial (45.8%), and intellectual skills (50.0%). Neuropsychological (cognitive) deficits in transplant candidates are frequent, regardless of the kind of transplantation. The deficits involve several cognitive skills, such as attentional processes, executive functions, memory, language, visuaospatial, and intellectual skills. Therefore, we concluded that a pretransplant neuropsychological assessment is an important measure to detect impairments and to help understand how these difficulties can interfere with patient self-care before and after transplantation.

  7. Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment and perceived employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Johnny H; Boone, Kyle; Kim, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    Ecological validity studies that have examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and employment in psychiatric and medical populations have found that a wide range of cognitive domains predict employability, although memory and executive skills appear to be the most important. However, no information is available regarding a patient's self-perceived work attributes and objective neuropsychological performance, and whether the same cognitive domains associated with successful employment are also related to a patient's self-perception of work competence. In the present study, 73 medical and psychiatric patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Step-wise multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual-spatial domain was the only significant predictor of self-perceived work attributes and work competence as measured by the Working Inventory (WI) and the Work Adjustment Inventory (WAI), accounting for 7% to 10% of inventory score variability. The results raise the intriguing possibility that targeting of visual spatial skills for remediation and development might play a separate and unique role in the vocational rehabilitation of a lower SES population, specifically, by leading to enhanced self-perception of work competence as these individuals attempt to enter the job market.

  8. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  9. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  10. Training School Psychologists in Neuropsychological Assessment: Current Practices and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a survey of directors of school psychology programs support the notion that training in neuropsychological screening and assessment techniques is appropriate in the preparation of specialists in the area of school psychology. (Author)

  11. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Goulart

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate associations among symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain perception and cognitive impairment in patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. We evaluated 32 women volunteers with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on the criteria of the ACR. The control group was matched to the patient group for age, schooling and income. The volunteers were submitted to a neuropsychological battery focused on Memory, Attention, Executive Functions, Perceived Pain, Anxiety and Depression. Anxiety was more relevant than depression in the group of women with fibromyalgia, the perception of pain was very high and cognitive impairment was more evident in executive functions, especially planning and inhibitory control. Memory and attention were more impaired in the fibromyalgia group, especially on tasks that require executive functions. Patients with fibromyalgia seem to be less efficient in tasks related to executive functions.

  12. Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions following pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K Drorit; Soper, Henry V

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of executive functions in the adult is best captured at the stage where full maturation of brain development occurs. Assessment of executive functions of children, however, is considerably more complicated. First, assessment of executive functioning in children represents a snapshot of these developing functions at a particular time linked stage, which may have implications for further development. Second, neuropsychological measures available to assess executive functions in children are limited in number and scope and may not be sensitive to the gradual developmental changes. The present article provides an overview of the salient neurodevelopmental stages of executive functioning and discusses the utilization of recently developed neuropsychological measures to assess these stages. Comments on clinical implications of these findings regarding Traumatic Brain Injury will be provided.

  13. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  14. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: clinical case of depression and working incapacity

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, Camila; Saffi, Fabiana; Barros, Daniel Martins de; Dias, Alvaro Machado; Akiba, Henrique Teruo; Serafim, Antonio de Pádua

    2015-01-01

    Issues related to mental health in relation to court matters have increasingly required the participation of the psychologist. We present the use of forensic neuropsychological assessment in a case of retirement reversal. Incapacity was attested due to disability resulting from depression of a 35-year-old attorney, and the case was forwarded from the courts to the Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Unit at the USP Clinical Hospital. A clinical interview and application of cognitive tests was ...

  15. The use of neuropsychological tests to assess intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansler, David A; Varvaris, Mark; Schretlen, David J

    We sought to derive a 'neuropsychological intelligence quotient' (NIQ) to replace IQ testing in some routine assessments. We administered neuropsychological testing and a seven-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to a community sample of 394 adults aged 18-96 years. We regressed Wechsler Full Scale IQs (W-FSIQ) on 23 neuropsychological scores and derived an NIQ from 9 measures that explained significant variance in W-FSIQ. We then compared subgroups of 284 healthy and 108 unhealthy participants in NIQ and W-FSIQ to assess criterion validity, correlated NIQ and W-FSIQ scores with education level and independence for activities of daily living to assess convergent validity, and compared validity coefficients for the NIQ with those of 'hold' and 'no-hold' indices. By design, NIQ and W-FSIQ scores correlated highly (r = .84), and both were higher in healthy participants. The difference was larger for NIQ, which accounted for more variability in activities of daily living. The NIQ and 'no-hold' index were better predicted by health status and less predicted by educational status than the 'hold' index. We constructed an NIQ that correlates highly with Wechsler FSIQ. Tests required to obtain NIQ are commonly used and can be administered in about 45 min. Validity properties of NIQ and W-FSIQ are similar. The NIQ bore greater resemblance to a 'no-hold' than 'hold' index. One can obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of current Full Scale IQ without formal intelligence testing from a brief neuropsychological battery.

  16. [Capgras syndrome: a proposal of neuropsychological battery for assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillers Rodríguez, Rosalía; Madoz-Gúrpide, Agustín; Tirapu Ustárroz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is the most prevalent of the delusional misidentification syndromes. It appears in both psychiatric illness and organic brain damage. Cognitive and neuropsychiatric models (lateralization and disconnection) have been proposed to explain the syndrome. From a neuropsychological point of view Capgras syndrome seems to be due to damage of bifrontal and right limbic and temporal regions. Memory, feeling of familiarity, monitoring of self and reality would be altered. All of these cause a failure to adequately integrate the information about emotions and facial recognition. Relative preservation of the left frontal lobe may be necessary for the development of delusional response. There does not seem to be a differential pattern as regards the aetiology, but there is a common underlying neuropsychiatric mechanism. Based on theoretic models, and clinics features, we propose a neuropsychological battery to assess the Capgras syndrome, that should be sensitive to the main expected deficits. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  18. Adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot: neuropsychological assessment and structural brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Rivkin, Michael J; DeMaso, David; Robertson, Richard L; Stopp, Christian; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Wypij, David; Newburger, Jane W

    2015-02-01

    Few data are available on the neuropsychological, behavioural, or structural brain imaging outcomes in adolescents who underwent corrective surgery in infancy for tetralogy of Fallot. In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we enrolled 91 adolescents (13-16 years old) with tetralogy of Fallot and 87 referent subjects. Assessments included tests of academic achievement, memory, executive functions, visual-spatial skills, attention, and social cognition, as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging. Genetic abnormalities or syndromes were present in 25% of tetralogy of Fallot patients, who had markedly greater neuropsychological morbidities than did patients without a syndrome. However, even patients without a syndrome performed significantly worse than the referent group or population norms in all of the neuropsychological domains assessed. In multivariable regression in those without a genetic/phenotypic syndrome, the strongest predictors of adverse late neurodevelopmental outcomes included a greater number of complications at the first operation, more total surgical complications across all operations, and occurrence of post-operative seizures. The presence of at least one abnormality on structural magnetic resonance imaging was more frequent in tetralogy of Fallot patients than the referent group (42% versus 8%). Adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot are at increased neurodevelopmental risk and would benefit from ongoing surveillance and educational supports even after childhood.

  19. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  20. Assessment of fitness to drive after acquired brain injury: The role of neuropsychological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette

    to identify a neuropsychological test battery to predict driving ability. However, there is no consensus as to which test such a test battery should consist of. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between some neuropsychological test results and the results of an on-road test.......g. WCST will not predict the driving ability of this group. This illustrates that many things can affect the predictive value a neuropsychological test and the belief that neuropsychological testing on its own cannot predict fitness to drive. As findings in the field of driving assessment of older people...

  1. Antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia: the role of computerized neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Semion; Reznik, Ilya; Grinspan, Haim; Weizman, Abraham; Kotler, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzes the role of neurocognitive assessment instruments in the detection of the contribution of antipsychotic treatment to cognitive functioning. Recently, a panel of experts suggested six main domains (working memory; attention/vigilance; verbal/visual learning and memory; reasoning and problem solving; speed of processing) implicated in schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, which serve as a theoretical base for creation of real-time computerized neurocognitive batteries. The high sensitivity of computerized neuropsychological testing is based on their ability to adopt the reaction time (RT) paradigm for the assessment of brain function in a real-time regime. This testing is highly relevant for the monitoring of the cognitive effects of antipsychotics. Computerized assessment assists in the identification of state- and trait-related cognitive impairments. The optimal real-time computerized neurocognitive battery should composite balance between broad and narrow coverage of cognitive domains relevant to the beneficial effects of antipsychotics and will enable better planning of treatment and rehabilitation programs.

  2. Indications and expectations for neuropsychological assessment in routine epilepsy care: Report of the ILAE Neuropsychology Task Force, Diagnostic Methods Commission, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Barr, William; Hamed, Sherifa; Langfitt, John; Samson, Séverine; Watanabe, Masako; Baker, Gus A; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Smith, Mary-Lou

    2015-05-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Methods Commission charged the Neuropsychology Task Force with the job of developing a set of recommendations to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of a neuropsychological assessment? (2) Who should do a neuropsychological assessment? (3) When should people with epilepsy be referred for a neuropsychological assessment? and (4) What should be expected from a neuropsychological assessment? The recommendations have been broadly written for health care clinicians in established epilepsy settings as well as those setting up new services. They are based on a detailed survey of neuropsychological assessment practices across international epilepsy centers, and formal ranking of specific recommendations for advancing clinical epilepsy care generated by specialist epilepsy neuropsychologists from around the world. They also incorporate the latest research findings to establish minimum standards for training and practice, reflecting the many roles of neuropsychological assessment in the routine care of children and adults with epilepsy. The recommendations endorse routine screening of cognition, mood, and behavior in new-onset epilepsy, and describe the range of situations when more detailed, formal neuropsychological assessment is indicated. They identify a core set of cognitive and psychological domains that should be assessed to provide an objective account of an individual's cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial functioning, including factors likely contributing to deficits identified on qualitative and quantitative examination. The recommendations also endorse routine provision of feedback to patients, families, and clinicians about the implications of the assessment results, including specific clinical recommendations of what can be done to improve a patient's cognitive or psychosocial functioning and alleviate the distress of any difficulties identified. By canvassing the breadth and depth

  3. Assessment of quality of life in patients who underwent minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Marcello Simão; Haddad, Alessandra; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-06-01

    There are increasingly more patients seeking minimally invasive procedures, which have become more effective and safer in reducing the signs of facial aging. This study included 40 female adult patients who voluntarily underwent selected minimally invasive procedures (filling with hyaluronic acid and botulinum toxin injection) for facial rejuvenation. All patients were followed for a period of 6 months. They were evaluated with the use of questionnaires, a quality-of-life questionnaire (DLQI), the self-esteem scale of Rosenberg (EPM/Rosenberg), and a pain scale. The minimally invasive procedures resulted in improvement in quality of life and self-esteem, which were stronger the first 3 months after the procedures but remained at a higher level than that before treatment, even after 6 months. Hyaluronic acid with lidocaine in the formula is more comfortable for the patient as it makes the injection less painful. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Assessment of Patients Who Underwent Nasal Reconstruction After Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Hakan; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoğlu, Haldun Onuralp; Dadaci, Mehmet; Çaliş, Mert; Öcal, Engin

    2015-06-01

    Basal and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common malignant cutaneous lesions affecting the nose. With the rising incidence of skin cancers, plastic surgeons increasingly face nasal reconstruction challenges. Although multiple options exist, optimal results are obtained when "like is used to repair like". We aimed to introduce a simple algorithm for the reconstruction of nasal defects with local flaps, realizing that there is always more than one option for reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 163 patients who underwent nasal reconstruction after excision of non-melanoma skin cancer between March 2011 and April 2014. We analyzed the location of the defects and correlated them with the techniques used to reconstruct them. There were 66 males and 97 females (age, 21-98 years). Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 121 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 42. After tumor excision, all the defects were immediately closed by either primary closure or local flap options such as Limberg, Miter, glabellar, bilobed, nasolabial, V-Y advancement, and forehead flaps. Obtaining tumor-free borders and a pleasing aesthetic result are major concerns in nasal reconstruction. Defect reconstruction and cosmesis are as important as rapid recovery and quick return to normal daily activities, and these should be considered before performing any procedure, particularly in elderly patients.

  5. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  6. APACHE II SCORING SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CHILDREN WHO UNDERWENT POLYCHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term disease prognosis should be considered for the appropriate treatment policy based on the assessment of disease severity in patients with acute disease. The adequate assessment of disease severity and prognosis allows the indications for transferring patients to the resuscitation and intensive care department to be defined more precisely. Disease severity of patients who underwent polychemotherapy was assessed using APACHE II scoring system.

  7. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  8. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  9. Relationship between smell identification testing and the neuropsychological assessment of dementia in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goette, William; Schmitt, Andrew; Clark, Avery

    2017-11-28

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) with neuropsychological tests and identify the utility of the UPSIT in detecting cognitive impairment. This research was an archival study of neuropsychological test results obtained from 70 clients (30 male/40 female) of a community-based memory clinic. The sample had an average age of 69.7 (SD = 9.7) and education of 14.6 (SD = 2.8) years. Hypotheses were tested using correlations, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and logistic regression. The UPSIT showed significant, weak to moderate correlations with neuropsychological tests. The UPSIT raw score correlated significantly with all but one cognitive ability domain. The UPSIT T-score was significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. Obtained areas under the ROC curve (AUC) for the UPSIT ranged from .60 to .87. The AUCs of the UPSIT did not differ significantly from verbal semantic fluency tests, but the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Total Scale and Delayed Memory index tended to produce larger AUCs than the UPSIT. Results from step-wise logistic regressions suggest that the UPSIT raw score provides unique information beyond its relationship to age. Olfaction relates broadly to cognitive ability and may be sensitive to early symptoms of cognitive decline. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between smell identification tests and neuropsychological assessment.

  10. Lifting the veil: how to use clinical neuropsychology to assess dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Piguet, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Neurologists often struggle to interpret the results of neuropsychological testing, even though cognitive assessments are an integral component of the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. This article reviews the principles underlying clinical neuropsychology, background on common neuropsychological tests, and tips on how to interpret the results when assessing patients with dementia. General cognitive screening tools, appropriate for use by general neurologists and psychiatrists, as well as specific cognitive tests examining the main cognitive domains (attention and orientation, memory, visuospatial function, language and executive function) in patients with dementia are considered. Finally, the pattern of deficits, helpful in defining clinical dementia phenotypes and sometimes in predicting the underlying molecular pathology, are outlined. Such clinicopathological associations will become invaluable as disease-modifying treatments for dementia are developed and implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive state among adults 65 years and older who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchick, Boris; Freud, Tamar; Press, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension (OH) increases with age, but the results of studies that assessed possible associations between them are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess possible associations between cognitive impairment and OH in patients ≥65 years of age who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the computerized medical records of the study population from 2005 to 2013. Data collected included blood pressure measurements that enabled the calculation of OH, results of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), results of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) test, and cognitive diagnoses that were determined over the course of the assessment. The rate of OH in the study population of 571 adults was 32.1%. The mean MMSE score was 22.5 ± 5.2 among participants with OH and 21.6 ± 5.8 among those without OH (P = 0.09). The absence of a significant association between OH and MMSE remained after adjusting the MMSE score for age and education level. The mean MoCA score was 16.4 ± 5.0 among participants with OH and 16.4 ± 4.8 among those without (P = 0.33). The prevalence of OH was 39% among participants without cognitive impairment, 28.9% among those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 30.6% among those with dementia (P = 0.13). There was no association between OH and cognitive impairment in adults who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:27442658

  12. The prognostic significance of preoperatively assessed AST/ALT (De Ritis) ratio on survival in patients underwent radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Kose, Osman; Koc, Esra Meltem; Ates, Erhan; Akin, Yigit; Yilmaz, Yuksel

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate prognostic significance of preoperatively assessed aspartate aminotransaminase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (De Ritis) ratio on survival in bladder cancer (BC) patients underwent radical cystectomy (RC). We, respectively, analysed clinical and pathological data of 153 patients who underwent RC for BC between February 2006 and December 2016 at a tertiary level hospital. The potential prognostic value of De Ritis ratio was assessed by using ROC curve analysis. The effect of the De Ritis ratio was analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression hazard models for patients' disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OAS). We had 149 BC patients, in total. Mean age was 61.65 ± 9.13 years. One hundred and thirty-nine (93.3%) of the patients were men. According to ROC analysis, optimal threshold of De Ritis ratio for DSS was 1.30. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the high De Ritis ratio group showed worse progression in DSS and OAS (all parameters, p < 0.001). On Cox regression models of clinical and pathological parameters to predict DSS, De Ritis ratio (HR 5.79, 95% CI 2.25-15.13), pathological T stage (HR 15.89, 95% CI 3.92-64.33, in all p < 0.001); and to predict OAS, De Ritis ratio (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.49-4.56; p < 0.001), pathological T stage (HR 5.42, 95% CI 2.63-11.64; p < 0.001) and age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08; p = 0.001) were determined as independent prognostic factors. Preoperative elevated De Ritis ratio could be an independent prognostic factor in BC patients underwent RC. Our results should be confirmed by large and properly designed prospective, randomized trials.

  13. Virtual reality measures in neuropsychological assessment: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neguț, Alexandra; Matu, Silviu-Andrei; Sava, Florin Alin; David, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Virtual reality-based assessment is a new paradigm for neuropsychological evaluation, that might provide an ecological assessment, compared to paper-and-pencil or computerized neuropsychological assessment. Previous research has focused on the use of virtual reality in neuropsychological assessment, but no meta-analysis focused on the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures of cognitive processes in measuring cognitive processes in various populations. We found eighteen studies that compared the cognitive performance between clinical and healthy controls on virtual reality measures. Based on a random effects model, the results indicated a large effect size in favor of healthy controls (g = .95). For executive functions, memory and visuospatial analysis, subgroup analysis revealed moderate to large effect sizes, with superior performance in the case of healthy controls. Participants' mean age, type of clinical condition, type of exploration within virtual reality environments, and the presence of distractors were significant moderators. Our findings support the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures in detecting cognitive impairment. They highlight the possibility of using virtual reality measures for neuropsychological assessment in research applications, as well as in clinical practice.

  14. Auditory pathways and processes: implications for neuropsychological assessment and diagnosis of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Neuroscience research on auditory processing pathways and their behavioral and electrophysiological correlates has taken place largely outside the field of clinical neuropsychology. Deviations and disruptions in auditory pathways in children and adolescents result in a well-documented range of developmental and learning impairments frequently referred for neuropsychological evaluation. This review is an introduction to research from the last decade. It describes auditory cortical and subcortical pathways and processes and relates recent research to specific conditions and questions neuropsychologists commonly encounter. Auditory processing disorders' comorbidity with ADHD and language-based disorders and research addressing the challenges of assessment and differential diagnosis are discussed.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes have been associated with cognitive functioning, even though their role is not fully understood. This work aimed to test a 3-factor model of the neuropsychological assessment battery and evaluate how the model fit the data longitudinally. Confirmatory factor analy...

  16. Role of neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Maria Lima Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of dementia increases significantly from the age of 65 years, doubling every five years thereafter. Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD constitute the two main dementia types. Differentiating them encompasses anamnesis, neurological examination, laboratory and neuroimaging exams and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment produces different findings for each dementia type, and reveals those areas most impaired as well as those most preserved. The aim of the present article was to describe the role of neuropsychology in diagnosing dementia and achieving a differential diagnosis between AD and VaD. A general overview follows of the most widely known instruments used to assess cognitive function in dementia, and the cognitive changes seen in AD and VaD. The conclusion drawn was that there is significant overlap in cognitive changes between both these dementia types, while each type has its own specific characteristics which are identifiable and quantifiable on neuropsychological assessments and provide the basis for reaching a differential diagnosis.

  17. A Cognitive Neuropsychological Approach to the Assessment and Remediation of Acquired Dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardell, Elizabeth A.; Chenery, Helen J.

    1999-01-01

    Used a cognitive neuropsychological approach to investigate a case of acquired dysgraphia in an adult who had sustained focal brain damage. The aims of the study were to investigate the usefulness of model-based assessment in identifying the mechanisms responsible for dysgraphia and for designing a treatment program informed by theories of normal…

  18. Establishing valid neuropsychological assessments in patients with gliomas undergoing awake surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    The present work highlights various requirements for neuropsychological assessment in the context of glioma patients undergoing awake craniotomy. The first study assessed the validity of the Brief Cognitive Status Exam (BCSE) compared to already established cognitive screening instruments such as Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in patients with intracranial tumors. For screening purposes, the MoCA turned out to be the best available tool, in clini...

  19. Assessment of cognitive functions after prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain irradiation using neuropsychological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penitzka, S.; Wannenmacher, M.; Steinvorth, S.; MIT, Cambridge, MT; Sehlleier, S.; Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg; Fuss, M.; Texas Univ., San Antonio, TX; Wenz, F.; Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.) [de

  20. Neuropsychological assessment of children with epilepsy and average intelligence using NEPSY II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Tiziana; Zanini, Sergio; Conte, Stefania; Borgatti, Renato; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown altered neuropsychological functioning of children with epilepsy even in the absence of intellectual disability, with notable concerns for both patients and their families. Although studies have described the cognitive profiles associated with specific epilepsy syndromes, there is incomplete agreement on the relation between spared and impaired abilities in different cognitive domains and on how deficits in one neuropsychological ability can secondarily affect performance in other cognitive domains. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile and vulnerabilities of children with epilepsy without intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. 23 children aged 7-15 years, with a diagnosis of epilepsy of genetic or unknown cause and average intellectual functioning (IQ >85), were administered all age-appropriate tests of the Italian-language version (Urgesi, Campanella, & Fabbro, 2011) of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (NEPSY-II: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition; Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 2007). Their performance was compared with that of a control group matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Children with epilepsy showed significant impairments as compared to the control group in tests of attention and executive functions and sensorimotor skills. Notably, particular difficulties were observed also in social perception tasks that require affect recognition, an ability that has been so far poorly considered in children with epilepsy. The results highlight the importance of performing extensive evaluation of cognitive functions, including social cognition processes, in children with epilepsy with average intelligence in order to design appropriate interventions aimed at minimizing long-term consequences on educational and behavioral outcome.

  1. Assessment of neuropsychological changes in patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Wildermuth, Susanne; Lohr, Frank; Fuss, Martin; Debus, Juergen; Essig, Marco; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate neuropsychological effects of radiosurgery in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), with special focus on attention and memory. This report describes the study setup and presents the first results during a follow-up of up to 1 year. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients were studied before, acutely after radiosurgery, and during the regular follow-up (subacute phase: Weeks 6-12, chronic phase: Months 6-12). Radiosurgery was performed using a modified linear accelerator (minimum doses to the target volume: 15-22 Gy, median 20 Gy). Estimated whole brain dose was 0.5 to 2 Gy. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine) and memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Benton Visual Retention Test). During follow-up, alternate test versions were used. Neuropsychological deficits were defined as a test score of at least one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the normal distribution. Results: The pretherapeutic evaluation revealed marked deviations from the normal population; 24% had deficits in intelligence (range 23-31% in different subtests), attention (35%, 23-59%) and memory (48%, 31-61%). The overall percentage of aberrant results was reduced by 12% (memory) to 14% (attention) in the chronic phase up to 12 months after therapy. The improvement in test scores was significant (p < 0.05) in 3 of 4 subtests of attention functions. Conclusions: The acute tolerance of radiosurgery seems to be very good in these patients, showing no relevant increase in number of patients with neuropsychological deficits. Although the long-term follow-up needs to be further increased, our data indicate a tendency to slight improvement in the overall neuropsychological performance of AVM patients in the chronic phase after radiosurgery

  2. Current standards of neuropsychological assessment in epilepsy surgery centers across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Viola Lara; Äikiä, Marja; Del Barrio, Antonio; Boon, Paul; Borbély, Csaba; Bran, Ema; Braun, Kees; Carette, Evelien; Clark, Maria; Cross, Judith Helen; Dimova, Petia; Fabo, Daniel; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Francione, Stefano; Gersamia, Anna; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Guekht, Alla; Harrison, Sue; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Heminghyt, Einar; Hirsch, Edouard; Javurkova, Alena; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kavan, Nicole; Kelemen, Anna; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kirschner, Margarita; Kleitz, Catherine; Kobulashvili, Teia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Kurtish, Selin Yagci; Lesourd, Mathieu; Ljunggren, Sofia; Lossius, Morten Ingvar; Malmgren, Kristina; Mameniskiené, Ruta; Martin-Sanfilippo, Patricia; Marusic, Petr; Miatton, Marijke; Özkara, Çiğdem; Pelle, Federica; Rubboli, Guido; Rudebeck, Sarah; Ryvlin, Philippe; van Schooneveld, Monique; Schmid, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Pia-Magdalena; Seeck, Margitta; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Shavel-Jessop, Sara; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Trinka, Eugen; Viggedal, Gerd; Wendling, Anne-Sophie; Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    We explored the current practice with respect to the neuropsychological assessment of surgical epilepsy patients in European epilepsy centers, with the aim of harmonizing and establishing common standards. Twenty-six epilepsy centers and members of "E-PILEPSY" (a European pilot network of reference centers in refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery), were asked to report the status of neuropsychological assessment in adults and children via two different surveys. There was a consensus among these centers regarding the role of neuropsychology in the presurgical workup. Strong agreement was found on indications (localization, epileptic dysfunctions, adverse drugs effects, and postoperative monitoring) and the domains to be evaluated (memory, attention, executive functions, language, visuospatial skills, intelligence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life). Although 186 different tests are in use throughout these European centers, a core group of tests reflecting a moderate level of agreement could be discerned. Variability exists with regard to indications, protocols, and paradigms for the assessment of hemispheric language dominance. For the tests in use, little published evidence of clinical validity in epilepsy was provided. Participants in the survey reported a need for improvement concerning the validity of the tests, tools for the assessment of everyday functioning and accelerated forgetting, national norms, and test co-normalization. Based on the present survey, we documented a consensus regarding the indications and principles of neuropsychological testing. Despite the variety of tests in use, the survey indicated that there may be a core set of tests chosen based on experience, as well as on published evidence. By combining these findings with the results of an ongoing systematic literature review, we aim for a battery that can be recommended for the use across epilepsy surgical centers in Europe. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League

  3. Virtual reality paced serial assessment test for neuropsychological assessment of a military cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher; Rizzo, Albert A; Armstrong, Christina; Edwards, Joseph; Reger, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a difficult challenge for the DoD medical health system. Clinical neuropsychologists are being asked to make statements regarding a soldier's functional skills, ability to return to active duty, and competence in tasks of community living. Given the increasing prevalence of blast injuries to the head, and the fact that many brain injuries may have no external marker of injury, there is need for researching innovative assessment methods in detecting blast-related brain injury. To address these issues, two virtual reality-based Paced Auditory/Visual Serial Addition Tests (PA/VSAT) were developed that involve the participant being immersed in a Virtual Middle Eastern City as serial addition stimuli are presented. This study is an initial validation of the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT as assessments of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil version of the test, as well as the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT appear to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's performance while immersed in a military relevant simulation.

  4. P300 and Neuropsychological assessment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eParra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a small proportion of individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI will convert to dementia. Methods currently available to identify risk for conversion do not combine enough sensitivity and specificity, which is even more problematic in low-educated populations. Current guidelines suggest the use of combined markers for dementia to enhance the prediction accuracy of assessment methods. The present study adhered to this proposal and investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the electrophysiological component P300 and standard neuropsychological tests to assess patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and MCI recruited from a low-income country. The neuropsychological battery comprised tests of memory, attention, language, praxis and executive functions. The P300 was recorded using a classical visual odd-ball paradigm. Three variables were found to achieve sensitivity and specificity values above 80% (Immediate and Delayed recall of word list – CERAD – and the latency of P300 for both MCI and AD. When they entered the model together (i.e., combined approach the sensitivity for MCI increased to 96% and the specificity remained high (80%. Our preliminary findings suggest that the combined use of sensitive neuropsychological tasks and the analysis of the P300 may offer a very useful method for the preclinical assessment of AD, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic and educational levels. Our results provide a platform and justification to employ more resources to convert P300 and related parameters into a biological marker for AD.

  5. P300 and neuropsychological assessment in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Ascencio, Lindsay Lorena; Urquina, Hugo Fenando; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín M

    2012-01-01

    Only a small proportion of individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) will convert to dementia. Methods currently available to identify risk for conversion do not combine enough sensitivity and specificity, which is even more problematic in low-educated populations. Current guidelines suggest the use of combined markers for dementia to enhance the prediction accuracy of assessment methods. The present study adhered to this proposal and investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the electrophysiological component P300 and standard neuropsychological tests to assess patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and MCI recruited from a low-income country. The neuropsychological battery comprised tests of memory, attention, language, praxis, and executive functions. The P300 was recorded using a classical visual odd-ball paradigm. Three variables were found to achieve sensitivity and specificity values above 80% (Immediate and Delayed recall of word list - CERAD - and the latency of P300) for both MCI and AD. When they entered the model together (i.e., combined approach) the sensitivity for MCI increased to 96% and the specificity remained high (80%). Our preliminary findings suggest that the combined use of sensitive neuropsychological tasks and the analysis of the P300 may offer a very useful method for the preclinical assessment of AD, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic and educational levels. Our results provide a platform and justification to employ more resources to convert P300 and related parameters into a biological marker for AD.

  6. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment for detecting brain injury in a prospective cohort of university amateur boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: While this neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment protocol could not detect any evidence of brain injury, one boxer developed seizures and another developed a chronic sub-dural haematoma.

  7. Affective state and cognitive functioning in patients with intracranial tumors: validity of the neuropsychological baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Simone; Kaup, Lea; Wiesner, Christian D; Mehdorn, H Maximilian

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the affective and cognitive states of neurooncological patients prior to the neurosurgical treatment to assess associations between distress levels and neuropsychological test performance in this sample and setting. The prospective study population consists of 172 patients. Patients were studied preoperatively with a comprehensive test battery consisting of a variety of affective and cognitive measures. Psychological instruments included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, and the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Factor analysis revealed two factors representing subjective affective functioning: whereas one reflects the patients' more general emotional state (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Acute Stress Disorder Scale), the second reflects anxiety specifically related to the neurosurgical procedure (Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale). After age and education have been accounted for via linear regression analyses, affect did not contribute to cognitive performance in any of the cognitive domains in the whole patient sample. However, in patients with extreme levels of psychiatric morbidity, there was evidence for distinct cognitive morbidity consistent with previous research. Our results suggest that, for a large variety of widely used neuropsychological measures and for most neurooncological patients, the preoperative neuropsychological baseline assessment can be considered valid and dependable. In patients with extreme levels of distress, however, distinct cognitive domains might be differentially affected. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronilla Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  9. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Petronilla; Salvatore, Christian; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR). Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  10. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Canini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance, specifically (1 the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2 the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal; and (3 the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control, including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1 touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2 intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3 touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people.

  11. INTERDISCIPLINARY PROTOCOL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL, BEHAVIORAL AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENTS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH INATTENTION AND HYPERACTIVITY COMPLAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a protocol developed for the investigation of signs of inattention and hyperactivity in children and adolescents, considering the behavioral, neuropsychological and clinical aspects. The first stage is a telephone triage. Further, the assessment consists of a face-to-face screening in which a behavioral inventory (BPM) is filled, and neuropsychological tests (IQ estimated by the Wisc-III and CPT-II Test) are performed. If there are indicators of inattention and hyperacti...

  12. Using the virtual reality device Oculus Rift for neuropsychological assessment of visual processing capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Poth, Christian H; Behler, Christian; Botsch, Mario; Schneider, Werner X

    2016-11-21

    Neuropsychological assessment of human visual processing capabilities strongly depends on visual testing conditions including room lighting, stimuli, and viewing-distance. This limits standardization, threatens reliability, and prevents the assessment of core visual functions such as visual processing speed. Increasingly available virtual reality devices allow to address these problems. One such device is the portable, light-weight, and easy-to-use Oculus Rift. It is head-mounted and covers the entire visual field, thereby shielding and standardizing the visual stimulation. A fundamental prerequisite to use Oculus Rift for neuropsychological assessment is sufficient test-retest reliability. Here, we compare the test-retest reliabilities of Bundesen's visual processing components (visual processing speed, threshold of conscious perception, capacity of visual working memory) as measured with Oculus Rift and a standard CRT computer screen. Our results show that Oculus Rift allows to measure the processing components as reliably as the standard CRT. This means that Oculus Rift is applicable for standardized and reliable assessment and diagnosis of elementary cognitive functions in laboratory and clinical settings. Oculus Rift thus provides the opportunity to compare visual processing components between individuals and institutions and to establish statistical norm distributions.

  13. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito G.N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418. A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8, who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children

  14. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, G N; Alfradique, G M; Pereira, C C; Porto, C M; Santos, T R

    1998-03-01

    Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed) of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age) with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8), who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children.

  15. Assessment of quality of life of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and a rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Cohen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of life can be defined as the expression of aconceptual model that tries to represent patient’s perspectivesand his/her level of satisfaction expressed by numbers. Theobjective of this study is to evaluate the parameters of quality oflife of 23 patients who underwent surgery for anterior cruciateligament reconstruction. Methods: We adopted SF-36, a generichealth-related evaluation questionnaire, to obtain informationregarding several aspects of patients’ health conditions, and theLysholm questionnaire, specific to evaluate the symptoms andfunction of the knee. The questionnaires were applied at two stagesof the treatment: pre- and postoperatively (after the rehabilitationprogram. Results: Before surgery, the Lysholm questionnairepresented the following results: excellent in 4% of the cases, goodin 22%, fair in 22%, and poor in 52%. After surgery (Lysholm e SF-36 the correlation level was approximately 44% (p = 0.041.Discussion: The correlation between the Lysholm and the SF-36questionnaires showed the following: the lower the level of pain,the higher the Lysholm score. The high scores presented by theLysholm questionnaire are directly proportional to physical andemotional aspects, and to functional capacity. Conclusion:Analysis of both questionnaires, as well as of their correlation,showed some improvement in patients´ quality of life. We werealso able to demonstrate the importance and usefulness of applyingthe two questionnaires at three different moments: before, duringand after physiotherapeutic intervention.

  16. Periodical assessment of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Asakawa, Isao; Anai, Satoshi; Hirayama, Akihide; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Konishi, Noboru; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2013-01-01

    To compare the periodical incidence rates of genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy between the monotherapy group (seed implantation alone) and the boost group (in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)). A total of 218 patients with a median follow-up of 42.5 months were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2 groups by treatment modality, namely, the monotherapy group (155 patients) and the boost group (63 patients). The periodical incidence rates of GU and GI toxicity were separately evaluated and compared between the monotherapy group and the boost group using the National Cancer Institute - Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. To elucidate an independent factor among clinical and postdosimetric parameters to predict grade 2 or higher GU and GI toxicity in the acute and late phases, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Of all patients, 78.0% showed acute GU toxicity, and 7.8% showed acute GI toxicity, while 63.8% showed late GU toxicity, and 21.1% showed late GI toxicity. The incidence rates of late GU and GI toxicity were significantly higher in the boost group. Multivariate analysis showed that the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) before seed implantation was a significant parameter to predict acute GU toxicity, while there were no significant predictive parameters for acute GI toxicity. On the other hand, combination with EBRT was a significant predictive parameter for late GU toxicity, and rectal volume (mL) receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (R100) was a significant predictive parameter for late GI toxicity. The boost group showed higher incidence rates of both GU and GI toxicity. Higher IPSS before seed implantation, combination with EBRT and a higher R100 were significant predictors for acute GU, late GU and late GI toxicity

  17. Executive functions of children with developmental dyspraxia: assessment combining neuropsychological and ecological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint-Thorin, M; Marchal, F; Benkhaled, O; Pradat-Diehl, P; Boyer, F-C; Chevignard, M

    2013-05-01

    To assess executive function in children with developmental dyspraxia. children aged 8 years to 12 years 5 months at the time of the study, diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia between January, 2008 and August, 2009 by a multidisciplinary team in one single center. (1) Paper-and-pencil neuropsychological and ecological tests to assess flexibility, planning, inhibition and prospective memory; (2) two questionnaires answered by parents; (3) the 'Children's Cooking Task' (CCT), an ecological task performed in a real environment (Chevignard et al., 2009 [15]). In this last test, children were compared to matched controls. Non-parametric statistical tests were used. Thirteen patients participated in the study (11 boys-2 girls; mean age 10.3 years [SD=1.3]). Neuropsychological tests highlighted planning and inhibition disorders, but no impaired flexibility. For more than half of the children, the questionnaires indicated impaired executive functions in daily life tasks. Finally, patients showed a significantly increased rate of errors during the CCT, compared with the control group (Pchildren diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia also exhibit executive function disorders. Ecological tests seem more sensitive for identifying executive function disorders than conventional tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Miyanishi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J. RESULTS: Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  19. International growth of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cruz-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children. Seventy-three children underwent neuropsychological assessment and were divided into two groups: a group with dyslexia (DG; n=39 and a control group (CG; n= 34. A general linear model showed a significant difference between the groups regarding the following abilities: reading, writing and mathematics; forward and backward digit span tasks; semantic and phonological fluency; number of completed categories and total number of cards in the Wisconsin Cards Sorting Test; as well as right and left discrimination on self and on other. These results suggest impairment in executive functions, phonological working memory and semantic memory among dyslexic children, rather than impairment of just phonological abilities, as suggested in previous studies.

  1. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  2. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Gavett

    Full Text Available Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96 or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72 or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121 at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed-but not the immediate-recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls. These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants-but not participants with AD-improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects-especially on the delayed recall condition-suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  3. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather; Zajdel, Dan

    2007-03-01

    When two auditory stimuli of different frequency are presented to each ear, binaural beats are perceived by the listener. The binaural beat frequency is equal to the difference between the frequencies applied to each ear. Our primary objective was to assess whether steady-state entrainment of electroencephalographic activity to the binaural beat occurs when exposed to a specific binaural beat frequency as has been hypothesized. Our secondary objective was to gather preliminary data on neuropsychologic and physiologic effects of binaural beat technology. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover experiment in 4 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomized to experimental auditory stimulus of 30 minutes of binaural beat at 7 Hz (carrier frequencies: 133 Hz L; 140 Hz R) with an overlay of pink noise resembling the sound of rain on one session and control stimuli of the same overlay without the binaural beat carrier frequencies on the other session. Data were collected during two separate sessions 1 week apart. Neuropsychologic and blood pressure data were collected before and after the intervention; electroencephalographic data were collected before, during, and after listening to either binaural beats or control. Neuropsychologic measures included State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, Rey Auditory Verbal List Test, Stroop Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Spectral and coherence analysis was performed on the electroencephalogram (EEG), and all measures were analyzed for changes between sessions with and without binaural beat stimuli. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions in any of the EEG measures. There was an increase of the Profile of Mood States depression subscale in the experimental condition relative to the control condition (p = 0.02). There was also a significant decrease in immediate verbal memory recall (p = 0.03) in the experimental condition compared to control

  4. Neuropsychological assessment of a new computerized cognitive task that developed for training several cognitive functions simultaneously.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoe eIchihara-Takeda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we did observe mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task could not measure subject’s working memory capacity specifically, but could measure the abilities of attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously.

  5. Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) as a Cognitive Evaluation Tool for Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKATSU, Daisuke; FUKUHARA, Toru; CHAYTOR, Naomi S.; PHATAK, Vaishali S.; AVELLINO, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    External lumbar drainage (ELD) is recognized as a screening method for ventriculo-peritoneal shunting (VPS) candidacy for possible normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). This study focused on the ELD predictability of the cognitive outcome after VPS for NPH. In addition, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was examined in ELD cognition screening. ELD results were considered positive with any improvement in gait and/or cognition. Among 36 patients examined for possible NPH, 26 underwent VPS because of positive ELD. Cognitive outcome after VPS was assessed at 6-month follow-up. The RBANS scores, examined pre- and post-ELD, were evaluated statistically to identify consistency with the neuropsychologist judgment and the predictability of cognitive outcome after VPS. Among 26 shunted patients, gait was improved in 24. Cognitive improvement was rated in 19, and there were 9 false negative and 5 false positive in ELD cognition screening. The neuropsychologist judgment in ELD cognition screening is most consistent with the RBANS score in delayed memory. The patients rated as improved in cognition after VPS had significantly lower RBANS scores pre-ELD in immediate memory and delayed memory. If both scores at pre-ELD were ≤ 80 (13 patients), all were rated as improved in cognition after VPS. ELD screening was highly predictive of clinical gait improvement but not of cognitive improvement after VPS for possible NPH. Particularly among patients with a positive ELD gait response, pre-ELD low RBANS scores in memory predicted cognitive improvement after VPS. RBANS seems effective in evaluating cognition for NPH. PMID:26369720

  6. Can the CERAD neuropsychological battery be used to assess cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD neuropsychological battery was created to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD but it is widely-used for various dementias. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of using the CERAD battery in the assessment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Forty-nine patients with Parkinson's disease were divided into two groups (one with dementia and one without using the Movement Disorder Society criteria for Parkinson's disease dementia. Cognitive deficits were assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale as the gold standard, and the CERAD. The ROC curve for the CERAD battery had an area under the curve = 0.989 (95% CI = 0.967 – 1, p<0.0001. Among the CERAD subtests, verbal fluency had the worst accuracy, and word list learning had the best accuracy. Despite the limits of this study, the CERAD battery can be efficient for assessment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease patients.

  7. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment for detecting brain injury in a prospective cohort of university amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M G; Housden, C R; Suckling, J; Tait, R; Young, A; Müller, U; Newcombe, V F J; Jalloh, I; Pearson, B; Cross, J; Trivedi, R A; Pickard, J D; Sahakian, B J; Hutchinson, P J

    2017-01-01

    The safety of amateur and professional boxing is a contentious issue. We hypothesised that advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing could provide evidence of acute and early brain injury in amateur boxers. We recruited 30 participants from a university amateur boxing club in a prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing was performed at three time points: prior to starting training; within 48 h following a first major competition to detect acute brain injury; and one year follow-up. A single MRI acquisition was made from control participants. Imaging analysis included cortical thickness measurements with Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTS) and FreeSurfer, voxel based morphometry (VBM), and Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests was performed assessing attention, learning, memory and impulsivity. During the study period, one boxer developed seizures controlled with medication while another developed a chronic subdural hematoma requiring neurosurgical drainage. A total of 10 boxers contributed data at to the longitudinal assessment protocol. Reasons for withdrawal were: logistics (10), stopping boxing (7), withdrawal of consent (2), and development of a chronic subdural hematoma (1). No significant changes were detected using VBM, TBSS, cortical thickness measured with FreeSurfer or ANTS, either cross-sectionally at baseline, or longitudinally. Neuropsychological assessment of boxers found attention/concentration improved over time while planning and problem solving ability latency decreased after a bout but recovered after one year. While this neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment protocol could not detect any evidence of brain injury, one boxer developed seizures and another developed a chronic sub-dural haematoma.

  8. Neuropsychological assessment of a potential "euthanasia" case: a 5 year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Herbert, C M

    2000-02-01

    McMillan reported a neuropsychological assessment procedure which was used to determine whether or not there was evidence for sentience in a young woman who had been rendered tetraplegic and anarthric as a result of a road traffic accident. An application to court had been made to withdraw feeding and this was supported by medical evidence which gave the view that the individual was functioning little beyond vegetative state, had a poor quality of life and had little prospect of further recovery. Evidence for an ability to communicate reliably was found including for a wish to continue living, and as a consequence the application to court was withdrawn. This paper describes further recovery 2-4 years after the original assessment (i.e. 4-6 years post-injury). At follow-up, she remained dependent for all care, but was now feeding orally and was talking. She could learn new information, some of which she retained for at least 12 months and had greater insight into her condition. She now reported low mood and some pain. As before, she consistently reported a wish to live. The implications of the follow-up are discussed in the context of assumptions made about quality of life and decision making about euthanasia in brain injured people who are severely disabled, but are not in a vegetative state.

  9. Assessing Executive Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Critical Review of Brief Neuropsychological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena S. Moreira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has been defined as a multifaceted construct that involves a variety of high-level cognitive abilities such as planning, working memory, mental flexibility, and inhibition. Being able to identify deficits in EF is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of several neurodegenerative disorders, and thus their assessment is a topic of much debate. In particular, there has been a growing interest in the development of neuropsychological screening tools that can potentially provide a reliable quick measure of EF. In this review, we critically discuss the four screening tools of EF currently available in the literature: Executive Interview-25 (EXIT 25, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, INECO Frontal Screening (IFS, and FRONTIER Executive Screen (FES. We first describe their features, and then evaluate their psychometric properties, the existing evidence on their neural correlates, and the empirical work that has been conducted in clinical populations. We conclude that the four screening tools generally present appropriate psychometric properties, and are sensitive to impairments in EF in several neurodegenerative conditions. However, more research will be needed mostly with respect to normative data and neural correlates, and to determine the extent to which these tools add specific information to the one provided by global cognition screening tests. More research directly comparing the available tools with each other will also be important to establish in which conditions each of them can be most useful.

  10. The Stroop test as a measure of performance validity in adults clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Sagar, Sanya; Seke, Kristian; Zuccato, Brandon G; Schwartz, Eben S; Roth, Robert M

    2018-02-22

    This study was designed to develop performance validity indicators embedded within the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems (D-KEFS) version of the Stroop task. Archival data from a mixed clinical sample of 132 patients (50% male; M Age = 43.4; M Education = 14.1) clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment were analyzed. Criterion measures included the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words and 2 composites based on several independent validity indicators. An age-corrected scaled score ≤6 on any of the 4 trials reliably differentiated psychometrically defined credible and noncredible response sets with high specificity (.87-.94) and variable sensitivity (.34-.71). An inverted Stroop effect was less sensitive (.14-.29), but comparably specific (.85-90) to invalid performance. Aggregating the newly developed D-KEFS Stroop validity indicators further improved classification accuracy. Failing the validity cutoffs was unrelated to self-reported depression or anxiety. However, it was associated with elevated somatic symptom report. In addition to processing speed and executive function, the D-KEFS version of the Stroop task can function as a measure of performance validity. A multivariate approach to performance validity assessment is generally superior to univariate models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [NeuroCogFX--a computer-based neuropsychological assessment battery for the follow-up examination of neurological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliessbach, K; Hoppe, C; Schlegel, U; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C

    2006-11-01

    Many neurological therapeutic trials require a longitudinal assessment of cognitive functions. An ideal instrument for that purpose should be in accordance to the criteria of classical testing theory and, furthermore, it should be repeatable and economic in administration and interpretation. We developed NeuroCogFX, a computerized assessment battery, according to these criteria. NeuroCogFX comprises subtests for short term memory, working memory, psychomotor speed, selective attention, verbal and figural memory and verbal fluency (mean duration: 25 minutes). Age-related normative data was obtained from 244 subjects without history of neurological or psychiatric disease (age range 16 - 75 years). Forty-two subjects were re-tested after an average of 8 weeks (range: 6 - 10 weeks) in order to assess retest reliability and training effects. Retest-reliabilities were middle-sized in all but one subtest, ranging from r (12) = 0.5 to r (12) = 0.7 (2-back Test: r (12) = 0.37). For construct validation NeuroCogFX was administered in addition to a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery in a group of 40 healthy subjects and in 42 patients with chronic epilepsy. The test allows a valid assessment of short-term memory, reaction speed, memory and verbal fluency. NeuroCogFX is an economic, sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for the neuropsychological follow-up examination in single patients and study groups which can be administered if a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is unavailable.

  12. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  13. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  14. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  15. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  16. Supervision in neuropsychological assessment: a survey of training, practices, and perspectives of supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Laura A Schwent; Pedersen, Heather A; Roper, Brad L; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2014-01-01

    Within the psychology supervision literature, most theoretical models and practices pertain to general clinical or counseling psychology. Supervision specific to clinical neuropsychology has garnered little attention. This survey study explores supervision training, practices, and perspectives of neuropsychology supervisors. Practicing neuropsychologists were invited to participate in an online survey via listservs and email lists. Of 451 respondents, 382 provided supervision to students, interns, and/or fellows in settings such as VA medical centers (37%), university medical centers (35%), and private practice (15%). Most supervisors (84%) reported supervision was discussed in graduate school "minimally" or "not at all." Although 67% completed informal didactics or received continuing education in supervision, only 27% reported receiving training specific to neuropsychology supervision. Notably, only 39% were satisfied with their training in providing supervision and 77% indicated they would likely participate in training in providing supervision, if available at professional conferences. Results indicate that clinical neuropsychology as a specialty has paid scant attention to developing supervision models and explicit training in supervision skills. We recommend that the specialty develop models of supervision for neuropsychological practice, supervision standards and competencies, training methods in provision of supervision, and benchmark measures for supervision competencies.

  17. Genetic and environmental sources of covariance between reading tests used in neuropsychological assessment and IQ subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Mark; Wright, Margaret J; Geffen, Gina M; Geffen, Laurie B; Luciano, Michelle; Martin, Nicholas G

    2004-07-01

    In this study, we examined genetic and environmental influences on covariation among two reading tests used in neuropsychological assessment (Cambridge Contextual Reading Test [CCRT], [Beardsall, L., and Huppert, F. A. (1994). J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 16:232-242], Schonell Graded Word Reading Test [SGWRT], [Schonell, F. J., and Schonell, P. E. (1960). Diagnostic and attainment testing. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.]) and among a selection of IQ subtests from the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB), [Jackson, D. N. (1984). Multidimensional aptitude battery, Ontario: Research Psychologists Press.] and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) [Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation]. Participants were 225 monozygotic and 275 dizygotic twin pairs aged from 15 years to 18 years (mean, 16 years). For Verbal IQ subtests, phenotypic correlations with the reading tests ranged from 0.44 to 0.65. For Performance IQ subtests, phenotypic correlations with the reading tests ranged from 0.23 to 0.34. Results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) supported a model with one genetic General factor and three genetic group factors (Verbal, Performance, Reading). Reading performance was influenced by the genetic General factor (accounting for 13% and 20% of the variance for the CCRT and SGWRT, respectively), the genetic Verbal factor (explaining 17% and 19% of variance for the CCRT and SGWRT), and the genetic Reading factor (explaining 21% of the variance for both the CCRT and SGWRT). A common environment factor accounted for 25% and 14% of the CCRT and SGWRT variance, respectively. Genetic influences accounted for more than half of the phenotypic covariance between the reading tests and each of the IQ subtests. The heritabilities of the CCRT and SGWRT were 0.54 and 0.65, respectively. Observable covariance between reading assessments used by neuropsychologists to estimate IQ

  18. Neuropsychological Impairment in Prodromal, First-Episode, and Chronic Psychosis: Assessing RBANS Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tang, YingYing; Guo, Qian; Zhuo, KaiMing; Qian, ZhenYing; Cui, HuiRu; Zhu, YiKang; Jiang, LiJuan; Chow, Annabelle; Tang, YunXiang; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Yi, ZhengHui; Xiao, ZePing; Wang, JiJun

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits are observed throughout all developmental phases of psychosis. However, prior studies have usually focused on a limited illness period and used a wide variety of cognitive instruments. Therefore, it has been difficult to characterize or highlight cognitive functioning in different stages of psychosis. Method We administered the RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) tests to 4 participant subgroups, including healthy volunteers (controls, HC, n = 28), subjects at high risk for clinical psychosis (prodrome, CHR, n = 27), first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-Sz, n = 26), and mid-term and long-term chronic schizophrenia patients (Ch-Sz, n =147). Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses of RBANS index scores were assessed among groups. We examined clinical outcomes over 2 years between the CHR and HC subjects, and RBANS domains were used as possible predictors for conversion to psychosis. Results Performance on all RBANS domains was significantly impaired during a post-onset stage of psychosis (FE-Sz and Ch-Sz), and RBANS scores declined along with disease progression. Regression analyses showed that for CHR and HC subjects, baseline impairment in delayed memory (DM) significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Additionally, partial correlations showed that for FE-Sz and Ch-Sz subjects, DM was the only correlate with a later stage of psychosis. Conclusions Cognitive deficits broadly emerged, and diminished functioning followed along with disease progression. Impairment in DM is perhaps one domain that helps us understand the development of psychosis. A critical need is to monitor and treat memory functioning for psychotic patients throughout all phases of the disease. PMID:25973925

  19. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  20. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  1. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  2. Multivariate Normative Comparisons for Neuropsychological Assessment by a Multilevel Factor Structure or Multiple Imputation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A.; de Vent, Nathalie R.; Schmand, Ben A.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychologists administer neuropsychological tests to decide whether a patient is cognitively impaired. This clinical decision is made by comparing a patient's scores to those of healthy participants in a normative sample. In a multivariate normative comparison, a patient's entire profile of

  3. Neuropsychological evaluation and parental assessment of behavioral and motor difficulties in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, V; Kemlin, I; Dorison, N; Billette de Villemeur, T; Rodriguez, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder, with large inter and intrafamilial clinical variability and uncertain prognosis. In children with NF1 cognitive disorders, learning difficulties and behavioral problems are common. The present study aims to establish the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of 78 patients with NF1, aged between 5 and 18 years, and to examine the relationship between these profiles and the transmission of NF1 (sporadic vs. familial), clinical manifestations, and environmental factors. We used several questionnaires completed by parents and neuropsychological tests. The results confirmed specific neuropsychological disabilities in children with NF1, especially involving visuospatial and fine motor skills, learning difficulties and behavioral problems. Cognitive difficulties were significantly more frequent in patients with familial than in those with sporadic NF1. All parental questionnaires were correlated with each other, but parental reports were not associated with FSIQ, SES, school status, and clinical manifestations of the disease. Neuropsychological tests were poorly related to parental reports of cognitive and behavioral difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility of neuropsychological assessment in leukaemia patients shortly after diagnosis: directions for future prospective research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, NC; Kingma, A; Tellegen, P; van Dommelen, RI; Bouma, A; Veerman, A; Kamps, WA

    Aims: To study neuropsychological functioning of newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) within two weeks after diagnosis in order to determine the feasibility of a sibling controlled prospective study design. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients (median age at testing 6.6

  5. The Short Form Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery in Assessment of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    This study sought to determine whether a short form of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery could discriminate between senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type and depression in a sample of elderly neuropsychiatric patients. The short form Luria-Nebraska includes 141 of the 269 items contained in the original version, with the Rhythm scale…

  6. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease phenotype related to C9ORF72 repeat expansions: contribution of the neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Mariam; Beaufils, Émilie; Viola, Ursule-Catherine; Vourc'h, Patrick; Hommet, Caroline; Mondon, Karl

    2013-08-29

    Expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeats in the non-coding region of the C9ORF72 gene was recently identified as being responsible for over 40% of the cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, in various extrapyramidal syndromes including supranuclear gaze palsy and corticobasal degeneration, and in addition, has been found to be a rare genetic cause of isolated Parkinsonism. To our knowledge, there is no published data concerning the neuropsychological evaluation of patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease related with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. We report the results of the comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation in a newly described case in the literature (the sixth) of a patient presenting isolated idiopathic Parkinson's disease associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions.The decrease in the patient's prefrontal functions resulted in a slight decrease in global efficiency. These abnormalities did not appear to be different, with respect to the deficit observed and the intensity of the cognitive impairment, from those classically observed in cases of sporadic idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Our patient also exhibited a significant impairment in visual gnosis. If confirmed in other patients, visuoperceptive deficits in idiopathic Parkinson's disease could represent a red flag that should prompt the clinician to perform addition diagnostic procedures. A thorough neuropsychological assessment may prove to be useful for detecting idiopathic Parkinson's disease in patients who are suspected of having repeat abnormalities of C9ORF72 expansions.

  7. Diagnosing ADHD in Adults: An Examination of the Discriminative Validity of Neuropsychological Tests and Diagnostic Assessment Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Richard; Söderström, Staffan; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-12-17

    The objective of this study is to investigate the discriminative validity of neuropsychological tests and diagnostic assessment instruments in diagnosing adult ADHD in a clinical psychiatric population. Of 108 patients, 60 were diagnosed with ADHD. The Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in adults (DIVA 2.0) and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v.1.1 together with eight neuropsychological tests were investigated. All instruments showed poor discriminative ability except for the DIVA, which showed a relatively good ability to discriminate between the groups (sensitivity = 90.0; specificity = 72.9). A logistic regression analysis model with the DIVA and measures of inattention, impulsivity, and activity from continuous performance tests (CPTs) showed a sensitivity of 90.0 and a specificity of 83.3. Neuropsychological tests have a poor ability to discriminate between patients diagnosed with ADHD and patients not diagnosed with ADHD, but variables from CPT tests can contribute to increasing the specificity by 10% if used in combination with the DIVA. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of attention and ADHD comorbidity in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina Carvalho Machado da Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy present significant problems concerning attention and comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective To determine the prevalence of attention complaints, ADHD diagnosis and attention profile in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy. Method 36 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy and 37 genre and age matched healthy controls underwent several procedures to diagnose their neuropsychological profile and comorbidity with ADHD. Results The prevalence of ADHD was higher in patients with epilepsy [χ2= 4.1, p = 0.043, 6 (16.7% vs 1 (2.7%], with worse results in attention related WISC items and factors in patients with epilepsy comparing to the controls, but not between patients with and without ADHD. Clinical characteristics did not influence those results. Conclusion This study found a greater prevalence of problems wih attention in pediatric patients with idiopathic epilepsy, but not a distinct profile between those with or without ADHD.

  9. Avaliação neuropsicológica da criança Neuropsychological assessment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle I. Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a metodologia empregada na avaliação neuropsicológica de crianças e suas contribuições, priorizando aqueles aspectos de interesse dos profissionais da área da saúde, em especial pediatras, psicólogos, psiquiatras, neurologistas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura sobre o tema proposto nos últimos anos e incluídas referências de livros texto e manuais dos testes imprescindíveis para a compreensão do exame neuropsicológico e aporte da experiência da Unidade de Neuropsicologia do HSL - PUCRS. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A avaliação neuropsicológica não se limita a aplicação de testes psicométricos e neuropsicológicos organizados em baterias, mas objetiva, também, avaliar a relação destes achados com a patologia neurológica e/ou comportamental e em estabelecer a possível área cerebral envolvida. Adicionalmente, a interpretação cuidadosa destes resultados deve ser associada à análise da situação atual do sujeito e do contexto onde vive. CONCLUSÃO: O resultado final deve fornecer um perfil neuropsicológico do paciente que, combinado à avaliação dos aspectos neurológicos/clínicos, psicológicos e sociais, permitirá auxiliar no seu diagnóstico e/ou orientar sobre o melhor aproveitamento de suas potencialidades.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods used for neuropsychological assessment in children, emphasizing aspects of interest to pediatricians, psychologists and neurologists. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of the published literature concerning neuropsychological assessment, including textbooks and reference manuals. The experience of the Neuropsychology Unit at Hospital São Lucas, Brazil, is described. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Neuropsychological assessment should not be limited to the application of psychometric and neuropsychological tests; it should also correlate test findings with the neurological/behavioral disorder and establish which part of the brain is likely

  10. Assessing mental flexibility: neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of the Trail Making Test in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Vogels, Raymond L C; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A; Poggesi, Anna; Scheltens, Philip; Kessels, Roy P C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2010-02-01

    The Trail Making Test part B (TMT-B) is highly sensitive to age-related changes in the brain and cognitive function. However, the precise contribution of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH), deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH), and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) to task performance remains unspecified. Similarly, diminished performance may be due to deficient flexibility functions, but also to other age-related cognitive decline (e.g., mental slowing). The aim of the present study was to determine neuroanatomical (PVH, DWMH, MTA) and neuropsychological (working memory, executive function, speed and attention, episodic memory) predictors of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Results showed that MTA was the strongest predictor of TMT-B performance. The predictive value of the neuropsychological scores differed among the various TMT-B variables. For example, all neuropsychological domains predicted the TMT-B total completion time, whereas only executive function predicted the ratio score (TMT-B/A). We conclude that MTA is a very important predictor of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Furthermore, multiple cognitive functions are involved in TMT-B performance and a mild decline in any of these functions may result in diminished TMT-B performance. Therefore it is crucial to use the ratio score when one wishes to examine executive function ability.

  11. Cognitive change in patients with Huntington disease on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Leigh J; Duff, Kevin; Allison, Jessica; Theriault, Danielle; O'Rourke, Justin J F; Leserman, Anne; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-07-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive, motor, and psychiatric deterioration over time. Although there is currently no cure for HD, there has been a surge of clinical trials available to patients with HD over the past 5 years. However, cognitive measures have generally been lacking from these trials. A brief, repeatable neuropsychological battery is needed to assess cognitive endpoints. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may be useful for assessing change in interventional studies or for clinical monitoring. A total of 38 patients with HD were assessed using the RBANS, other cognitive tests, and the standardized HD battery (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, UHDRS) at two clinic visits approximately 16 months apart. The RBANS Attention Index, as well as individual subtest scores on Coding, Digit Span, List Recognition, Figure Copy, and Figure Recall all declined significantly over this interval. Performance on the UHDRS cognitive tests (Symbol Digit Modalities; Stroop Color, and Stroop Word) also declined, as did functional capacity. Results suggest that cognitive changes were detected both on established cognitive tasks used in HD research and on the RBANS in patients with measurable functional decline. The RBANS provided additional information about other cognitive domains affected (e.g., memory) and may be a useful measure for tracking longitudinal change.

  12. A brief neurocognitive assessment of patients with psychosis following traumatic brain injury (PFTBI): Use of the Repeatable battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Rachel A; Francis, Andrew; Thomas, Neil; Hopwood, Malcolm; Ponsford, Jennie; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-03-30

    Patients who develop psychosis following a traumatic brain injury (PFTBI) show impaired neurocognition; however, the degree of impairment has not been empirically investigated using a standardised battery. We administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to patients with PFTBI (n=10), and to three groups of controls: traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n=10), schizophrenia (n=23), and nonclinical controls (n=23). The results confirmed that the cognitive neuropsychological profile of dually-diagnosed patients with PFTBI is significantly and substantially impaired. Seventy per cent of patients with PFTBI received a neuropsychological classification between the "extremely low" and "low average" ranges. Group-wise analyses on the RBANS indices indicated that patients with PFTBI had the lowest (Immediate Memory, Attention, Delayed Memory, Total Score), or equal lowest (visuospatial, equivalent with schizophrenia patients) scores, with the exception of the Language Index where no group differences were shown (however, the mean PFTBI score on the Language Index was two standard deviations below the RBANS normative score). These findings provide novel evidence of impaired cognitive neuropsychological processing in patients with PFTBI using a standardised and replicable battery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuropsychological assessment in two cases of adult mild traumatic brain injury with a history of childhood head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert A; Priluck, Jacob; Bonilla, Xavier; Evans, Charles; Macedo, Pedro S

    2017-01-01

    The existence of residual cognitive deficits following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) has been a topic of controversy. The current paper describes neuropsychological assessment in two cases of adulthood mild traumatic brain injury. Both patients showed objective results demonstrating cognitive impairment. The first patient experienced a head trauma around the age of 4 and the other patient had a head injury around the age of 7. Discussion focuses on the need for the systematic consideration of a history of childhood head injury as a moderating factor that may account for why a subgroup of patients show cognitive deficits following MTBI.

  14. Comparing the test of practical judgment with the neuropsychological assessment battery judgment subtest in a neurodegenerative disease clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, January; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Banks, Sarah Jane; Miller, Justin Benjamin

    2017-06-12

    The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) and the Judgment subtest from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB-JDG) are both brief interview-based measures that assess judgment. This study compared estimates of judgment obtained from these measures in a neurodegenerative disease population. Records from 61 referrals seen for neuropsychological evaluation in a neurodegenerative disorders clinic were reviewed. Measures of interest included the TOP-J and NAB-JDG. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and root mean square differences (RMSD) were calculated between judgment T-scores. Discrepancy scores were calculated by subtracting NAB-JDG scores from TOP-J scores. CCC showed poor agreement between the judgment measures, with evidence of fixed bias, such that the NAB-JDG systematically generates higher scores than the TOP-J. This fixed bias was present whether NAB-JDG scores are demographically adjusted or unadjusted. There was no evidence of proportional bias. In a neurodegenerative disease clinic population, the TOP-J and NAB-JDG provide estimates of judgment ability that are systematically different. These two measures may be assessing different aspects within the larger construct of judgment and the inconsistency between measures would contraindicate using them interchangeably. Clinicians will need to carefully consider patient characteristics, clinical needs, and review specific item content when selecting between these measures.

  15. [Assessment of the correlation between histological degeneration and radiological and clinical parameters in a series of patients who underwent lumbar disc herniation surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munarriz, Pablo M; Paredes, Igor; Alén, José F; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cepeda, Santiago; Hernandez-Lain, Aurelio; Lagares, Alfonso

    The use of histological degeneration scores in surgically-treated herniated lumbar discs is not common in clinical practice and its use has been primarily restricted to research. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there is an association between a higher grade of histological degeneration when compared with clinical or radiological parameters. Retrospective consecutive analysis of 122 patients who underwent single-segment lumbar disc herniation surgery. Clinical information was available on all patients, while the histological study and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging were also retrieved for 75 patients. Clinical variables included age, duration of symptoms, neurological deficits, or affected deep tendon reflex. The preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated using Modic and Pfirrmann scores for the affected segment by 2 independent observers. Histological degeneration was evaluated using Weiler's score; the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and neovascularization, not included in the score, were also studied. Correlation and chi-square tests were used to assess the association between histological variables and clinical or radiological variables. Interobserver agreement was also evaluated for the MRI variables using weighted kappa. No statistically significant correlation was found between histological variables (histological degeneration score, inflammatory infiltrates or neovascularization) and clinical or radiological variables. Interobserver agreement for radiological scores resulted in a kappa of 0.79 for the Pfirrmann scale and 0.65 for the Modic scale, both statistically significant. In our series of patients, we could not demonstrate any correlation between the degree of histological degeneration or the presence of inflammatory infiltrates when compared with radiological degeneration scales or clinical variables such as the patient's age or duration of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirug

  16. Neuropsychological assessment with the Visual Gestalt Test: psychometric properties and differential diagnostic probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cour, Peter; Andersen, Ruth

    2006-02-01

    The Visual Gestalt Test is a neuropsychological instrument developed for evaluation of learning and memory of visuo-spatial material. A revised strategy of scoring has motivated the present study, where data from 153 normal persons, 99 epilepsy patients, and 24 depressed patients are presented and compared. The Visual Gestalt Test is observed to discriminate between normal and diagnosed groups in several ways. Additionally it is found to discriminate between depressed and brain damage subgroups of patients. Data are presented in order to supplement previously published ways of scoring and norms. Practical guidelines for the clinical applications of the test are suggested as perspectives.

  17. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  18. Age- and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Multivariate Normative Comparisons for Neuropsychological Assessment by a Multilevel Factor Structure or Multiple Imputation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; de Vent, Nathalie R; Schmand, Ben A; Murre, Jaap M J; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-05-29

    Neuropsychologists administer neuropsychological tests to decide whether a patient is cognitively impaired. This clinical decision is made by comparing a patient's scores to those of healthy participants in a normative sample. In a multivariate normative comparison, a patient's entire profile of scores is compared to scores in a normative sample. Such a multivariate comparison has been shown to improve clinical decision making. However, it requires a multivariate normative data set, which often is unavailable. To obtain such a multivariate normative data set, the authors propose to aggregate healthy control group data from existing neuropsychological studies. As not all studies administered the same tests, this aggregated database will contain substantial amounts of missing data. The authors therefore propose two solutions: multiple imputation and factor modeling. Simulation studies show that factor modeling is preferred over multiple imputation, provided that the factor model is adequately specified. This factor modeling approach will therefore allow routine use of multivariate normative comparisons, enabling more accurate clinical decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Ming-yuan; GENG Ying; WANG Gang; HAN Ru-quan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC). Methods A case-control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic) undergoing general anesthesia (GA) in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigat...

  1. Brain Function, Structure, and Neurochemistry After Tamoxifen/Chemotherapy Assessed by Neuropsychologic Testing and 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ernst, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    .... Most recently, several reports have used a sensitive method (neuropsychological testing) to evaluate younger women with breast cancer after chemotherapy and hormonal modifying therapy (with tamoxifen...

  2. The Judgment Test of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB): psychometric considerations in an assisted-living sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Mansbach, William E

    2013-01-01

    A total of 82 older adults recruited from assisted-living facilities completed the Judgment subtest of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery. The internal consistency reliability of Judgment scores in this sample, as estimated by Cronbach's α, was .83. Significant and strong Judgment score correlations with measures of general cognitive functioning and instrumental activities of daily living provided evidence of construct validity. Furthermore, participants who exhibited the capacity to consent to the evaluation performed significantly better on the Judgment subtest than did participants who did not exhibit consent capacity. Finally, Judgment scores predicted a significant proportion of variance in both instrumental and basic activities of daily living over and above the variance accounted for by scores on measures of general cognitive functioning and executive functioning. This study presents promising preliminary evidence of the incremental validity of Judgment subtest scores for predicting both basic and instrumental activities of daily living in an assisted-living sample.

  3. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  4. Mental retardation in Nance-Horan syndrome: clinical and neuropsychological assessment in four families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, A; Ayrault, A D; Moraine, C

    1997-08-22

    Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is a rare X-linked condition comprising congenital cataract with microcornea, distinctive dental, and evocative facial anomalies. Intellectual handicap was mentioned in seven published NHS patients. We performed a clinical study focused on psychomotor development, intellectual abilities, and behavior in 13 affected males in four NHS families, and present the results of a neuropsychological evaluation in 7 of them. Our study confirms that mental retardation (MR) can be a major component of the NHS. Combining our data with those from the literature leads to a frequency of MR in NHS of around 30%. In most cases, MR is mild or moderate (80%) and not associated with motor delay. Conversely, a profound mental handicap associated with autistic traits may be observed. MR has intra- and inter-familial variability but does not appear to be expressed in carriers. Awareness of MR in NHS may be of importance in the management of the patients, especially in terms of education. Cloning and characterization of the gene and analysis of mutations will be an important step towards understanding the molecular basis of mental deficiency in NHS, and in delineation from the other XLMR conditions at Xp22.

  5. Reliability and validity of a Danish version of the multiple sclerosis neuropsychological screening Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbæk, Tobias; Blaabjerg, Morten; Sprogøe, Pippi

    2018-01-01

    . The Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire (MSNQ) has previously shown good validity in American, Argentinean, and Dutch MS cohorts. We sought to test reliability and validity of a Danish translation of the MSNQ compared with formal neuropsychological testing, and measures of depression...... and disability, and to compare self-reported cognition with Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) results. Methods: Of 126 patients with MS and their informants tested with the MSNQ, 77 also underwent formal neuropsychological testing. All patients were tested with the SDMT and assessed clinically using...... the Expanded Disability Status Scale and MS Impairment Scale. Results: The test-retest reliability of the MSNQ-P was significant (R2 = 0.79, P neuropsychological testing, the MSNQ-P and MSNQ...

  6. [Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability: a new instrument for the neuropsychological assessment of adults with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteba-Castillo, S; Pena-Casanova, J; Garcia-Alba, J; Castellanos, M A; Torrents-Rodas, D; Rodriguez, E; Deus-Yela, J; Caixas, A; Novell-Alsina, R

    2017-05-16

    Neuropsychological assessment in individuals with intellectual disability is of utmost importance in order to determine the cognitive deficits underlying brain dysfunction and limiting intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. However, no neuropsychological batteries in Spanish language have been created and validated for this population. To adapt the 'programa integrado de exploracion neuropsicologica-test Barcelona' and to validate the new version, the Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (TB-DI). To create normative data for its clinical use. The original test was modified based on data from a pilot sample of 65 individuals with intellectual disability. In order to study the psychometric properties of the TB-DI, it was administered to a sample of 170 individuals with intellectual disability and to a group of 60 individuals without it. The relevant variables for stratification of normative data were determined by means of regression models. The TB-DI was finally composed by 67 subtests grouped in eight cognitive domains and it showed good psychometric properties. Normative data were created for five groups taking into account intellectual disability level, age and acquired curricular competence. These data were organized in percentiles in a way that allows the creation of cognitive profiles in the clinical and experimental fields. The TB-DI constitutes a tool of high applicability in the population with intellectual disability. It shows adequate validity and reliability, and it has good psychometric properties. The cognitive profiles obtained by the TB-DI will provide valuable information for the treatment of adult adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability.

  7. Neuropsychological outcomes following stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Melanie R F; Lucas, John A; Feyissa, Anteneh M; Grewal, Sanjeet; Wharen, Robert E; Tatum, William O

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to analyze neuropsychological testing data from 15 patients before and after stereotactic laser ablation surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy and to describe the seizure outcomes after stereotactic laser ablation surgery. A retrospective review of 15 patients who underwent stereotactic laser ablation and who also underwent neuropsychological testing before and after surgery was performed. Verbal and visual memory was assessed in all 15 patients using California Verbal Learning Test and Wechsler Memory Scale IV. Naming was assessed in 9 of 15 patients using the Boston Naming Test. Statistical analysis was performed to determine clinically significant changes using previously validated reliable change indices and proprietary Advanced Clinical Solutions software. Seizure outcome data were evaluated using Engel classification. Postsurgery neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated that all 15 patients experienced at least 1 clinically significant decline in either verbal or visual memory. Ten patients in this series, including five with dominant-hemisphere surgery, demonstrated decline in delayed memory for narrative information (Logical Memory II). By contrast, the Boston Naming Test demonstrated more favorable results after surgery. Two of nine patients demonstrated a clinically significant increase in naming ability, and only one of nine patients demonstrated a clinically significant decline in naming ability. With at least 6months of follow-up after surgery, 33% reported seizure freedom. Stereotactic laser ablation can result in clinically significant and meaningful decline in verbal and visual memory when comparing patients to their own presurgical baseline. Naming ability, conversely, is much less likely to be impacted by stereotactic laser ablation and may improve after the procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining neurocognition in body dysmorphic disorder using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): A comparison with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Lin; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2015-08-30

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by (i) an excessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance, as well as (ii) repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts that occur in response to the preoccupation. To date, neuropsychological investigations have been limited. This study examined performance on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), tapping into five indices of neurocognition: (i) Immediate Memory, (ii) Visuospatial Construction, (iii) Language, (iv) Attention, and (iv) Delayed Memory. Twenty-one BDD participants were compared with 19 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) participants and 21 healthy controls (HC), who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched. Results indicated the BDD and OCD groups demonstrated poor overall neuropsychological performance (i.e. total RBANS) as well as deficits on the indices of Immediate Memory and Attention. Further group differences involving the subtests of Story Memory, Digit Span, and Story Recall were detected. Neuropsychological impairment in BDD with indicated similarities in OCD were corroborated. Future research should extend investigations focusing on gist and delayed memory, and aspects of attentional processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accounting for ethnic-cultural and linguistic diversity in neuropsychological assessment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Valeria; Scarpa, Pina; Toraldo, Alessio; Bottini, Gabriella

    2016-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment is critical in both diagnosis and prognosis of patients with epilepsy. Beyond electrophysiological and anatomical alterations, other factors including different ethnic-cultural and linguistic backgrounds might affect neuropsychological performance. Only a few studies considered migration and acculturation effects and they typically concerned nonclinical samples. The current study aimed at investigating the influence of ethnic background and time spent in Italy on a full neuropsychological battery administered to both Italian and foreign-born patients and at providing a brief interview for obtaining relevant information on each patient's transcultural and language-related history. Clinical reports from 43 foreign-born patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were collected from the archives of Milan Niguarda Hospital. Epileptogenic zone, age, education, profession, illness duration, seizure frequency, handedness, and gender were considered in selecting 43 Italian controls. Ethnicity (Italian/foreign-born) and years spent in Italy were analyzed as main predictors on 21 neuropsychological scales by means of General(ized) Linear Models. An additional analysis studied two composite scores of overall verbal and nonverbal abilities. Ethnicity significantly affected the following: the verbal overall score, Verbal Fluency, Naming, Token-test, Digit Span, Attentional Matrices, Trail-Making-Test, Line-Orientation-Test, and Raven matrices; no effects were found on the nonverbal overall score, Word Pairs Learning, Episodic Memory, reading accuracy, visual span, Bells test, Rey Figure, and face memory and recognition. No significant effects of years spent in Italy emerged. While years spent in Italy does not predict neuropsychological performance, linguistic background had a strong impact on it. With respect to Italian-speaking patients, those who were foreign-born showed large task-related variability, with an especially low performance on language

  10. The CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery total score detects and predicts Alzheimer disease dementia with high diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Jessen, Frank; Wiese, Birgitt; Stein, Janine; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Köhler, Mirjam; Bachmann, Cadja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2014-10-01

    To establish the diagnostic accuracy of the Total Score of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) both for cross-sectional discrimination of Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia and short-term prediction of incident AD dementia. Longitudinal cohort study with two assessments at a 1.5-year interval. Primary care sample randomly recruited via medical record registries. As part of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe), a sample of elderly individuals (N = 1,606; mean age: 84 years) was assessed. Subjects were assessed with the CERAD-NP and followed up for 18 months (97.6% follow-up rate). Logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CERAD-NP Total Score (CTS) with that of single CERAD-NP scores and the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE) score. ROC curve analysis resulted in excellent (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.97) cross-sectional discrimination between non-AD and AD dementia subjects. Prediction of incident AD dementia with the CTS was also very good (AUC: 0.89), and was significantly better than prediction based on the MMSE. The cross-sectional results confirm that the CTS is a highly accurate diagnostic tool for detecting AD dementia in elderly primary care patients. In addition, we provide evidence that the CTS is also accurate for the prediction of incident AD dementia. These findings further support the validity of the CTS as an index of overall cognitive functioning for detection and prediction of AD dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  12. Assessment of memory function: the relation between daily observation and neuropsychological test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, J.W.B.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Banningh, L.J.; Verkoelen, J.; Achterberg, T. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the value of a daily observation scale in the assessment of patients' memory function by nurses on a geriatric ward. METHODS: An observational study of 50 geriatric inpatients was carried out. The relationship between the memory items of the Nurses'

  13. Assessment of memory function: the relation between daily observation and neuropsychological test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Verkoelen, J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the value of a daily observation scale in the assessment of patients' memory function by nurses on a geriatric ward. Methods: An observational study of 50 geriatric inpatients was carried out. The relationship between the memory items of the Nurses'

  14. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics Version 4 (ANAM4): Select Psychometric Properties and Administration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Vestibular Pathology in Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury. Otology & Neurotology. 2011;32(4):571-580 510.1097/MAO.1090b1013e318210b318218fa. 8...the Assessment of Vestibular Deficits. Otology & Neurotology. 1998;19(6):790-796. 28. Schubert MC, Herdman SJ, Tusa RJ. Vertical Dynamic Visual Acuity...in Normal Subjects and Patients with Vestibular Hypofunction. Otology & Neurotology. 2002;23(3):372-377. 29. Mohammed M WS, Marchetti G, Sparto P

  16. Automated Neuropsychological assessment Metrics Version 4 (ANAM4): Select Psychometric Properties and Administration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any...staff. This screening included the assessment for symptoms of at- tention defi cit disorder (Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Self-Report: Short...positive for ADD/ ADHD symptomatology (t-score . 70 on the CAARS-S:S, or self- report of prior ADD/ ADHD diagnosis) or brain injury (positive or

  17. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.

  18. Impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Parsons, Thomas D; Reynolds, Brooke L; Bedford, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Guides to neuropsychological assessment emphasize the importance of establishing rapport; however, there has been a minimal amount of empirical investigation of the impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance. In this experiment, participants (N = 98) were randomly assigned to take neuropsychological tests in either a high or low rapport condition. Results showed that we were able to manipulate the level of rapport and that the level of rapport had a significant effect on the Grooved Pegboard Test and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, with other tests nearing statistical significance. These results suggest that the level of rapport may affect neuropsychological test performance.

  19. Neuropsychological and MRI assessment of young adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukamachi, Makoto; Tsuru, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yukiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    We assessed 12 young adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, aged from 14 to 33 years, by intellectual quotient (IQ) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and obtained the following findings. First, the IQ scores were relatively lower than those predicted by their social activities. Second, there were two cases who seemed to have right or bilateral hemisphere representatives of language; their IQ scores were within normal range, while MRI demonstrated extensive brain damages including usual ones in language areas. Third, IQ scores and MRI findings were correlated to some extent; however, a case of limited brain damage on MRI had low IQ score, while five cases of brain damage located excluding their language areas had normal or high IQ scores. The results of the present study indicate the necessity of follow-up MRI for prospective observation of the brain damage acquired at or around birth. (author)

  20. Neuropsychological assessment of chronic non-malignant pain patients treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Christrup, Lona Louring; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of pain, sedation, pain medications and socio-demographics on cognitive functioning in chronic non-malignant pain patients. Chronic non-malignant pain patients (N=91) treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre were compared with age and sex...... with a combination of long-term oral opioids and antidepressants and/or anticonvulsants. Assessments comprised pain (PVAS) and sedation (SVAS), Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) testing for sustained attention, Finger Tapping Test (FTT) testing for psychomotor speed, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) testing...... for information processing and working memory and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). CRT and FTT were impaired in the total patient sample. Treatment with opioids was associated with poorer performance of PASAT. High scores of PVAS and SVAS were associated with poor performance of PASAT and CRT, respectively...

  1. Neuropsychological assessment of memory in child and adolescent first episode psychosis: cannabis and «the paradox effect».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Granados, Josefa María; Ferrín, Maite; Salcedo-Marín, Dolores M; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of neuropsychological functioning in First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) has led to the publication of a growing number of studies in this area of research. The present study pursued three goals: First, to examine verbal and visual memory in a sample of Child and Adolescent FEP, second, to evaluate the effect of other cognitive domains on verbal and visual memory, and finally, to examine the relationship between performance in this cognitive dimension and the use of cannabis at this age. A sample of 41 FEPs and 39 healthy subjects were evaluated. The variables assessed were verbal and visual memory, attention, working memory, processing speed, mental flexibility, verbal fluency, motor coordination, planning ability and intelligence. Our results found impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal memory, and short-term visual memory in early psychosis. They also found relationships between cognitive dimensions, such as visual memory and intelligence and motor coordination. Finally, a «paradoxical» effect was found in patients who used cannabis, as the FEP consumers performed the visual memory test better than those who had not used it. Patients showed impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal information and short-term visual reproduction. In the second place, motor coordination and intelligence influenced short-term visual memory in patients in the early stages of the illness. Third, use of cannabis in patients with FEP was associated with better performance in the test that evaluated the short-term visual memory, as measured by task completion time, that is, efficiency in performing the test. However, when measured by task execution accuracy, their visual memory was no better than the controls. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Sinanović, Osman; Karamehić, Jasenko; Jakubović, Rusid

    2002-12-01

    A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years). Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercury levels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercury concentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53%) workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend 2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire). The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ). Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking, were significantly differed compared to those of controls (p trend < 0. 001). In 24 (52%) exposed to mercury workers we have determined ego strength loss and regressive defensive mechanisms (LB). Handwriting disturbances-micrography we have identified in 27 (58.7%) workers.

  3. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  4. Brain responses to auditory oddball task in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: Quantitative analysis and correlation with neuropsychological assessment scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkholy, Mostafa M; Ebraheim, Asmaa M; ElFayoumy, Neveen M

    2018-03-01

    Variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction have been reported in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). Our aim was to perform quantitative analyses of the brain responses to cognitive tasks using event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) and correlating the results with the scores of neuropsychological tests in patients with BCECTS. This case control study included 30 patients with BCECTS and 20 controls. Clinical assessment, neuropsychological tests, the Positive wave at 300 msec (P300) parameters recording, and quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) analysis were carried out for both groups. Alpha power ERD and ERS were measured in six different brain regions during an auditory oddball paradigm. Children with epilepsy showed a statistically significant poorer performance in verbal intelligence quotient (IQ), performance IQ, and total scale IQ and lower number of correct responses. Moreover, both groups showed diffuse alpha power attenuation in response to the target tones. After summation of the alpha power ERD over all brain regions to get the net diffuse ERD, the patients' group showed a statistically significant smaller net alpha ERD compared with that of the control group (P=0.001). No significant correlations between the alpha ERD percentage, recorded P300 parameters, and neuropsychological tests scores were found. Children with BCECTS have subtle cognitive dysfunction proved by significantly lower scores of verbal IQ and performance IQ subtests. The significantly smaller net diffuse alpha power ERD detected in children with epilepsy may be an electrophysiological indicator of disruptive brain activation in relation to cognitive attentional tasks; however, its correlation with neuropsychological tests was insignificant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  6. Statistical advances in clinical neuropsychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agelink van Rentergem Zandvliet, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve the reliability of neuropsychological assessment, specifically by improving the normative comparison procedure. The first goal was to provide multivariate normative comparisons, which test the patient's whole profile of scores. The second goal was to provide

  7. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  8. Neuropsychological Assessment of Children With Reading Disabilities From 8 to 10 Years Old: An Exploratory Portuguese Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha e Silva, CS; Glória e Silva, FM; Martins, MI

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reading disabilities are one of the most significant causes of school failure and may result from different causes and cognitive processes. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to a control group of 102 children (46 girls, 56 boys) with no history of learning disabilities and 32 children (13 girls, 19 boys) with poor reading achievement (PRA) to characterize their cognitive profile. A principal component analysis of the cognitive measures was undertaken to ...

  9. Neuropsychological assessment of African children: evidence for a universal brain/behavior omnibus within a coconstructivist paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michael J; Giordani, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Cross-cultural neuropsychology with African and American children provides evidence of consistent deficit patterns in attention, working memory, and learning in children at risk from disease affecting brain function by means of similar pathophysiologic mechanisms (e.g., cerebral malaria (CM) and sickle-cell disease (SCD); HIV in African and American children). These brain-behavior disease processes are also modified in a consistent manner cross-culturally by quality of developmental milieu and caregiving. We then present findings from the pioneering use of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) with Ugandan children surviving CM and with HIV. This neuropsychological evidence that CCRT enhances positive brain plasticity in a consistent manner across cultures supports the "coconstructive" paradigm (Li, 2003), since plasticity across the life span is the hallmark of this approach. Coconstructivism is a holistic multi-dimensional approach that emphasizes reciprocal biocultural influences across the life span. It also emphasizes the reciprocal interaction of culture and the genome in shaping brain/mind at multiple levels: neurobiological, cognitively, behavioral, and sociocultural (Li, 2003). Cross-cultural neuropsychology in healthy and diseased brains, brain imaging technologies, and genomic research can triangulate the manner in which a universal brain/behavior omnibus drives plasticity across the life span. As such, the further scientific characterization of the brain/behavior omnibus can provide the vital lynchpin between biology and culture in Li's coconstructive paradigm, revolutionizing our understanding of intelligence and culture.

  10. Exploring the sensitivity of the Personality Assessment Inventory symptom validity tests in detecting response bias in a mixed neuropsychological outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasedelen, Owen J; Whiteside, Douglas M; Basso, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the symptom validity tests (SVTs) within the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a neuropsychological assessment context. Accordingly, the present study explored the accuracy of PAI SVTs in identifying exaggerated cognitive dysfunction in a mixed sample of outpatients referred for neuropsychological assessment. Participants who failed two or more Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) were classified as having exaggerated cognitive dysfunction (n = 49). Their responses on PAI SVTs were compared to examinees who did not fail PVTs (n = 257). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated the Negative Impression Management (NIM) scale most strongly discriminated between those with exaggerated cognitive dysfunction from honest responders (Cohen's d = .58). Nonetheless, its classification accuracy was low (area under the curve [AUC] = .65). A k-means cluster analysis and a subsequent multinomial logistic regression indicated evidence for two distinct groups of exaggerators. In particular, one group seemed to exaggerate symptoms, whereas another presented in a defensive manner, implying that individuals with positive and NIM biases on the PAI were apt to display invalid performance on PVTs. Findings indicated that exaggerated cognitive dysfunction tends to be present when NIM is very high and that evidence exists for a defensive response style on the PAI in the context of PVT failure.

  11. Reflections on clinical neuropsychology: a multifaceted approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869233

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychology is a rapidly growing, independent discipline with a broad work field. Neuropsychologists are working in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, forensic organisations and research institutes. One of the most important instruments of a neuropsychologist in assessing the

  12. Neuropsychological health in F-111 aircraft maintenance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Peter W; Gibson, Richard; Tavener, Meredith; Attia, John R; D'Este, Catherine; Guest, Maya; Brown, Anthony M; Lee, Stephen J; Horsley, Keith; Harrex, Warren; Ross, James

    2006-09-01

    To contrast subjective and objective measures of neuropsychological health in F-111 aircraft Deseal/Reseal maintenance personnel, against two appropriate comparison groups. Exposed and comparison participants completed a postal questionnaire which included a validated memory questionnaire and additional questions relating to possible cognitive symptoms. They also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and screening for a past or current disturbance of mood. Multiple linear or logistic regression was conducted for each outcome using exposure group and potential confounders as explanatory variables. There was a strong and consistent excess of self-reported cognitive problems among the exposed group relative to the comparison groups including a 2.8-4.3-fold increase in self-reported symptoms of forgetfulness, loss of concentration and difficulty finding the right word. On detailed neuropsychological testing, the exposed group performed significantly worse than comparisons on tests of psychomotor speed, executive functioning, and new learning/memory. These findings could not be accounted for by disturbances of mood or other potential confounders. There was a strong and consistent increase in self-reported cognitive problems among the exposed, and small but significant exposure-specific differences on objective tests of cognitive functioning. The findings are consistent with the development of adverse neuropsychiatric changes related to occupational exposure to solvents.

  13. Mercury derived from dental amalgams and neuropsychologic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Hasselgren, Gunnar; Jacobs, Diane; Begg, Melissa; Kline, Jennie; Geier, Jamie; Mervish, Nancy; Schoenholtz, Sonia; Graziano, Joseph

    2003-05-01

    There is widespread concern regarding the safety of silver-mercury amalgam dental restorations, yet little evidence to support their harm or safety. We examined whether mercury dental amalgams are adversely associated with cognitive functioning in a cross-sectional sample of healthy working adults. We studied 550 adults, 30-49 years of age, who were not occupationally exposed to mercury. Participants were representative of employees at a major urban medical center. Each participant underwent a neuropsychologic test battery, a structured questionnaire, a modified dental examination, and collection of blood and urine samples. Mercury exposure was assessed using a) urinary mercury concentration (UHg); b) the total number of amalgam surfaces; and c) the number of occlusal amalgam surfaces. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate associations between each marker of mercury exposure and each neuropsychologic test, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Exposure levels were relatively low. The mean UHg was 1.7 micro g/g creatinine (range, 0.09-17.8); the mean total number of amalgam surfaces was 10.6 (range, 0-46) and the mean number of occlusal amalgam surfaces was 6.1 (range, 0-19). No measure of exposure was significantly associated with the scores on any neuropsychologic test in analyses that adjusted for the sampling design and other covariates. In a sample of healthy working adults, mercury exposure derived from dental amalgam restorations was not associated with any detectable deficits in cognitive or fine motor functioning.

  14. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  15. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological and temporal/spatial gait characteristics of elderly fallers: taking it all in stride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K MacAulay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait abnormalities are linked to cognitive decline and an increased fall risk within older adults. The present study addressed gaps from cross-sectional studies in the literature by longitudinally examining the interplay between temporal and spatial aspects of gait, cognitive function, age, and lower-extremity strength in elderly fallers and non-fallers. Gait characteristics, neuropsychological and physical test performance were examined at two time points spaced a year apart in cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older (N = 416. Mixed-model repeated-measure ANCOVAs examined temporal (step time and spatial (stride length gait characteristics during a simple and cognitive-load walking task in fallers as compared to non-fallers. Fallers consistently demonstrated significant alterations in spatial, but not temporal, aspects of gait as compared to non-fallers during both walking tasks. Step time became slower as stride length shortened amongst all participants during the dual task. Shorter strides and slower step times during the dual task were both predicted by worse executive attention/processing speed performance. In summary, divided attention significantly impacts spatial aspects of gait in fallers, suggesting stride length changes may precede declines in other neuropsychological and gait characteristics, thereby selectively increasing fall risk. Our results indicate that multimodal intervention approaches that integrate physical and cognitive remediation strategies may increase the effectiveness of fall risk interventions.

  16. Cognitive impairment in depressive disorders. Neuropsychological evaluation of memory and behavioural disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, G; Penasse, C; Waltregny, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the contribution that clinical neuropsychology and neuropsychological assessment can conter to neuropsychiatry, particularly in the evaluation of cognitive disturbances and pharmacological treatment of depression. Six patients (4 females, 2 males; age: 16-54 years old) suffering from depressive disorders underwent a clinical neuropsychological examination. Depending on the memory scores obtained on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, the patients were classified as having mild or no memory impairment (memory impairment (20-40% decrease) or severe memory alteration (> 60% deterioration). Evaluation of memory scores of two other memory tests (Wechsler memory scale and Rey visual design learning test) were also considered. Patients who were classified as having severe memory impairment were consistently reported as seriously impaired on all memory tests. The severity of cognitive dysfunction is in accordance with the serious ness of the neuropsychiatric disturbances of the patients as revealed by personality testing (MMPI, IDS and Eysenck questionnaires) or by personal details as assessed during the interview. This paper discusses the importance of the utility of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of depressed patients and seriously considers the possibility of the use of this approach for pharmacological treatment evaluation.

  17. Assessment of peri- and postoperative complications and Karnofsky-performance status in head and neck cancer patients after radiation or chemoradiation that underwent surgery with regional or free-flap reconstruction for salvage, palliation, or to improve function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertel Serkan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery after (chemoradiation (RCTX/RTX is felt to be plagued with a high incidence of wound healing complications reported to be as high as 70%. The additional use of vascularized flaps may help to decrease this high rate of complications. Therefore, we examined within a retrospective single-institutional study the peri--and postoperative complications in patients who underwent surgery for salvage, palliation or functional rehabilitation after (chemoradiation with regional and free flaps. As a second study end point the Karnofsky performance status (KPS was determined preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively to assess the impact of such extensive procedures on the overall performance status of this heavily pretreated patient population. Findings 21 patients were treated between 2005 and 2010 in a single institution (17 male, 4 female for salvage (10/21, palliation (4/21, or functional rehabilitation (7/21. Overall 23 flaps were performed of which 8 were free flaps. Major recipient site complications were observed in only 4 pts. (19% (1 postoperative haemorrhage, 1 partial flap loss, 2 fistulas and major donor site complications in 1 pt (wound dehiscence. Also 2 minor donor site complications were observed. The overall complication rate was 33%. There was no free flap loss. Assessment of pre- and postoperative KPS revealed improvement in 13 out of 21 patients (62%. A decline of KPS was noted in only one patient. Conclusions We conclude that within this (chemoradiated patient population surgical interventions for salvage, palliation or improve function can be safely performed once vascularised grafts are used.

  18. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment of Children With Reading Disabilities From 8 to 10 Years Old: An Exploratory Portuguese Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha e Silva, Cláudia Susana Rosa Correia; Glória e Silva, Filipe Miguel; Martins, Maria Isabel Pavão

    2015-01-01

    Reading disabilities are one of the most significant causes of school failure and may result from different causes and cognitive processes. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to a control group of 102 children (46 girls, 56 boys) with no history of learning disabilities and 32 children (13 girls, 19 boys) with poor reading achievement (PRA) to characterize their cognitive profile. A principal component analysis of the cognitive measures was undertaken to identify cognitive domains. Age-adjusted normative data were computed from controls for verbal and visuospatial abilities, psychomotor skills, executive functions, and a total score. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Although single tests could not identify children with PRA, measures of oral and written language, immediate and working memory, calculation, and verbal learning discriminated the 2 groups. A logistic regression model using these factors allowed us to identify 91.2% of healthy children and 96.9% of children with PRA. PRA may result from different patterns of cognitive difficulties, and it is more common in children with oral language and working-memory deficits. Wide-range cognitive testing is necessary to identify strong and weak areas to plan personalized intervention programs.

  20. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  1. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  2. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  3. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    equally well in children with TS. The available body of scientific evidence suggests that persons with TS have normally distributed intellectual ability. This would suggest a diminished role for routine IQ testing unless there is compelling clinical evidence to suggest that the IQ score be obtained, such as when the individual is suspected of having an LD. Given that children with TS may be particularly at risk for learning disabilities or academic deficiencies in math and written language, a complete psychoeducational workup should be conducted on any child with TS who is suspected of having such difficulties. This evaluation should be conducted as early as possible, so that educational interventions can be implemented. Traditionally, the psychoeducational evaluation is performed by the school psychologist and should include standardized IQ assessment and academic achievement testing that can objectively identify and quantify the nature and severity of the learning problem. Once the problem has been documented, the school psychologist should recommend appropriate educational and remedial interventions. In addition to psychoeducational testing, neuropsychological testing is indicated to identify specific cognitive deficits that might be present in children with TS, notably problems with visuomotor integration, motor skill, and executive function. The psychoeducational evaluation performed by the school psychologist typically does not assess these cognitive functions. Therefore, referral for neuropsychological testing is indicated if there is a strong clinical suspicion of cognitive deficits. The accumulated neuropsychological literature in TS suggests that a broad-based, comprehensive, and lengthy neuropsychological examination is not necessary, however. At a minimum, the neuropsychological test battery should include assessment of visuomotor integration ability, motor skills, spatial/perceptual abilities, and executive function. This type of assessment would take less

  4. Stereotype contrast effect on neuropsychological assessment of contact-sport players: The moderating role of locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect). We predicted that effort and anxiety would mediate these effects. Contact-sport players and non-contact-sport players ("control" group) were randomly assigned to one condition (diagnosis threat or neutral) and then completed attention, executive, episodic memory, and working memory tasks. Regarding mediating and moderating variables, participants rated their effort and anxiety (self-report measures) and completed the Levenson (1974) locus of control scale. Regression-based path analyses were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effects. As expected, there was no effect of condition on the control group's performance. Contact-sport players with moderate and high levels of internal control outperformed (contrast effect) on executive and episodic memory tasks following diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition. Additionally, the less anxiety moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants felt, the better they performed on episodic memory and executive tasks. However, contact-sport players low in internal control did not underperform (assimilation effect) under diagnosis threat. Our results suggest that diagnosis threat instructions may have challenged moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants, leading them to outperform compared to the neutral condition. Individuals who have moderate and high levels of internal locus of control may have higher

  5. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  6. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  7. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  8. [Mini Mental State Examination and Brief neuropsychological Examination as neuropsychological screening tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissi, Marianna; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2012-01-01

    An adequate neuropsychological evaluation is essential today to obtain a correct diagnosis in most neurological and geriatric areas. For these purposes, a number of screening and evaluation tools are in use to aid the neuropsychologist for diagnosis of cognitive disorder and for assessing the type of the disease. The present research compares two neuropsychological tools, commonly used in the daily practice: the "Mini Mental State Examination" and the "Brief Neuropsychological Examination". This study explores the neuropsychological profile of 56 post-stroke patients in rehabilitation phase. Patients were divided in three groups, in order to the stroke brain area: left, right and multinfarctual. No significant difference in the three pathological groups were observed, in the mean MMSE-score. On the opposite, ENB demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in discrimination between pathological groups, but only on the descriptive level: for example, right-stroke patients performed worse in visuo-spatial tests while left-stroke patients had lower performance in verbal memory tests. Our results showed an inadequacy of neuropsychological screening evaluation in post-stroke patients: both Mini Mental State Examination and the Brief Neuropsychological Examination appear to be inadequate to underline specific cognitive deficits in patients with different brain lesions; therefore it is important to consider the tools adequacy and the time-after-stroke when doing neuropsychological evaluation.

  9. Long-Term Neuropsychological Sequelae in HIV-Seronegative Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis Patients with and without Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts: A Cine MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hydrocephalus in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is most commonly managed with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This study applied cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to evaluate initial disease severity on long-term cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow dynamics and associated neuropsychological sequelae in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients with and without ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Methods. Eighteen human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients (10 with shunts versus 8 without shunts were compared with 32 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent complete neurologic examination and neuropsychological testing. Cine MRI was conducted to evaluate CSF flow parameters. Initial CSF laboratory analysis and imaging findings were correlated with present CSF flow parameters and neuropsychological scores. Results. Patients without shunts had higher average flow than controls, suggesting chronic hydrocephalus. Initial Evans ratios and CSF glucose levels were associated with CSF peak velocity and flow. Worsening CSF flow parameters correlated with decreased neuropsychological performance. Conclusions. CSF flow parameter differences between the cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients both with and without ventriculoperitoneal shunts could be detected by cine MRI and correlated with acute stage disease severity and chronic stage neuropsychological results. Cine MRI is useful for assessing the chronic hydrocephalus that may lead to neuropsychological deficits in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis patients.

  10. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for acl injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, A.; Meijer, M.; Cortes, N.; Gokeler, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. OBJECTIVE: Assess differences between male and female athletes in jump-landing technique in relation to their neuropsychological capabilities. DESIGN:

  11. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor-based sleep assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor-based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and the month prior to a neuropsychological evaluation on cognitive performance. Results showed that mildly disturbed sleep the week prior and month prior to cognitive testing was associated with reduced working memory on cognitive evaluation. One night of mild sleep disturbance was not associated with decreased cognitive performance the next day. Sleep duration was unrelated to cognition. In-home, unobtrusive, sensor monitoring technologies provide a novel method for objective, long-term, and continuous assessment of sleep behavior and other everyday activities that might contribute to decreased or variable cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  12. Clinical utility of the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B in adults living with HIV: Associations with neuropsychological impairment and patient-reported everyday functioning difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeanne C Moore

    Full Text Available Requiring only 10-15 minutes to complete, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B has high clinical utility as a brief measure of functional capacity. This study aimed to validate the UPSA-B in adults living with HIV/AIDS (HIV+, and identify whether the UPSA-B can be used as an indicator of functional dependence in this population.One hundred and three HIV+ adults and 91 HIV- adults completed a comprehensive neuropsychological and neuromedical battery, including a self-report measure of functional status (IADL Dependence vs. IADL Independence, an objective measure of functional capacity (UPSA-B, and a self-report measure of mood states including a subscale related to cognitive difficulties (Profile of Mood States [POMS]-Confusion/Bewilderment subscale.HIV+ participants had significantly lower UPSA-B scores than their HIV- counterparts (p = 0.02, although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08 when including covariates. Among the HIV+ group, higher UPSA-B scores were related to better neuropsychological ability, but unrelated to self-reported functional independence. Conversely, UPSA-B scores were unrelated to participant-reported cognitive difficulties on the POMS Confusion/Bewilderment subscale. An ROC curve was generated to determine the optimal UPSA-B value for discriminating between normal neuropsychological functioning versus neuropsychological impairment, with results indicating an optimal cutoff of 79. The UPSA-B identified HIV+ persons with cognitive impairment with 70.9% accuracy.The UPSA-B was able to differentiate neuropsychological impairment from no impairment among HIV+ participants and holds promise as a clinical screening tool in this population. However, indicators of functional disability among adults living with HIV is still not well understood and is likely multifactorial in nature. These data highlight the complex interplay between objective functional capacity, neurocognitive ability, subjective cognitive symptoms, and

  13. The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Supplementary Index Score of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Screening Module that is Sensitive to Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David; Jones, Christopher A; Clowes, Zoe; Belli, Antonio; Su, Zhangjie; Sitaraman, Murugan; Davies, David; Taylor, Ross; Flahive, Elizabeth; Travis, Clare; O'Neil, Nicci; Pettigrew, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the validity of the NAB Screening Module (screening module of the neuropsychological assessment battery, S-NAB) in an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) inpatient population and provides psychometric evaluation of an original index sensitive to TBI impairment. The utility of the S-NAB as a TBI screen was examined using a between groups design. One-hundred and four patients with mild complicated to severe TBI were recruited from a consecutive cohort of patients admitted as inpatients to a UK Major Trauma Centre. Ninety-eight control participants were selected from the S-NAB normative sample. All TBI patients completed the S-NAB during their inpatient stay. Control participants scored significantly higher than TBI participants on the Total Screening index (t = 3.626, p injury. The S-NAB TBI index is a robust, reliable screening index for use with acute TBI patients, which is sensitive to the effects of acute TBI. It affords a briefer cognitive screen than the S-NAB and demonstrates a dose response relationship to TBI severity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [An international neuropsychological assessment tool for children, adolescents, and adults with anorexia nervosa – the German adaptation of the Ravello Profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Betteke Maria; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2013-11-01

    Adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) show weaknesses in several cognitive functions before and after weight restoration. There is a great demand for standardized examinations of executive functioning in the field of child and adolescent AN. Previous studies exhibited methodological inconsistencies regarding test selection and operationalization of cognitive functions, making the interpretation of their findings difficult. In order to overcome these inconsistencies, a neuropsychological assessment tool, the "Ravello Profile," was developed, though previously not available in German. This paper presents a German adaptation of the Ravello Profile and illustrates its applicability in children and adolescents via three case descriptions. The Ravello Profile was adapted for the German-speaking area. The applicability of the Ravello Profile was evaluated in three children and adolescents with AN. The cases presented confirm the feasible implementation of this adaptation of the Ravello Profile, both in children and adolescents. Hence, it enables a methodologically consistent examination of executive functioning in German-speaking children, adolescents, and adults with AN. Using the Ravello Profile, the role of cognitive functions in the development of AN can be systematically examined over a broad age range.

  15. Driving-Related Neuropsychological Performance in Stable COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Karakontaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive deterioration may impair COPD patient’s ability to perform tasks like driving vehicles. We investigated: (a whether subclinical neuropsychological deficits occur in stable COPD patients with mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 55 mmHg, and (b whether these deficits affect their driving performance. Methods. We recruited 35 stable COPD patients and 10 normal subjects matched for age, IQ, and level of education. All subjects underwent an attention/alertness battery of tests for assessing driving performance based on the Vienna Test System. Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, and dyspnea severity were also recorded. Results. COPD patients performed significantly worse than normal subjects on tests suitable for evaluating driving ability. Therefore, many (22/35 COPD patients were classified as having inadequate driving ability (failure at least in one of the tests, whereas most (8/10 healthy individuals were classified as safe drivers (P=0.029. PaO2 and FEV1 were correlated with almost all neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. COPD patients should be warned of the potential danger and risk they face when they drive any kind of vehicle, even when they do not exhibit overt symptoms related to driving inability. This is due to the fact that stable COPD patients may manifest impaired information processing operations.

  16. The Neuropsychological Profile of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H.; Salmon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from “normal,” age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22474609

  17. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes in children and adolescents after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart); C.M.P. Buysse (Corinne); M.J. Madderom (Marlous); F.K. Aarsen (Femke); J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen); D. Tibboel (Dick); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Research into neuropsychological functioning of survivors of cardiac arrest (CA) in childhood is scarce. We sought to assess long-term neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents surviving CA. Methods: Neuropsychological follow-up study involving all consecutive

  18. The predictive value of measures of social cognition for community functioning in schizophrenia : Implications for neuropsychological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.

    The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social

  19. The Progression of Alzheimer's Disease Can Be Assessed with a Short Version of the CERAD Neuropsychological Battery: The Kuopio ALSOVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Hallikainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Measuring and predicting Alzheimer's disease (AD progression is important in order to adjust treatment and allocate care resources. We aimed to identify a combination of subtests from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB that best correlated with AD progression in follow-up as well as to predict AD progression. Method: A total of 236 participants with very mild [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR = 0.5] or mild AD (CDR = 1.0 at baseline were followed up for 3 years. The CERAD-NB and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were used to assess cognition, and the CDR scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb was employed to evaluate AD progression. Generalized estimating equations were used to develop models to predict and follow up disease progression. Results: Performance declined on all CERAD-NB subtests. The ability of the separate subtests to distinguish between groups (baseline CDR = 0.5 or 1.0 diminished during follow-up. The best combination of subtests that explained 62% of CDR-sb variance in follow-up included verbal fluency, constructional praxis, the clock drawing test, and the MMSE. Baseline values of the same combination predicted 37% of the CDR-sb change. Conclusion: A short version of the CERAD-NB subtests provides a promising and time-efficient alternative for measuring cognitive deterioration during AD follow-up. Although the initial signs of AD include memory difficulties, it may be useful to assess non-memory tasks in follow-up.

  20. The Equivalence and Difference between the English and Chinese Language Versions of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rachel; Cheung, Yin Bun; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Lim, May-Li; Ling, Audrey; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Chinese is the most commonly spoken language in the world. The availability of Chinese translations of assessment scales is useful for research in multi-ethnic and multinational studies. This study aimed to establish whether each of the Chinese translations (Mandarin, Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese) of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) achieved measurement equivalence to the English version. Participants included 1856 ethnic Chinese, older adults. The RBANS was administered in the language/dialect according to the participants' preference by interviewers who were fluent in that language/dialect. Multiple regression analysis was used to adjust for demographic and clinical differences between participants who spoke different languages/dialects. Equivalence (practical equivalence) was declared if the 90% confidence interval for the adjusted mean difference fell entirely within the pre-specified equivalence margin, ±.2 (±.4) standard deviations. The delayed memory index was at least practically equivalent across languages. The Mandarin, Hokkien, and Teochew versions of the immediate memory, language, and total scale score were practically equivalent to the English version; the Cantonese version showed small differences from the English version. Equivalence was not established for the Hokkien and Teochew versions of the visuospatial/constructional index. The attention index was different across languages. Data from the English and Chinese versions for the total scale score, language, delayed, and immediate memory indexes may be pooled for analysis. However, analysis of the attention and visuospatial/constructional indexes from the English and Chinese versions should include a covariate that represents the version in the statistical adjustment.

  1. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Subjective memory and concentration difficulties are frequently expressed in modern society and, if sufficiently worrying, may elicit a medical consultation for elucidation. When a clear explanation cannot be given, a neuropsychological assessment may be a useful tool. Method. The present naturalistic study ...

  2. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  3. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  4. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  5. The neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Frith, U

    1996-08-01

    In this review, we aim to bring together major trends in autism research at three levels: biology, behaviour and cognition. We propose that cognitive theories are vital in neuropsychology, which seeks to make connections between brain abnormality and behavioural symptoms. Research at each of the three levels is incomplete, but important advances have been made. At the biological level, there is strong evidence for genetic factors, although the mechanism is, as yet, unknown. At the behavioural level, diagnosis and education are becoming more coherent and less controversial, although the possibility of autism subtypes has provoked new debate. At the cognitive level, three major theories are proving fruitful (mentalizing impairment, executive dysfunction and weak central coherence), although the relation and overlap between these is uncertain. Rapidly advancing technology and methodology (e.g. brain imaging, gene mapping), as tools of cognitive theory, may help to make autism one of the first developmental disorders to be understood at the neuropsychological level.

  6. Neuropsychological diagnostics of neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera B. Nikishina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of neuropsychological studies of the patients with neurosarcoidosis. The obtained results show that typical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis are disorders of motor functions. They appear in the speed reduction of actions and their accuracy, which prove peripheral neuropathy and myopathy at the functional level as clinical signs of neurosarcoidosis. Specific manifestations of neurosarcoidosisare determinedby topographical localization of granulomatoma.

  7. Child neuropsychological rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez Yepes, Natalia; Quiroz Molinares, Nathalia; Monachello Fuentes, Franca Melina; De los Reyes, Carlos Jose; Universidad del Norte

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, there are many children with cognitive difficulties as results of brain injury or neurodevelopmental disorders. These difficulties lead to school, social, family and behavioral disturbances, among others; and reduce the quality of life of the child and his family. Consequently, more papers are published in scientific literature that evaluate the usefulness of several neuropsychological rehabilitation programs. This review aimed (1) to determine which are the most frequently ...

  8. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  9. HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Varako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The article reviews the history of neuropsychological rehabilitation. It begins with the description of first rehabilitation programs developed by Paul Broca and Shepherd Franz. Franz’s experimental work for motor recovery in monkeys and correlation between active movement or affected limb immobilization and rehabilitation outcomes are described in further details. Special focus is given on ideas of famous German neurologist and psychiatrist Kurt Goldstein, who laid the foundation for modern approach in rehabilitation. Goldstein developed the idea of connection between rehabilitation and patient’s daily life. He also pointed out the necessity of psychological care of patients with brain damage.Russian neuropsychological approach is presented by its founders L.S. Vygotskiy and A.R. Luriya. Aspects of higher mental processes structure and options of its correction such as “cognitive prosthesis” are described in the sense of the approach.Y. Ben-Yishay, G. Prigatano, B. Wilson represent neuropsychological rehabilitation of the second half of the 20th century. The idea of a holistic approach for rehabilitation consists of such important principles as patient’s active involvement in a process of rehabilitation, work of a special team of rehabilitation professionals, inclusion of patient’s family members. The short review of a new rehabilitation approach for patients in coma, vegetative states and critical patients under resuscitation is given. 

  10. Cognitive reserve during neuropsychological performance in HIV intravenous drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Justo, Enrique; Blanco, Adolfo Piñón; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Gestoso, Carlos Guillén; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are frequently observed in people with HIV. We aimed to evaluate the influence of cognitive reserve on the neuropsychological performance of seropositive drug users. We carried out a neuropsychological assessment and compared the performance of seropositive drug users (n = 75) with that of a group of seronegative drug users (n = 48). The results showed that a low cognitive reserve makes the seropositive patients neuropsychologically vulnerable. Likewise, we found that a high cognitive reserve has a protective effect in the presence of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV. In the seronegative group, differences in a small number of tests were found between participants with low and high cognitive reserve. Overall, these data suggest that seropositivity is not sufficient to explain the neuropsychological alterations of seropositive drug users; rather, these alterations are multifactorial.

  11. Introduction to special issue: moving forward in pediatric neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L

    2011-08-01

    This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.

  12. The neuropsychological function of children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, Kimberley; Tofts, Louise; Benson, Suzanne; Porter, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    The current observational study had three specific objectives: (i) to document any neuropsychological impairment in a sample of children with achondroplasia; (ii) to explore individual variability; and (iii) to determine the functional impact of any impairments. Fourteen children aged between 6 and 15 years with a medically confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia (FGFR 3 mutation positive) underwent a comprehensive standardized neuropsychological evaluation. On average, while generally still within normal limits, significantly lower scores compared to standardized means were identified on: Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, working memory, arithmetic, attention, executive functioning and aspects of day-to-day emotional, social, and behavioral functioning. Clinically significant levels of impairment at a group level were identified on measures of: arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning. There was variability among the group and for most measures scores ranged from impaired to within normal limits. A high percentage of children were impaired on measures of: verbal IQ, attention and executive functioning. Results of this study suggest a need for individual neuropsychological evaluation and monitoring of children with achondroplasia and suggest verbal IQ, arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning are particularly common areas of impairment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Early Neuropsychological Impairment: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran; Narayanan, Vairavan; Kuo, Tan Li; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Ramli, Norlisah

    2015-10-01

    We explored the prognostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of selected white matter (WM) tracts in predicting neuropsychological outcome, both at baseline and 6 months later, among well-characterized patients diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Sixty-one patients with mTBI (mean age=27.08; standard deviation [SD], 8.55) underwent scanning at an average of 10 h (SD, 4.26) post-trauma along with assessment of their neuropsychological performance at an average of 4.35 h (SD, 7.08) upon full Glasgow Coma Scale recovery. Results were then compared to 19 healthy control participants (mean age=29.05; SD, 5.84), both in the acute stage and 6 months post-trauma. DTI and neuropsychological measures between acute and chronic phases were compared, and significant differences emerged. Specifically, chronic-phase fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity values showed significant group differences in the corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, and genu of corpus callosum. Findings also demonstrated associations between DTI indices and neuropsychological outcome across two time points. Our results provide new evidence for the use of DTI as an imaging biomarker and indicator of WM damage occurring in the context of mTBI, and they underscore the dynamic nature of brain injury and possible biological basis of chronic neurocognitive alterations.

  14. Constructional apraxia in frontotemporal dementia associated with the C9orf72 mutation: broadening the clinical and neuropsychological phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Gianluca; Borghero, Giuseppe; Cannas, Antonino; Di Stefano, Francesca; Ruiu, Elisa; Murru, Maria R; Corongiu, Daniela; Cuccu, Stefania; Tranquilli, Stefania; Sardu, Claudia; Marrosu, Maria G; Chiò, Adriano; Marrosu, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    In our study we analysed clinical and neuropsychological data in a cohort of 57 Sardinian patients with FTD (55 apparently unrelated and two belonging to the same family), who underwent genetic screening for the C9orf72 mutation. Eight out of 56 patients were found positive for the C9orf72 mutation representing 14% of the entire cohort and 31.6% of the familial cases (6/19). C9orf72 mutated patients differed from the other FTD cases of the cohort for a younger age of onset, higher frequency of familial history for FTD and higher prevalence of delusional psychotic symptoms and hallucinations. In the neuropsychological assessment, C9orf72 mutated patients differed from non-mutated for the high frequency of visuospatial dysfunction regarding constructional apraxia (p = 0.02). In conclusion, our study confirms that Sardinian FTD patients have peculiar genetic characteristics and that C9orf72 mutated patients have a distinctive clinical and neuropsychological profile that could help differentiate them from other FTD patients. In our cohort we found that constructional apraxia, rarely reported in FTD, can properly discriminate between C9orf72 mutated and non-mutated patients and contribute to broaden the neuropsychological profile in frontotemporal dementia associated with this mutation.

  15. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Reading level predicted performance on neuropsychological tests better than years of schooling. INTRODUCTION. Assessment of neurocognitive impairment relies on .... Working Memory. Paced Serial Addition Test. WMS Spatial Span. Motor Dexterity. Grooved Pegboard (Dominant & Non Dominant Hands). Domain. Age.

  16. Neuropsychological profile of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a controlled study of 50 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalicchio, Tatiana Frascareli; de Araujo Filho, Gerardo M; da Silva Noffs, Maria Helena; Lin, Katia; Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Ferreira Guilhoto, Laura M F; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify possible cognitive dysfunction in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and its relationship to factors related to epilepsy and schooling. Fifty subjects diagnosed with JME and 50 controls underwent neuropsychological assessment evaluating intellectual functions, attention, memory, executive functions, and language. The patients were further divided into two subgroups on the basis of educational level: 11 years of formal education. Participants diagnosed with JME scored significantly below age-, education-, and gender-matched controls on neuropsychological measures of attention, immediate verbal memory, mental flexibility, control of inhibition, working memory, processing speed, verbal delayed memory, visual delayed memory, naming, and verbal fluency. A positive correlation was observed between duration of epilepsy and cognitive decline. However, in the group of patients with >11 years of education, this correlation was not significant. In this series of patients with JME, neuropsychological evaluation suggests widespread cognitive dysfunction outside the limits of the frontal lobes. The duration of epilepsy correlated with cognitive decline, and patients with higher education manifested less progression of deficits.

  17. Cognitive and other neuropsychological profiles in children with newly diagnosed benign rolandic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonhak Kwon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Although benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE is a benign condition, it may be associated with a spectrum of behavioral, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders. This study aimed to assess the cognitive and other neuropsychological profiles of children with BRE. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; In total, 23 children with BRE were consecutively recruited. All children underwent sleep electroencephalography (EEG and were assessed on a battery of comprehensive neuropsychological tests including the Korean versions of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children III, frontal executive neuropsychological test, rey complex figure test, Wisconsin card sorting test, attention deficit diagnostic scale, and child behavior checklist scale. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The study subjects included 13 boys and 10 girls aged 9.0±1.6 years. Our subjects showed an average monthly seizure frequency of 0.9±0.7, and a majority of them had focal seizures (70%. The spike index (frequency/min was 4.1±5.3 (right and 13.1±15.9 (left. Of the 23 subjects, 9 showed frequent spikes (&gt;10/min on the EEG. The subjects had normal cognitive and frontal executive functions, memory, and other neuropsychological sub-domain scores, even though 8 children (35% showed some evidence of learning difficulties, attention deficits, and aggressive behavior. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; Our data have limited predictive value; however, these data demonstrate that although BRE appears to be benign at the onset, children with BRE might develop cognitive, behavioral, and other psychiatric disorders during the active phase of epilepsy, and these problems may even outlast the BRE. Therefore, we recommend scrupulous follow-up for children with BRE.

  18. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  20. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  1. Neuropsychological follow-up at school age of children with asymmetric ventricles or unilateral ventriculomegaly identified in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atad-Rapoport, M; Schweiger, A; Lev, D; Sadan-Strul, S; Malinger, G; Lerman-Sagie, T

    2015-06-01

    To examine the long-term neuropsychological outcome of children with a prenatal diagnosis of asymmetric ventricles or unilateral ventriculomegaly. A clinic-based neuropsychological study. Paediatric neurology clinic. Thirty-three of 41 children, previously assessed at kindergarten age, with asymmetric ventricles or unilateral ventriculomegaly identified in utero, were recruited at school age for a neuropsychological follow-up. All children, 9-11 years of age, underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and the parents completed behavioural rating questionnaires. Results of the neuropsychological assessment and parents' questionnaires. There were no significant differences between children diagnosed with either asymmetric ventricles or unilateral ventriculomegaly in most parameters relative to the general population; the full-scale IQ scores were 103.13 ± 12.43 and 103.56 ± 10.5, respectively. A significantly lower performance was found only on one measure of attention among the unilateral ventriculomegaly group and on writing speed tasks among the asymmetric ventricles group. Both study groups showed significantly higher scores than expected in the normal population on a verbal fluency test. Comparison of both groups combined with the normative population yielded significantly lower scores only in attention tests. Yet, the clinical population showed significantly higher scores on writing accuracy, processing speed and verbal fluency and lower rates of executive dysfunction. Asymmetric ventricles or unilateral ventriculomegaly identified in utero does not appear to affect long-term mental development and school achievements. Further prospective research on a larger sample is needed in order to confirm our findings. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Avaliação neuropsicológica dos transtornos psicológicos na infância: um estudo de revisão Neuropsychological assessment of psychological disorders in childhood: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Lessinger Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão da literatura sobre a avaliação neuropsicológica dos déficits cognitivos associados aos transtornos psicológicos na infância e adolescência, com base em pesquisas publicadas no período de 2000 a 2006. Foi realizado um levantamento abrangendo publicações nacionais e internacionais indexadas nas bases de dados Medline, SciELo e PsycInfo. Os resultados indicaram um aumento da produção científica na área da avaliação neuropsicológica do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade, autismo, transtornos de humor e transtorno de conduta. Observou-se a presença de poucos estudos nacionais, indicando a necessidade de pesquisas na área de avaliação neuropsicológica no Brasil.This study comprises a review about neuropsychological assessment of cognitive deficits associated to psychological disorders in childhood and adolescence, including researches published between 2000 and 2006. A survey of national and international publications indexed on Medline, SciELo and PsychoInfo was carried out. The results showed an increase of scientific publications within the neuropsychological assessment area of the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, mood disorders and conduct disorder. A lack of national studies was observed, indicating the necessity of more research in the neuropsychological assessment in Brazil.

  3. Evaluación nutricional de niños con insuficiencia renal aguda que reciben diálisis Nutritional assessment of children presenting with acute renal insufficiency and underwent to dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva Ferrera

    2010-03-01

    admitted due to acute renal insufficiency in two children hospitals of Santiago de Cuba from December, 2006 to December, 2008. Authors analyzed the age, sex, etiology, renal replacement therapy, cause of parenteral feeding use, nutritional assessment according to Cuban percentile tables and anthropometry parameters (age, weight, height and parenteral nutrients support. RESULTS: Prerenal events were the cause of acute renal insufficiency in the 44,4% of cases and renal and postrenal ones in the 33,4% and 22,2%, respectively. As a renal depuration method we used the peritoneal dialysis in the 66,6% of cases and the hemodialysis in remainder. The main causes that justified the parenteral feeding were the surgical affections, hypercatabolic states, the digestive hemorrhage and the pancreatitis in a decreasing order. Four patients were assessed as of low weight. CONCLUSIONS: The average support of proteins and lipids was under the established nutritional supports and that of kilocalories was higher than recommended. It is essential to improve these parameters in the treatment of these patients.

  4. Patient satisfaction with a hospital-based neuropsychology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Amie; Millar, Elisa; Dorstyn, Diana

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to develop and pilot a measure of patient satisfaction that encompasses themes, activities, settings and interactions specific to the neuropsychological assessment process. Methods A focus group of out-patients (n=15) was surveyed to identify the factors commonly associated with a satisfactory neuropsychological experience. Responses informed a purposely designed 14-item patient satisfaction scale (α=0.88) that was completed by 66 hospital out-patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Results Satisfaction with the neuropsychological assessment process was generally reported, with the testing phase (85%) rated significantly more favourably than the pre-assessment (79%) and feedback (70%) phases. Commentaries provided by 32 respondents identified interpersonal facilitators to a satisfactory neuropsychological assessment experience, but also dissatisfaction with physical aspects of the testing environment in addition to service availability. Conclusions The patient satisfaction scale can be used as a quality assurance tool to evaluate neuropsychological service delivery. Large-scale research is needed to confirm the scale's psychometric properties. Further research may also include a broader perspective on the consumers' experience of neuropsychological services.

  5. Clinical study on the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling ZHAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential (ERP P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD.  Methods A total of 183 elderly patients with cSVD were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to brain MRI: lacunar infarct (LACI group (N = 62, white matter hyperintensity (WMH group (N = 60 and LACI + WMH group (N = 61. A total of 50 brain MRI normal persons were selected as control group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Chinese version was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the amplitude and latency of P300 were measured in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the MoCA total score in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly lower (P = 0.042, 0.015, 0.000, and the score in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.001, 0.042. In the eight cognitive domains of MoCA scale, the visual space and executive function (P = 0.006, 0.041, 0.035, delayed memory (P = 0.006, 0.012, 0.048, language (P = 0.001, 0.032, 0.047 and calculation (P = 0.009, 0.001, 0.003 in LACI + WMH group were significantly lower than those in control, LACI and WMH groups. The delayed memory in LACI group was significantly lower than that in control group (P = 0.037. The delayed memory (P = 0.005 and language (P = 0.047 in WMH group were significantly lower than those in control group. Compared with control group, the amplitudes of P300 (P = 0.025, 0.033, 0.000 in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly decreased, and the latencies (P = 0.018, 0.000, 0.000 were significantly prolonged. The amplitude of P300 in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.041, 0.018, and the latency was significantly prolonged (P = 0.000, 0.022.  Conclusions Elderly patients of cSVD all suffer from different degrees of cognitive impairment

  6. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Core competencies in clinical neuropsychology training across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Hokkanen, Laura; Ponsford, Jennie; van Zandvoort, Martine; Watts, Ann; Evans, Jonathan; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2018-05-01

    This work aimed to review main competency requirements from training models in countries with well-established specialties in clinical neuropsychology and to extract core competencies that likely will apply to clinical neuropsychologists regardless of regional and cultural context. We reviewed standards for post-graduate training in clinical neuropsychology from countries in Europe, Australia, and North America based on existing literature, presentations at international conferences, and from description of the training models from national psychological or neuropsychological associations. Despite differences, the reviewed models share similar core competencies considered necessary for a specialty in clinical neuropsychology: (1) In-depth knowledge of general psychology including clinical psychology (post-graduate level), ethical, and legal standards. (2) Expert knowledge about clinically relevant brain-behavioral relationships. (3) Comprehensive knowledge about, and skills in, related clinical disciplines. (4) In-depth knowledge about and skills in neuropsychological assessment, including decision-making and diagnostic competency according to current classification of diseases. (5) Competencies in the area of diversity and culture in relation to clinical neuropsychology. (6) Communication competency of neuropsychological findings and test results to relevant and diverse audiences. (7) Knowledge about and skills in psychological and neuropsychological intervention, including treatment and rehabilitation. All the models have undergone years of development in accordance with requirements of national health care systems in different parts of the world. Despite differences, the common core competency requirements across different regions of the world suggest generalizability of these competencies. We hope this summary can be useful as countries with less established neuropsychology training programs develop their models.

  9. Apathy in Mild Parkinson's Disease: Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Hamad; Antonini, Angelo; Venneri, Annalena

    2016-10-19

    Apathy is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in PD, and those which have done so have not controlled for the presence of other neuropsychiatric comorbidities. To explore the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in PD at a mild disease stage. Sixty-five PD patients and 24 healthy controls participated in this study. Patients underwent extensive neuropsychological screening, neuropsychiatric assessment using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, structural MRI scanning, and neurological examination. Voxel-based independent t-test analyses were used to assess the differences in grey and white matter volumes between the sample groups with/without apathy/neuropsychiatric symptoms. Patients with apathy had lower grey matter volume in several brain areas including the left insula, left inferior/middle/medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant impairments were found in tests assessing executive functions, and a trend-level significant difference was observed in long term memory tests in patients with apathy, when compared with patients without apathy. Apathy was associated with greater levels of atrophy in the frontal and temporal cortex, and anterior cingulate, as well as overall lower level of cognitive performance, particularly in executive function and memory skills. Apathy appears to be associated with cognitive impairments in PD, therefore, treatment of this symptom might mitigate its effects on cognitive performance in this clinical population.

  10. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  11. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  12. Neuropsychological correlates of theory of mind in patients with early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Vitale, Carmine; Trojano, Luigi; Errico, Domenico; Amboni, Marianna; Barbarulo, Anna Maria; Grossi, Dario; Barone, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions different from one's own. The aim of the study was to explore the neuropsychological correlates of theory of mind in patients affected by early Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-three PD patients and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects underwent the Frontal Assessment Battery, as well as tasks assessing "cognitive" and "affective" theory of mind, and memory abilities; questionnaires evaluating behavioral disorders and quality of life were also administrated. Although the 2 groups did not differ on neuropsychological tasks, PD patients' performance on tasks assessing cognitive and affective theory of mind was significantly worse than controls. Moreover, PD patients had more behavioral disorders and worse quality of life than controls. After covarying for behavioral and quality of life scores, the differences between patients and controls on theory of mind tasks remained significant. "Cognitive" theory of mind was associated with Frontal Assessment Battery score and 2 domains of quality of life scale, whereas "affective" theory of mind scores correlated only with behavioral scales such as the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and Apathy Evaluation Scale. The results demonstrate that both affective and cognitive aspects of theory of mind are simultaneously impaired in early PD and suggest that deficits in the 2 subcomponents of theory of mind may be linked to dysfunction of different frontosubcortical circuitries in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin P. Antony

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial Infarction (MI, commonly known as a Heart Attack, remains a leading cause of death throughout the world. Studies have shown that patients, who had MI, have cognitive impairment affecting attention, problem solving, memory, visuospatial, executive function and even dementia. Since cognition and emotion are integral part of the disease, there are no focused studies addressing this issue in the Indian context. Hence the present study. The objective of the study was to determine the neuropsychological deficits in patients with MI and with MI after cardiac bypass surgery. The sample consisted of 30 patients, 15 MI and 15 MI after CABG. All patients were assessed on. a battery of Neuropsychological tests and Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, The findings revealed impairment in mental speed, sustained attention, Animal Fluency Test, Phonemic Fluency Test, verbal and visual working memory, planning, response inhibition, verbal and visual learning and memory. On comparison with MI patients CABG patients showed significant deficits in Planning.

  14. [Dyslexia: neuropsychological and neurolinguistic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, A

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is given of the contribution of neuropsychological diagnostic methods and neurolinguistic diagnostic investigations. Through the analysis of errors, neurolinguistic examinations today make it possible to isolate in dyslexic populations at least three groups with clear-cut characteristics, requiring a distinct remedial approach. Neuropsychological investigations, and in particular their cross-matching with radiological neuro-imaging methods, serve to evidence the specificity of the cerebral organization of dyslexics.

  15. Virtual reality and neuropsychological assessment: The reliability of a virtual kitchen to assess daily-life activities in victims of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Jeremy; Richard, Paul; Banville, Frederic; Nolin, Pierre; Aubin, Ghislaine; Le Gall, Didier; Richard, Isabelle; Allain, Phillippe

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes impairments affecting instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). However, few studies have considered virtual reality as an ecologically valid tool for the assessment of IADL in patients who have sustained a TBI. The main objective of the present study was to examine the use of the Nonimmersive Virtual Coffee Task (NI-VCT) for IADL assessment in patients with TBI. We analyzed the performance of 19 adults suffering from TBI and 19 healthy controls (HCs) in the real and virtual tasks of making coffee with a coffee machine, as well as in global IQ and executive functions. Patients performed worse than HCs on both real and virtual tasks and on all tests of executive functions. Correlation analyses revealed that NI-VCT scores were related to scores on the real task. Moreover, regression analyses demonstrated that performance on NI-VCT matched real-task performance. Our results support the idea that the virtual kitchen is a valid tool for IADL assessment in patients who have sustained a TBI.

  16. Computational Neuropsychology and Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Thomas; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine 'prior' beliefs with a generative (predictive) model to explain the causes of sensations. Under this view, neuropsychological deficits can be thought of as false inferences that arise due to aberrant prior beliefs (that are poor fits to the real world). This draws upon the notion of a Bayes optimal pathology - optimal inference with suboptimal priors - and provides a means for computational phenotyping. In principle, any given neuropsychological disorder could be characterized by the set of prior beliefs that would make a patient's behavior appear Bayes optimal. We start with an overview of some key theoretical constructs and use these to motivate a form of computational neuropsychology that relates anatomical structures in the brain to the computations they perform. Throughout, we draw upon computational accounts of neuropsychological syndromes. These are selected to emphasize the key features of a Bayesian approach, and the possible types of pathological prior that may be present. They range from visual neglect through hallucinations to autism. Through these illustrative examples, we review the use of Bayesian approaches to understand the link between biology and computation that is at the heart of neuropsychology.

  17. Methodologic Issues in Neuropsychological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To familiarize athletic trainers with methodologic issues regarding the development and implementation of neuropsychological tests used in programs for monitoring sport-related cerebral concussion. Data Sources: Knowledge base and MEDLINE and PsychLit searches from 1980–2000 using the terms sports, athletes, concussion, and brain. Data Synthesis: Neuropsychological testing is a proven method for evaluating symptoms of concussion that results from a variety of different causes. These tests have been shown to be effective in evaluating symptoms of subtle cognitive dysfunction in a number of patient groups. Applying these tests in an athletic population has required some procedural modifications, including the use of brief test batteries, collection of preseason baseline data, and evaluation of subtle postconcussive changes in test scores over time. New methods are now being used for improved evaluation of the reliability and validity of neuropsychological tests in athletes. Proper scientific analysis of the psychometric properties of neuropsychological tests and the ultimate value of their use in the sport setting will require years of detailed study on large numbers of athletes with and without symptoms of concussion. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers and related personnel need to be aware of the training and methodologic issues associated with neuropsychological testing. Knowledge of the scientific properties of these tests, their advantages, and current limitations will ultimately enhance the athletic trainer's ability to use information from neuropsychological testing in an effective manner. PMID:12937499

  18. 2015 American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) student affairs committee survey of neuropsychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M; Butts, Alissa M; Hahn-Ketter, Amanda E; Osborn, Katie; Towns, Stephanie J; Barisa, Mark; Santos, Octavio A; Smith, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Surveys of practicing neuropsychologists have been conducted for years; however, there have been no comprehensive surveys of neuropsychology trainees, which may result in important issues being overlooked by the profession. This survey assessed trainees' experiences in areas such as student debt, professional development, and training satisfaction. Survey items were written by a task force of the AACN Student Affairs Committee (SAC), and neuropsychology trainees were recruited via neuropsychology-focused listservs. In total, 344 trainees completed the survey (75% female) and included participants from every region of the US and Canada. Based on the survey questions, nearly half of all trainees (47%) indicated financial factors were the greatest limitation in their training. Student debt had a bimodal distribution; 32.7% had minimal debt, but 45% had debt >$100,000. In contrast, expected starting salaries were modest, but consistent with findings ($80-100,000). While almost all trainees intended to pursue board certification (97% through ABPP), many were 'not at all' or only 'somewhat' familiar with the process. Results indicated additional critical concerns beyond those related to debt and lack of familiarity with board certification procedures. The results will inform SAC conference programming and the profession on the current 'state of the trainees' in neuropsychology.

  19. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz

    2005-01-01

    was recorded. At approximately 7 years of age, 917 (90%) of the children underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. After adjustment for confounders, breastfeeding was associated with only marginally better neuropsychological performance on most tests. These associations were robust even after adjustment...... published studies though not associated with a deficit in neuropsychological performance at age 7. Although the advantage may be less, Faroese women can still safely breastfeed their children....

  20. Trans-middle temporal gyrus selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in adults: seizure response rates, complications, and neuropsychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandt, S Kathleen; Werner, Nicole; Dines, Jennifer; Rashid, Samiya; Eisenman, Lawrence N; Hogan, R Edward; Leuthardt, Eric C; Dowling, Joshua

    2013-07-01

    Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (AHC) has evolved to encompass a variety of techniques to resect the mesial temporal lobe. To date, there have been few large-scale evaluations of trans-middle temporal gyrus selective AHC. The authors examine a large series of patients who have undergone the trans-middle temporal gyrus AHC and assess its clinical and neuropsychological impact. A series of 76 adult patients underwent selective AHC via the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach over a 10-year period, 19 of whom underwent pre- and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations. Favorable seizure response rates were achieved (92% Engel class I or II), with very low surgical morbidity and no mortality. Postoperative neuropsychological assessment revealed a decline in verbal memory for the left AHC group. No postoperative memory decline was identified for the right AHC group, but rather some improvements were noted within this group. The trans-middle temporal gyrus selective AHC is a safe and effective choice for management of medically refractory epilepsy in adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos; Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  2. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  3. Neuropsychological Correlates of Hazard Perception in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Katalina; Suhr, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Hazard perception, the ability to identify and react to hazards while driving, is of growing importance in driving research, given its strong relationship to real word driving variables. Furthermore, although poor hazard perception is associated with novice drivers, recent research suggests that it declines with advanced age. In the present study, we examined the neuropsychological correlates of hazard perception in a healthy older adult sample. A total of 68 adults age 60 and older who showed no signs of dementia and were active drivers completed a battery of neuropsychological tests as well as a hazard perception task. Tests included the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, Trail Making Test, Block Design, Useful Field of View, and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color Word Interference Test. Hazard perception errors were related to visuospatial/constructional skills, processing speed, memory, and executive functioning skills, with a battery of tests across these domains accounting for 36.7% of the variance in hazard perception errors. Executive functioning, particularly Trail Making Test part B, emerged as a strong predictor of hazard perception ability. Consistent with prior work showing the relationship of neuropsychological performance to other measures of driving ability, neuropsychological performance was associated with hazard perception skill. Future studies should examine the relationship of neuropsychological changes in adults who are showing driving impairment and/or cognitive changes associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia.

  4. Reasons for holding a Consensus Conference on neuropsychological rehabilitation in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Làdavass, E; Paolucci, S; Umiltà, C

    2011-03-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are common in various cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative and traumatic pathologies. Neuropsychological rehabilitation refers to a set of interventions that aim to improve a person's ability to perform cognitive tasks by retraining previously learned skills and teaching compensatory strategies. However, today there are some relevant points that need of further investigations. In 2007, a Task Force was set up under the auspices of several scientific societies that operate in the field of psychology, neuropsychology, rehabilitation and neurology (AIP, GIRN, SIMFER, SIN, SINP, and SPAN) with the aim to clarify the theoretical background of neuropsychological rehabilitation and to assess the diagnostic instruments and the treatments available to date. This consensus conference (CC), using methods derived from those of Evidence-Based-Medicine (EMB), evaluated several points, including: a) legal aspects; b) epidemiological aspects; c) neuropsychological rehabilitation of attentional and executive disorders; d) neuropsychological rehabilitation of speech/language disorders; e) neuropsychological rehabilitation of visual field defects; f) neuropsychological rehabilitation of neglect; g) neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory disorders; h) cognitive rehabilitation of arm apraxia; i) neuropsychological rehabilitation of Alzheimer disease; j) rehabilitation of multiple sclerosis; k) rehabilitation of severe brain injuries; l) rehabilitation of mild to moderate brain injuries; m) rehabilitation of behavioral disorders in severe brain injuries. Then, CC submitted to a specific Jury a final report with summary tables and questions. The final meeting of the Jury was held in Siena in February 2010.

  5. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  6. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  7. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of pediatric neuropsychological consultation in mild traumatic brain injury: a model for providing feedback after invalid performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connery, Amy K; Peterson, Robin L; Baker, David A; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, pediatric practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of objectively measuring performance validity during clinical assessments. Yet, no studies have examined the impact of neuropsychological consultation when invalid performance has been identified in pediatric populations and little published guidance exists for clinical management. Here we provide a conceptual model for providing feedback after noncredible performance has been detected. In a pilot study, we examine caregiver satisfaction and postconcussive symptoms following provision of this feedback for patients seen through our concussion program. Participants (N = 70) were 8-17-year-olds with a history of mild traumatic brain injury who underwent an abbreviated neuropsychological evaluation between 2 and 12 months post-injury. We examined postconcussive symptom reduction and caregiver satisfaction after neuropsychological evaluation between groups of patients who were determined to have provided noncredible effort (n = 9) and those for whom no validity concerns were present (n = 61). We found similarly high levels of caregiver satisfaction between groups and greater reduction in self-reported symptoms after feedback was provided using the model with children with noncredible presentations compared to those with credible presentations. The current study lends preliminary support to the idea that the identification and communication of invalid performance can be a beneficial clinical intervention that promotes high levels of caregiver satisfaction and a reduction in self-reported and caregiver-reported symptoms.

  9. Self-reported cognitive problems in testicular cancer patients: relation to neuropsychological performance, fatigue, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaali, Tone; Fosså, Sophie D; Andersson, Stein; Cvancarova, Milada; Langberg, Carl W; Lehne, Gustav; Dahl, Alv A

    2011-05-01

    There is a concern about negative cognitive effects of systemic chemotherapy. We prospectively explored self-reported cognitive problems in testicular cancer patients (TCPs) treated with and without chemotherapy. One hundred and twenty-two TCPs were interviewed about concentration and memory problems shortly after orchidectomy but before any additional treatment (baseline), and then at a median of 1 year after end of treatment (follow-up). Symptoms of psychological distress, fatigue, and peripheral neurotoxicity were assessed by questionnaires, and patients also underwent neuropsychological testing. Self-reported cognitive problems were compared between three treatments groups: no chemotherapy, one cycle of chemotherapy, and multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Variables associated with an increase of self-reported cognitive problems from baseline to follow-up were explored. Significantly larger proportions of TCPs in the two chemotherapy groups had an increase of self-reported cognitive problems from baseline to follow-up compared to the no-chemotherapy group. Increase of self-reported cognitive problems was significantly associated with psychological distress, fatigue, lower level of education, and Raynaud-like symptoms, but not with a decline in neuropsychological test performance. In this explorative study of TCPs, an increase of self-reported cognitive problems from baseline to 1-year follow-up was associated with chemotherapy and with symptoms of fatigue and psychological distress at follow-up, while no significant association was found with a decline in neuropsychological test performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-validation of a psychometric system for screening neuropsychological abnormality in older children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, T A; Tramontana, M G; Hooper, S R

    1986-01-01

    The Discriminant Equation (DE) represents a recently developed system for screening neuropsychological abnormality in older children. The DE was subjected to cross-validation on a sample of 82 child and adolescent psychiatric patients referred for a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. An overall hit rate of 79.3% correct classification was found which supported the validity of the DE in predicting neuropsychological impairment. The findings are discussed in relation to population characteristics and the nature of the criterion to be predicted as they may affect the application of neuropsychological screening procedures.

  11. Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade: proposta de avaliação neuropsicológica para diagnóstico Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: proposal of neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena do Amaral

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDA/H é caracterizado por padrão persistente de desatenção e/ou hiperatividade/impulsividade. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi propor uma bateria de avaliação neuropsicológica e analisar a precisão individual dos testes utilizados. O material compreendeu 10 crianças com TDA/H e 10 crianças sem queixas na faixa etária de 7 a 11 anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram: comportamentos típicos de TDA/H; diagnóstico positivo para TDA/H pelo DSM-IV; nível intelectual dentro da média ou superior; exame neurológico tradicional normal e autorização dos pais. Utilizou-se completa bateria neuropsicológica. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças com TDA/H apresentaram desempenho inferior em todos os testes. O item erros do WCST mostrou diferença estatística levemente significativa entre os grupos, sendo pior no grupo-caso. Concluímos que a bateria neuropsicológica contribuiu de maneira objetiva para o diagnóstico de TDA/H, apesar de não ter atingido níveis estatisticamente significativos na maioria dos testes.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this research was to contribute more precisely to the diagnosis of ADHD, to propose a battery of neuropsychological assessment and to analyze the contribution of each test. We studied 10 matched pairs of children with ADHD and normal controls (7 to 11 years. Inclusion criteria were: presence of ADHD typical behavior, positive diagnosis of ADHD based on DSM-IV, normal IQ, normal neurological examination and parental consent. We used extensive neuropsychological battery. The results showed differential sensitivity for detection of attentional problems in children with ADHD, although most tests did not reach statistical significance. The item, errors, of WCST revealed statistically significant difference between the two groups

  12. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Sushree Sangita; Swain, Sarada Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion), oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia). Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration) as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning), which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs (global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings), the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases. Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but the severity level varies from person to person. Like the

  13. Computational Neuropsychology and Bayesian Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Parr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine ‘prior’ beliefs with a generative (predictive model to explain the causes of sensations. Under this view, neuropsychological deficits can be thought of as false inferences that arise due to aberrant prior beliefs (that are poor fits to the real world. This draws upon the notion of a Bayes optimal pathology – optimal inference with suboptimal priors – and provides a means for computational phenotyping. In principle, any given neuropsychological disorder could be characterized by the set of prior beliefs that would make a patient’s behavior appear Bayes optimal. We start with an overview of some key theoretical constructs and use these to motivate a form of computational neuropsychology that relates anatomical structures in the brain to the computations they perform. Throughout, we draw upon computational accounts of neuropsychological syndromes. These are selected to emphasize the key features of a Bayesian approach, and the possible types of pathological prior that may be present. They range from visual neglect through hallucinations to autism. Through these illustrative examples, we review the use of Bayesian approaches to understand the link between biology and computation that is at the heart of neuropsychology.

  14. Neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricardi, Sara; Deleo, Francesco; Ragona, Francesca; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Pelliccia, Sarah; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is the second most frequent type of localization-related epilepsy, and it may impact neurocognitive functioning with high variability. The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in affected children remains poorly defined. This report outlines the neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset FLE, and the impact of epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) load, on the neurocognitive development. Twenty-three consecutive children (15 males and 8 females) with newly diagnosed cryptogenic FLE were enrolled; median age at epilepsy onset was 7 years (6-9.6 years). They underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and neuropsychological assessment before starting AED treatment (time 0) and after one year of treatment (time 1). Twenty age-matched patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (10 male and 10 females) and eighteen age-matched healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) were enrolled as controls and underwent the same assessment. All patients with FLE showed a significant difference in almost all assessed cognitive domains compared with controls, mainly in frontal functions and memory. At time 1, patients were divided into two groups according to epilepsy-related factors: group 1 (9 patients) with persisting seizures despite AED polytherapy, and group 2 (14 patients) with good seizure control in monotherapy. A significant difference was highlighted in almost all subtests in group 1 compared with group 2, both at time 0 and at time 1. In children with FLE showing a broad range of neurocognitive impairments, the epilepsy-related factors mostly related to a worse neurocognitive outcome are poor seizure control and the use of AED polytherapy, suggesting that epileptic discharges may have a negative impact on the functioning of the involved cerebral regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  16. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  17. Case Series Investigations in Cognitive Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Myrna F.; Dell, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Case series methodology involves the systematic assessment of a sample of related patients, with the goal of understanding how and why they differ from one another. This method has become increasingly important in cognitive neuropsychology, which has long been identified with single-subject research. We review case series studies dealing with impaired semantic memory, reading, and language production, and draw attention to the affinity of this methodology for testing theories that are expressed as computational models and for addressing questions about neuroanatomy. It is concluded that case series methods usefully complement single-subject techniques. PMID:21714756

  18. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  19. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  20. Changes in neuropsychological functioning following temporal lobectomy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, M.S.; Lee, S.; Seol, S.H.; Lim, Y.J.; Park, E.H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Chung, C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in neuropsychological functioning in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) after temporal lobe resection. Methods: Fifty-four TLE patients were evaluated before and after surgery using comprehensive neuropsychological tests to assess

  1. Predicting Arithmetical Achievement from Neuro-Psychological Performance: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel; Barrouillet, Pierre; Marinthe, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Assessed whether performances of 5- and 6-year olds in arithmetic tests can be predicted from their performances in neuropsychological tests. Participants completed neuropsychological, drawing, and arithmetic tests at 5 and 6 years of age. Findings at older age were correctly assumed by conclusions of first evaluation. (LBT)

  2. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  3. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    were asked to undergo a neuropsychological development exam intended to assess both general measures of cognition, such as IQ, as well as investigating their IPT. The overall neuropsychological development data were obtained through administration of standardized tests for children, as well as parental...

  4. Is there a relation between neuropsychologic variables and quality of life after stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, J. B.; Anderson, PG; Mulder, TT

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the quality of life (QOL) of stroke patients and to distill neuropsychologic predictors for poor QOL. Design: A cohort study in which patients were neuropsychologically assessed at a mean of 72.2 days after stroke, with follow-up at a mean of 9.8 months after stroke. Setting:

  5. Neuropsychology in South Africa: confronting the challenges of specialist practice in a culturally diverse developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ann D; Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B

    2016-11-01

    This was an invited paper on the history and current status of neuropsychology in South Africa. Information was gathered from literature searches, personal communication, and the authors' experiences while occupying relevant professional and academic positions for over 30 years. Since its origins in the 1950s, the development of neuropsychology in South Africa has faced numerous challenges, against a background of extreme sociocultural and socioeconomic disparity in the country that is on-going. The creation of the South African Clinical Neuropsychological Society in the 1980s, a credentialing and training body, gave impetus to the discipline. In the absence of a neuropsychology category within the South African professional framework, university instruction has been ad hoc with vastly different levels of competency depending on the institution involved. The small number of practitioners and/or academics involved in neuropsychology includes mainly masters, and some doctoral level psychologists registered in clinical, counseling or educational categories. A prime emphasis of neuropsychological research has been local norming of psychometric tests to facilitate valid assessment practices in the country. South Africa is on the cusp of achieving a hard-won neuropsychology professional register. It is anticipated that this development will provide impetus to the discipline by promoting training programs, the creation of neuropsychology posts, wider service delivery, and increased research funding. Despite significant challenges in a culturally diverse, developing country, neuropsychology has evolved sufficiently to warrant the creation of a separate category in the professional framework. This development will facilitate training, research, and services in the country.

  6. Presentación de un modelo antropométrico para la evaluación del paciente sometido a distracción osteogénica mandibular An anthropometric model presentation to assess the patient underwent to mandibular osteogenic distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadonim Vila Morales

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Propósito del estudio: proponer un modelo antropométrico que permita evaluar de forma homogénea la evolución de los pacientes sometidos a distracción osteogénica mandibular. Métodos: se realizó un estudio previo en el que se constató la ausencia de un protocolo internacional que estandarice el estudio y evaluación de los resultados obtenidos con distracción osteogénica mandibular y que permita evaluar la recidiva esqueletal a largo plazo. Se tomó como elementos de medidas los estudios cefalométricos angulares y lineales de McNamara y Steiner y se incluyó el panorograma de Simoes. Se diseñó un modelo matemático con fórmulas que permiten evaluar la distracción obtenida en rama y cuerpo, así como la efectividad del tratamiento y la estabilidad a largo plazo. Se propuso además una valoración de los cambios oclusales obtenidos. Resultados: el modelo antropométrico propuesto constituye un instrumento útil para implementar el método científico en el estudio y evaluación de los pacientes tratados con distracción osteogénica mandibular. Conclusiones: el modelo antropométrico propuesto es un método idóneo para evaluar, de forma homogénea, la evolución de los pacientes sometidos a distracción osteogénica mandibular.Aim: To propose a anthropometric model allows in a homogenous way to assess the course of patients underwent to mandibular osteogenic distraction. Methods: A prior study was carried out which allow us to confirm the lack of a international protocol generalizing the study and the evaluation of results achieved with the mandibular osteogenic distraction and also allows to assess the long-term skeletal relapse. Measurements elements include the McNamara and Steiner's angular and linear cephalometry studies as well as the Simoes panography. A mathematical model was designed with formulae allowing assessing the distraction achieved in branch and body as well as the effectiveness of treatment and long

  7. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  8. Personality and Neuropsychological Profiles in Friedreich Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Sabrina; Rotgé, Jean-Yves; Francisque, Hélène; Gargiulo, Marcela; Czernecki, Virginie; Justo, Damian; Lahlou-Laforet, Khadija; Hahn, Valérie; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pelissolo, Antoine; Fossati, Philippe; Durr, Alexandra

    2018-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia, an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease, is the most frequent inherited ataxia. Many studies have attempted to identify cognitive and affective changes associated with the disease, but conflicting results have been obtained, depending on the tests used and because many of the samples studied were very small. We investigated personality and neuropsychological characteristics in a cohort of 47 patients with genetically confirmed disease. The neuropsychological battery assessed multiple cognition domains: processing speed, attention, working memory, executive functions, verbal memory, vocabulary, visual reasoning, emotional recognition, and social cognition. Personality was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. We found deficits of sustained attention, processing speed, semantic capacities, and verbal fluency only partly attributable to motor deficit or depressed mood. Visual reasoning, memory, and learning were preserved. Emotional processes and social cognition were unimpaired. We also detected a change in automatic processes, such as reading. Personality traits were characterized by high persistence and low self-transcendence. The mild cognitive impairment observed may be a developmental rather than degenerative problem, due to early cerebellum dysfunction, with the impairment of cognitive and emotional processing. Disease manifestations at crucial times for personality development may also have an important impact on personality traits.

  9. History of neuropsychology in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Barr, W.B.; Bielauskas, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    German neuroscientists played a crucial role in the foundation of neuropsychology. In the 19th century, Gall formulated new assumptions with respect to the nature and localization of mental functions in the brain. Wernicke popularized an approach in which mental functions were represented as

  10. Neuropsychological Counseling in Hospital Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Explores integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology in hospital setting. Sees example of such interchange occurring in rehabilitation unit or hospital where psychologist has responsibilities for helping patients, families, and staff to understand implications of central nervous system dysfunction and to adapt to changes. Discusses…

  11. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the 133 xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning

  12. Neuropsychological effects associated with recreational cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soar, Kirstie; Mason, Colette; Potton, Anita; Dawkins, Lynne

    2012-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that recreational cocaine use is on the increase, with the UK reporting one of the highest levels of use in the EU (EMCDDA 2010). Nevertheless, very few studies have addressed the neuropsychological effects associated with non-dependent recreational cocaine use. The current study aimed to assess whether recreational cocaine users show neuropsychological deficits on a battery of tests, previously shown to be sensitive to cocaine-dependent and psychosis-prone individuals. Schizotypal traits were also measured. Recreational cocaine users (n = 17) were compared with controls (n = 24) on drug use patterns, the General Health Questionnaire, the Brief Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-B) and four neuropsychological tasks: spatial working memory, intra/extra-dimensional set shifting, the Stocking of Cambridge and the rapid visual processing. Relative to controls, recreational cocaine users produced significantly more errors on the intra/extra-dimensional set shift task and completed fewer stages, made significantly more six box stage errors on the spatial working memory task, and made significantly more errors and fewer hits, with overall poorer detection rates on the rapid visual processing task. Recreational cocaine users reported significantly higher scores on the cognitive perceptual and disorganised thinking SPQ-B subscales and total SPQ-B scores compared to controls. Recreational cocaine users displayed impairments on tasks tapping sustained attention, attentional shifting and spatial memory and reported higher schizotypal trait expression. These findings are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting subtle cognitive deficits, putatively reflecting underlying dopaminergic dysfunction, in non-dependent, recreational cocaine users.

  13. Forensic neuropsychology: a reply to the method skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J T; Ryan, T V; Hawk, G L

    1991-09-01

    Various critics or "method skeptics" have contended that clinical neuropsychology is not sufficiently developed as a science to be offered as evidence in legal or trial proceedings. The present article attempts to balance the extreme position of the method skeptics with an overview of legal and research data that support forensic applications of neuropsychology. It is suggested that clinical evidence can usefully inform legal decision making and that the modern trend has been for courts to be increasingly open to such expert testimony. The relevance of studies of clinical judgement, experience, and actuarial prediction is discussed, and neuropsychological assessment validity is specifically addressed. It is concluded that the arguments of the method skeptics should guide future research and caution forensic neuropsychologists, but that a retreat from the courtroom is unwarranted.

  14. Graduate admissions in clinical neuropsychology: the importance of undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Reeves, Jonathan W

    2013-11-01

    Discussions of and recommendations for the training of clinical neuropsychologists exist at the doctoral, internship, and post-doctoral level. With few exceptions, the literature on undergraduate preparations in clinical neuropsychology is sparse and lacks empirical evidence. In the present study, graduate-level faculty and current trainees completed surveys about graduate school preparations. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for research methods, statistics, and assessment. Preferences for "goodness of fit" also emerged as important admissions factors. These results offer evidence for desirable undergraduate preparations for advanced study in clinical neuropsychology. Although undergraduate training in psychology is intentionally broad, results from this study suggest that students who desire advanced study in clinical neuropsychology need to tailor their experiences to be competitive in the application process. The findings have implications for prospective graduate students, faculty who train and mentor undergraduates, and faculty who serve on admissions committees.

  15. Neuropsychological Predictors of Trauma Centrality in OIF/OEF Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland P. Hart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether reduced performance on two neuropsychological tasks, cognitive flexibility and working memory, were associated with higher levels of trauma centrality. A growing body of research has shown that trauma centrality, the extent to which a person believes a potentially traumatic event has become central to their self-identity and life story, is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Furthermore, PTSD is often associated with alterations in neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between neuropsychological processes and trauma centrality, however, has yet to be explored. OEF/OIF combat veterans (N = 41 completed the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, the Centrality of Event Scale (CES, and on-line measures of cognitive flexibility and working memory assessed via WebNeuro. Bivariate Pearson correlations showed that CES scores were positively correlated with PDS and BDI scores, and negatively correlated with cognitive flexibility and working memory. Linear regressions revealed that working memory significantly predicted CES when controlling for depression and PTSD severity while cognitive flexibility approached significance when controlling for these same variables. This study employed a cross-sectional design, precluding causality. The small sample size, entirely male sample, and use of an online neuropsychological assessment warrant follow-up research. Although numerous studies have found an association between CES and PTSD, this is the first to suggest that neuropsychological processes underlie the construct of trauma centrality. Given the importance of maladaptive cognitive processes underlying the pathogenesis of PTSD, these data suggest that future studies aimed at examining the link between neuropsychological processes and maladaptive cognitive processes, such as trauma centrality, may help to characterize and treat PTSD.

  16. Neuropsychological Treatment of Dyslexia: Does Type of Treatment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Maria Lulsa; Facoetti, Andrea; Bakker, Dirk J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 123 children with a diagnosis of developmental dyslexia were assigned to different treatment groups, either variations of Bakker's intervention program based on the balance model or a control, a specific reading training group. Thorough cognitive and neuropsychological assessment allowed determination of the subtype of dyslexia…

  17. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Ming-yuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic undergoing general anesthesia (GA in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigated during telephone follow-ups, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 was adopted to evaluate the life quality of patients. Results Almost 73 pairs of patients fulfilled the survey of AC and GA group respectively. There were 21 patients and 28 patients with postoperative neurological deficits, and 12 patients and 8 patients with psychological disorders in AC and GA group respectively. Thirty patients of AC group had the recollection of being awake during the surgery. There were 9 patients in CA group having long-term ( > 6 months neurological deficits, which was less than the number of GA group (18 patients, P = 0.038. According to the assessment in short-term, medium-term and long-term postoperative neurological deficits, there was no significant difference in the quality-of-life scores between the two groups (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusion Awake craniotomy can be the main method for removing the lesions located in or close to functional areas with lower incidence of long?term postoperative neurological deficits, and it has no significant impact on the psychological status and the quality of life postoperatively.

  19. Neuropsychological approaches to epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Melissa; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Gobbi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission report on classification and terminology indicates that "diagnosing an individual as having an encephalopathic course requires demonstration of a failure to develop as expected relative to the same-aged peers or to regress in abilities." In this chapter, basing our discussion on the theoretical framework of neuroconstructivism, on the latest results deriving from functional neuroimaging and on the concept of system epilepsy, we use continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) as an example of how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep spikes interfere with the organization and consolidation of neuropsychological networks in the sensitive phase of development, affecting also interconnected systems. Indeed, recent discoveries show that the normal overnight downscaling of slow wave activity (SWA) from the first to the last hours of sleep is absent in electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) patients, thus impairing the neural process and possibly the local plastic changes associated with learning and other cognitive functions. Moreover, specific patterns of spike-induced activation (especially in perisylvian and/or prefrontal areas) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) have been shown in patients with CSWS. Consequently, to date, we may conceive that the possible mechanisms underlying neuropsychological disorders in encephalopathic epilepsy (EE) may be double, since NREM sleep interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) induce both a pathologic activation in epileptogenic areas and a pathologic deactivation of DMN beyond the epileptogenic zone. The growing body of literature on the effects of ESES in CSWS provides us with increasing knowledge on the complexity of brain development and a better understanding of plasticity, enlightening the pathogenesis of damage on developing neuropsychological functions. Finally, the need for an individually tailored interpretation of the neuropsychological

  20. Complicações neurológicas em anemia falciforme: avaliação neuropsicológica do desenvolvimento com o NEPSY Neurological complications in sickle cell anemia: a developmental neuropsychological assessment using NEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Nunest

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de caso de duas crianças portadoras de anemia falciforme, com complicações neurológicas. Utilizou-se uma ampla bateria neuropsicológica - NEPSY. Uma criança apresentou acidente vascular cerebral com paresia de hemicorpo esquerdo, e a outra, ataque isquêmico transitório. As avaliações neuropsicológicas demonstraram que havia extenso prejuízo cognitivo no primeiro caso, em contraste com comprometimento leve no segundo. Baixas pontuações nas funções de atenção visual, memória operacional, linguagem, flexibilidade cognitiva, habilidades sensório-motora, visoespacial e viso-construtiva. Rebaixamento intelectual e no desempenho acadêmico foram encontrados no paciente que sofreu o acidente isquêmico. A criança que foi acometida por ataque isquêmico transitório apresentou dispraxia motora e oromotora, diminuição da atenção visual e memória verbal. Estes achados corroboram com os dados encontrados na literatura e reforçam a relevância de conhecer a tipologia destas alterações para intervir precocemente na deficiência cognitiva, minimizando as repercussões no desenvolvimento cognitivo, acadêmico e psicossocial.This is a case study of two children with sickle cell anemia and neurological complications. An extensive series of neuropsychological tests - NEPSY was used in the evaluation of the children. One child had suffered an ischemic stroke with left hemiparesis and the other, transient ischemic attack. The neuropsychological assessment showed extensive cognitive damage in the first case, in contrast to mild impairment in the second. Low scores were found for tasks of visual attention, operational memory, language, cognitive flexibility and for sensory-motor, visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills. Low intellectual and academic performance was found in the patient who suffered ischemic stroke. The child who suffered transient ischemic attack showed motor and oromotor dyspraxia, and decreased visual attention

  1. Effects of socio-demographic variables on performance on the Cambridge neuropsychological automated tests for the assessment of dementia and Portuguese norms for older adults living in retirement homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos Gonçalves, Marta; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Rodrigues Simões, Mário

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, education, gender, computer experience, institutionalization time, and psychotropic drug use on performance on four tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) which are recommended for the assessment of dementia (Rapid Visual Information Processing [RVP], Paired Associates Learning [PAL], Spatial Working Memory [SWM], and Reaction Time [RTI]), and to provide norms for Portuguese older persons without neuropsychiatric diagnoses who are living in retirement homes. The normative sample included 128 adults aged 69-96 years who had no neuropsychiatric diagnosis and who had lived in retirement homes for 3-232 months. The CANTAB was administered, at the latest, one week after a screening session that comprised an interview and the administration of pencil-and-paper tests. The simultaneous multiple linear regression models were significant (p computer experience effect was found for the RTI simple movement time measure. We additionally observed significant effects of education, age, gender, and computer experience on several pencil-and-paper tests. Our findings suggest that different socio-demographic variables influence distinct tests and measures of the same test, and that the associations between computer experience and several pencil-and-paper tests may be mediated by possible cognitive skills developed through computer use.

  2. Avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas: considerações metodológicas Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions: methodological questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo estudo das funções executivas tem crescido nos últimos anos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar algumas questões metodológicas e conceituais relacionadas à avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas. As principais limitações e dicotomias relacionadas às funções executivas são apresentadas e a importância de um modelo teórico que fundamente os instrumentos de avaliação e suas interpretações clinicas analisada. Conclui-se que as evidências provenientes da investigação das funções executivas ainda não permitem a compreensão satisfatória desses processos. Sugere-se, a adoção de um modelo específico para o estudo das funções executivas.The article aims to review methodological and conceptual issues related to neuropsychological assessment of executive functions. The main limitations and dichotomies of current studies related to executive functions are presented and the importance of theoretical support to validate the instruments and their clinical interpretation are discussed. There is still the need of additional evidences on executive functions that allow a complete understanding of all the processes involved. Finally, it is suggested the adoption of a specific model that may guide the study of the executive functions.

  3. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  4. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  5. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes

  6. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    ), mood (emotional dysregulation, anxiety, depression, mood shifts) and somatic preoccupations (stress induced immune dysregulation, chronic pain, body representation, eating disorders, sleep quality, fatigue). In psychiatry, these three components closely coexist and interact which explains the complexity of patient assessment and care. Numerous studies show that meditation inspired interventions offer a promising solution in the prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment. In the last part, we discuss the benefits and risks of integrating meditation practice into broader programs of cognitive remediation and therapeutic education in patients suffering from cognitive disorders. We propose a number of possible guidelines for developing mindfulness inspired cognitive remediation tools. Along with Jon Kabatt Zinn (Kabatt-Zinn & Maskens, 2012), we suggest that the construction of neuropsychological tools relies on seven attitudinal foundations of mindfulness practice. This paper highlights the importance of referring to holistic approaches such as MBI when dealing with patients with neuropsychological impairment, especially in the field of psychiatry. We advocate introducing mindfulness principles in order to help patients stabilize their attention and improve cognitive flexibility. We believe this transition in neuropsychological care may offer an interesting paradigm shift promoting a more efficient approach towards cognition and its links to emotion, body, and environment. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychological change following individualized cognitive rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatsch, Linda; Stress, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Results from a retrospective chart review of thirty-seven patients completing an individualized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) program, using a Developmental Metacognitive approach, are reported. Neuropsychological functioning was used as the measure of progress in CRT. Demographic data, number of CRT sessions, and number of months post-injury were used to predict overall improvement in neuropsychological status. Eighty-nine percent of the patients in the CRT program experienced significant change on at least one neuropsychological measure administered. Despite considerable sample diversity, demographic and treatment variables were not predictive of overall neuropsychological change. Individualizing the CRT approach can maximize the chance of improvement in a diverse patient sample.

  8. A case that underwent bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract Available A case that underwent bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) biopsy combined with pneumonectomy is presented. The patient developed hypoxia during the contralateral VATS biopsy. His hypoxia was treated with positive expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the dependent lung and apneic ...

  9. Reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change score norms for evaluating neuropsychological change in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M; Lineweaver, Tara T; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    Reliable change indices (RCIs) and standardized regression-based (SRB) change score norms permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRB change score norms for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range: 6-16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice effect-adjusted RCIs and SRB change score norms were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children's Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. Reliable change indices and SRB change score norms for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRB change score norms for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An Excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  11. Neuropsychological and emotional correlates of personality traits in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara; Leenders, Klaus L; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is, apart from the well-known motor symptoms, also characterized by neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. However, patients also often present with a personality profile of low Novelty Seeking and high Harm Avoidance. This profile can be identified as the disease emerges, which raises the question whether these traits correlate with more fundamental neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. This study determined the neuropsychological and emotional correlates of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance and two other personality traits that are often considered in PD, i.e. Reward Dependence and Persistence. Forty-three patients and 25 healthy participants were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, a symptoms of depression questionnaire and neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher Harm Avoidance than healthy participants, which was predicted by symptoms of depression. Groups did not differ regarding Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Persistence. While cognitive flexibility was a predictor of Reward Dependence, Persistence was predicted by divergent thinking and inhibition. Novelty Seeking was not predicted by cognition or emotion. In conclusion, cognition and emotion are selectively related to personality traits in PD. Whereas Harm Avoidance covaries with emotional symptoms, Persistence and Reward Dependence are related to cognition. Alterations in personality, cognition and emotion in PD are thus not independent from each other.

  12. Systems Biology, Neuroimaging, Neuropsychology, Neuroconnectivity and Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2016-01-01

    The patient who sustains a traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically undergoes neuroimaging studies, usually in the form of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases the neuroimaging findings are clinically assessed with descriptive statements that provide qualitative information about the presence/absence of visually identifiable abnormalities; though little if any of the potential information in a scan is analyzed in any quantitative manner, except in research settings. Fortunately, major advances have been made, especially during the last decade, in regards to image quantification techniques, especially those that involve automated image analysis methods. This review argues that a systems biology approach to understanding quantitative neuroimaging findings in TBI provides an appropriate framework for better utilizing the information derived from quantitative neuroimaging and its relation with neuropsychological outcome. Different image analysis methods are reviewed in an attempt to integrate quantitative neuroimaging methods with neuropsychological outcome measures and to illustrate how different neuroimaging techniques tap different aspects of TBI-related neuropathology. Likewise, how different neuropathologies may relate to neuropsychological outcome is explored by examining how damage influences brain connectivity and neural networks. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes that occur following TBI and how best to capture those pathologies via different neuroimaging methods. However, traditional clinical neuropsychological techniques are not well suited for interpretation based on contemporary and advanced neuroimaging methods and network analyses. Significant improvements need to be made in the cognitive and behavioral assessment of the brain injured individual to better interface with advances in neuroimaging-based network analyses. By viewing both neuroimaging and neuropsychological processes within a systems biology

  13. NUTRITION SUPPORT COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENT WHO UNDERWENT CARDIAC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Krdžalić, Alisa; Kovčić, Jasmina; Krdžalić, Goran; Jahić, Elmir

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nutrition support complications after cardiac surgery should be detected and treated on time. Aim: To show the incidence and type of nutritional support complication in patients after cardiac surgery. Methods: The prospective study included 415 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2013 in Clinic for Cardiovascular Disease of University Clinical Center Tuzla. Complications of the delivery system for nutrition support (NS) and nutrition itself were analy...

  14. The relationship between neuropsychological tests of visuospatial function and lobar cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Davor N; Miller, Justin B; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Bird, Christopher; Banks, Sarah J

    2017-11-07

    Tests of visuospatial function are often administered in comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. These tests are generally considered assays of parietal lobe function; however, the neural correlates of these tests, using modern imaging techniques, are not well understood. In the current study we investigated the relationship between three commonly used tests of visuospatial function and lobar cortical thickness in each hemisphere. Data from 374 patients who underwent a neuropsychological evaluation and MRI scans in an outpatient dementia clinic were included in the analysis. We examined the relationships between cortical thickness, as assessed with Freesurfer, and performance on three tests: Judgment of Line Orientation (JoLO), Block Design (BD) from the Fourth edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised Copy Trial (BVMT-R-C) in patients who showed overall average performance on these tasks. Using a series of multiple regression models, we assessed which lobe's overall cortical thickness best predicted test performance. Among the individual lobes, JoLO performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the right temporal lobe. BD performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the right parietal lobe, and BVMT-R-C performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the left parietal lobe. Performance on constructional tests of visuospatial function appears to correspond best with underlying cortical thickness of the parietal lobes, while performance on visuospatial judgment tests appears to correspond best to temporal lobe thickness. Future research using voxel-wise and connectivity techniques and including more diverse samples will help further understanding of the regions and networks involved in visuospatial tests.

  15. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor based sleep assessment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study, we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and t...

  16. Neuropsychological function in homeless mentally ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, L J; Caplan, B B; Tolomiczenko, G S; Turner, W M; Penk, W E; Schutt, R K; Goldfinger, S M

    1997-01-01

    Because little data are available on the neuropsychological functioning of severely and persistently mentally ill (SPMI) persons who are homeless, our primary goal was to describe accurately and extensively the general neuropsychological functioning of a large group of such homeless individuals. In addition, we have sought to examine the relationship between some neuropsychological functions and demographic, illness, and clinical state measures in this population. A 5-hour neuropsychological test battery was administered to 116 SPMI homeless individuals. Neuropsychological, diagnostic, substance abuse, clinical, and psychopathology data were obtained in a standardized manner. SPMI homeless individuals were significantly impaired on a wide range of neuropsychological functions. Specific test performances were most significantly related to precursor variables (level of education and parental socioeconomic status) and state variables (level of psychosis and anticholinergic medication dose). Gender and substance abuse had significant effects limited to sustained attention. Neuropsychological performance was impaired in this sample of homeless SPMI persons. Further research, using profile analysis to directly compare groups composed of homeless persons without psychiatric illness or demographically matched persons of comparable psychiatric status who are not homeless will help clarify the role of homelessness and psychosis on neuropsychological function.

  17. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although uraemic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little information exists concerning the identification of some of the neuropsychological processes. underlying overt behaviour that affect adjustment to ESRD. The results of a neuropsychological investigation of a ...

  18. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  19. Neuropsychological and quality of life assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to bilateral deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Shenandoa Heluani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been widely used to control motor symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD. Recently, DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN has become the preferred target for patients with mixed motor symptoms. Despite resultant motor and quality of life improvements, the procedure has been associated with cognitive decline, mainly in language skills, and also with psychiatric symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the influence of DBS in the STN on cognition, mood and quality of life. Methods: We studied 20 patients with PD submitted to DBS in the STN from May 2008 to June 2012 with an extensive battery of cognitive tests including memory, language, praxis, executive functions and attention assessments; the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-39; and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, were applied both before and after the surgery. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and results compared using the paired Student's t test. Results: A total of 20 patients with pre and post-operative assessments were included. A statistically significant improvement was found in total score and on subscales of mobility, activities of daily living and emotional well-being from the PDQ-39 (P=0.009, 0.025, 0.001 and 0.034, respectively. No significant difference was found on the cognitive battery or mood scale. Conclusion: DBS in the SNT improved quality of life in PD with no negative impact on cognitive skills and mood.

  20. Affective and Neuropsychological Correlates of Children's Rituals and Compulsive-Like Behaviors: Continuities and Discontinuities with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Evans, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report…

  1. Avaliação da dor em recém-nascidos submetidos à cirurgia cardiáca Evaluación del dolor en recién nacidos sometidos a cirugía cardiaca Pain assessment in neonates who underwent cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bueno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar o método utilizado para avaliar a dor pós-operatória em cirurgia cardíaca neonatal; verificar a freqüência de avaliação e identificar a prevalência de dor pós-operatória. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com coleta de dados retrospectiva. RESULTADOS: A maioria (80,0% dos neonatos foi avaliada quanto a dor, o método mais utilizado foi a escala Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS (56,7%. A freqüência de avaliações variou entre uma e 13 vezes e a maior parte dos neonatos teve sete ou mais avaliações. A maioria (56,7% apresentou registro de dor e a média de episódios de dor foi 1,8. CONCLUSÃO: Tanto o método quanto a freqüência de avaliação de dor não seguem padronização e a prevalência de ocorrência de dor foi elevada.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el método utilizado para evaluar el dolor post-operatoria en cirugía cardiaca neonatal; verificar la frecuencia de la evaluación e identificar la prevalencia del dolor post-operatorio. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con recolección de datos retrospectiva. RESULTADOS: La mayoría (80,0% de neonatos fue evaluado en cuanto al dolor, el método más utilizado fue la escala Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS (56,7%. La frecuencia de evaluaciones varió entre una y 13 veces y la mayor parte de los neonatos tuvo siete o más evaluaciones. La mayoría (56,7% presentó registro de dolor y el promedio de los episodios fue de 1,8. CONCLUSIÓN: el método respecto a la frecuencia de evaluaciones del dolor no siguen un patrón y la prevalencia de su ocurrencia fue elevada.Objectives: To identify pain assessment methods used in neonates who underwent cardiac surgeries, to verify pain assessment frequency and to verify pain prevalence. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Retrospective data collection. RESULTS: Pain assessment was performed in most (80.0% of the neonates, between one and thirteen times. Specific pain assessment scale was used in 56.7% neonates. Pain assessment was

  2. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings in traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    Advances in imaging technology, coupled with military personnel returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have increased interest in the neuropsychology and neurobiology of these two conditions. There has been a particular focus on differential diagnosis. This paper provides an overview of findings regarding the neuropsychological and neurobiological underpinnings of TBI and for PTSD. A specific focus is on assessment using neuropsychological measures and imaging techniques. Challenges associated with the assessment of individuals with one or both conditions are also discussed. Although use of neuropsychological and neuroimaging test results may assist with diagnosis and treatment planning, further work is needed to identify objective biomarkers for each condition. Such advances would be expected to facilitate differential diagnosis and implementation of best treatment practices.

  3. Five-months-postoperative neuropsychological outcome from a pilot prospective randomized clinical trial of thalamic deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Maddux, Brian N; Riley, David E; Whitney, Christina M; Ogrocki, Paula K; Gould, Deborah; Maciunas, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with motor and/or sonic tics associated with frontostriatal dysfunction. This study provided pilot data of the neuropsychological safety of bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat medication-refractory TS in adults. This study used a repeated-measures design with pretest and 3-month follow-up from start of continuous bilateral DBS. Five male patients underwent DBS surgery for medically refractory TS. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate for any change in neuropsychological test scores, employing a false discovery rate. Outcome measures included 14 neuropsychological tests assessing psychomotor speed, attention, memory, language, visuoconstructional, and executive functions, as well as subjective mood ratings of depression and anxiety. Average age was 28.2 years (SD = 7.5) with 12-17 years of education. Participants were disabled by tics, with a tic frequency of 50-80 per minute before surgery. At baseline, subjects' cognitive function was generally average, although mild deficits in sequencing and verbal fluency were present, as were clinically mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms. At 3 months of continuous DBS (5 months after implantation), 3 of 5 participants had clinical reductions in motor and sonic tics. Cognitive scores generally remained stable, but declines of moderate to large effect size (Cohen's d > 0.6) in verbal fluency, visual immediate memory, and reaction time were observed. Fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as fewer obsessions and compulsions, were reported after 3 months of continuous high-frequency DBS. Bilateral centromedian-parafascicular thalamic DBS for medically refractory TS shows promise for treatment of medically refractory TS without marked neuropsychological morbidity. Symptoms of depression and anxiety improved. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  4. Neuropsychological functioning following cardiac transplant in Danon disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David; Meredith, Katherine

    2017-06-08

    To present a unique case involving a 31-year-old male with Danon disease (diagnosed at 14) who received cardiac transplant and subsequent cardiac re-transplant. Brief report/case study. Serial neuropsychological assessment across a 23-year span along with a review of school records and prior psychoeducational assessment. A consistent pattern of higher level cognitive impairment from childhood through adulthood was found. This pattern is interpreted in light of the sparse literature regarding cognitive and adaptive functioning related to Danon disease. The noteworthy aspects of this case include the preservation of some academic abilities and an unexpected level of functional independence given cognitive concerns. This case study further explores the nature of the deficits related to Danon disease and highlights the benefits of neuropsychological evaluation to guide functional interventions and maximize level of independence across the life span.

  5. Neuropsychological processing associated with recovery from depression after stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Tim; Yiend, Jenny; Bramham, Jessica; Teasdale, John D; Ogilvie, Alan D; Malhi, Gin; Howard, Robert

    2004-10-01

    The authors compared patients who underwent stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy for depression, who were still depressed or recovered from depression, to identify therapeutic mechanisms. Ten depressed and eight recovered psychosurgery patients, along with nine never-depressed subjects and nine who had recovered from depression with medication, completed the Iowa Gambling Task, a measure of decision making in the face of feedback. Psychosurgery patients also completed general neuropsychological testing. Recovered psychosurgery patients exhibited insensitivity to negative feedback on the Iowa Gambling Task compared to the other three groups. This difference between the groups remained when general neuropsychological performance was covaried out. These findings suggest acquired relative insensitivity to negative information as a specific mechanism mediating the antidepressant effect of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. Such insensitivity is not secondary to deficits in general neuropsychological functioning and is not a function of recovery from depression per se.

  6. Neuropsychological Correlates of Pre-Frailty in Neurocognitive Disorders: A Possible Role for Metacognitive Dysfunction and Mood Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Amanzio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have suggested that cognitive functions in patients with neurocognitive disorders have a significant role in the pathogenic mechanisms of frailty. Although pre-frailty is considered an intermediate, preclinical state, epidemiological research has begun to dislodge cognition and frailty into their specific subcomponents to understand the relationship among them. We aim to analyse the possible association between pre-frailty and neuropsychological variables to outline which factors can contribute to minor and major neurocognitive disorders.Methods60 subjects complaining of different cognitive deficits underwent a deep-in-wide frailty and neuropsychological assessment. We conducted three multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for a combination of demographic measures and involving several neuropsychological–behavioural parameters selected by the literature on physical frailty.ResultsWe found a significant association between frailty—as measured by the multidimensional prognostic index (MPI—and action monitoring and monetary gain (cognitive domain, depression and disinhibition (behavioural domain. Moreover, an association between MPI and impaired awareness for instrumental activities disabilities exists.ConclusionWe propose a novel framework for understanding frailty associated with metacognitive–executive dysfunction.

  7. Cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between neuropsychological performance and white matter fiber bundle length in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurie M; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan; Akbudak, Erbil; Conturo, Thomas E; Correia, Stephen; Tate, David F; Heaps-Woodruff, Jodi M; Brier, Matthew R; Bolzenius, Jacob; Salminen, Lauren E; Lane, Elizabeth M; McMichael, Amanda R; Paul, Robert H

    2017-06-01

    Recent work using novel neuroimaging methods has revealed shorter white matter fiber bundle length (FBL) in older compared to younger adults. Shorter FBL also corresponds to poorer performance on cognitive measures sensitive to advanced age. However, it is unclear if individual factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) effectively moderate the relationship between FBL and cognitive performance. This study examined CR as a potential moderator of cognitive performance and brain integrity as defined by FBL. Sixty-three healthy adults underwent neuropsychological evaluation and 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive performance was measured using the Repeatable Battery of Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). FBL was quantified from tractography tracings of white matter fiber bundles, derived from the diffusion tensor imaging. CR was determined by estimated premorbid IQ. Analyses revealed that lower scores on the RBANS were associated with shorter whole brain FBL (p = 0.04) and lower CR (p = 0.01) CR moderated the relationship between whole brain FBL and RBANS score (p performance (p = 0.03). These results demonstrate that lower cognitive performance on the RBANS is more common with low CR and short FBL. On the contrary, when individuals have high CR, the relationship between FBL and cognitive performance is attenuated. Overall, CR protects older adults against lower cognitive performance despite age-associated reductions in FBL.

  8. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were ...

  9. Long-term neuropsychological effects of ecstasy in middle-aged ecstasy/polydrug users

    OpenAIRE

    Schilt, T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Smal, J.P.; Gouwetor, M.N.; van den Brink, W.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Studies reporting ecstasy-induced serotonin-toxicity and (neuro)psychological dysfunctions have been conducted in young adults. Little is known about ecstasy effects later in life, when serotonin levels and cognition decrease as a consequence of normal ageing. Objective This study aimed to assess whether harmful effects of ecstasy only add to or also interact with age-related neuropsychological decline. Methods Attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial ability, self-reported...

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH APPROACHES TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Mukhitova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the Russian and British approaches to restoration of the highest mental functions in patients with neurological disorders.The applicability of development of effective programs for neuropsychological rehabilitation of neurological patients is represented, where one of the main directions is the reconstruction of higher mental functions.Results. This article shows the importance of cooperation and understanding of specialists among the multidisciplinary team in medical rehabilitation system. The history of origin of the concept «multidisciplinary approach» is cited, it was spoken about by V. M. Bekhterev for the first time, emphasizing the necessity of multidisciplinary study of neuropsychic system of a healthy and ill person. Special aspects of rehabilitation process in Russia and in England were considered. Results of the comparison of neuropsychological rehabilitation models of two countries were presented. Conclusions. Further guidelines of cooperation between Russian and foreign neuropsychologists were identified. The attention is focused on determination of rehabilitation potential and inclusion of the patient and his family in rehabilitation process as it allows to solve problems of insufficiency of motivation, a self-assessment and to prevent emotional violations, increasing quality of life of patients. 

  11. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  12. Neuropsychological measures that detect early impairment and decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Suzanne E; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Weng, Hua; Hassenstab, Jason J; Grober, Ellen; McCue, Lena M; Morris, John C; Holtzman, David M; Xiong, Chengjie; Fagan, Anne M

    2017-08-01

    Identifying which neuropsychological measures detect early cognitive changes associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), brain pathology would be helpful clinically for the diagnosis of early AD and for the design of clinical trials. We evaluated which neuropsychological measures in our cognitive battery are most strongly associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD brain pathology. We studied a large cohort (n = 233) of middle-to older-aged community-dwelling individuals (mean age 61 years) who had no clinical symptoms of dementia and underwent baseline CSF collection at baseline. Participants completed a battery of 9 neuropsychological measures at baseline and then every 1 to 3 years. CSF tau/Aβ42 was associated with baseline performance on 5/9 neuropsychological measures, especially measures of episodic memory, and longitudinal performance on 7/9 neuropsychological measures, especially measures of global cognition. The free recall portion of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Task (FCSRT-free) detected declining cognition in the high CSF tau/Aβ42 group the earliest, followed by another measure of episodic memory and a sequencing task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis in a Patient who Underwent Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Dabak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS is a rare, benign, but a locally aggressive tumor. It is characterized by the proliferation of synovial membrane, but it can also be seen in tendon sheaths and bursae. Clinical presentation of solitary lesions include compression and locking of the joint suggesting loose bodies in the joint and a subsequent findings of an effusion, whereas diffuse lesions manifest with pain and chronic swelling. In this article, we presented a curious case of PVNS in a female patient who have been followed up due to an acetabular cystic lesion. She underwent total hip arthroplasty for severe osteoarthritis of the hip joint and associated pain. The diagnosis of PVNS was established intraoperatively. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 235-7

  14. Occupational health, cognitive disorders and occupational neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Work can be an important etiologic factor in the genesis of some mental disorders including cognitive disability. Occupational neuropsychology constitutes an intriguing new but neglected area of research and clinical practice which deals with the neurocognitive consequences of the work environment and work habits. Neuropsychological knowledge is fundamental to understand cognitive requirements of work competence. Work can impact sleep patterns and mental energy, which in turn can cause neuropsychological symptoms. This report presents relevant evidence to illustrate the relationship between work and cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  16. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  17. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level.

  19. Neuropsychological profile in patients with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kato, Kanade; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Neuropsychological impairments have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. As little is known whether subjects with schizotypal personality disorder exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction similar to that in schizophrenia, we assessed the neuropsychological profile of 15 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder and compared it with that for 15 patients with schizophrenia and for 15 psychiatrically normal volunteers. All participants were administered a standard neuropsychological battery assessing language ability, spatial ability, visuomotor function, verbal memory, visual memory, auditory attention, visual attention, and executive function. Performance on most of the cognitive domains was impaired in patients with schizotypal personality disorder but less than patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, impairment in verbal memory and visuomotor ability in patients with schizotypal personality disorder and patients with schizophrenia were comparable, while patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the test of executive function than did patients with schizotypal personality disorder. As a whole, cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder were qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive abilities related to frontotemporal lobe function are disturbed across these schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  20. Effects on neuropsychological performance and sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Staub

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS may have impaired neuropsychological performance. The aim of the study is to assess neuropsychological function in OSAS patients before and on continous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy to assess different neuropsychological tests – especially of sensomotor memory – in OSAS patients, and to relate neuropsychological test results to polysomnographic findings. Therefore, 36 normal controls and 18 OSAS patients performed tests of attention capacity and memory with retrieval in the evening and the following morning. Six weeks later, the tests were repeated (patients on CPAP. Controls performed significantly better than patients in the tests of attention and of memory of facts without and on CPAP therapy. Moreover, good compliance of CPAP therapy was not associated with better performance. However, there was no significant difference between controls and patients in the tests of sensomotor memory. The neuropsychological results depended on oxygen values, the arousal index, and sleep stages. There is no group difference in overnight improvement in the neuropsychological tests, which could indicate that sleep has an important function in homeostatic regulation rather than in consolidation.

  1. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  2. Effect of demographic data on neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Evlice

    2016-09-01

    Material and Methods: Between 2014-2016 years; mini mental state examination, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency (semantic and lexical, clock drawing, verbal and visual memory tests were performed to healthy people. The presence of correlation between neuropsychological tests and gender, age and education were researched in healthy people. Results: Hundred subjects (60 female, 40 male were included to study. No difference was observed between male and female subjects on neuropsychological tests. There was negative correlation between age and mini mental state examination, digit span and semantic fluency tests. And also there was positive correlation between education and all neuropsychological tests (except verbal memory test. Conclusion: The mean neuropsychological test scores in healthy people were not shown differences by gender, but they were affected by age and education. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 528-532

  3. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate thefrequency of Helicobacter pylori in patients underwent endoscopyeastern Anatolia.Materials and methods: The patients whose endoscopicantral biopsies were taken for any reason in our endoscopyunit in February-June 2010 period were includedand retrospectively investigated. The frequency of Helicobacterpylori was determined as separating the patientsaccording to general, sex and the age groups. Antral biopsieswere stained with hematoxylin-eosin and modified giemsamethod and examined under light microscope andreported as (+ mild, (++ moderate, (+++ severe positiveaccording to their intensities.Results: Biopsy specimens of 1298 patients were includedinto the study. The mean age was 47.5 ± 17.5 years(range 14-88 and 607 of these patients (47% were male.Histopathological evaluation revealed that, 918 of the patientswere (71% positive and 379 (29% were negativefor Helicobacter pylori. Approximately 60% of our patientshad mild, 29% had moderate and 11% had severe positivityfor Helicobacter pylori. No significant difference wasfound in the frequency of Helicobacter pylori betweenwomen and men. The frequencies of Helicobacter pyloriwere 73.2%, 71.5%, 68.6% and 70.4%, respectively, inthe age groups of 14-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 yearsand 61-88 years.Conclusion: The frequency of Helicobacter pylori was71% in Eastern Anatolia Region. No statistically significantdifference was found between genders and agegroups in term of the frequency of Helicobacter pylori.

  4. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma.

  5. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  6. Resection of Gliomas with and without Neuropsychological Support during Awake Craniotomy-Effects on Surgery and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Anna; Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-01-01

    During awake craniotomy for tumor resection, a neuropsychologist (NP) is regarded as a highly valuable partner for neurosurgeons. However, some centers do not routinely involve an NP, and data to support the high influence of the NP on the perioperative course of patients are mostly lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in clinical outcomes between patients who underwent awake craniotomy with and without the attendance of an NP. Our analysis included 61 patients, all operated on for resection of a presumably language-eloquent glioma during an awake procedure. Of these 61 cases, 47 surgeries were done with neuropsychological support (NP group), whereas 14 surgeries were performed without an NP (non-NP group) due to a language barrier between the NP and the patient. For these patients, neuropsychological assessment was provided by a bilingual resident. Both groups were highly comparable regarding age, gender, preoperative language function, and tumor grades (glioma WHO grades 1-4). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved more frequently in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 61.7 vs. 28.6%, P  = 0.04), which also had shorter durations of surgery (NP vs. non-NP: 240.7 ± 45.7 vs. 286.6 ± 54.8 min, P  vs. postoperative imaging) was lower in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 19.1 vs. 42.9%, P  = 0.09), but no difference was observed in terms of permanent surgery-related language deterioration (NP vs. non-NP: 6.4 vs. 14.3%, P  = 0.48). We need professional neuropsychological evaluation during awake craniotomies for removal of presumably language-eloquent gliomas. Although these procedures are routinely carried out with an NP, this is one of the first studies to provide data supporting the NP's crucial role. Despite the small group size, our study shows statistically significant results, with higher rates of GTR and shorter durations of surgery among patients of the NP group. Moreover, our data emphasize the common

  7. Resection of Gliomas with and without Neuropsychological Support during Awake Craniotomy—Effects on Surgery and Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kelm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDuring awake craniotomy for tumor resection, a neuropsychologist (NP is regarded as a highly valuable partner for neurosurgeons. However, some centers do not routinely involve an NP, and data to support the high influence of the NP on the perioperative course of patients are mostly lacking.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in clinical outcomes between patients who underwent awake craniotomy with and without the attendance of an NP.MethodsOur analysis included 61 patients, all operated on for resection of a presumably language-eloquent glioma during an awake procedure. Of these 61 cases, 47 surgeries were done with neuropsychological support (NP group, whereas 14 surgeries were performed without an NP (non-NP group due to a language barrier between the NP and the patient. For these patients, neuropsychological assessment was provided by a bilingual resident.ResultsBoth groups were highly comparable regarding age, gender, preoperative language function, and tumor grades (glioma WHO grades 1–4. Gross total resection (GTR was achieved more frequently in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 61.7 vs. 28.6%, P = 0.04, which also had shorter durations of surgery (NP vs. non-NP: 240.7 ± 45.7 vs. 286.6 ± 54.8 min, P < 0.01. Furthermore, the rate of unexpected tumor residuals (estimation of the intraoperative extent of resection vs. postoperative imaging was lower in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 19.1 vs. 42.9%, P = 0.09, but no difference was observed in terms of permanent surgery-related language deterioration (NP vs. non-NP: 6.4 vs. 14.3%, P = 0.48.ConclusionWe need professional neuropsychological evaluation during awake craniotomies for removal of presumably language-eloquent gliomas. Although these procedures are routinely carried out with an NP, this is one of the first studies to provide data supporting the NP’s crucial role. Despite the small group size, our study shows

  8. [The neuropsychological study of 21 patients with expanding cerebral lesions. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciero, A; Malsa, R; Vizioli, L

    1995-12-01

    Twenty-one right-handed patients with cerebral expanding space-occupying lesion underwent neuropsychological evaluation before surgery. Testing included the Bender Motor Gestalt Test (BMGT), the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), namely Digit span, Digit symbol, Picture completion, and Block design. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in cognitive efficiency between the groups defined by the side and biological behaviour of the lesions.

  9. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nishinaka

    Full Text Available In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk.Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used.Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts.Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  10. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  11. Neuropsychological and Cognitive Correlates of Recovery in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jessica A; Brodrick, Brooks; Van Enkevort, Erin; McAdams, Carrie J

    2017-11-01

    To identify clinical or cognitive measures either predictive of illness trajectory or altered with sustained weight recovery in adult women with anorexia nervosa. Participants were recruited from prior studies of women with anorexia nervosa (AN-C) and in weight-recovery following anorexia nervosa (AN-WR). Participants completed a neuropsychological battery at baseline and clinical assessments at both baseline and follow-up. Groups based on clinical outcome (continued eating disorder, AN-CC; newly in recovery, AN-CR; sustained weight-recovery, AN-WR) were compared by using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons. Women with continued eating disorder had poorer neuropsychological function and self-competence at baseline than AN-CR. AN-CR showed changes in depression and externalizing bias, a measure of self-related attributions. AN-WR differed from both AN-CC and AN-CR at baseline in externalizing bias, but only from AN-CC at outcome. Neuropsychological function when recently ill may be a prognostic factor, while externalizing bias may provide a clinical target for recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Profile in a Patient with Triple A Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mazzone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple A syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of adrenocorticotropic hormone resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrima. Our aim was to describe the neuropsychological characteristics and the cooccurring psychopathological and neurological disorders in an Italian male child suffering from Triple A syndrome at the time of admission (T0 and after one year of follow-up (T1. Many difficulties were observed in the motor domain, as well as in manual dexterity and static/dynamic balance domains of the motor task over time. In sharp contrast with previous literature reports on frequent mild cognitive dysfunction in patients with Triple A syndrome, our child did not show any mental retardation. By contrast, he showed an average IQ at T0 with a slight improvement at T1. To our knowledge, this report is the first describing neuropsychological profile and co-occurring psychopathological problems in a child with Triple A syndrome. Considering that the Triple A syndrome is a progressive disorder which can take years to develop the full-blown clinical picture, these patients require periodical medical controls. Moreover, assessment of neuropsychological and psychopathological features should be performed in patients with this disease, in order to underline the variability of this syndrome.

  13. [Neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics: some implications for road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, M J; Fernández-Guinea, S

    There are various published studies showing that chronic alcoholics present cognitive deficit. In this conference we would like to review the most actual studies focusing on the neuropsychological alterations as consequences of the long and abusive alcohol intake. We also will analyse the involvement of these deficit in a complex task as driving. The long and abusive alcohol intake produces an affectation of the central nervous system. We could observe its consequences both in short and long term. Attention and memory deficit and a slowness of information processing are very common. However, complete neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation programs are convenient. This is an important topic if we consider the high number of traffic accidents in which alcohol intake is one of the possible causes. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the persons working daily with a car, such as taxi or bus drivers, especially those of them who are alcoholics in abstinence, chronic alcoholics and people who suffer from alcohol abuse. The control of this situation and the publicity about neuropsychological sequels of alcoholism could contribute in an efficient way towards safety in road.

  14. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Zachi

    Full Text Available Abstract Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives: The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods: Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results: At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (P<0.05. Paired comparisons of neuropsychological functioning within the exposed group at baseline and 1.5 years later showed poorer immediate memory performance (P<0.05. There were no differences on other measures. Conclusions: Although the literature show signs of recovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  15. ILAE survey of neuropsychology practice in pediatric epilepsy surgery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Madison M; Smith, Mary Lou; Bulteau, Christine

    2017-06-01

    To determine the extent to which specific neuropsychological measures are in common use around the world for the assessment of children who are candidates for epilepsy surgery. As part of the work of the International League Against Epilepsy Pediatric Surgical Task Force, a survey was developed and distributed online. The survey consisted of questions related to demographics, training experience, general practice, and specific measures used and at what frequency. Seventy-eight clinicians with an average of 13.5 years of experience from 19 countries responded to the survey; 69% were English-speaking. Pre- and post-neuropsychological evaluations were conducted with a majority of children undergoing surgical resection for epilepsy. There was high consistency (>90%) among the domains evaluated, while consistency rate among specific measures was more variable (range: 0-100%). Consistency rates were also lower among respondents in non-English-speaking countries. For English-speaking respondents, at least one measure within each domain was used by a majority (>75%) of clinicians; 19 specific measures met this criterion. There is consensus of measures used in neuropsychological studies of pediatric epilepsy patients which provides a basis for determining which measures to include in establishing a collaborative data repository to study surgical outcomes of pediatric epilepsy. Challenges include selecting measures that promote collaboration with centers in non-English-speaking countries and providing data from children under age 5.

  16. Neuropsychological characteristics of Gulf War illness: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Janulewicz

    Full Text Available Gulf War illness (GWI is a disorder related to military service in the 1991 GW. Prominent symptoms include fatigue, pain and cognitive problems. These symptoms were reported by GW Veterans (GWV immediately after the war and were eventually incorporated into case definitions of GWI. Neuropsychological function in GW veterans has been studied both among deployed GWV and in GWV diagnosed with GWI. Results have been inconsistent between and across GW populations. The purpose of the present investigation was to better characterize neuropsychological function in this veteran population.Meta-analysis techniques were applied to published studies on neuropsychological performance in GWV to identify domains of dysfunction in deployed vs. non-deployed GW-era veterans and symptomatic vs. non-symptomatic GWVs.Significantly decreased performance was found in three functional domains: attention and executive function, visuospatial skills and learning/memory.These findings document the cognitive decrements associated with GW service, validate current GWI case definitions using cognitive criteria, and identify test measures for use in GWI research assessing GWI treatment trial efficacy.

  17. Neuropsychological symptoms of juvenile-onset batten disease: experiences from 2 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Heather R; Kwon, Jennifer; Marshall, Frederick J; de Blieck, Elisabeth A; Pearce, David A; Mink, Jonathan W

    2007-05-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease) is a progressive and fatal autosomal-recessive inherited lysosomal storage disorder of childhood. Core symptoms include vision loss, seizures, and mental and motor decline. This article presents data from 2 studies of neuropsychological function in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. In the first cross-sectional pilot study, 15 children with genetic or clinicopathologic confirmation of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis completed a brief test of attention (mean age = 14.3 +/- 2.9 years, range = 8.75-18.74 years; 7 males, 8 females). Average attention performances were significantly below age-expected normative data. A second longitudinal study was then initiated to study neuropsychological function in greater depth, including change in function over time. The authors have enrolled 18 children to date (mean age = 12.88 +/- 3.59 years, range = 6.26-18.65; 11 males, 7 females). Of these, 5 children have completed a second (annual) re-evaluation. Results thus far indicate significant impairment in domains of auditory attention, memory, estimated verbal intellectual function, and verbal fluency. Neuropsychological impairment was significantly correlated with disease duration and with motor function as assessed by a disease-specific clinical neurologic rating scale. There was no significant difference between males and females in neuropsychological test performance. Neuropsychological function was worse among children with a positive seizure history. Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-affected children exhibited significant and pervasive impairments on tests of auditory attention, verbal memory and repetition, verbal fluency, and an estimate of verbal intellectual ability. Preliminary follow-up data from an annual reassessment showed progressive declines in cognitive function, in particular on a task of working memory. Neuropsychological deficits are pervasive and progressive. Future research will

  18. Integrating Neuropsychology and Brain Imaging for a Referral of Possible Pseudodementia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J J; Mellott, E; Dunne, E M; Price, C C

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to highlight the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and the value for combining normative neuropsychological and neuroradiological measures for clinical purposes. We present the case of "CL," a 65-year-old, right-handed, Caucasian female referred for a neuropsychological evaluation of memory difficulties and depression with the rule-out of pseudodementia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was conducted within 24 hours of the neuropsychology exam. Mood measures showed elevated depression and apathy symptoms. The neuropsychological profile showed variable effort, intact comprehension but compromised confrontation naming and verbal memory deficits. Using normative references from 20 female age- and education-matched healthy control peers, CL showed significantly reduced temporal cortex thickness with reduced bilateral hippocampal, right amygdala, and right caudate volumes. Combined data were supportive of a diagnosis of semantic dementia. Examining neuropsychological profiles in combination with neuroimaging standardized metrics relative to peers improved case conceptualization. Standard measures of effort and malingering examined alone and without MRI for the diagnosis of pseudodementia have questionable validity and rationale. We additionally discuss the advantages and limitations/challenges for integrating neuropsychological assessments with normative based MRI brain metrics.

  19. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  20. Neuropsychology in Finland - over 30 years of systematically trained clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Laura; Nybo, Taina; Poutiainen, Erja

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this invited paper for a special issue of international practice in The Clinical Neuropsychologist is to provide information on training models, clinical practice, and professional issues within neuropsychology in Finland. Relevant information was gathered via literature searches, a survey by the Neuropsychology Working Group of the Finnish Psychological Association, archives of the Finnish Neuropsychological Society, and personal communication with professionals in Finland. The roots of Finnish neuropsychology are linked to the early German tradition of experimental psychology. Since the 1970s, it has been strongly influenced by both the psychometric approach in the U.S. and the qualitative approach by Luria. Systematic specialization training program began in Finland in 1983. It was first organized by the Finnish Neuropsychological Society and since 1997 by Finnish universities. At present, around 260 neuropsychologists have completed this training. According to the survey by the Finnish Psychological Association in 2014, 67% of Finnish neuropsychologists work in the public sector, 36% in the private sector, and 28% reported that they had private practice. Work includes assessments for 90% of the respondents, rehabilitation for 74%, and many are involved in teaching and research. Of the respondents, 20% worked both with adults and children, 44% with adults only and 36% with children only. Within test development, pediatric neuropsychology is an especially prominent field. A unique blend of approaches and a solid systematic training tradition has led to a strong position of neuropsychologists as distinguished experts in the Finnish health care system.

  1. Neuropsychological sequelae of medulloblastoma in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Joel H.; Crowe, Amy Bassell; Larson, David A.; Sneed, Penny K.; Gutin, Philip H.; McDermott, Michael W.; Prados, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the neuropsychological consequences of medulloblastoma in adults. Methods: Patients 18 years of age or older who had medulloblastoma and at least 3 years of disease-free survival were eligible. A battery of tests was conducted to assess global intellectual functioning, verbal ability, visuospatial ability, memory, reasoning, and academic proficiency. For the verbal memory performance, each patient was matched with two normal controls selected on the basis of age, sex, and level of education. Results: Review of the Neuro-Oncology database revealed 24 patients eligible for the study. Of these, 10 patients (6 good-risk and 4 poor-risk) agreed to participate; 7 patients were lost to follow-up; 5 lived too far away to come to the testing site, and 2 refused testing. There were four men and six women; their mean age was 36.5 years at testing and 29.9 years at surgical diagnosis. Mean dose of whole brain radiation was 34.5 Gy. Mean interval between diagnosis and testing was 79.1 months. Test results demonstrated below average intelligence quotients (mean intelligence quotient 90.2; range 67-103) and specific deficits in memory, reasoning, visuospatial ability, and arithmetic. Conclusion: Adults with medulloblastoma in a prolonged disease-free status may suffer significant cognitive deficits. We recommend further controlled, prospective studies to evaluate cognitive outcomes in this patient population in the hope that interventional strategies could be developed, or treatment modified to minimize such toxicities

  2. Parametric model measurement: reframing traditional measurement ideas in neuropsychological practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory G; Thomas, Michael L; Patt, Virginie

    Neuropsychology is an applied measurement field with its psychometric work primarily built upon classical test theory (CTT). We describe a series of psychometric models to supplement the use of CTT in neuropsychological research and test development. We introduce increasingly complex psychometric models as measurement algebras, which include model parameters that represent abilities and item properties. Within this framework of parametric model measurement (PMM), neuropsychological assessment involves the estimation of model parameters with ability parameter values assuming the role of test 'scores'. Moreover, the traditional notion of measurement error is replaced by the notion of parameter estimation error, and the definition of reliability becomes linked to notions of item and test information. The more complex PMM approaches incorporate into the assessment of neuropsychological performance formal parametric models of behavior validated in the experimental psychology literature, along with item parameters. These PMM approaches endorse the use of experimental manipulations of model parameters to assess a test's construct representation. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are evaluated by their implications for measurement error conditional upon ability level, sensitivity to sample characteristics, computational challenges to parameter estimation, and construct validity. A family of parametric psychometric models can be used to assess latent processes of interest to neuropsychologists. By modeling latent abilities at the item level, psychometric studies in neuropsychology can investigate construct validity and measurement precision within a single framework and contribute to a unification of statistical methods within the framework of generalized latent variable modeling.

  3. Comparison of neuropsychological performance between students from public and private Brazilian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth Izábal; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment reveals that certain cognitive changes that take place during the neural development process may be associated with biopsychosocial issues. A substantial body of research has focused on cognitive development in children and adults, but few such studies have been carried out on adolescents. Therefore, research into the processing of neuropsychological functions in adolescents, taking into account the role of major socio-cultural factors such as school type (public vs. private), is highly relevant. The present study sought to assess whether differences in neuropsychological development exist between adolescent students of public (government-funded) and private schools. A total of 373 grade-matched students between the ages of 12 and 18, 190 from public schools and 183 from private schools, took part in the study. All subjects had no self-reported neurologic or psychiatric conditions and sensory disorders. The NEUPSILIN Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was administered to this sample. Comparison of mean scores (one-way ANCOVA with socioeconomic score and age as covariates) showed that adolescents attending private schools generally outperformed their public-school peers in tasks involving sustained attention, memory (working and visual), dictated writing, and constructional and reflective abilities. We conclude that school type should be taken into account during standardization of neuropsychological assessment instruments for adolescent and, probably, child populations.

  4. Neuropsychological significance of areas of high signal intensity on brain MRIs of children with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D; Slopis, J M; Schomer, D; Jackson, E F; Levy, B M

    1996-06-01

    Of children with neurofibromatosis (NF), 40% have a cognitive or learning impairment. Approximately 60% also have anomalous areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted brain MRIs. The association of these hyperintensities and neuropsychological status is not fully understood. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and a standard clinical MRI to determine the impact of hyperintensity presence, number, and location on cognitive status in 84 children (8 to 16 years) with NF type 1. These children underwent standard clinical MRI using a GE 1.5-tesla scanner (except one child who was examined with a 1.0-tesla scanner). We conducted three types of analyses: Hyperintensity presence or absence.-Scores of children with (55%) and without hyperintensities (45%) were compared using t tests. No statistically significant differences between groups in intellectual functioning or any neuropsychological variable were found. Number of hyperintensities-The number of hyperintensity locations per child ranged from one to five (mean = 2.22). Pearson correlations revealed no significant association between the number of hyperintensities and neuropsychological performance. Location of hyperintensities-In four of the five locations studied, no statistically significant differences were found between scores of children with a hyperintensity in an area and those with one elsewhere. However, mean scores for IQ, Memory, Motor, Distractibility, and Attention domains for children with hyperintensities in the thalamus were significantly lower than scores for those with hyperintensities elsewhere. These results suggest that the simple presence or absence of hyperintensities, or their total number, is not as important as their anatomic location for detecting their relationship with neuropsychological status. Taking location into account, hyperintensities in the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, brainstem, or cerebellum seem to have no impact on neuropsychological functioning

  5. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  6. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Sherin; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Loukusa, Soile; Omar, Manal; Riad, Geylan; Rautio, Arja; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ) on these abilities. Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1) and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6). Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (pneuropsychological performance. Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  7. Olfactory identification in amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and its neuropsychological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Martin; Magerova, Hana; Andel, Ross; Nikolai, Tomas; Kadlecova, Alexandra; Laczo, Jan; Hort, Jakub

    2015-02-15

    Olfactory identification impairment in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients is well documented and considered to be caused by underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, contrasting with less clear evidence in non-amnestic MCI (naMCI). The aim was to (a) compare the degree of olfactory identification dysfunction in aMCI, naMCI, controls and mild AD dementia and (b) assess the relation between olfactory identification and cognitive performance in aMCI compared to naMCI. 75 patients with aMCI and 32 with naMCI, 26 patients with mild AD and 27 controls underwent the multiple choice olfactory identification Motol Hospital Smell Test with 18 different odors together with a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Controlling for age and gender, patients with aMCI and naMCI did not differ significantly in olfactory identification and both performed significantly worse than controls (pmemory and visuospatial tests were significantly related to better olfactory identification ability. Conversely, no cognitive measure was significantly related to olfactory performance in naMCI. Olfactory identification is similarly impaired in aMCI and naMCI. Olfactory impairment is proportional to cognitive impairment in aMCI but not in naMCI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  9. Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Sarin, Rajiv; More, Niteen; Siddha, Manish; Kamble, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients 16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in patients >16 years old was 23 at baseline and had

  10. Exploring Neuropsychology: Seeking Evidence of Added Worth to School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassu, Kari A.; Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Patwa, Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Historically, school psychological assessment has included the core elements of cognitive, academic, and behavioral indices. Neuropsychological assessment has included these and the additional elements of attention, memory, language, visual-spatial, motor, sensory, and executive functioning (American Psychological Association, 2006). With the…

  11. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  12. Neuropsychological support to relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury in the sub-acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Siert, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported emotional distress in relatives of patients with brain injury, but few studies have investigated neuropsychological interventions for relatives. The present study assessed the amount of neuropsychological support as well as the actual number of sessions...... as characteristics related to the patient: Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, Early Functional Abilities, Functional Independence Measure, Rancho Los Amigos; and to the relative: symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-90-R), quality of life (SF-36) and amount and number of sessions of neuropsychological...

  13. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  14. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  15. Comparative study of neuropsychological correlates in schizophrenia with onset in childhood, adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Parthasarathy; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil; Gupta, Nitin

    2006-09-01

    Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) patients have marked neuropsychological deficits in areas of attention, working memory and executive functions. Similar deficits have been found in studies on Adolescent onset (AdOS) and Adult onset schizophrenia (AOS). In this study we compared the neuropsychological profile of COS with AdOS and AOS to test the hypothesis that earlier the onset greater is the severity of illness and greater are the neuropsychological deficits. A sample of 15 patients of COS was compared with 20 patients each of AdOS and AOS group. Assessment of neuropsychological profile was done using standard neuropsychological battery for Indian population. Nahor Benson Test and Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test were used to assess perceptuomotor functioning. COS patients showed significantly greater deficits on scales of IQ, memory and perceptuomotor skills as compared to AdOS that in turn had greater deficits than AOS. The persistence of differences across the three groups inspite of controlling for education and age suggest that these deficits may have been present even before the onset of illness and was not the result of poor academic achievements. These findings also point towards a brain damage in schizophrenia that occurs on a continuum of severity with COS being the most virulent, AOS being the least and AdOS falling in between these two extremes.

  16. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  17. The Effect of Prior Caffeine Consumption on Neuropsychological Test Performance: A Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elizabeth R; Lesk, Valerie E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prior consumption of 200 mg of pure caffeine affected neuropsychological test scores in a group of elderly participants aged over 60 years. Using a double-blind placebo versus caffeine design, participants were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. A neuropsychological assessment testing the domains of general cognitive function, processing speed, semantic memory, episodic memory, executive function, working memory and short-term memory was carried out. Significant interaction effects between age, caffeine and scores of executive function and processing speed were found; participants who had received caffeine showed a decline in performance with increasing age. This effect was not seen for participants who received placebo. The results highlight the need to consider and control prior caffeine consumption when scoring neuropsychological assessments in the elderly, which is important for accuracy of diagnosis and corresponding normative data. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Autistic traits and neuropsychological performance in 6- to-10-year-old children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyseni, Fjola; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2018-04-23

    Clinical studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide evidence for poorer neuropsychological performance within specific domains compared to age, gender, and sometimes IQ-matched controls. Since recent evidence suggests that autistic symptoms form a spectrum that extends into the general population, it was our goal to evaluate the nature of the relationship between autistic traits and neuropsychological performance across the continuum in the general population. We examined neuropsychological performance across five different domains in 1019 6-to-10-year-old children participating in a population-based study of child development. Autistic traits were assessed when the children were 6 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale and ASD diagnoses were obtained via medical records. Neuropsychological functioning was measured using the NEPSY-II-NL and included the domains of attention and executive function, memory and learning, sensorimotor functioning, language, and visuospatial functioning. We found that children with higher autistic traits showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance in all domains investigated and that this association remained even after excluding children with the highest autistic traits or confirmed ASD. When comparing 41 children with confirmed ASD diagnosis to typically developing controls, children with ASD showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance across all domains. Taken together, our results suggest that children with both ASD and subclinical autistic traits have lower neuropsychological performance. Thus, this may provide an understanding of why some children without an ASD diagnosis may require some additional assistance within academic settings.

  19. A Flexible and Integrated System for the Remote Acquisition of Neuropsychological Data in Stroke Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Corrine; McCue, Michael; Doyle, Patrick J; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Fiez, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a central aspect of stroke research because it provides critical information about the cognitive-behavioral status of stroke survivors, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related disorders. Standard neuropsychological methods rely upon face-to-face interactions between a patient and researcher, which creates geographic and logistical barriers that impede research progress and treatment advances. To overcome these barriers, we created a flexible and integrated system for the remote acquisition of neuropsychological data (RAND). The system we developed has a secure architecture that permits collaborative videoconferencing. The system supports shared audiovisual feeds that can provide continuous virtual interaction between a participant and researcher throughout a testing session. Shared presentation and computing controls can be used to deliver auditory and visual test items adapted from standard face-to-face materials or execute computer-based assessments. Spoken and manual responses can be acquired, and the components of the session can be recorded for offline data analysis. To evaluate its feasibility, our RAND system was used to administer a speech-language test battery to 16 stroke survivors with a variety of communication, sensory, and motor impairments. The sessions were initiated virtually without prior face-to-face instruction in the RAND technology or test battery. Neuropsychological data were successfully acquired from all participants, including those with limited technology experience, and those with a communication, sensory, or motor impairment. Furthermore, participants indicated a high level of satisfaction with the RAND system and the remote assessment that it permits. The results indicate the feasibility of using the RAND system for virtual home-based neuropsychological assessment without prior face-to-face contact between a participant and researcher. Because our RAND system architecture uses off

  20. Neuropsychological improvement in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy after posterior decompression surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy sometimes complain of cognitive dysfunction, which may be coincidence. However, cognitive dysfunction may be related to disorders of the cervical spine and/or spinal cord. This study investigated cognitive dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal disorders. A total of 79 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (40 women and 39 men, mean age 61.2 years) underwent cervical laminoplasty between January 2006 and July 2007. Ten of these 79 patients (7 women and 3 men, mean age 65.2 years) complained of moderate to severe memory disturbances. These 10 patients underwent neuroimaging studies and a battery of neuropsychological tests consisting of the mini-mental state examination, Kohs Block Design Test, Miyake Memory Test, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and 'kana-hiroi' test before and 3 months after surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic brain lesions in the 10 patients, but single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior cortical areas in eight patients before surgery. Neuropsychological test scores showed statistically significant improvement after surgery in the Kohs Block Design Test and the BVRT, which measure visuospatial perception and reflect the function of the parietal and/or occipital lobes (p<0.05). The practice effect may have contributed to the neuropsychological improvements, but this study suggests that cervical spinal disorders may affect cognitive functions and that surgical treatment can ameliorate such effects. (author)

  1. Sarcopenia: a new predictor of postoperative complications for elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Min; Zhang, Fei-Yu; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Shen, Xian; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Chen, Xiao-Xi

    2017-05-01

    A geriatric assessment is needed to identify high-risk elderly patients with gastric cancer. However, the current geriatric assessment has been considered to be either time-consuming or subjective. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of sarcopenia on the postoperative complications for elderly patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. We conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from August 2014 to December 2015. Computed tomography-assessed lumbar skeletal muscle, handgrip strength, and gait speed were measured to define sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was present in 69 of 240 patients (28.8%) and was associated with lower body mass index, lower serum albumin, lower hemoglobin, and higher nutritional risk screening 2002 scores. Postoperative complications significantly increased in the sarcopenic patients (49.3% versus 24.6%, P sarcopenia (odds ratio: 2.959, 95% CI: 1.629-5.373, P Sarcopenia, presented as a new geriatric assessment factor, was a strong and independent risk factor for postoperative complications of elderly patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  3. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachi, E C; D F, Ventura; Faria, M A M; Taub, A

    2007-03-01

    We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 +/- 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 +/- 1.8; 20 males) diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 +/- 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 +/- 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 +/- 0.9 microg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males) were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P depression and anxiety symptoms (P depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  4. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: The Past and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, research on children and adults with learning disabilities has seen significant advances. Neuropsychological research historically focused on the administration of tests sensitive to brain dysfunction to identify putative neural mechanisms underlying learning disabilities that would serve as the basis for treatment. Led by research on classifying and identifying learning disabilities, four pivotal changes in research paradigms have produced a contemporary scientific, interdisciplinary, and international understanding of these disabilities. These changes are (1) the emergence of cognitive science, (2) the development of quantitative and molecular genetics, (3) the advent of noninvasive structural and functional neuroimaging, and (4) experimental trials of interventions focused on improving academic skills and addressing comorbid conditions. Implications for practice indicate a need to move neuropsychological assessment away from a primary focus on systematic, comprehensive assessment of cognitive skills toward more targeted performance-based assessments of academic achievement, comorbid conditions, and intervention response that lead directly to evidence-based treatment plans. Future research will continue to cross disciplinary boundaries to address questions regarding the interaction of neurobiological and contextual variables, the importance of individual differences in treatment response, and an expanded research base on (a) the most severe cases, (b) older people with LDs, and (c) domains of math problem solving, reading comprehension, and written expression. (JINS, 2017, 23, 930-940).

  5. Specific learning disabilities in children: deficits and neuropsychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Adarsh; Malhotra, Savita; Mohanty, Manju; Khehra, Nitasha; Kaur, Manreet

    2005-06-01

    The public is gradually becoming aware of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), which are very often the cause of academic difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the SLDs in the clinic population at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences SLD index and subsequently to assess the children's neuropsychological functions using a battery of tests. Thirty-five children in the age range of 7-14 years (both boys and girls) were recruited as the cohort, diagnosed clinically and assessed using the battery of tests for SLDs and neuropsychological tests consisting of the PGIMER memory scale for children, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Bender visuo-motor gestalt test and Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children. The study revealed deficits in language and writing skills and impairments in specific areas of memory, executive functions and perceptuo-motor tasks. Identification of SLDs is useful in drawing up a treatment plan specific for a particular child.

  6. Neuropsychological diagnostics in Ethiopia - challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Neuropsychological tests can provide crucial information regarding the consideration of psychiatric differential diagnosis. This is especially important in developing countries like Ethiopia where advanced imaging is not widely available. Methods A detailed literature search was conducted using the search ...

  7. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  8. Acute myocardial infarctation in patients with critical ischemia underwent lower limb revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdras Marques Lins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD of the lower limbs. Patients with PAOD often also have obstructive atherosclerosis in other arterial sites, mainly the coronary arteries. This means that patients who undergo infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia have a higher risk of AMI. There are, however, few reports in the literature that have assessed this risk properly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass to treat critical ischemia of the lower limbs caused by PAOD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent 82 infrainguinal bypass operations, from February 2011 to July 2012 were studied. All patients had electrocardiograms and troponin I blood assays during the postoperative period (within 72 hours. RESULTS: There were abnormal ECG findings and elevated blood troponin I levels suggestive of AMI in five (6% of the 82 operations performed. All five had conventional surgery. The incidence of AMI as a proportion of the 52 conventional surgery cases was 9.6%. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: There was a 6% AMI incidence among patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass due to PAOD. Considering only cases operated using conventional surgery, the incidence of AMI was 9.6%.

  9. The effect of shunt surgery on neuropsychological performance in normal pressure hydrocephalus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Katie; Savulich, George Joseph; Jackson, Dan; Killikelly, Clare; Pickard, John Douglas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a systematic review of the literature and used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the impact of shunt surgery on neuropsychological performance in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Methods: Twenty-three studies with 1,059 patients were identified for review using PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and manual searching. Inclusion criteria were prospective, within-subject investigations of cognitive outcome using neuropsychological assessment b...

  10. Event-related potentials (P300 and neuropsychological assessment in boys exhibiting Duchenne muscular dystrophy Potencial evocado cognitivo (P300 e testagem neuropsicológica em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Della Coletta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine auditory cognitive evoked potentials (P300 potentials and neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: P300 potentials and neuropsychological test results were obtained from 16 healthy control boys and 20 DMD patients. Full Intelligence Quotients (IQ were estimated for patients and control group. Mean age was 9.5 years in the DMD patient group, and 10 years in the control group (p>0.05. RESULTS: The mean IQ values were 64.35 in the DMD patients and 82.68 in the control group (p=0.01. Mean P300 values were 347.6 in the DMD group and 337.4 in the control group (p=0.14. There was no significant correlation between parameters in each group. CONCLUSION: DMD patients showed a poor performance as evaluated by P300 potential compared to the control group, although the difference was not statistically significant. Systematic alterations in neuropsychological test results were found, the differences paralleling those detected in IQ.OBJETIVO: Avaliar potenciais evocados cognitivos auditivos (P300 e disfunções neuropsicológicas em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD. MÉTODO: Potenciais auditivos P300 e testes neuropsicológicos foram obtidos de 16 controles e 20 pacientes com DMD. Valores de quociente de inteligência (QI foram estimados para os dois grupos. A media de idade foi de 9.5 anos no grupo DMD e 10 anos no grupo controle (p>0.05. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios de QI foram 64.35 no grupo DMD e 82.68 no grupo controle (p=0.01. A média de valores de P300 foi 347.6 no grupo DMD e 337.4 no grupo controle (p=0.14. Não houve correlação significativa entre os parâmetros em cada grupo. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com DMD mostraram um pior desempenho nas testagens de P300 quando comparados com o grupo controle, embora a diferença não tenha apresentado diferença significativa. Alterações sistemáticas foram encontradas nos testes neuropsicológicos, correspondendo

  11. [Neuropsychological performance in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Castillo, Lilia; Martínez Bermejo, Antonio; Portellano Pérez, José Antonio; Tirado Requero, Pilar; Garriz Luis, Alexandra; Velázquez Fragua, Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children. A comparison was made between the neuropsychological performance of a group of 23 boys and girls with a mean age of 8.7 years (+/-1.39) and diagnosed with NF1, and a control group consisting of 21 healthy children, with mean age of 8.9 years (+/- 1.41) and with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was applied to evaluate the subjects of both groups. The group of patients affected with NF1 showed a lower performance in every primary index of WISC IV: Verbal Comprehension Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and full Scale IQ. Only in two subscales were no statistically significant differences observed: similarities and coding. The results show subtle and generalised neuropsychological alterations in the sample of children affected with NF1, which affect most of cognitive domains that have been evaluated. Proper specific and early neuropsychological treatment should be provided in order to prevent the high risk for these children of presenting learning difficulties and school failure. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Elsheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ on these abilities. Design: Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1 and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6. Results: Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001, Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01, Narrative Memory (p<0.001 and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05 and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01. Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions: Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  13. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Neuropsychological performance in patients with schizophrenia and controls as a function of cigarette smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C.; Bacher, Ingrid; Sacco, Kristi A.; George, Tony P.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with many neurocognitive deficits, some of which are improved by nicotine and cigarette smoking. To better understand the relationship between smoking and cognitive function in schizophrenia, cross-sectional assessment of neuropsychological performance as a function of smoking status (smoker or non-smoker) and smoking history (current, former or never-smoker) in clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia and controls was evaluated. Subjects (N=140) were divided into subgroups on the basis of self-report and biochemical verification of smoking history. Current smokers with schizophrenia (n=38), former smokers with schizophrenia (n=17), never-smokers with schizophrenia (n=12), control smokers (n=31), control former smokers (n=16), and control never-smokers (n=26) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Smokers were studied under non-deprivation conditions. Comparison of neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia and control subjects revealed significant main effects of diagnosis. Analysis of the data as a function of smoking history demonstrated that never-smokers with schizophrenia performed the poorest on measures of sustained attention, processing speed and response inhibition, when compared to the other schizophrenia subgroups. Cigarette smoking did not alter neuropsychological performance in controls. Our findings suggest that smoking status and history differentially alters neuropsychological outcomes in schizophrenia compared to non-psychiatric controls, and that never-smokers may present with more severe neurocognitive impairments. PMID:21669462

  15. Psychiatric and neuropsychological issues in Marfan syndrome: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Antonella; Pisano, Simone; Catone, Gennaro; Iuliano, Raffaella; Salvati, Tiziana; Gritti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The cooccurrence of Marfan syndrome and psychiatric disorders has been reported for many years. Furthermore, neuropsychological deficits have been shown to be associated with Marfan syndrome. The aim of the present article is to summarize findings from the sparse studies and case reports available. The results hold clinical and therapeutic implications and suggest that psychological and neuropsychological domains in Marfan syndrome patients should be carefully assessed. In particular, some patients may require specific rehabilitation programs. On this basis, a multidisciplinary approach to Marfan syndrome treatment seems mandatory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Neuropsychology reports for childhood brain tumor survivors: implementation of recommendations at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Accuracy statistics in predicting Independent Activities of Daily Living (IADL) capacity with comprehensive and brief neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzmark, Peter; Deutsch, Gayle K

    2018-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38). Standardized neuropsychological assessments were administered to all participants and were comprised of the Halstead Reitan Battery and portions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A comprehensive test battery yielded a moderate increase over base-rate in predictive accuracy that generalized to older individuals. There was only limited support for using a brief battery, for although sensitivity was high, specificity was low. We found that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery provided good classification accuracy for predicting IADL capacity.

  18. Orbital and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Neuropsychological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-01-01

    A recent paper (Zald & Andreotti, 2010) reviewed neuropsychological tasks that assess the function of the orbital and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (OMPFC). Neuropathological studies have shown that the function of the OMPFC should be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) but becomes affected in the advanced…

  19. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury : Acute versus chronic disturbances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M.; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully

  20. Relationship of temporal lobe volumes to neuropsychological test performance in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain

  1. Neuropsychological outcome in chemotherapy-only-treated children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Nathalie C. A. J.; Kingma, Annette; Schuitema, Arnout; Bouma, Anke; Veerman, Anjo J. P.; Kamps, Willem A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate neuropsychological functioning over time in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with chemotherapy only. Patients and Methods Forty-nine consecutive patients (median age at first assessment, 6.8 years; range, 4.0 to 11.8 years) treated with intrathecal and

  2. The Relationship of Neuropsychological Skills and Functional Outcome in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    Typically, neuropsychological assessment has been used to predict various diagnostic parameters. In the elderly, referrals are often made to psychologists for the purpose of facilitating diagnosis of psychiatric or organic conditions, such as depression or Alzheimer's disease. However, psychologists are routinely requested to make recommendations…

  3. Comparison of performance on three neuropsychological tests in healthy Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate neuropsychological tests for cross-cultural assessment of dementia in elderly ethnic and linguistic minorities are generally lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the Recall of Pictures Test (RPT), Clock Reading Test (CRT...

  4. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  5. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  7. Predictors of health-related quality of life and participation after brain injury rehabilitation: The role of neuropsychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, H; Winkens, I; van Heugten, C M; Rasquin, S M C; Heijnen, V A; Visser-Meily, J M A

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were: (1) to assess associations between neuropsychological factors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and participation three months after discharge from inpatient acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation; and (2) to determine the best neuropsychological predictor of HRQoL and participation after controlling for demographic and injury-related factors. Patients with ABI (n = 100) were assessed within approximately two weeks of enrolment in inpatient rehabilitation. Predictor variables included demographic and injury-related characteristics and the following neuropsychological factors: active and passive coping, attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, learning potential, depressive symptoms, motivation, extraversion, neuroticism and self-awareness. Bivariate analyses revealed that passive coping, executive functioning, depressive symptoms, extraversion, and neuroticism were significantly associated with HRQoL and/or participation. Neuropsychological factors significantly explained additional variance in HRQoL (18.1-21.6%) and participation (6.9-20.3%) after controlling for demographic and injury-related factors. However, a higher tendency towards passive coping was the only significant neuropsychological predictor (β = -0.305 to -0.464) of lower HRQoL and participation. This study shows that neuropsychological functioning, and in particular passive coping, plays a role in predicting HRQoL and participation after inpatient ABI rehabilitation and emphasises the importance of addressing patients' coping styles in an early phase of ABI rehabilitation.

  8. Physician Preferences to Communicate Neuropsychological Results: Comparison of Qualitative Descriptors and a Proposal to Reduce Communication Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Osborn, Katie E; Mahone, E Mark; Feigon, Maia; Roth, Robert M; Pliskin, Neil H

    2017-11-08

    Errors in communication are a leading cause of medical errors. A potential source of error in communicating neuropsychological results is confusion in the qualitative descriptors used to describe standardized neuropsychological data. This study sought to evaluate the extent to which medical consumers of neuropsychological assessments believed that results/findings were not clearly communicated. In addition, preference data for a variety of qualitative descriptors commonly used to communicate normative neuropsychological test scores were obtained. Preference data were obtained for five qualitative descriptor systems as part of a larger 36-item internet-based survey of physician satisfaction with neuropsychological services. A new qualitative descriptor system termed the Simplified Qualitative Classification System (Q-Simple) was proposed to reduce the potential for communication errors using seven terms: very superior, superior, high average, average, low average, borderline, and abnormal/impaired. A non-random convenience sample of 605 clinicians identified from four United States academic medical centers from January 1, 2015 through January 7, 2016 were invited to participate. A total of 182 surveys were completed. A minority of clinicians (12.5%) indicated that neuropsychological study results were not clearly communicated. When communicating neuropsychological standardized scores, the two most preferred qualitative descriptor systems were by Heaton and colleagues (26%) and a newly proposed Q-simple system (22%). Comprehensive norms for an extended Halstead-Reitan battery: Demographic corrections, research findings, and clinical applications. Odessa, TX: Psychological Assessment Resources) (26%) and the newly proposed Q-Simple system (22%). Initial findings highlight the need to improve and standardize communication of neuropsychological results. These data offer initial guidance for preferred terms to communicate test results and form a foundation for more

  9. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition.

  10. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-01-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years

  11. Preoperative neuropsychological presentation of patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Angelopoulos, Elias; Konstantakopoulos, George; Takousi, Maria; Sakas, Damianos E; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether certain cognitive deficits are associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) aiming to contribute with localization data to the preoperative assessment of epilepsy surgery candidates. We evaluated 34 patients with refractory FLE, 37 patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and 22 healthy individuals in attention, psychomotor speed, motor function, verbal memory span, verbal fluency, response inhibition/interference, concept formation and set shifting, anticipation and planning, global memory. Neuropsychological performances of FLE and MTLE were similar, with the only exception the WCST-number of categories index, measuring mental flexibility, in which MTLE patients performed significantly worse than FLE patients. Left-FLE patients presented more perseverative responding compared to both other patient groups and healthy controls (HCs), while left-MTLE patients showed worse sorting abilities than the other epilepsy groups. Our findings suggest a weak cognitive differentiation between FLE and MTLE, probably attributed to the intricate nature of fronto-temporal connectivity frequently resulting in overlapping deficits as well as the confounding effects of seizure-related variables. In clinical practice, a highly individualized (idiographic) neuropsychological approach along with the inclusion of concurrent EEG recordings (e.g., interictal coupling) may be of help for neuropsychologists in identifying FLE patients from those with medial temporal pathology presenting frontal dysfunction as a secondary cognitive symptom.

  12. Neuropsychology of Multiple Sclerosis: Looking Back and Moving Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H B; DeLuca, John; Enzinger, Christian; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Krupp, Lauren B; Rao, Stephen M

    2017-10-01

    The neuropsychological aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) have evolved over the past three decades. What was once thought to be a rare occurrence, cognitive dysfunction is now viewed as one of the most disabling symptoms of the disease, with devastating effects on patients' quality of life. This selective review will highlight major innovations and scientific discoveries in the areas of neuropathology, neuroimaging, diagnosis, and treatment that pertain to our understanding of the neuropsychological aspects of MS. Specifically, we focus on the recent discovery that MS produces pathogical lesions of gray matter (GM) that have consequences for cognitive functions. Methods for imaging these GM lesions in MS are discussed along with multimodal imaging studies that integrate structural and functional imaging methods to provide a better understanding of the relationship between cognitive test performance and functional reserve. Innovations in the screening and comprehensive assessment of cognitive disorders are presented along with recent research that examines cognitive dysfunction in pediatric MS. Results of innovative outcome studies in cognitive rehabilitation are discussed. Finally, we highlight trends for potential future innovations over the next decade. (JINS, 2017, 23, 832-842).

  13. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICIT AND EFFECT OF COMPUTERISED COGNITIVE RETRAINING IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhranshu Nath

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is a major public health issue across the globe. A range of cognitive and behavioural sequelae is exhibited by TBI. Patients of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI do benefit from cognitive retraining. The aim of the present study is to observe the effects of cognitive retraining on neuropsychological deficits. Sample for the study comprised of 36 patients of head injury reporting to a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cases were evaluated on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Wechsler’s Memory Scale (WMS III to assess the prevalence of neuropsychological deficit. The cases were given four sessions of Brain Function Therapy (BFT per week. A total of eight sessions were finally given to each one of the cases. The neuropsychological deficit were assessed before and after giving Brain Function Therapy (BFT or cognitive retraining and compared. RESULTS The mean age of the sample was 32.13±6.14 years and majority of the cases were educated till higher secondary school. Significant differences were noted when the neuropsychological deficit assessed pre-BFT and post-BFT were compared (p <0.001. CONCLUSION Cases of TBI do benefit with BFT, and hence, it is recommended to institute computerised cognitive rehabilitation/retraining in such cases in psychiatry setup.

  14. Traumatic brain injury neuropsychology in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quijano María Cristina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: comparative analysis between control group and patients with TBI to determine whetherthere neuropsychological differences at 6 months of evolution, to guide timely interventioncommensurate with the needs of this population. Materials and methods: a total of 79 patientswith a history of TBI with a minimum of 6 months of evolution and 79 control subjects were evaluated.Both groups with a mean age of 34 and without previous neurological or psychiatric disorders and an average schooling of 11 years for the control group and 9 years for the TBI group.The Glasgow Coma Scale in the TBI group was classified as moderate with 11 points. The BriefNeuropsychological Evaluation in Spanish Neuropsi was applied to both groups. Results: significantdifferences (p≤0.05 in the tasks of orientation, attention, memory, language, reading andwriting were found. Conclusions: TBI generates significant neuropsychological changes, even sixmonths after discharge from the health service. It suggests that patients with head injury requiretreatment after overcoming the initial stage.

  15. Behavior, neuropsychology and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean; Hermens, Daniel F; Lagopoulos, Jim

    Cognitive neuroscientists in the late 20th century began the task of identifying the part(s) of the brain concerned with normal behavior as manifest in the psychological capacities as affective powers, reasoning, behaving purposively and the pursuit of goals, following introduction of the 'functional magnetic resonance imaging' (fMRI) method for identifying brain activity. For this research program to be successful two questions require satisfactory answers. First, as the fMRI method can currently only be used on stationary subjects, to what extent can neuropsychological tests applicable to such stationary subjects be correlated with normal behavior. Second, to what extent can correlations between the various neuropsychological tests on the one hand, and sites of brain activity determined with fMRI on the other, be regarded as established. The extent to which these questions have yet received satisfactory answers is reviewed, and suggestions made both for improving correlations of neuropsychological tests with behavior as well as with the results of fMRI-based observations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Neuropsychological Mechanisms for Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eLiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in – and the prevalence of – falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life.

  17. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of volumetric and fractal measurements of brain atrophy with neuropsychological tests in patients with dementive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Sasiadek, M.; Filarski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Brain atrophy is one of the features of the dementive diseases, but also of other neurodegenerative disorders as well as physiological brain aging. The aim of the study was to define the relationship between the brain atrophy measurements and the degree of the severity of dementive process based on the neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test). In 68 patients with diagnosed impairment of cognitive functions due to dementia, neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test) and CT studies were performed. On the basis of CT images we evaluated cortical and subcortical atrophy with 3 methods; visual, semiautomatic (volumetric) and automatic method based on fractal geometry calculations; the latter was characterized by very short time of measurements. The correlation between neuropsychological tests and brain atrophy measurements has been assessed using Pearson's correlation test. No statistical correlation was found between the results of neuropsychological tests and measurements of the brain atrophy (both cortical and subcortical) using all three methods mentioned above. Single measurement of the generalized cortical and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. In our opinion, these measurements might be valuable in follow-up of the dementive process to compare progression of the atrophic changes with the changes of the neuropsychological tests results, especially using very quick automatic method, supplemented by local atrophy measurements. (authors)

  19. Routine use of CANTAB system for detection of neuropsychological deficits in patients with PKU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik-Multanowski, Miroslaw; Pietrzyk, Jacek J; Mozrzymas, Renata

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have reported neuropsychological deficits related to hyper phenylalaninemia in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). As computerized neuropsychological tests seem to be promising in the detection of such abnormalities, we aimed to assess the usefulness of routine use of CANTAB system in PKU clinic. A group of 49 PKU patients aged >16 years were tested by means of computerized CANTAB tests measuring speed of response, response inhibition, sustained attention, and working memory capacity. The scores achieved by study participants were analyzed with respect to their blood phenylalanine concentrations. Proper dietary control was observed in 22 patients, whereas in the remaining 27 persons, blood phenylalanine concentrations exceeded the recommended range. The results of the tests assessing sustained attention, working memory, and inhibitory control achieved by the non-compliant patients were significantly worse in comparison with patients maintaining proper diet. However, the mean scores achieved by treatment-adherent patients were also worse than expected, what could probably be related to problems with early start of treatment during their infancy. Our results confirmed the presence of specific neuropsychological deficits related to hyperphenylalaninemia in adults and adolescents with PKU. In our opinion, routine use of computerized neuropsychological tests should be recommended in PKU clinics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  1. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Veleda, Gessyka Wanglon; Mazzoleni, Martina; Colares, Elton Pinto; Neiva-Silva, Lucas; Neves, Vera Torres das

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer's disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  2. The effects of energy drinks alone and with alcohol on neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kim; Stasio, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks-alone or with alcohol-are heavily marketed to young adults, many of whom believe that caffeine counteracts some negative effects of alcohol intoxication. While the effects of caffeine and alcohol have been widely investigated, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance after consumption of a beverage containing both ingredients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 non-caffeine-deprived female participants were randomly assigned to consume a caffeinated energy drink alone, one containing alcohol, or a non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated control beverage. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted using alternate forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants who consumed the energy drink plus alcohol evidenced significantly lower post-test performance on a global score of neuropsychological status. Specifically, deficits were found in both visuospatial/constructional and language performance scores. While participants who consumed the caffeinated beverage alone trended toward improved attention scores, neuropsychological status did not show meaningful changes from the pre- to post-test. Consumption of an energy drink containing 6% alcohol by volume negatively influenced performance on a global measure of cognitive functioning. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Centurion Cabral

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  4. Celebrating the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association: A quarter century of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory G; Anderson, Vicki; Bigler, Erin D; Chan, Agnes S; Fama, Rosemary; Grabowski, Thomas J; Zakzanis, Konstantine K

    2017-11-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2017. As part of this celebration, the APA journal Neuropsychology has published in its November 2017 issue 11 papers describing some of the advances in the field of neuropsychology over the past 25 years. The papers address three broad topics: assessment and intervention, brain imaging, and theory and methods. The papers describe the rise of new assessment and intervention technologies, the impact of evidence for neuroplasticity on neurorehabilitation. Examples of the use of mathematical models of cognition to investigate latent neurobehavioral processes, the development of the field of neuropsychology in select international countries, the increasing sophistication of brain imaging methods, the recent evidence for localizationist and connectionist accounts of neurobehavioral functioning, the advances in neurobehavioral genomics, and descriptions of newly developed statistical models of longitudinal change. Together the papers convey evidence of the vibrant growth in the field of neuropsychology over the quarter century since APA's 100th anniversary in 1992. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Acquired brain injury: combining social psychological and neuropsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R Stephen; Fortune, Donal G; Gallagher, Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper reviews an emerging literature which attempts to bring together an important area of social psychology and neuropsychology. The paper presents a rationale for the integration of the social identity and clinical neuropsychological approaches in the study of acquired brain injury (ABI). The paper begins by reviewing the social and neuropsychological perspectives of ABI. Subsequently, theoretical and empirical studies that demonstrate the social influences on neuropsychology and the inherently social nature of mind are considered. Neuropsychological understandings of social identities and their potential relationships to the variability in ABIs are also discussed. The values of these understandings to ABI rehabilitation are then examined. The paper concludes by suggesting an agenda for future research that integrates the social identity and neuropsychological paradigms so that psychology might grow in its store of applicable knowledge to enhance support and rehabilitation for those with ABI.

  6. Past, present, and future of neuropsychology in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Ferreres, Aldo; Morlett-Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To describe the history, current situation, and future challenges of Argentinian neuropsychology. A brief historical description highlighting the most representative authors and publications is made. In addition, a survey was administered to a sample of 135 neuropsychologists practicing neuropsychology in Argentina. The survey explored the current neuropsychological practices among the respondents. Results show that most Argentinian neuropsychologists are: psychologists, women, and work in the clinical field in the country's major cities. Besides, the practice of neuropsychology is mostly unregulated with few training opportunities. Argentinian neuropsychology emerged from neurology in the early twentieth century and slowly progressed until the 1960s when the first organized research groups were created. Since then, a substantial and steady progress followed. However, more training opportunities and a better regulation of the discipline are needed. No similar studies have been conducted in the past, thus becoming one of the first to describe the development of neuropsychology in Argentina.

  7. Brain damage and addictive behavior: a neuropsychological and electroencephalogram investigation with pathologic gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regard, Marianne; Knoch, Daria; Gütling, Eva; Landis, Theodor

    2003-03-01

    Gambling is a form of nonsubstance addiction classified as an impulse control disorder. Pathologic gamblers are considered healthy with respect to their cognitive status. Lesions of the frontolimbic systems, mostly of the right hemisphere, are associated with addictive behavior. Because gamblers are not regarded as "brain-lesioned" and gambling is nontoxic, gambling is a model to test whether addicted "healthy" people are relatively impaired in frontolimbic neuropsychological functions. Twenty-one nonsubstance dependent gamblers and nineteen healthy subjects underwent a behavioral neurologic interview centered on incidence, origin, and symptoms of possible brain damage, a neuropsychological examination, and an electroencephalogram. Seventeen gamblers (81%) had a positive medical history for brain damage (mainly traumatic head injury, pre- or perinatal complications). The gamblers, compared with the controls, were significantly more impaired in concentration, memory, and executive functions, and evidenced a higher prevalence of non-right-handedness (43%) and, non-left-hemisphere language dominance (52%). Electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed dysfunctional activity in 65% of the gamblers, compared with 26% of controls. This study shows that the "healthy" gamblers are indeed brain-damaged. Compared with a matched control population, pathologic gamblers evidenced more brain injuries, more fronto-temporo-limbic neuropsychological dysfunctions and more EEG abnormalities. The authors thus conjecture that addictive gambling may be a consequence of brain damage, especially of the frontolimbic systems, a finding that may well have medicolegal consequences.

  8. An MRI, SPECT and Neuropsychological Study of a Patient Presenting with Capgras Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mackie

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year old male patient presented with the “delusion of doubles” (Capgras syndrome. The patient underwent detailed neuropsychological, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI investigations. The neuropsychological results indicated that he was of average premorbid intelligence, which was consistent with current estimates, and had a degree of everyday memory dysfunction which was below norms derived from healthy controls, but was average relative to schizophrenic norms. He demonstrated average or above average recognition memory for patterns, spaces or words, but exhibited a marked and disproportionate impairment in face recognition, performing at the 5th percentile. In addition he demonstrated markedly impaired performance on various tests of executive function. MRI scanning revealed no focal abnormality; slight ventricular dilatation was noted. SPECT scanning, however, revealed marked right/left asymmetries of tracer uptake, restricted to occipital and calcarine cortices. These asymmetries were well outside those derived from a cohort of healthy controls. These results are discussed in relation to current neuropsychological models of Capgras syndrome.

  9. Neuropsychological profile in new-onset benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS): Focusing on executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Melissa; Ardu, Eleonora; Stefanelli, Silvia; Boni, Antonella; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Benso, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Increased evidence of subnormal neuropsychological functioning in new-onset childhood epilepsy has been obtained, although results are still rare and controversial. With a prospective study, we aimed to define the very early neuropsychological profile of children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), including executive functions (EF) because of their key role in learning. Additionally, we enrolled drug-naïve children, with a NREM sleep frequency of discharges Performance Intelligence Quotient equal or superior to 85, in order to exclude additional effects on the neuropsychological functioning. Fifteen school-aged children with BECTS (mean age: 8.8years, standard deviation [SD]: 2.4years) and fifteen healthy children (mean age: 9.2years, [SD]: 2.5years) were enrolled and assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The assessment included domain-specific standardized tests of language, EF, academic skills, visuomotor and visuospatial skills, and short-term memory. A p-valueacademic skills, significant differences between groups emerged regarding the number of mistakes in nonword writing (p=.001), nonword reading speed (p=.027), nonword reading number of mistakes (p=.019), and word reading errors (p=.023). Results showed that children with new-onset BECTS may demonstrate a range of neuropsychological dysfunctions, particularly affecting executive attention, despite a normal IQ, a low frequency of NREM sleep discharges, and the absence of drugs. These difficulties indicate a frontal dysfunction with cascading effects on language and academic skills. The inclusion of EF in the assessment battery and in the intervention since the very onset is warranted in order to avoid further and persistent academic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive training modifies frequency EEG bands and neuropsychological measures in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Billeci, Lucia; Crifaci, Giulia; Troise, Emilia; Tortorella, Gaetano; Pioggia, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a primary disturbance in neuronal development. Neurological abnormalities in RS are reflected in several behavioral and cognitive impairments such as stereotypies, loss of speech and hand skills, gait apraxia, irregular breathing with hyperventilation while awake, and frequent seizures. Cognitive training can enhance both neuropsychological and neurophysiological parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether behaviors and brain activity were modified by training in RS. The modifications were assessed in two phases: (a) after a short-term training (STT) session, i.e., after 30 min of training and (b) after long-term training (LTT), i.e., after 5 days of training. Thirty-four girls with RS were divided into two groups: a training group (21 girls) who underwent the LTT and a control group (13 girls) that did not undergo LTT. The gaze and quantitative EEG (QEEG) data were recorded during the administration of the tasks. A gold-standard eye-tracker and a wearable EEG equipment were used. Results suggest that the participants in the STT task showed a habituation effect, decreased beta activity and increased right asymmetry. The participants in the LTT task looked faster and longer at the target, and show increased beta activity and decreased theta activity, while a leftward asymmetry was re-established. The overall result of this study indicates a positive effect of long-term cognitive training on brain and behavioral parameters in subject with RS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality disorder symptomatology and neuropsychological functioning in closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite an emerging literature characterizing the neuropsychological profiles of borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders, relations between personality disorder traits and neurocognitive domains remain unknown. The authors examined associations among Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales and eight neuropsychological domains in 161 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation following closed head injury. Most personality disorder scales were associated with some decrement in cognitive function, particularly speeded processing, executive function, and language, while histrionic and narcissistic scales had positive relations with neuropsychological functioning. Results suggest that many personality disorder traits are related to neurocognitive function, particularly those functions subserved by frontal and temporal regions.

  12. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  13. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT: A STUDY OF THE QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT IN PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    MILENA VASCONCELOS MARTINS DE JESUS

    2010-01-01

    Os constructos responsáveis pela fundamentação teórica da neuropsicologia foram, em grande parte, constituídos a partir da convergência de várias ciências. Sendo assim, para que se possa compreender a neuropsicologia, é necessário ter em mente um percurso histórico desde os estudos iniciais da história da mente e do cérebro. A avaliação neuropsicológica ocupa um lugar central na neuropsicologia, uma vez que auxilia no exame de determinadas manifestações do indivíduo para a i...

  14. Cognitive Function and Neuropsychological Comorbidities in Children with Newly Diagnosed Idiopathic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yun; Park, Jang Ho; Park, Sin Jae; Kim, Yangho; Lee, Kyung Yeon

    2018-01-15

    In this study, we aimed to identify cognitive function and neuropsychological comorbidities in children with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 97 antiepileptic drug-naïve children (9.7 ± 2.9 years; 54 males and 43 females) with newly diagnosed idiopathic epilepsy, all of whom underwent a neuropsychological battery. The battery consisted of the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale, ADHD Diagnostic System, Children's Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. We investigated association between scores of the neuropsychological battery and epilepsy classification, lateralization of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on electroencephalography (EEG), and variables related to seizures. Thirteen patients (14.3%) had ADHD symptoms. Three patients (4.1%) had depressive symptoms, and 9 (12.3%) had anxiety symptoms. Patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) had significantly lower full-scale intelligence and performance intelligence quotient scores than patients with idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE) (89.0 ± 17.6 vs. 96.3 ± 14.8; P = 0.030 and 88.9 ± 16.3 vs. 97.0 ± 16.4; P = 0.016, respectively). Patients with ILRE having unilateral IEDs had significantly higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores than patients with ILRE having bilateral IEDs and patients with IGE (99.9 ± 12.2 vs. 93.7 ± 16.1 vs. 89.0 ± 17.6; P = 0.039, respectively). Our results suggest that idiopathic epilepsy may be accompanied by various neuropsychological comorbidities even at initial diagnosis. Patients with IGE and ILRE having bilateral IEDs on EEG appear more likely to be at high risk of decreased cognitive function. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. SPECT neuroimaging and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Pavlos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Constantoyannis, Costantinos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    The present study investigated differences and associations between cortical perfusion, nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recruited 53 non-demented PD patients divided into four groups according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system and 20 healthy controls who were used in the comparison of the neuropsychological findings. Each patient underwent two separate brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies (perfusion and dopamine transporter binding) as well as neuropsychological evaluation. Perfusion images of each patient were quantified and compared with a normative database provided by the NeuroGam software manufacturers. Mean values obtained from the cortical areas and neuropsychological measures in the different groups were also compared by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for disease duration and educational level. We found cognitive deficits especially in the late PD stages (HY 3, 4 and 5) compared to the early stages (HY 1 and 2) and associations between cognitive decrements and cortical perfusion deterioration mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical areas. Compared with controls, PD patients showed impairments of cognition and cerebral perfusion that increased with clinical severity. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the performance on the phonemic fluency task and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left frontal lobe. Dopamine transporter binding in the left caudate nucleus significantly correlated with blood flow in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but not with measures of executive functions. There are significant cognitive and perfusion deficits associated with PD progression, implying a multifactorial neurodegeneration process apart from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (orig.)

  16. SPECT neuroimaging and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Pavlos; Messinis, Lambros; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Constantoyannis, Costantinos

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated differences and associations between cortical perfusion, nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and neuropsychological functions in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recruited 53 non-demented PD patients divided into four groups according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system and 20 healthy controls who were used in the comparison of the neuropsychological findings. Each patient underwent two separate brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies (perfusion and dopamine transporter binding) as well as neuropsychological evaluation. Perfusion images of each patient were quantified and compared with a normative database provided by the NeuroGam software manufacturers. Mean values obtained from the cortical areas and neuropsychological measures in the different groups were also compared by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for disease duration and educational level. We found cognitive deficits especially in the late PD stages (HY 3, 4 and 5) compared to the early stages (HY 1 and 2) and associations between cognitive decrements and cortical perfusion deterioration mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical areas. Compared with controls, PD patients showed impairments of cognition and cerebral perfusion that increased with clinical severity. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the performance on the phonemic fluency task and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left frontal lobe. Dopamine transporter binding in the left caudate nucleus significantly correlated with blood flow in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but not with measures of executive functions. There are significant cognitive and perfusion deficits associated with PD progression, implying a multifactorial neurodegeneration process apart from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (orig.)

  17. Theory of Mind and its neuropsychological and Quality of Life correlates in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Trojsi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the potential impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM (i.e., the ability to represent cognitive and affective mental states to both self and others and the clinical, neuropsychological and Quality of Life (QoL correlates of these cognitive abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a multisystem neurodegenerative disease recently recognized as a part of the same clinical and pathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration.Twenty-two consecutive, cognitively intact ALS patients, and 15 healthy controls, underwent assessment of executive, verbal comprehension, visuospatial, behavioural and QoL measures, as well as of the ToM abilities by Emotion Attribution Task (EAT, Advanced Test of ToM (ATT and Eyes Task (ET.ALS patients obtained significantly lower scores than controls on EAT and ET. No significant difference was found between the two groups on ATT. As regard to type of ALS onset, patients with bulbar onset performed worse than those with spinal onset on ET. Correlation analysis revealed that EAT and ET were positively correlated with education, memory prose, visuo-spatial performances and Mental Health scores among QoL items.Our results suggest that not only cognitive but also affective subcomponents of ToM may be impaired in the early stages of ALS, with significant linkage to disease onset and dysfunctions of less executively demanding conditions, causing potential impact on patients' Mental Health.

  18. [Neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions by means of virtual reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent-Martínez, Gema; Luna-Lario, Pilar; Bombín-González, Igor; Cifuentes-Rodríguez, Alicia; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Díaz-Orueta, Unai

    2014-05-16

    Executive functions include a wide range of self regulatory functions that allow control, organization and coordination of other cognitive functions, emotional responses and behaviours. The traditional approach to evaluate these functions, by means of paper and pencil neuropsychological tests, shows a greater than expected performance within the normal range for patients whose daily life difficulties would predict an inferior performance. These discrepancies suggest that classical neuropsychological tests may not adequately reproduce the complexity and dynamic nature of real life situations. Latest developments in the field of virtual reality offer interesting options for the neuropsychological assessment of many cognitive processes. Virtual reality reproduces three-dimensional environments with which the patient interacts in a dynamic way, with a sense of immersion in the environment similar to the presence and exposure to a real environment. Furthermore, the presentation of these stimuli, as well as distractors and other variables, may be controlled in a systematic way. Moreover, more consistent and precise answers may be obtained, and an in-depth analysis of them is possible. The present review shows current problems in neuropsychological evaluation of executive functions and latest advances in the consecution of higher preciseness and validity of the evaluation by means of new technologies and virtual reality, with special mention to some developments performed in Spain.

  19. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  20. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Scott A; Cimino, Cynthia R; Stricker, Nikki H; Heffelfinger, Amy K; Gess, Jennifer L; Osborn, Katie E; Roper, Brad L

    2017-07-01

    Historically, the clinical neuropsychology training community has not clearly or consistently defined education or training opportunities. The lack of consistency has limited students' and trainees' ability to accurately assess and compare the intensity of neuropsychology-specific training provided by programs. To address these issues and produce greater 'truth in advertising' across programs, CNS, with SCN's Education Advisory Committee (EAC), ADECN, AITCN, and APPCN constructed a specialty-specific taxonomy, namely, the Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. The taxonomy provides consensus in the description of training offered by doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral programs, as well as at the post-licensure stage. Although the CNS approved the taxonomy in February 2015, many programs have not adopted its language. Increased awareness of the taxonomy and the reasons behind its development and structure, as well as its potential benefits, are warranted. In 2016, a working group of clinical neuropsychologists from the EAC and APPCN, all authors of this manuscript, was created and tasked with disseminating information about the taxonomy. Group members held regular conference calls, leading to the generation of this manuscript. This manuscript is the primary byproduct of the working group. Its purpose is to (1) outline the history behind the development of the taxonomy, (2) detail its structure and utility, (3) address the expected impact of its adoption, and (4) call for its adoption across training programs. This manuscript outlines the development and structure of the clinical neuropsychology taxonomy and addresses the need for its adoption across training programs.

  2. Neuropsychological rehabilitation in a patient with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm: 48 month outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Prado Bolognani

    Full Text Available Abstract The neurobehavioral impairments associated with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA are severe amnesia, executive problems and personality changes. Although most patients achieve a favorable neurological outcome, those cognitive deficits usually prevent return to previous activities and levels of social integration. Objectives: To report the outcomes of a neuropsychological and behavioral intervention in a 55 year-old man with very severe memory and executive dysfunctions following ACoA aneurysm rupture. Methods: Neuropsychological intervention focused in functional adjustment in everyday life was used, including individual sessions with the patient, discussion sessions with caregivers and also work with patient at home, aiming generalization of the rehabilitation strategies. Neuropsychological and functional assessments were conducted pre and post intervention. Results: Important improvements were seeing in behavior and daily living performance after treatment. Conclusions: A neuropsychological rehabilitation approach focused on goals based on the family and caregivers necessities is an efficient manner in which to carry out cognitive rehabilitation in severe cases. The importance of a supportive family should be stressed.

  3. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI): A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vent, Nathalie R.; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A.; Schmand, Ben A.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI), datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity, and range of these data

  4. [Patients with astigmatism who underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification: toric IOL x asferic IOL?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Netto, Emilio de Almeida; Gulin, Marina Carvalho; Zapparoli, Marcio; Moreira, Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Compare the visual acuity of patients who underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with IOL AcrySof(®) toric implantation versus AcrySof(®) IQ and evaluate the reduction of cylindrical diopters (CD) in the postoperative period. Analytical and retrospective study of 149 eyes with 1 or more diopters of regular symmetrical keratometric astigmatism, which underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. The eyes were divided into two groups: the toric group with 85 eyes and the non-toric group with 64 eyes. In the pre-operative phase, topographic data and refraction of each eye to be operated were assessed. In the postoperative phase, refraction and visual acuity with and without correction were measured. The preoperative topographic astigmatism ranged from 1.00 to 5.6 DC in both groups. Average reduction of 1.37 CD (p<0.001) and 0.16 CD (p=0.057) was obtained for the toric and non-toric group when compared to the refractive astigmatism, respectively. Considering visual acuity without correction (NCVA), the toric group presented 44 eyes (51.7%) with NCVA of 0 logMAR (20/20) or 0.1 logMAR (20/25) and the toric group presented 7 eyes (10.93%) with these same NCVA values. The results show that patients with a significant keratometric astigmatism presented visual benefits with the toric IOL implantation. The reduction of the use of optical aids may be obtained provided aberrations of the human eye are corrected more accurately. Currently, phacoemulsification surgery has been used not only for functional improvement, but also as a refraction procedure.

  5. [Towards a neuropsychological approach to autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychology attributes mental activity to brain functioning. An inventory of the every-day life of the autist confirms a breakdown in behavior adapted to the world around him. Deficiency in the contribution of the right hemisphere, compromising social life, is accompanied by a mental life that is detached from reality, favorizing preconceived ideas that are inscribed in the logic governing the left hemispheric function. Inside each hemisphere homologous areas of the cerebral cortex, receiving and sharing the same information, react to messages according to their own mode. The left hemisphere applies itself to elementary information, treated sequentially, while the right hemisphere continuously brings up to date temporal and spatial synthesis coming from the sensorale contribution. Attachment to an object or attentiveness to the world: this alternative mode is the key to understanding. The disorder responsible for autism occurs in the perinatal period. It compromizes the maturation of right hemisphere functions where interaction with the surrounding environment should take precedence over attention to objects. Besides its interest in the orientation of research, the neuropsychological approach of Pervasive Development Disorder has the merit of demystifying the drama associated with autism. A better understanding of the nature of this disorder would be of great assistance in circumventing it.

  6. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Chantsoulis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.

  7. The Art Gallery Test: A Preliminary Comparison between Traditional Neuropsychological and Ecological VR-Based Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gamito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological validity should be the cornerstone of any assessment of cognitive functioning. For this purpose, we have developed a preliminary study to test the Art Gallery Test (AGT as an alternative to traditional neuropsychological testing. The AGT involves three visual search subtests displayed in a virtual reality (VR art gallery, designed to assess visual attention within an ecologically valid setting. To evaluate the relation between AGT and standard neuropsychological assessment scales, data were collected on a normative sample of healthy adults (n = 30. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures [Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, and Color Trails Test (CTT] along with the outcomes from the three subtests of the AGT. The results showed significant correlations between the AGT subtests describing different visual search exercises strategies with global and specific cognitive measures. Comparative visual search was associated with attention and cognitive flexibility (CTT; whereas visual searches involving pictograms correlated with global cognitive function (MoCA.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological tests for dementia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neuropsychological tests can successfully distinguish between healthy elderly persons and those with clinically significant cognitive impairment. Objectives. A battery of neuropsychological tests was evaluated for their discrimination validity of cognitive impairment in a group of elderly persons in Durban, South ...

  9. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  10. Predictive validity of a brief outpatient neuropsychological battery in individuals 1-25 years post traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Robin A; Jackson, Andrea M; Crisanti, Lauren K

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the predictive validity of a brief, outpatient neuropsychological battery relative to concurrent functional outcomes 1-25 years post traumatic brain injury. A cross-sectional analysis from an archival database. Participants were 377 persons aged 16-85, 1-25 years post mild-complicated to severe traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological testing and outcome assessment were completed as part of a routine follow-up associated with enrollment in the Southeastern Michigan Traumatic Brain Injury System project, which is a longitudinal research project. Neuropsychological measures included trail making test, California verbal learning test-II (CVLT-II), word generation, Wisconsin card sort testing - 64 card version, digit vigilance test, and Wechsler test of adult reading (WTAR). Outcome measures included the disability rating scale, Glasgow outcome scale-extended, supervisor rating scale, and employment. Multiple regression analyses revealed that although demographic and injury characteristics were predictive of level of disability, level of supervision, and employment, neuropsychological test scores including CVLT-II total score for learning trials 1-5; Trails B, and the WTAR represented independent predictors across all outcome measures. These findings demonstrate the utility of a brief, outpatient battery in prediction of concurrent outcomes up to 25 years post injury. Given the difficulty in receiving full reimbursement for neuropsychological assessment services, the data provide needed empirical support for use of more economical and efficient testing.

  11. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY: a neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Esther Gomez-Perez, Ma; Matute, Esmeralda; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Pineda, David

    2007-01-01

    Health care professionals are now faced with a growing number of patients from different ethnic groups, and from different socioeconomical backgrounds. In the field of neuropsychology there is an increasing need of reliable and culturally fair assessment measures. Spanish is the official language in more than 20 countries and the second most spoken language in the world. The purpose of this research was to develop and standardize the neuropsychological battery NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY, designed to assess orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory and immediate and delayed verbal and visual memory. The developmental sequences of attention and memory as well as the educational effects were analyzed in a sample of 521 monolingual Spanish Speaking subjects, aged 6 to 85 years. Educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. The consideration of the developmental sequence, and the effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures.

  13. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Neuropsychological profile in a large group of heart transplant candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mapelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that patients with end-stage heart disease can have cognitive deficits ranging from mild to severe. Little is known, however, about the relationship between cognitive performance, neurophysiological characteristics and relevant clinical and instrumental indexes for an extensive evaluation of patients with heart failure, such as: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and other haemodynamic measures, maximum oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comorbidities, major cardiovascular risk factors and disease duration. Our purpose was to outline the cognitive profiles of end-stage heart disease patients in order to identify the cognitive deficits that could compromise the quality of life and the therapeutic adherence in end-stage heart disease patients, and to identify the variables associated with an increased risk of cognitive deficits in these patients. METHODS: 207 patients with end-stage cardiac disease, candidates for heart transplant, were assessed by complete neuropsychological evaluation and by electroencephalographic recording with EEG spectral analysis. RESULTS: Pathological scores in one or more of the cognitive tests were obtained by 86% of the patients, while 36% performed within the impaired range on five or more tests, indicating poor performance across a broad range of cognitive domains. The executive functions were the cognitive domain most impaired (70%. Poor performances were not related to the aetiology of heart disease, but rather to cerebral dysfunction secondary to haemodynamic impairment and to comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Severe heart failure induces significant neurophysiological and neuropsychological alterations, which may produce an impairment of cognitive functioning and possibly compromise the quality of life of patients and the therapeutic adherence.

  15. Neuropsychological differences between frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sellitto Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory impairment is the main clinical feature in Alzheimer disease (AD, whereas in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD behavioral and language disorders predominate. Objectives: To investigate possible differences between the neuropsychological performance in FTLD and AD. Methods: Fifty-six AD patients (mean age=72.98±7.43; mean schooling=9.62±4.68; 35 women and 21 men, 17 FTLD patients (mean age=67.64±7.93; mean schooling=12.12±4.77; 9 women and 8 men, and 60 controls (mean age=68.90±7.48; mean schooling=10.72±4.74; 42 women and 18 men were submitted to a Dementia Rating Scale (DRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation composed of tasks assessing attention, visuoperceptual abilities, constructive abilities, executive functions, memory and language. Results: DRS total score and subscales were not able to differentiate FTLD from AD patients. However, FTLD and AD patients showed statistically significant differences in performance in tests of verbal (Logical Memory, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and visual (Visual Reproduction, recall of the Rey Complex Figure episodic memory, verbal immediate memory (Logical Memory, attention with interference (Trail Making Test - Part B, verbal fluency (semantic and phonemic and concept formation (WCST. Conclusion: Contrary to expectations, only a few tasks executive function tasks (Trail Making Test - Part B, F.A.S. and WCST and two memory tests (verbal and visual episodic memory tests were able to differentiate between FTLD and AD patients.

  16. Long-term neuropsychological effects of opioid use in children: a descriptive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Mahendra, Vijaita; Singhal, Sarita; Dzara, Kristina; Pilla, Trinadha R; Manworren, Renee; Kaye, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Use of opioids in the management of pain and its consequences in children presents a substantial challenge. A significant concern in pediatric pain management is the long-term neuropsychological consequences of opioids. The authors aim to provide a descriptive review of the current literature surrounding the neuropsychological impact of opioid use in children, along with possible extrapolations from their use in adults and animal models. Systematic review of published literature. Various universities in the United States. The electronic review for papers published between January 1992 and December 2012 was conducted using Medline/Pubmed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library database, and Google Scholar. Findings assessing pediatric pain patients treated with opioids demonstrated no significant differences in intelligence, behavior, vocabulary, or motor skills. One study reported a decrease in a visuo-constructional ability, which measured higher order executive function. Studies from prenatal illicit opioid exposure found poorer performance on measures of language, verbal ability, mathematics, reading, impulse control, and school readiness skills. The literature from adult prescribed opioid users has mixed results. Some showed impairment in the neuropsychological domains of memory, decision-making, attention, concentration, information processing, psychomotor speed, visual special skills, and hand-eye coordination, while others found no differences or revealed improved perceptual-cognitive status, possibly due to the removal of pain as a stressor. Very few studies looked into the long term neuropsychological and cognitive effects of the opioids in pediatric population. In an attempt to extrapolate from other groups, this review also included literature from adult patients, prenatal opioid exposure, and animal studies. Opioid medications have the potential to produce long-lasting neuropsychological side effects. However, given the negative consequences of

  17. Low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological functioning in American Indian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Clint R; Noonan, Carolyn; Garroutte, Eva M; Navas-Acien, Ana; Verney, Steven P; Buchwald, Dedra

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic at high and prolonged doses is highly neurotoxic. Few studies have evaluated whether long-term, low-level arsenic exposure is associated with neuropsychological functioning in adults. To investigate the association between long-term, low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological functioning among American Indians aged 64-95. We assessed 928 participants in the Strong Heart Study by using data on arsenic species in urine samples collected at baseline (1989-1991) and results of standardized tests of global cognition, executive functioning, verbal learning and memory, fine motor functioning, and speed of mental processing administered during comprehensive follow-up evaluations in 2009-2013. We calculated the difference in neuropsychological functioning for a 10% increase in urinary arsenic with adjustment for sex, age, education, and study site. The sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species (∑As) in urine was associated with limited fine motor functioning and processing speed. A 10% increase in ∑As was associated with a .10 (95% CI -.20, -.01) decrease on the Finger Tapping Test for the dominant hand and a .13 decrease (95% CI -.21, -.04) for the non-dominant hand. Similarly, a 10% increase in ∑As was associated with a .15 (95% CI -.29, .00) decrease on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Coding Subtest. ∑As was not associated with other neuropsychological functions. Findings indicate an adverse association between increased urinary arsenic fine motor functioning and processing speed, but not with other neuropsychological functioning, among elderly American Indians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-12-01

    ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Neuropsychological Profile Related with Executive Function of Chinese Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Neuropsychological Measures and Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Jin-Song; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Teng-Fei; Tan, Xin; Pan, Jing-Xue; Shen, Li-Xiao

    2018-03-20

    Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function. Preschoolers with ADHD showed higher scores in all domains of the BRIEF-P (inhibition: 30.64 ± 5.78 vs.20.69 ± 3.86, P < 0.001; shift: 13.40 ± 3.03 vs.12.41 ± 2.79, P = 0.039; emotional control:15.10 ± 3.53 vs.12.20 ± 2.46, P < 0.001; working memory: 28.41 ± 4.99 vs.20.95 ± 4.60, P < 0.001; plan/organize: 17.04 ± 3.30 vs.13.29 ± 2.40, P < 0.001) and lower scores of Statue (23.18 ± 7.84 vs.28.27 ± 3.18, P = 0.001), Word Generation (15.22 ± 6.52 vs.19.53 ± 7.69, P = 0.025), Comprehension of Instructions (14.00 ± 4.44 vs.17.02 ± 3.39, P = 0.016), Visuomotor Precision (P < 0.050), Toy delay (P = 0.048), and Matrices tasks (P = 0.011), compared with normal control. In terms of the differences among ADHD subtypes, all ADHD presentations had higher scores in several domains of the BRIEF-P (P < 0.001), and the ADHD-combined symptoms (ADHD-C) group had the poorest ratings on inhibition and the ability to Plan/Organize. For neuropsychological measures, the results suggested that the ADHD-C group had poorer performances than the ADHD-predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I) group on Statue tasks (F = 7.34, η 2 = 0.12, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive symptoms group had significantly poorer performances compared to the ADHD-C group in the Block Construction

  20. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice.

  1. Comparison of performance on neuropsychological tests in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Figueirêdo do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI can be an intermediate state between normality and dementia in some patients. An early diagnosis, through neuropsychological assessment, could identify individuals at risk of developing dementia. Objective: To verify differences in performance on neuropsychological tests among controls, amnestic MCI (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight AD patients (mean age 73.77±7.24; mean schooling 9.04±4.83; 40 women and 28 men, 34 aMCI patients (mean age 74.44±7.05; mean schooling 12.35±4.01; 20 women and 60 controls (mean age 68.90±7.48; mean schooling 10.72±4.74; 42 women were submitted to a neuropsychological assessment composed of tasks assessing executive functions, language, constructive abilities, reasoning and memory. Results: There were statistically significant differences in performance across all tests among control, aMCI and AD groups, and also between only controls and AD patients. On comparing control and aMCI groups, we found statistically significant differences in memory tasks, except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction. There were also statistically significant differences between aMCI and AD groups on tasks of constructive and visuoperceptual abilities, attention, language and memory, except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction. Conclusions: Neuropsychological assessment was able to discriminate aMCI from AD patients in almost all tests except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction, visual organization (Hooper and executive functions (WCST; and discriminate controls from AD patients in all tests, and controls from aMCI patients in all memory tests except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction.

  2. The relationship between subjective perception of cognitive impairment and objective neuropsychological performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in elderly population in relation to early diagnostics of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The term of SMC describes patients with subjective perception of cognitive impairment which is not objectivized during a complex neuropsychological assessment. The character of their subjective complaints has not been thoroughly examined, despite their increased risk to develop cognitive impairment, most likely due to AD (Reisberg, ...

  3. Neuropsychological performance in solvent-exposed vehicle collision repair workers in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Keer, Samuel; Glass, Bill; McLean, Dave; Harding, Elizabeth; Babbage, Duncan; Leathem, Janet; Brinkmann, Yanis; Prezant, Bradley; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether contemporary solvent exposures in the vehicle collision repair industry are associated with objectively measured neuropsychological performance in collision repair workers. Methods The RBANS battery and additional tests were administered to 47 vehicle collision repair and 51 comparison workers randomly selected from a previous questionnaire study. Results Collision repair workers performed lower on tests of attention (digit span backwards: -1.5, 95% CI -2.4, -0.5;...

  4. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  5. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  6. A diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests for schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chi Shan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Endophenotypes in schizophrenia research is a contemporary approach to studying this heterogeneous mental illness, and several candidate neurophysiological markers (e.g. P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests (e.g. Continuous Performance Test (CPT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST have been proposed. However, the clinical utility of a single marker appears to be limited. In the present study, we aimed to construct a diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating with other neuropsychological tests in order to improve the clinical utility. METHODS: We recruited clinically stable outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria of schizophrenia and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants underwent P50 sensory gating experimental sessions and batteries of neuropsychological tests, including CPT, WCST and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. RESULTS: A total of 106 schizophrenia patients and 74 healthy controls were enrolled. Compared with healthy controls, the patient group had significantly a larger S2 amplitude, and thus poorer P50 gating ratio (gating ratio = S2/S1. In addition, schizophrenia patients had a poorer performance on neuropsychological tests. We then developed a diagnostic model by using multivariable logistic regression analysis to differentiate patients from healthy controls. The final model included the following covariates: abnormal P50 gating (defined as P50 gating ratio >0.4, three subscales derived from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ, sensitivity index from CPT and smoking status. This model had an adequate accuracy (concordant percentage = 90.4%; c-statistic = 0.904; Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test, p = 0.64>0.05. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study to date using P50 sensory gating in subjects of Chinese ethnicity and the first to use P50 sensory gating along with other neuropsychological tests

  7. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  8. [The links between neuropsychology and neurophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarska-Weryńska, Urszula; Biedroń, Agnieszka; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish current scope of knowledge regarding associations between neurophysiological functioning, neuropsychology and psychoterapy. A systematic review was performed including 93 publications from Science Server, which contains the collections of Elsevier, Springer Journals, SCI-Ex/ICM, MEDLINE/PubMed, and SCOPUS. The works have been selected basing on following key words: 'neuropsychology, neurocognitive correlates, electrodermal response, event related potential, EEG, pupillography, electromiography' out of papers published between 2004-2015. Present reports on the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology can be divided into two areas: experimental research and research of the practical use of conditioning techniques and biofeedback in the treatment of somatic disease. Among the experimental research the following have been distinguished: research based on the startle reflex, physiological reaction to novelty, stress, type/amount of cognitive load and physiological correlates of emotion; research on the neurophysiological correlates of mental disorders, mostly mood and anxiety disorders, and neurocognitive correlates: of memory, attention, learning and intelligence. Among papers regarding the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology two types are the most frequent: on the mechanisms of biofeedback, related mainly to neuro- feedback, which is a quickly expanding method of various attention and mental disorders'treatment, and also research of the use of conditioning techniques in the treatment of mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety. A special place among all the above is taken by the research on electrophysiological correlates of psychotherapy, aiming to differentiate between the efficacy of various psychotherapeutic schools (the largest amount of publications regard the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) in patients of different age groups and different diagnosis.

  9. Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease: A neuropsychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Bárbara Bomfim Caiado de Castro; Damasceno, Benito Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Anosognosia is often found in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its relationship with cognitivebehavioral changes is not well established. To verify if anosognosia is related to cognitive-behavioral disturbances, and to regional brain dysfunction as evaluated by neuroimaging. We included AD patients with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of 12 through 24, and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores of 1 or 2. Dementia diagnosis was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria.We used Self-Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and Denial of Illness Scale (DIS), and following neuropsychological counterproofs: WAIS-R digit span, Rey auditory verbal learning, verbal fluency test (category: animals), Cummings' neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD). We studied 21 patients (12 men, 9 women) with AD (14 mild, 7 moderate), age 72.4±8.5 years, education 4.9± 4.2 years, and MMSE score 18.2±5. SCQ and DIS did not correlate to age, education, or regional cerebral perfusion defects, but they tended to correlate to disease duration (and only SCQ also to MMSE). SCQ and DIS were correlated neither to CSDD, NPI, CDR, nor to any neuropsychological test. Significant correlations were found between SCQ and DIS, as well as between SCQ domain of "moral judgment" and MMSE. SCQ and DIS were not correlated to age, education, disease duration, cognitive-behavioral measures, dementia severity, or regional cerebral perfusion defects, but were correlated to each other, suggesting SCQ and DIS evaluate similar mental functions.

  10. Comparative analysis of pain in patients who underwent total knee replacement regarding the tourniquet pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate through the visual analog scale (VAS the pain in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR with different pressures of the pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: An observational, randomized, descriptive study on an analytical basis, with 60 patients who underwent TKR, divided into two groups, which were matched: a group where TKR was performed with tourniquet pressures of 350 mmHg (standard and the other with systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg (P + 100. These patients had their pain assessed by VAS at 48 h, and at the 5th and 15th days after procedure. Secondarily, the following were also measured: range of motion (ROM, complications, and blood drainage volume in each group; the data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: After data analysis, there was no statistical difference regarding the incidence of complications (p = 0.612, ROM (p = 0.202, bleeding after 24 and 48 h (p = 0.432 and p = 0.254 or in relation to VAS. No correlation was observed between time of ischemia compared to VAS and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the pneumatic tourniquet pressure at 350 mmHg or systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg did not influence the pain, blood loss, ROM, and complications. Therefore the pressures at these levels are safe and do not change the surgery outcomes; the time of ischemia must be closely observed to avoid major complications.

  11. Neuropsychological syndromes in patients with Parkinson’s disease after deep electric stimulation of pallidar complex structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Mikadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the results of neuropsychological examinations in 10 patients with Parkinson’s disease who underwent deep electrical stimulation of pallidar complex structures. The general neuropsychological test battery that had been developed by A.R. Luria and allowed the qualitative classification of the cognitive impairment symptoms detectable on examination to be made was used to study cognitive functions. The patients were examined before and just after surgery and in the late period (following 1—2 years. The examinations have shown that the syndromes indicative of dysfunctions in the deep, parietal, and occipital and prefrontal regions of the left hemisphere and in the parietooccipital regions of the right hemisphere are stable components that determine the pattern of cognitive disorders and are preserved throughout all examinations.

  12. Comparison of neuropsychological and functional outcomes in Alzheimer's disease patients with good or bad response to a cognitive stimulation treatment: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Mar; Cerulla, Noemí; Chico, Gloria; Quintana, María; Garolera, Maite

    2016-11-01

    The benefit of cognitive stimulation (CS) treatments in dementia is unequal. This study has sought to identify cognitive and functional measurements before and after the treatment which are indicative of a better response to a one-year CS program. A retrospective observational study was conducted between 2004 and 2012 in a sample of 60 users diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) who followed a one-year CS program and underwent a cognitive and functional assessment before and after the intervention. As a primary measure of treatment response, we used the annual change of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, which distinguished good responders (R) from non-responders (NR). 51.7% of patients classified as R at baseline had a higher cognitive performance in attention, immediate verbal memory, language, and working memory compared to NR. No initial statistically significant differences were found between R and NR in any sociodemographic variables, medical conditions, anxiety and/or depressive symptoms, treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), level of insight, global cognitive function (MMSE), or functional capacity. After 12 months of treatment, R had significantly better results than NR on MMSE, temporal orientation, category evocation, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (PGC-IADL). The response to a CS treatment of some subjects over others is linked to cognitive and functional capacity. This research contributes to characterize the neuropsychological profile that differentiates subjects who respond better than others before and after the treatment. This should contribute to customize and optimize neuropsychological interventions in patients with AD.

  13. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  14. Neuropsychological evaluation of children after ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Inês Elcione

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to associate neuropsychological evaluation with neuroimaging results in children with cerebral tomography indicating ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD. Neuroimaging, neurological exams and neuropsychological instruments were used to evaluate five children. The study revealed that the cognitive and perceptive skills in two children were normal and motor sequele in four cases. The rhythm, visual and speech receptive skills remained unchanged. In four cases the SPECT exam showed regions with hypoperfusion and in four cases the EEG was normal. Neuropsychological, neurological and image indication some degree of sequele demonstrating the importance of follow up of children who had suffered cerebrovascular disease.

  15. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  16. Implementing guidelines: Proposed definitions of neuropsychology services in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T; Powell, Stephanie K; Jacobson, Lisa A; Gragert, Marsha N; Janzen, Laura A; Paltin, Iris; Rey-Casserly, Celiane M; Wilkening, Greta N

    2017-08-01

    Several organizations have published guidelines for the neuropsychological care of survivors of childhood cancer. However, there is limited consensus in how these guidelines are applied. The model of neuropsychology service delivery is further complicated by the variable terminology used to describe recommended services. In an important first step to translate published guidelines into clinical practice, this paper proposes definitions for specific neuropsychological processes and services, with the goal of facilitating consistency across sites to foster future clinical program development and to clarify clinical practice guidelines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reliability and validity of a self-administered tool for online neuropsychological testing : The Amsterdam Cognition Scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Heleen E.M.; Murre, Jaap M.J.; Vermeulen, Ivar E.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: To facilitate large-scale assessment of a variety of cognitive abilities in clinical studies, we developed a self-administered online neuropsychological test battery: the Amsterdam Cognition Scan (ACS). The current studies evaluate in a group of adult cancer patients: test–retest

  18. Reliability and validity of a self-administered tool for online neuropsychological testing : The Amsterdam Cognition Scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, H.E.M.; Murre, J.M.J.; Vermeulen, I. E.; Kieffer, J.M.; Schagen, S.B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : To facilitate large-scale assessment of a variety of cognitive abilities in clinical studies, we developed a self-administered online neuropsychological test battery: the Amsterdam Cognition Scan (ACS). The current studies evaluate in a group of adult cancer patients: test–retest

  19. Phenomenological and neuropsychological profile across motor variants of delirium in a palliative care unit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Maeve

    2011-01-01

    Studies using composite measurement of cognition suggest that cognitive performance is similar across motor variants of delirium. The authors assessed neuropsychological and symptom profiles in 100 consecutive cases of DSM-IV delirium allocated to motor subtypes in a palliative-care unit: Hypoactive (N=33), Hyperactive (N=18), Mixed (N=26), and No-Alteration motor groups (N=23). The Mixed group had more severe delirium, with highest scores for DRS-R-98 sleep-wake cycle disturbance, hallucinations, delusions, and language abnormalities. Neither the total Cognitive Test for Delirium nor its five neuropsychological domains differed across Hyperactive, Mixed, and Hypoactive motor groups. Most patients (70%) with no motor alteration had DRS-R-98 scores in the mild or subsyndromal range even though they met DSM-IV criteria. Motor variants in delirium have similar cognitive profiles, but mixed cases differ in expression of several noncognitive features.

  20. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  1. [Formula: see text]The statistical crisis in science: how is it relevant to clinical neuropsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Andrew; Geurts, Hilde M

    There is currently increased attention to the statistical (and replication) crisis in science. Biomedicine and social psychology have been at the heart of this crisis, but similar problems are evident in a wide range of fields. We discuss three examples of replication challenges from the field of social psychology and some proposed solutions, and then consider the applicability of these ideas to clinical neuropsychology. In addition to procedural developments such as preregistration and open data and criticism, we recommend that data be collected and analyzed with more recognition that each new study is a part of a learning process. The goal of improving neuropsychological assessment, care, and cure is too important to not take good scientific practice seriously.

  2. A case of chronic Wernicke’s Encephalopathy: a neuropsychological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eOudman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year old woman was referred to our Korsakoff Center because of extensive cognitive problems following acute Wernicke's Encephalopathy (WE. She had a relatively short history of alcohol abuse and was found lying on the floor in her home by her son. After five days without treatment she was diagnosed with WE in a general hospital. During the course of the disease minimal change to the acute situation occurred, with chronic confusion, attention deficits and incoherent behavior symptoms most notable unlike classical Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS. Neuropsychological assessment after four and sixteen months after admission to the hospital revealed global cognitive decline, with striking impairments in attentional, executive and memory functions. The present case study suggests that the state of confusion and the neuropsychological symptoms in WE can become chronic in case of very late treatment. We therefore recommend that confused alcoholics should receive appropriate parenteral thiamine according to the current clinical standards.

  3. Evaluating Neurocognitive Deficits in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Via a Brief Neuropsychological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew; Williams, Ronald N; Gupta, Ajay S; Finch, W Holmes; Randolph, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates neurocognitive deficits are present early in the sequelae of multiple sclerosis (MS). This is an important consideration given the functional activities of daily living, such as employment, that can be impacted by neurocognitive dysfunction. This study investigated the utility of a brief neuropsychological battery, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), to evaluate neurocognitive deficits in patients with MS and to examine the relationship between a measure of functional disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and the RBANS. Participants were 49 patients with MS (Mage = 45.39 years) who completed the RBANS as part of a neuropsychological assessment and 49 demographically matched healthy controls (Mage = 45.39 years). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the two groups differed on the RBANS. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated the groups differed on domains of attention, language, immediate memory, and delayed memory. EDSS scores were a good predictor of neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with advanced disability but not for patients with mild disability. The RBANS seems to be effective in identifying cognitive dysfunction in patients with MS, and caution should be used in extrapolating cognitive deficits for patients with low EDSS scores.

  4. Binge drinking trajectory and neuropsychological functioning among university students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Nayara; Parada, María; Crego, Alberto; Doallo, Sonia; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando; Corral, Montserrat

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable neurodevelopment. Binge drinking (BD) during this period increases the vulnerability to its neurotoxic effects. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the relationship between BD trajectory over university years and neuropsychological functioning. Cohort-study. Two-year follow-up. A total of 89 university students were assessed: 40 Non-BD (at Initial and Follow-up), 16 Ex-BD (BD at Initial but not at Follow-up) and 33 BD (at both times). Neuropsychological assessment of working memory, episodic memory and executive abilities was carried out during their first (Initial) and third (Follow-up) academic year at the University of Santiago de Compostela. BD subjects performed less well on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) Logical Memory Subtest (immediate theme recall, P=.034; delayed theme recall, P=.037; and percent retention, P=.035) and committed more perseverative errors on the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT) (P=.021) than Non-BD. There were no differences between Ex-BD and Non-BD. Binge drinking trajectory during adolescence is associated with neuropsychological performance. Persistent BD, but not Ex-BD, is associated with verbal memory and monitoring difficulties. This is compatible with the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use during adolescence may affect cognitive functions that rely on the temporomesial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  6. Neuropsychological functioning, coping, and quality of life among returning war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Kruse, Marc I; Gulliver, Suzy B; Dolan, Sara L

    2016-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that action- and emotion-focused coping strategies would mediate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and quality of life among a sample of returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Veterans (N = 130) who served as part of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan completed a diagnostic assessment of PTSD, a battery of questionnaires assessing coping style, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and quality of life, and neuropsychological tests measuring attention, learning and memory, working memory, inhibition, executive control, and visual motor coordination. Executive control, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and visual motor coordination were associated with quality of life. However, after controlling for the effects of combat exposure, PTSD, and probable TBI, no measure of neuropsychological functioning was directly associated with quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that delayed verbal recall influenced quality of life through its effect on action-focused coping. Although replication is needed, these findings indicate that delayed verbal recall may indirectly influence quality of life among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans through its association with action-focused coping strategies. Psychologists who are working with veterans that are experiencing memory difficulties and poor quality of life may consider focusing on improving coping skills prior to rehabilitation of memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Neuropsychological Functioning, Coping, and Quality of Life among Returning War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; Kruse, Marc I.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Dolan, Sara L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present research tested the hypothesis that action- and emotion-focused coping strategies would mediate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and quality of life among a sample of returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Method Veterans (N = 130) who served as part of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, completed a diagnostic assessment of PTSD, a battery of questionnaires assessing coping style, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and quality of life, and neuropsychological tests measuring attention, learning and memory, working memory, inhibition, executive control, and visual motor coordination. Results Executive control, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and visual motor coordination were associated with quality of life. However, after controlling for the effects of combat exposure, PTSD, and probable TBI, no measure of neuropsychological functioning was directly associated with quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that delayed verbal recall influenced quality of life through its effect on action-focused coping. Conclusions Although replication is needed, these findings indicate that delayed verbal recall may indirectly influence quality of life among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans through its association with action-focused coping strategies. Psychologists who are working with veterans that are experiencing memory difficulties and poor quality of life may consider focusing on improving coping skills prior to rehabilitation of memory deficits. PMID:26891248

  8. Neuropsychological and socio-occupational functioning in young psychiatric outpatients: a longitudinal investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico S C Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are longitudinally associated with functional outcome in chronic psychiatric cohorts. The current study extended these findings to young and early-course psychiatric outpatients, with the aim of identifying cognitive markers that predict later socio-occupational functioning. METHODS: At baseline, 183 young psychiatric outpatients were assessed. Ninety-three returned for follow-up (M = 21.6 years old; SD = 4.5 with an average re-assessment interval of 21.6 months (SD = 7.0, and primary diagnoses of major depressive disorder (n = 34, bipolar disorder (n = 29, or psychosis (n = 30. The primary outcome measure was cross-validated with various other functional measures and structural equation modelling was used to map out the interrelationships between predictors and later functional outcome. RESULTS: Good socio-occupational functioning at follow-up was associated with better quality of life, less disability, current employment and being in a romantic relationship. The final structural equation model explained 47.5% of the variability in functional outcome at follow-up, with baseline neuropsychological functioning (a composite of memory, working memory and attentional switching the best independent predictor of later functional outcome. Notably, depressive and negative symptoms were only associated with functioning cross-sectionally. Diagnosis at follow-up was not associated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological functioning was the single best predictor of later socio-occupational outcome among young psychiatric outpatients. Therefore, framing psychiatric disorders along a neuropsychological continuum is likely to be more useful in predicting functional trajectory than traditional symptom-based classification systems. The current findings also have implications for early intervention utilising cognitive remediation approaches.

  9. Impact of Prefrontal Theta Burst Stimulation on Clinical Neuropsychological Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Viejo-Sobera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Theta burst stimulation (TBS protocols hold high promise in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Nevertheless, their ability to either decrease (continuous, cTBS or increase (intermittent, iTBS cortical excitability in areas other than the primary motor cortex, and their consistency modulating human behaviors with clinically relevant tasks remain to be fully established. The behavioral effects of TBS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC are particularly interesting given its involvement in working memory (WM and executive functions (EF, often impaired following frontal brain damage. We aimed to explore the ability of cTBS and iTBS to modulate WM and EF in healthy individuals, assessed with clinical neuropsychological tests (Digits Backward, 3-back task, Stroop Test, and Tower of Hanoi. To this end, 36 participants were assessed using the four tests 1 week prior to stimulation and immediately following a single session of either cTBS, iTBS, or sham TBS, delivered to the left dlPFC. No significant differences were found across stimulation conditions in any of the clinical tasks. Nonetheless, in some of them, active stimulation induced significant pre/post performance modulations, which were not found for the sham condition. More specifically, sham stimulation yielded improvements in the 3-back task and the Color, Color-Word, and Interference Score of the Stroop Test, an effect likely caused by task practice. Both, iTBS and cTBS, produced improvements in Digits Backward and impairments in 3-back task accuracy. Moreover, iTBS increased Interference Score in the Stroop Test in spite of the improved word reading and impaired color naming, whereas cTBS decreased the time required to complete the Tower of Hanoi. Differing from TBS outcomes reported for cortico-spinal measures on the primary motor cortex, our analyses did not reveal any of the expected performance differences across stimulation protocols. However, if one considers independently

  10. The Neuropsychological Consequences of Armed Conflicts and Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisleder, Pedro; Rublee, Caitlin

    2018-02-14

    At any point in time, there are hundreds of armed conflicts throughout the world. Neuropsychological disorders are a major cause of morbidity during and after armed conflicts. Conditions such as closed and open head injuries, acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis are prevalent among survivors. Herein, we summarize information on the various forms of torture, the resultant neuropsychological pathology, and treatment strategies to help survivors. Strategies to address the needs of individuals who experienced neuropsychological trauma due to armed conflicts and torture include pharmacological and psychological interventions. The former includes antidepressant, antianxiety, and antipsychotic medications. The latter includes narrative exposure therapy and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. Neuropsychological disorders are major causes of morbidity among survivors of armed conflicts and torture. Treatment strategies must be affordable, applicable across cultures, and deliverable by individuals who understand the victims' psychosocial and ethnic background.

  11. Genetics and neuropsychology: A merger whose time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been 2 rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional. Here we note ways in which an understanding of genetics and epigenetics can inform neuropsychology. On the other hand, given the complexity of cognitive phenotypes, neuropsychology can also play a valuable role in informing and refining genetic studies. Greater integration of the 2 should advance both fields. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  13. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  14. Neuropsychological-EEG Activation in Genetic Generalized Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, evaluated the effects of neuropsychological activation (NPA tasks on epileptiform discharges (ED in adolescents with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE and in comparison with hyperventilation and photic stimulation.

  15. Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy: Two years of good neuropsychological outcomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, H.; Krámská, L.; Vojtěch, Z.; Lukavský, Jiří; Liščák, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 423-432 ISSN 0920-1211 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : temporal lobe epilepsy * stereotactic surgery * neuropsychology outcome Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2013

  16. Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: Evidence from neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    GREENBERG, DANIEL L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE

    2010-01-01

    Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each...

  17. Clinical neuropsychology in Israel: history, training, practice and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Hoofien, Dan

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue on international perspectives on training and practice in clinical neuropsychology. We provide a review of the status of clinical neuropsychology in Israel, including the history of neuropsychological, educational, and accreditation requirements to become a clinical neuropsychologist and to practice clinical neuropsychology. The information is based primarily on the personal knowledge of the authors who have been practicing clinical neuropsychology for over three decades and hold various administrative and academic positions in this field. Second, we conducted three ad hoc surveys among clinical and rehabilitation psychologists; heads of academic programs for rehabilitation and neuropsychology; and heads of accredited service providers. Third, we present a literature review of publications by clinical neuropsychologists in Israel. Most of the clinical neuropsychologists are graduates of either rehabilitation or clinical training programs. The vast majority of neuropsychologists are affiliated with rehabilitation psychology. The training programs (2-3 years of graduate school) provide solid therapeutic and diagnostic skills to the students. Seventy-five percent of the participants in this survey are employed at least part-time by public or state-funded institutions. Israeli neuropsychologists are heavily involved in case management, including vocational counseling, and rehabilitation psychotherapy. Conclusions and future goals: Although clinical neuropsychologists in Israel are well educated and valued by all health professionals, there are still several challenges that must be addressed in order to further advance the field and the profession. These included the need for Hebrew-language standardized and normalized neuropsychological tests and the application of evidence-based interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  18. Avaliação neuropsicológica dos circuitos pré-frontais relacionados à tomada de decisão na esquizofrenia: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Neuropsychological assessment of decision-making prefrontal circuits in schizophrenia: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sousa Alves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Realizou-se uma revisão crítica da literatura sobre estudos avaliando déficits neuropsicológicos na tomada de decisão (TD em pacientes esquizofrênicos. MÉTODO: Foram considerados relevantes estudos utilizando testes neuropsicológicos sensíveis à avaliação das áreas corticais associadas à TD, principalmente o córtex órbito-frontal. Aspectos metodológicos dos estudos selecionados foram comparados entre si, assim como a correlação das medidas nos testes de TD com características clínicas, cognitivas e funcionais desse transtorno. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados oito artigos entre 1997 e 2005. Seis utilizaram como instrumento para avaliação da TD o Iowa Gambling Task; um, o Novel Decision Making Task; e outro, o Two-Choice Prediction Task. Todos os estudos compararam pacientes esquizofrênicos a controles saudáveis. Quatro artigos com o Iowa Gambling Task e os demais utilizando os testes Novel Decision Making Task e o Two Choice Prediction Task observaram desempenho alterado no grupo de pacientes esquizofrênicos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos atuais são controversos quanto ao comprometimento da TD na esquizofrenia. Características clínicas, como o subtipo diagnóstico, a sintomatologia predominante, o tipo de medicação utilizada e o funcionamento psicossocial, podem contar para os resultados encontrados. Estudos adicionais são necessários para a investigação ulterior sobre a natureza dos déficits da TD na esquizofrenia e sua expressão em termos clínicos e evolutivos.OBJECTIVES: A critical review of the literature was undertaken with articles assessing neuropsychological deficits in decision making (DM in schizophrenic patients. METHODS: This review included all articles that performed neuropsychological assessments with tests sensitive to cortical areas associated with DM, especially the orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction. Methodological aspects of the selected studies were compared, as well as the

  19. Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A.; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth A.; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of trauma exposure. Method Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26927902

  20. Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Parlar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective: The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD and a history of trauma exposure. Method: Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results: Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions: These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN CONDITIONS OF ORPHANAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Pavlikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of orphanage, neuropsychological development is estimated of children aged from 3 months old up to 3 years 4 months old, without central nervous system damage and without major development defects, examined, correspondingly, in 2001 (n = 87 and in 2007 (n = 59. The estimation was performed with the use of two computer methods. The analysis of neuropsychological development estimation results by ?Profile of development? program and ?GNOM? program gave comparable results: neuropsychological development pathology group accounted for 85% and 86% correspondingly, moreover, violations are notified in all spheres of neuropsychological development without gender or age differences. However, ?Profile of development? program provides deviations in specific activity of a child in the form of a diagram, thus enabling to monitor all spheres of neuropsychological development in detail. This gives a pediatrician an opportunity to coordinate medical, psychological and pedagogic activities aimed at rehabilitation of children in conditions of deprivation.Key words: children, neuropsychological development, computer program, deprivation.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:26-28

  2. Agreement among neuropsychological and behavioral data and PiB findings in diagnosing Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kelly A; Hammers, Dustin; DeLeon, Angeline; Bilen, Hande; Frey, Kirk; Burke, James; Albin, Roger; Barbas, Nancy; Heidebrink, Judith; Giordani, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    Diagnostic inaccuracies have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) using clinical data alone. The [ 11 C]-PiB PET scan offers a new method of identifying AD based on the detection of amyloid deposits. Our study investigated whether there was an agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral data and PiB findings in the diagnosis of FTD. Participants were 32 patients diagnosed with suspected FTD by clinical consensus. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and PiB imaging. In addition, caregivers completed behavioral ratings of participants' memory, frontal behaviors, and mood. Seventeen participants were classified as PiB positive (+). Results of MANOVA and subsequent ANOVA analyses showed a significant difference on memory performance between the PiB- and PiB+groups, with the PiB- group performing better than the PiB+group. There were no significant differences between the groups on cognitive or behavioral measures of executive/frontal impairment, mood. Both groups showed similar severity of dementia. These findings provide evidence for the utility of the [ 11 C]-PiB PET scan in distinguishing between AD and FTD, with evaluation of memory at clinical diagnosis serving as a valuable indicator of the absence of FTD and consideration for an AD diagnosis. Our results would support the concern that patients who may present with primary behavioral or executive dysfunction may not necessarily have FTD, particularly if memory deficits are evident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  4. Neuropsychological Test Performance in Cognitively Normal Spanish-speaking Nonagenarians with Little Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Schmeidler, James; Raventos, Henriette; Valerio, Daniel; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Bolaños, Patricia; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    To find associations of age, sex, and education with neuropsychological test performance in cognitively normal Spanish-speaking Costa Rican nonagenarians with little education; to provide norms; and to compare their performance with similar Puerto Ricans. For 95 Costa Ricans (90-102 years old, 0-6 years of education), multiple regression assessed associations with demographics of performance on six neuropsychological tests. Analyses of covariance compared them with 23 Puerto Ricans (90-99 years old). Younger age and being female-but not education-were associated with better performance on some neuropsychological tests, in particular episodic memory. The Puerto Ricans performed better on learning and memory tasks. In cognitively intact Spanish-speaking nonagenarians with little or no education, education did not affect test performance. Additional studies of the effect of education on cognitive performance are warranted in other samples with extremely low education or old age. National differences in performance highlight the importance of group-specific norms.

  5. Neuropsychological Function in Patients With Acute Tetraplegia and Sleep Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Rachel; Spong, Jo; Graco, Marnie; Berlowitz, David J

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between apnea severity and neuropsychological function in patients with acute-onset tetraplegia and sleep disordered breathing. Polysomnography and neuropsychological testing were performed on 104 participants (age M = 45.60, SD = 16.38; 10 female) across 11 international sites, 2 months postinjury (M = 60.70 days, SD = 39.48). Neuropsychological tests assessed attention, information processing, executive function, memory, learning, mood, and quality of life. More severe sleep apnea was associated with poorer attention, information processing, and immediate recall. Deficits did not extend to memory. Higher preinjury intelligence and being younger reduced the associations with sleep disordered breathing; however, these protective factors were insufficient to counter the damage to attention, immediate recall, and information processing associated with sleep disordered breathing. These data suggest that new spinal cord injury may function as a model of "acute sleep apnea" and that more widespread sleep apnea-related deficits, including memory, may only be seen with longer exposure to apnea. These findings have important implications for functioning and skill acquisition during rehabilitation and, as such, highlight the importance of sleep health following tetraplegia. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Obsessive compulsive disorder networks: positron emission tomography and neuropsychology provide new insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation has shed new light on the central role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. We explored this structure from a functional perspective, synchronizing neuroimaging and cognitive measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This case-control cross-sectional study compared 15 OCD patients without comorbidities and not currently on serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy with 15 healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education level on resting-state (18FDG-PET scans and a neuropsychological battery assessing executive functions. We looked for correlations between metabolic modifications and impaired neuropsychological scores. Modifications in glucose metabolism were found in frontal regions (orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral cortices, the cingulate gyrus, insula and parietal gyrus. Neuropsychological differences between patients and controls, which were subtle, were correlated with the metabolism of the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. CONCLUSION: As expected, we confirmed previous reports of a PFC dysfunction in OCD patients, and established a correlation with cognitive deficits. Other regions outside the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsoparietal cortex and the insula, also appeared to be implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, providing fresh insights on the complexity of OCD syndromes.

  7. Exploring associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological functioning and driver behaviour after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rike, Per-Ola; Johansen, Hans J; Ulleberg, Pål; Lundqvist, Anna; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this prospective one-year follow-up study was to explore the associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological tests as well as baseline and follow-up ratings of driver behaviour. The participants were a cohort of subjects with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were found fit to drive after a multi-disciplinary driver assessment (baseline). Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and ratings of self-regulatory mechanisms, i.e., executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BRIEF-A) and impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale). The participants rated pre-injury driving behaviour on the Driver Behaviour Qestionnaire (DBQ) retrospectively at baseline and after one year of post-injury driving (follow-up). Better performance on neuropsychological tests was significantly associated with more post-injury DBQ Violations. The BRIEF-A main indexes were significantly associated with baseline and follow-up ratings of DBQ Mistakes and follow-up DBQ Inattention. UPPS (lack of) Perseverance was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inattention, whereas UPPS Urgency was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inexperience and post-injury DBQ Mistakes. There were no significant changes in DBQ ratings from baseline (pre-injury) to follow-up (post-injury). It was concluded that neuropsychological functioning and self-regulatory mechanisms are related to driver behaviour. Some aspects of driver behaviour do not necessarily change after brain injury, reflecting the influence of premorbid driving behaviour or impaired awareness of deficits on post-injury driving behaviour. Further evidence is required to predict the role of self-regulatory mechanisms on driver behaviour and crashes or near misses.

  8. Dental sealants and flowable composite restorations and psychosocial, neuropsychological, and physical development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shrader, Peter; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Hauser, Russ; Bellinger, David C; Tavares, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Dental sealant materials may intraorally release their components, including bisphenol-A (BPA), but long-term health effects are uncertain. The New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT) found that composite restorations were associated with psychosocial, but not neuropsychological or physical, outcomes. The previous analysis did not consider sealants and preventive resin restorations (PRRs), which were routinely placed. The purpose of this analysis was to examine sealant/PRR exposure in association with psychosocial and other health outcomes. NECAT recruited 534 six- to 10-year-olds and provided dental care during a five-year follow-up. Annually, examiners conducted psychosocial and neuropsychological tests and measured body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage (BF%). Associations between surface years (SY) of sealants/PRRs and outcomes were tested using multivariable models. Cumulative exposure level to sealants and/or PRRs was not associated with psychosocial assessments (eg, total problems: Child Behavior Checklist, 10-SY β=-0.2 ± 0.3, P=.60) or neuropsychological tests (eg, full-scale IQ, 10-SY β=0.1 ± 0.2, P=.60). There were no associations for changes in BMI-for-age z-score (P=.40), BF% (girls 10-SY β=-0.2 ± 0.3; boys 10-SY β=-0.1 ± 0.3), or menarche (10-SY hazard ratio=0.91, 95% confidence interval=0.83-1.01, P=.08). This study showed no associations between exposure level of dental sealants or PRRs and behavioral, neuropsychological, or physical development in children over 5-years.

  9. A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r = 0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r = 0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n = 26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

  10. Neuropsychological correlates of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsounis, L D; Poynton, A; Bridges, P K; Bartlett, J R

    1991-12-01

    Stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy is a surgical procedure performed for the alleviation of intractable affective disorders. It involves the destruction of bifrontal pathways located beneath and in front of the head of the caudate nucleus. We report the first prospective study of the neuropsychological correlates of this operation in 23 patients. Tests of general intelligence, speed and attention, as well as a wide range of focal cognitive tests, including tasks which have been reported in the literature to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction, were administered 1 wk before the operation, 2 wks after the operation and approximately 6 mths after the operation. The results indicated that this operation does not cause any significant, long-term adverse, cognitive deficits. In the post-operative assessment, however, patients show a significant deterioration in their performance on recognition memory tests and a large proportion of them present with a marked tendency to confabulate on recall tasks. In addition, their performance on some of the tasks which are considered to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction is found to be significantly impaired. These deficits are interpreted to reflect frontal lobe dysfunction due to widespread post-operative oedema rather than damage to the subcaudate pathways. The potential for research on these transient effects of the operation for the advancement of our understanding of frontal lobe functions is discussed.

  11. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties

  12. The number processing and calculation system: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Alcañiz, M P; Alameda-Bailén, J R

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the concepts of dissociation and double dissociation. The performance of number processing and calculation tasks by patients with acquired brain injury can be used to characterise the way in which the healthy cognitive system manipulates number symbols and quantities. The objective of this study is to determine the components of the numerical processing and calculation system. Participants consisted of 6 patients with acquired brain injuries in different cerebral localisations. We used Batería de evaluación del procesamiento numérico y el cálculo, a battery assessing number processing and calculation. Data was analysed using the difference in proportions test. Quantitative numerical knowledge is independent from number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Recodification is independent from qualitative numerical knowledge and calculation. Quantitative numerical knowledge and calculation are also independent functions. The number processing and calculation system comprises at least 4 components that operate independently: quantitative numerical knowledge, number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Therefore, each one may be damaged selectively without affecting the functioning of another. According to the main models of number processing and calculation, each component has different characteristics and cerebral localisations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The implications of brain connectivity in the neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximo, Jose O; Cadena, Elyse J; Kana, Rajesh K

    2014-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has been associated with atypical brain functioning. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) studies examining neural networks in autism have seen an exponential rise over the last decade. Such investigations have led to the characterization of autism as a distributed neural systems disorder. Studies have found widespread cortical underconnectivity, local overconnectivity, and mixed results suggesting disrupted brain connectivity as a potential neural signature of autism. In this review, we summarize the findings of previous fcMRI studies in autism with a detailed examination of their methodology, in order to better understand its potential and to delineate the pitfalls. We also address how a multimodal neuroimaging approach (incorporating different measures of brain connectivity) may help characterize the complex neurobiology of autism at a global level. Finally, we also address the potential of neuroimaging-based markers in assisting neuropsychological assessment of autism. The quest for a neural marker for autism is still ongoing, yet new findings suggest that aberrant brain connectivity may be a promising candidate.

  14. Depressive and conduct disorder symptoms in youth living with HIV: the independent and interactive roles of coping and neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Christina; Morris, Mary; Armistead, Lisa; Koenig, Linda J; Demas, Penelope; Ferdon, Corinne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether coping skills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data from Project Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS (ALPHA), a study to examine psychosocial, behavioral and neuropsychological functioning of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV, were used. Fifty-nine participants, aged 14-23, diagnosed with HIV prior to age 20 and receiving care in one of two HIV clinics in Atlanta or New York City, were recruited, consented and enrolled. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), conduct disorder (Adolescent Symptom Index), and use of positive and negative coping strategies (Kidcope). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed abstract reasoning (categories completed) and cognitive inflexibility (perseverative errors). In this sample of HIV-positive youth, depressive symptoms were best predicted by an interactive combination of negative coping skills and poor neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological functioning (cognitive inflexibility) and negative coping skills were directly associated with conduct disorder symptoms. Results highlight the importance of including neuropsychological assessment in the evaluation of HIV-positive youth, particularly those with emotional or behavioral problems.

  15. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms on neuropsychological performance in bipolar II disorder with or without comorbid anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Band; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs), the most common comorbid illnesses with bipolar disorder (BP) has been reported to associate with dopamine system. Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and the distribution of the ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 alleles in the Han Chinese general population is relatively equal. The association between dopamine metabolic enzymes and cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II disorder (BP-II) comorbid with AD is unclear. This study proposed to explore the role of ALDH2 polymorphisms on neuropsychological performance between BP-II comorbid with or without AD. One hundred ninety-seven BP-II patients with and without a comorbid AD were recruited and compared with 130 healthy controls (HCs). A polymerase chain reaction and a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and study participants underwent neuropsychological tests. An interaction between AD comorbidity and the ALDH2 polymorphisms was found in different domain of cognitive dysfunction in the BP-II patients. The ALDH2 polymorphisms might have different effects on the neuropsychological performance of BP-II patients with and without comorbid AD.

  16. Savant Syndrome: Clinical and Neuropsychological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Durukan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Savant syndrome defines the people who have severe developmental and mental disabilities but also have extraordinary mental skills which are missing in many people. Although general mental capacity is under average mental level, savant has excessive knowledge about one or more domains. It is accepted that as many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Males outnumber females by an approximate 6 : 1 ratio in savant syndrome. Savant skills are limited to five general categories. These are music, art, calender calculating, mathematics and mechanical or spatial skills. Savant skills can also be divided into three as savants who have splinter skills, talented savants and prodigious savants. A remarkable memory welds to the special abilities determined in savant syndrome. Savant syndrome can be congenital or it can be acquired. Most often savant skills emerge in childhood, superimposed on some underlying developmental disability present at birth. However, acquired savant skills can also appear, when none were previously present, in neurotypical individuals following brain injury or disease later in infancy, childhood or adult life. Savant skills don’t depend on only rote memory. It is approved that an enhanced or spared ability to represent and manipulate highly organised domain-specific information. Various theoretic models were defined to explain the neuropsychological profile in savant syndrome. Interest in savants has a long history, stretching back to the early 18th century; nevertheless, the savant syndrome remains as much a mystery now as it did when it was first described. Given that many questions about the existence and nature of savant talent remain unanswered, it seems likely that research efforts will continue unabated.

  17. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  18. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow changes and neuropsychological functioning in early and late onset alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, B.; Ulug, B.; Ergun, E.; Erbas, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Chronic alcoholism is strongly associated with morphologic and functional abnormalities in the brain. The age-of-onset of alcoholism symptoms might be of discriminating value and can be used to subdivide the population into more homogeneous groups. The aim of the study was to compare late and early onset alcoholism with regard to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and neuropsychological functioning. Methods: Ten late onset (Type I) and thirteen early onset (Type II) male alcoholics were included in the study, the criterion being the age of onset for alcohol abuse. Six healthy, age-matched, male volunteers were included as a control group. rCBF changes were assessed using Tc-99m-HMPAO/SPECT after a detoxification period. Transaxial slices were assessed visually and semi quantitatively. Regional mean counts were divided to the mean counts of cerebellar and occipital regions to obtain semiquantitative ratios for superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, temporal and parietal lobes for the left and right hemispheres. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Word Fluency Test. Results: Type I and II groups had significantly asymmetric blood flow in the frontal region compared to control group (Left frontal percentage; Type I%46.8±2, Type II=48.3±2.3, Control=50.8±3, p=0.008). The semiquantitative ratios for the frontal subregions were lower for the patients compared to those of control group, however, statistically significant difference was observed only for the ratio of superior frontal region to occipital region in type I patients, for both left and right. The difference between the two subgroups was not statistically significant. Both groups of alcoholic patients also displayed impairment in frontal lobe functions and non-verbal memory. No significant difference was detected between the alcoholic subgroups on neuropsychological measures. There was no significant correlation

  20. Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinfeld Matthew

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Methods The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM, 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA, and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Conclusion Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects.

  1. Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, James M; Eisenberg, Daniel; Davey, Emily E; Steinfeld, Matthew; Cohen, Lisa J; London, Edythe D; Galynker, Igor I

    2008-11-19

    Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI) and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM), 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA), and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects.

  2. Functional brain imaging in neuropsychology over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-11-01

    Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies. Initial progress in neuropsychological application of functional neuroimaging has been hampered by costs and the exposure to ionizing radiation. With rapid evolution of functional methods-in particular functional MRI (fMRI)-neuroimaging has profoundly transformed our knowledge of the brain. Its current applications span the spectrum of normative development to clinical applications. The field is moving toward applying sophisticated statistical approaches that will help elucidate distinct neural activation networks associated with specific behavioral domains. The impact of functional neuroimaging on clinical neuropsychology is more circumscribed, but the prospects remain enticing. The theoretical insights and empirical findings of functional neuroimaging have been led by many neuropsychologists and have transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience. Thus far they have had limited effects on the clinical practices of neuropsychologists. Perhaps it is time to add training in functional neuroimaging to the clinical neuropsychologist's toolkit and from there to the clinic or bedside. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology.

  4. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  5. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of different enteral immunonutrition formulas in patients underwent gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Min; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Bian, Wei; Wu, Jing; Deng, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xu

    2017-04-04

    Optimal enteral immunonutrition (EIN) regime for gastric cancer (GC) patients underwent gastrectomy remains uncertainty. To assess comparative efficacy of different EIN formulas in GC patients underwent gastrectomy, we performed network meta-analysis. We included 11 RCTs enrolling 840 patients. Pairwise meta-analysis indicated that EIN (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.86; MD -0.42, 95% CI -0.74-0.10), Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22-0.63; MD -0.42, 95% CI -0.75-0.07), Arg+Gln+ω-3-FAs (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.94; MD -0.69, 95% CI -1.22-1.07) reduced ICs and LOS. Network meta-analysis confirmed the potential of Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs for ICs (OR 0.27, 95% Crl 0.12-0.49) and Arg+Gln+ω-3-FAs for CIs (OR 0.22, 95% Crl 0.02-0.84) and LOS (SMD -0.63, 95% Crl -1.07-0.13), and indicated that Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs was superior to Arg+RNA and Arg+Gln for ICs as well. We performed direct and network meta-analyses for randomized controlled trials comparing EIN formulas with each other or standard enteral nutrition (SEN) in reducing infectious complications (ICs), noninfectious complications (NICs) and length of hospital stay (LOS), through January 2016. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SCURA) and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) were used to rank regimes and rate qualities of evidences respectively. As for GC patients underwent gastrectomy, Arg+RNA+ω-3-FAs and Arg+Gln+ω-3-FAs are the optimal regimes of reducing ICs and LOS.

  6. European neuroborreliosis: neuropsychological findings 30 months post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, R; Ljøstad, U; Mygland, A; Herlofson, K; Løhaugen, G C

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare neuropsychological (NP) functioning in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) 30months after treatment to matched controls. We tested 50 patients with LNB and 50 controls with the trail-making test (TMT), Stroop test, digit symbol test, and California Verbal Learning test (CVLT). A global NP sumscore was calculated to express the number of low scores on 23 NP subtasks. Mean scores were lower amongst LNB-treated patients than amongst controls on tasks assessing attention/executive functions: (Stroop test 4: 77.6 vs. 67.0, P=0.015), response/processing speed (TMT 5: 23.4 vs. 19.2, P=0.004), visual memory (digit symbol recall: 6.6 vs. 7.2, P=0.038), and verbal memory (CVLT list B: 4.68 vs. 5.50, P=0.003). The proportion of patients and controls with NP sumscores within one SD from the mean in the control group (defined as normal) and between one and two SD (defined as deficit) were similar, but more LNB-treated patients than controls had a sumscore more than two SD from the mean (defined as impairment) (8 vs. 1, P=0.014). As a group, LNB-treated patients scored lower on four NP subtasks assessing processing speed, visual and verbal memory, and executive/attention functions, as compared to matched controls. The distribution of NP dysfunctions indicates that most LNB-treated patients perform comparable to controls, whilst a small subgroup have a debilitating long-term course with cognitive problems. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  7. Voice processing in dementia: a neuropsychological and neuroanatomical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Goll, Johanna C.; Buckley, Aisling H.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2011-01-01

    Voice processing in neurodegenerative disease is poorly understood. Here we undertook a systematic investigation of voice processing in a cohort of patients with clinical diagnoses representing two canonical dementia syndromes: temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration (n = 14) and Alzheimer’s disease (n = 22). Patient performance was compared with a healthy matched control group (n = 35). All subjects had a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including measures of voice perception (vocal size, gender, speaker discrimination) and voice recognition (familiarity, identification, naming and cross-modal matching) and equivalent measures of face and name processing. Neuroanatomical associations of voice processing performance were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Both disease groups showed deficits on all aspects of voice recognition and impairment was more severe in the temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration group than the Alzheimer’s disease group. Face and name recognition were also impaired in both disease groups and name recognition was significantly more impaired than other modalities in the temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration group. The Alzheimer’s disease group showed additional deficits of vocal gender perception and voice discrimination. The neuroanatomical analysis across both disease groups revealed common grey matter associations of familiarity, identification and cross-modal recognition in all modalities in the right temporal pole and anterior fusiform gyrus; while in the Alzheimer’s disease group, voice discrimination was associated with grey matter in the right inferior parietal lobe. The findings suggest that impairments of voice recognition are significant in both these canonical dementia syndromes but particularly severe in temporal variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration, whereas impairments of voice perception may show relative specificity for Alzheimer’s disease. The right anterior

  8. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  9. Neuropsychology Outcomes Following Trephine Epilepsy Surgery: The Inferior Temporal Gyrus Approach for Amygdalohippocampectomy in Medically Refractory Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Clifton, William E; Sever, Ryan W; Vale, Fernando L

    2017-06-08

    Surgery is indicated in cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy(MTLE) that are refractory to medical management. The inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) approach provides access to the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures with minimal tissue disruption. Reported neuropsychology outcomes following this approach are limited. To report neuropsychological outcomes using an ITG approach to amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) in patients with medically refractory MTLE based on a prospective design. Fifty-four participants had Engel class I/II outcome following resection of MTL using the ITG approach. All participants had localization-related epilepsy confirmed by long-term surface video-electroencephalography and completed pre/postsurgical evaluations that included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Wada test or functional MRI, and neuropsychology assessment. Clinical semiology/video-electroencephalography indicated that of the 54 patients, 28 (52%) had left MTLE and 26 (48%) had right MTLE. Dominant hemisphere resections were performed on 23 patients (43%), nondominant on 31(57%). Twenty-nine (29) had pathology-confirmed mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Group level analyses found declines in verbal memory for patients with language-dominant resections ( P .05). Neuropsychology outcomes of an ITG approach for selective mesial temporal resection are comparable to other selective AH techniques showing minimal adverse cognitive effects. These data lend support to the ITG approach for selective AH as an option for MTLE. © Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2017.

  10. Prognostic Impact of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index on Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideki; Dohi, Tomotaka; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Doi, Shinichiro; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Hassan, Ahmed; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Suwa, Satoru; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Malnutrition has been identified as an important predictor of poor clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study is to examine the prognostic impact of nutritional status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of nutrition, assessed using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) calculated by serum albumin and body mass index, was evaluated in 2,853 patients with CAD who underwent their first PCI between 2000 and 2011. Patients were assigned to tertiles based on their GNRI levels. The incidences of all-cause death and cardiac death were assessed. The median GNRI values were 101 (interquartile range 95 to 106). Lower GNRI levels were associated with older age and higher prevalence of acute coronary syndrome and chronic kidney disease. During the median follow-up period of 7.4 years, Kaplan-Meier curves showed ongoing divergence in rates of mortality among tertiles (GNRI nutritional status was associated with long-term clinical outcomes in CAD patients after PCI. Evaluation of GNRI carries important prognostic information and may guide the therapeutic approach to such patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özülkü

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results: The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump as compared to Group 2 (off-pump. But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893, P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006. Conclusion: Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  12. Dysphagia among Adult Patients who Underwent Surgery for Esophageal Atresia at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Huynh-Trudeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and/or anatomical anomalies.

  13. Evolution of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moré Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a steady increase in the number of elderly patients with severe cardiovascular diseases who require a surgical procedure to recover some quality of life that allows them a socially meaningful existence, despite the risks.Objectives: To analyze the behavior of elderly patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Method: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with patients over 65 years of age who underwent surgery at the Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara, in Santa Clara, from January 2013 to March 2014.Results: In the study, 73.1% of patients were men; and there was a predominance of subjects between 65 and 70 years of age, accounting for 67.3%. Coronary artery bypass graft was the most prevalent type of surgery and had the longest cardiopulmonary bypass times. Hypertension was present in 98.1% of patients. The most frequent postoperative complications were renal dysfunction and severe low cardiac output, with 44.2% and 34.6% respectively.Conclusions: There was a predominance of men, the age group of 65 to 70 years, hypertension, and patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft with prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. Renal dysfunction was the most frequent complication.

  14. Long-term use of organophosphates and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, N; Kipen, H; Kelly-McNeil, K; Fenske, R

    1997-11-01

    This study evaluated neuropsychological effects due to chronic organophosphate use among farmers with no history of acute poisoning. Fifty-seven male tree fruit farmers (exposed) were compared with 42 age-matched male cranberry/blueberry growers and hardware store owners (unexposed). Univariate analyses of covariance (reading test as covariate) comparing exposed and unexposed subjects revealed significantly slower reaction time. No other significant differences were noted on tests of concentration, visuomotor skills, memory, expressive language, or mood. Based on an exposure metric derived from detailed exposure histories, farmers were divided into high exposure (n = 40) and low exposure (n = 59) groups, and their neuropsychological performance was compared. Analysis of covariance with age and reading test score as covariates revealed that the high exposure group had significantly slower reaction time, dominant hand. Long-term use of organophosphates without evidence of an acute poisoning episode appears to produce, at most, subtle changes in neuropsychological performance.

  15. A Neuro-psychological Explanation of Religious Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2004-01-01

    The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...... and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia....

  16. Prediction of Pathological Complete Response Using Endoscopic Findings and Outcomes of Patients Who Underwent Watchful Waiting After Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kazushige; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Nonoperative management for patients with rectal cancer who have achieved a clinical complete response after chemoradiotherapy is becoming increasingly important in recent years. However, the definition of and modality used for patients with clinical complete response differ greatly between institutions, and the role of endoscopic assessment as a nonoperative approach has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the ability of endoscopic assessments to predict pathological regression of rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy and the applicability of these assessments for the watchful waiting approach. This was a retrospective comparative study. This study was conducted at a single referral hospital. A total of 198 patients with rectal cancer underwent preoperative endoscopic assessments after chemoradiotherapy. Of them, 186 patients underwent radical surgery with lymph node dissection. The histopathological findings of resected tissues were compared with the preoperative endoscopic findings. Twelve patients refused radical surgery and chose watchful waiting; their outcomes were compared with the outcomes of patients who underwent radical surgery. The endoscopic criteria correlated well with tumor regression grading. The sensitivity and specificity for a pathological complete response were 65.0% to 87.1% and 39.1% to 78.3%. However, endoscopic assessment could not fully discriminate pathological complete responses, and the outcomes of patients who underwent watchful waiting were considerably poorer than the patients who underwent radical surgery. Eventually, 41.7% of the patients who underwent watchful waiting experienced uncontrollable local failure, and many of these occurrences were observed more than 3 years after chemoradiotherapy. The number of the patients treated with the watchful waiting strategy was limited, and the selection was not randomized. Although endoscopic assessment after chemoradiotherapy correlated with pathological response

  17. Prenatal head growth and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álamo-Junquera, Dolores; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Turner, Michelle C; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Rodriguez-Dehli, Cristina; Julvez, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    We sought to assess the association between prenatal head growth and child neuropsychological development in the general population. We evaluated 2104 children at the age of 14 months from a population-based birth cohort in Spain. Head circumference (HC) was measured by ultrasound examinations at weeks 12, 20, and 34 of gestation and by a nurse at birth. Head growth was assessed using conditional SD scores between weeks 12-20 and 20-34. Trained psychologists assessed neuropsychological functioning using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Head size measurements at birth were transformed into a 3-category variable: microcephalic (psychomotor scores. In particular, no associations were found between HC at birth and mental scores (coefficient, 0.04; 95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 0.09) and between interval head growth (20-34 weeks) and mental scores (0.31; 95% confidence interval, -0.36 to 0.99). Upon stratification by microcephalic, normocephalic, or macrocephalic head size, results were imprecise, although there were some significant associations in the microcephalic and macrocephalic groups. Adjustment by various child and maternal cofactors did not affect results. The minimum sample size required for present study was 883 patients (β=2, α=0.05, power=0.80). Overall prenatal and perinatal HC was not associated with 14-month-old neuropsychological development. Findings suggest HC growth during uterine life among healthy infants may not be an important marker of early-life neurodevelopment but may be marginally useful with specific populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of HLA-DRB1 alleles and neuropsychological function in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Huang, Yu-Shu; Chien, Wei-Hsien; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chao, Yu-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Evidence suggests an association between autism and immune dysfunction. The associations between human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2, B44, DRβ1*04 (DR4), C4B, and haplotype B44-SC30-DR4 and autism have been reported in western countries but there is a lack of such information in Asian population. This study aimed to assess the association between HLA-DRB1 allele frequencies and the clinical phenomenology of autism. The sample included 141 participants (male, 87.2%), who were diagnosed with autistic disorder based on clinical assessments and structured interviews using the Chinese version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and 156 healthy controls (male, 38.6%). The HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined by sequencing-based typing method. A subsample of patients (n=39) were assessed for intelligence and neuropsychological functions. The results showed that the pattern of DRB1 allele frequencies was significantly different between patients with autism and the controls (P=0.047). After adjusting for sex by haplotype regression, the frequencies of DR4, DR11, and DR14 were significantly different between patients with autism and healthy controls. In addition, patients with autism and DR4, DR11, or DR14 had different performance on intelligence and neuropsychology tests. Despite a relatively small sample size and a case-control association design, the findings suggest HLA-DRB1 gene might be associated with autism in Han Chinese. The true functional variants associated with autism in our samples remain to be further clarified. It warrants a replication study of a larger family sample and to validate the HLA genetic association with autism and its influence on neuropsychological function.

  19. ALFF Value in Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Acts as a Potential Marker Monitoring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: a Neuropsychological, Voxel-Based Morphometry, and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjia; Fu, Xiaoling; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Ren, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four participants matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled as the sporadic ALS group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 22). All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery. The participants underwent a series of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Resting-state functional MRI (Rs-fMRI) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was performed. Three-dimensional T1-weighted anatomical images obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to conduct correlation analyses and group comparisons with the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics. The results indicated that the decreased gray matter (GM) volume in the bilateral precentral gyri and increased ALFF values in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus were identified in the sporadic ALS group. The increased ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with ALS progression rate. The ALS patients exhibited poor performances on cognitive and executive tests, which were significantly or marginally significantly correlated with the ALFF values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the frontal, temporal, and parahippocampal cortices. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence of an extramotor involvement and suggest that the ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus could represent a potential marker to monitor disease progression.

  20. A Neuro-psychological Explanation of Religious Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2004-01-01

    The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...

  1. Diagnosis screening in the interdisciplinary neuropsychological assessment process

    OpenAIRE

    Navatta, Anna Carolina Rufino; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Muszkat, Mauro; Miranda, Mônica Carolina

    2009-01-01

    O presente artigo apresenta o modelo de triagem diagnóstica interdisciplinar de um núcleo assistencial neuropsicológico infantil. O modelo de triagem está fundamentado numa perspectiva bio-psico-social, que consiste na entrevista inicial com as crianças em grupo realizado uma equipe interdisciplinar. O modelo se justifica pelo fato de que essa percepção inicial do neuropsicólogo, através do modelo tradicional, é demorado, caro, e às vezes ineficiente para determinados pacientes neurológicos. ...

  2. HIV-related neuropsychological impairment in patients with previous substance use: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Torres, Amalia; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza (UNIR); Piñón-Blanco, Adolfo; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in cognitive disorders that significantly interfere with the daily activities of HIV patients. These disorders may be worse when there is a history of psychoactive substance use. Our objective is to assess the neuropsychological profile in a group of HIV patients with previous drug use compared to a group of HIV-negative patients with a history of drug use. The study included a total of 28 Spanish adult subjects, of which 14 were HIV-infected and ...

  3. 100 years of Epilepsia: landmark papers and their influence in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Bruce

    2010-07-01

    As part of the 2009 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Centenary Celebration, a special symposium was dedicated to Epilepsia (100 Years of Epilepsia: Landmark Papers and Their Influence). The Associate Editors were asked to identify a particularly salient and meaningful paper in their areas of expertise. From the content areas of neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry two very interesting papers were identified using quite different ascertainment techniques. One paper addressed the problem of psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the other represents the first paper to appear in Epilepsia presenting quantitative assessment of cognitive status in epilepsy. These two papers are reviewed in detail and placed in historical context.

  4. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  5. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  6. Neuropsychological Follow-up After Neonatal ECMO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiller, R.M.; Madderom, M.J.; Reuser, J.J.C.M.; Steiner, K.; Gischler, S.J.; Tibboel, D.; Heijst, A.F.J. van; Ijsselstijn, H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the longitudinal development of intelligence and its relation to school performance in a nationwide cohort of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) survivors and evaluate predictors of outcome at 8 years of age. METHODS: Repeated measurements assessed intelligence

  7. Neuropsychological outcomes in CHD beyond childhood: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rónán; McCusker, Christopher G; Tennyson, Chris; Hanna, Donncha

    2018-03-01

    Risk for neurodevelopmental delay in infants and children with CHD is well established, but longer-term outcomes are equivocal. A meta-analysis was conducted to establish whether cognitive deficits remain beyond childhood - into teenage and young adult years. Methods and results A total of 18 unique samples, involving adolescents, teenagers, and adults with CHD significant enough to require invasive intervention, and sourced through searches of Web of Science, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and PsychInfo, met the inclusion criteria. These included the use of standardised neuropsychology tests across 10 domains of cognitive functioning and the reporting of effect size differences with controls. Reports of patients with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities were excluded. Pooled effect sizes suggested no significant differences between CHD samples and controls in terms of general intellectual ability and verbal reasoning. However, small-medium effects sizes were noted (0.33-0.44) and were statistically significant within the domains of non-verbal reasoning, processing speed, attention, auditory-verbal memory, psychomotor abilities, numeracy, and literacy with executive functioning also emerging as significant when one study outlier was excluded. We also included quality assurance statistics including Cochran's Q, T, and I2