Karmali, Shahzeer; Stoklossa, Carlene Johnson; Sharma, Arya; Stadnyk, Janet; Christiansen, Sandra; Cottreau, Danielle; Birch, Daniel W.
Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the management of bariatric surgical patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as PubMed US National Library, from January 1950 to December 2009. Evidence was levels I, II, and III. MAIN MESSAGE Bariatric surgery should be considered for obese patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality who have not achieved adequate weight loss with lifestyle and medical management and who are suffering from the complications of obesity. Bariatric surgery can result in substantial weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions, and improved quality of life. The patient’s weight-loss history; his or her personal accountability, responsibility, and comprehension; and the acceptable level of risk must be taken into account. Complications include technical failure, bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, excess loose skin, bowel obstruction, ulcers, and anastomotic stricture. Lifelong monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is essential. CONCLUSION Limited long-term success of behavioural and pharmacologic therapies in severe obesity has led to renewed interest in bariatric surgery. Success with bariatric surgery is more likely when multidisciplinary care providers, in conjunction with primary care providers, assess, treat, monitor, and evaluate patients before and after surgery. Family physicians will play a critical role in counseling patients about bariatric surgery and will need to develop skills in managing these patients in the long-term. PMID:20841586
Rodrigues, Gisele K; Resende, Cristina M M; Durso, Danielle F; Rodrigues, Lorena A A; Silva, José Luiz P; Reis, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Solange S; Ferreira, Daniela C; Franco, Gloria R; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline
The rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is involved in obesity. Few studies have been conducted on patients who underwent bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of FTO SNPs on body weight, body composition, and weight regain during a 60-mo follow-up period after bariatric surgery. The rs9939609 was genotyped in 146 individuals using a real-time polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay. Data for lifestyle, comorbidities, body weight, body mass index (BMI), excess weight loss (EWL), and body composition were obtained before and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 mo after surgery. Data were analyzed by comparing two groups of patients according to rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism. Mixed-regression models were constructed to evaluate the dynamics of body weight, BMI, and EWL over time in female patients. No differences were observed between the groups during the first 24 mo after surgery. After 36, 48, and 60 mo, body weight, fat mass, and BMI were higher, whereas fat-free mass and EWL were lower in the FTO-SNP patient group. Weight regain was more frequent and occurred sooner in the FTO-SNP group. There is a different evolution of weight loss in obese carriers of the FTO gene variant rs9939609 after bariatric surgery. However, this pattern was evident at only 2 y postbariatric surgery, inducing a lower proportion of surgery success and a greater and earlier weight regain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: In almost six decades different surgical techniques have been developed to treat patients with morbid obesity. Various surgical techniques are generally divided with respect to their effect into restrictive, malabsorbtive and humoral and a combination of these. Surgically modified human metabolism ameliorates metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, even in nonobese patients. The understanding of metabolic effects changed the traditional paradigm of bariatric surgery from simple weight-loss procedure to metabolic surgery affecting whole-body metabolism. Proper surgical technique for individual patient is the most important factor influencing long- term results, comorbidities and quality of life. Recommendations for patient selection, surgical methods and pre- and postoperative patient management are to be respected. Metabolic surgery principles and current concepts are presented.
... Procedures Who is a Candidate for Bariatric Surgery? Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Find a Provider Benefits of Bariatric Surgery Life ... Bariatric Surgery FAQs Bariatric Surgery Procedures BMI Calculator Childhood and Adolescent Obesity 100 SW 75th Street, Suite 201, Gainesville, FL, ...
Nishiyama, Tomoki; Kohno, Yumiko; Koishi, Keiko
Bariatric surgery has a lot of problems in anesthesia. We retrospectively compared anesthesia for bariatric surgery in yellow race with that in normal weight patients. Twenty patients who received bariatric surgery and 20 normal body weight patients who received abdominal surgery in Japan were enrolled. Induction condition, depth of epidural space, dose of anesthetics, duration of the effects of muscle relaxants, ventilation, and fluid management in bariatric surgery were analyzed and compared with those in normal body weight patients. An epidural catheterization was successful under ultrasound guide in the bariatric group. The depth epidural space was significantly larger in the bariatric group. Cormack and Lehane classification and the number of intubation attempt were not different between the two groups, while one bariatric case was once awakened to intubate blindly. Pressure-controlled ventilation was used in the bariatric group. Four bariatric patients were continuously ventilated after surgery. The doses of anesthetics and fluid infusion rate were not different between the two groups when calculated by ideal body weight in the bariatric group. The duration of the effects of rocuronium and pancuronium were shorter in the bariatric group. For anesthesia of yellow race patients undergoing bariatric surgery, intravenous anesthetics and acetate Ringer's solution with 1% glucose could be administered per ideal body weight, the effects of muscle relaxants lasted shorter, pressure-controlled ventilation could keep oxygenation with adequate carbon dioxide, and ultrasound assist was useful in epidural catheterization in the bariatric patients.
Asplin, John R.
Bariatric surgery as a means to treat obesity is becoming increasingly common in the United States. An early form of bariatric surgery, the jejunoileal bypass, had to be abandoned in 1980 due to numerous complications, including hyperoxaluria and kidney stones. Current bariatric procedures have not been systematically evaluated to determine if they cause hyperoxaluria. Presented here are data showing that hyperoxaluria is the major metabolic abnormality in patients with bariatric surgery who form kidney stones. Further studies are needed to assess the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in all patients with bariatric surgery.
le Roux, Carel W; Heneghan, Helen M
In this review, the authors discuss the indications for and the published outcomes of commonly performed bariatric procedures, including weight loss, perioperative morbidity and mortality, late complications, as well as the impact of bariatric surgery on comorbidities, cardiovascular risk, and mortality. They also briefly discuss the mechanisms by which bariatric/metabolic surgery causes such significant weight loss and health gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... action of certain hormones, such as ghrelin —“the hunger hormone.” People have these types of surgery if ... organizations to further patient education on hormone related issues. Network Sponsors The Hormone Health Network is supported ...
Shah, Divya K; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S
Bariatric surgery is the most reliable way to sustain weight loss in the morbidly obese. Reproductive age women comprise the majority of bariatric patients, and many may be interested in conceiving after surgery. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the recent literature on bariatric surgery and fertility to assist providers in patient counseling. Obesity adversely impacts fecundability and IVF outcomes through a variety of mechanisms. The body of literature on reproductive outcome after bariatric surgery is sparse and of mixed quality. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve menstrual cyclicity in anovulatory women, but little is published on the impact of surgical weight loss on spontaneous or IVF-treatment-related pregnancy rates. The increased risk of miscarriage in obese women may decline after bariatric surgery. There are currently insufficient data to support recommendations regarding the ideal timing for pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Obesity has been shown to adversely impact fertility, and weight loss is associated with significant improvement in many parameters of reproductive function. Further research is required as to the specific impact of surgical weight loss on pregnancy and miscarriage rates, as well as the optimal timing of pregnancy after bariatric surgery.
Tzur, Tamar; Sheiner, Eyal
Recent research has put the spotlight on two different aspects of pregnancy after bariatric surgery: safety of the mother and fetus, and the procedure's effectiveness in preventing the complications surrounding reproduction and pregnancy often seen in the obese woman. To evaluate the pregnancy outcome foLlowing bariatric surgery. Although there are severaL reports documenting poor perinatal outcomes and late surgical complications during pregnancies subsequent to bariatric surgery, systematic studies have generaLLy not proven such an association. Pregnancy after bariatric surgery appears to be safe, and in general perinatal outcome is better when compared to pregnancies of obese women. Providers should be familiar with potential complications related to postoperative pregnancies and be prepared to provide appropriate interventions such as nutritional supplementation and band adjustment when necessary.
... quality of life than someone who is normal weight. Bariatric surgery results in highly significant improvement in psychosocial well- ... affecting an individual’s weight, such as psychological issues. Weight gain generally occurs when there is an energy imbalance ...
Varela, J Esteban; Wilson, Samuel E; Nguyen, Ninh T
The Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee recently concluded that evidence supports the safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in the general adult population. However, more information is needed on the role of bariatric surgery in the elderly. The aim of this study was to examine the outcome of bariatric surgery in the elderly performed at academic centers. Using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis and procedure codes, we obtained data from the University HealthSystem Consortium Clinical Data Base for all elderly (>60 years) and nonelderly (19-60 years) patients who underwent bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity between 1999 and 2005. Outcome measures, including patient characteristics, length of stay, 30-day readmission, morbidity, and observed and expected (risk-adjusted) mortality, were compared between groups. Bariatric surgery in the elderly represents 2.7 per cent (n = 1,339) of all bariatric operations being performed at academic centers. Of the 99 University HealthSystem Consortium centers performing bariatric surgery, 78 centers (79%) perform bariatric surgery in the elderly. Compared with nonelderly patients, elderly patients who underwent bariatric surgery had more comorbidities, longer lengths of stay (4.9 days vs 3.8 days, P elderly group (0.7% vs 0.3%, P = 0.03). When risk adjusted, the observed-to-expected mortality ratio for the elderly group was 0.9. In a subset of elderly patients with a pre-existing cardiac condition (n = 236), the in-hospital mortality was 4.7 per cent. Bariatric surgery in the elderly represents only a small fraction of the number of bariatric operations performed at academic centers. Although the morbidity and mortality is higher in the elderly, bariatric surgery in the elderly is considered as safe as other gastrointestinal procedures because the observed mortality is better than the expected (risk-adjusted) mortality.
Funch-Jensen, P.; Iversen, M.G.; Kehlet, H.
INTRODUCTION: In 2005 the National Board of Health (NBH) published guidelines on bariatric surgery in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the national bariatric effort in relation to these guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on extraction of the following......, a tendency which was attributable to the activities of one of the private clinics. CONCLUSION: The frequency with which bariatric surgery is performed follows a strongly increasing trend and the procedures are only performed at the public departments selected by the National Board of Health...
Funch-Jensen, P.; Iversen, M.G.; Kehlet, H.
INTRODUCTION: In 2005 the National Board of Health (NBH) published guidelines on bariatric surgery in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the national bariatric effort in relation to these guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on extraction of the following......, a tendency which was attributable to the activities of one of the private clinics. CONCLUSION: The frequency with which bariatric surgery is performed follows a strongly increasing trend and the procedures are only performed at the public departments selected by the National Board of Health...... data from the National Patient Registry in the period from 2005 through 2007: annual number of operations, type of operation, laparoscopic versus open procedure. Furthermore, the centres were compared. RESULTS: A total of 2,098 bariatric procedures were performed in the years 2005 to 2007. Apart from...
Switzer, Noah J; Karmali, Shahzeer; Gill, Richdeep S; Sherman, Vadim
Revisional bariatric procedures are increasingly common. With more primary procedures being performed to manage severe obesity and its complications, 5% to 8% of these procedures will fail, requiring revisional operation. Reasons for revisional bariatric surgery are either primary inadequate weight loss, defined as less than 25% excess body weight loss, or weight recidivism, defined as a gain of more than 10 kg based on the nadir weight; however, each procedure also has inherit specific complications that can also be indications for revision. This article reviews the history of each primary bariatric procedure, indications for revision, surgical options, and subsequent outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ciangura, C; Nizard, J; Poitou-Bernert, C; Dommergues, M; Oppert, J M; Basdevant, A
More than 200,000 people underwent obesity surgery in France. Most of them are women. Pregnancy after bariatric surgery is becoming a common situation. This surgery results in major nutritional and gastro-intestinal tract modifications that may influence or be influenced by pregnancy, and yields benefits as well as complications. A multidisciplinary management including a nutritionist, an obstetrician, an anesthesiologist, and a bariatric surgeon is required. The aim of this review is to analyze the impact of bariatric surgery on pregnancy and vice versa, and to identify the key points of this management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Brockmeyer, Joel R; Grover, Brandon T; Kallies, Kara J; Kothari, Shanu N
Biliary disease requiring intervention can be complicated in the postbariatric surgery patient. A retrospective review was completed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy from September 2001 to September 2014, and those who underwent biliary intervention were identified. A total of 1527 patients underwent bariatric surgery during the study period. Of the 1,112 patients without prior cholecystectomy, 91 (8%) had biliary symptoms requiring intervention. Ninety patients underwent cholecystectomy, with 86 successfully completed laparoscopically. Six patients required laparoscopy-assisted percutaneous transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography along with cholecystectomy to clear gallstones from the common bile duct. Three patients who had undergone cholecystectomy before bariatric surgery developed primary common bile duct stones. Surgery for biliary disease after bariatric surgery can be completed successfully with minimal complications, and percutaneous transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has a high success rate of access to and clearance of the biliary tree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahawar, Kamal K
A large number of women experience pregnancy after bariatric surgery. The purpose of this review was to understand the evidence base in this area to come up with practical, evidence-based recommendations. We examined PubMed for all published articles on pregnancy in patients who have previously undergone a bariatric surgery. There is an increasing body of evidence pointing towards a beneficial effect of weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on female and male fertility prompting calls for recognition of infertility as a qualifying co-morbidity for patients between the Body Mass Index of 35.0 kg/m2 and 40.0 kg/m2. Women in childbearing age group should be routinely offered contraceptive advice after bariatric surgery and advised to avoid pregnancy until their weight has stabilized. Until more focused studies are available, the advice to wait for 12 months or 2 months after the weight loss has stabilized, whichever is latter, seems reasonable. Patients should be advised to seek clearance from their bariatric teams prior to conception and looked after by a multi-disciplinary team of women health professionals, bariatric surgeons, and dietitians during pregnancy. The main objective of care is to ensure adequate nutritional state to allow for a satisfactory weight gain and fetal growth. There is a relative lack of studies and complete lack of Level 1 evidence to inform practice in this area. This review summarizes current literature and makes a number of practical suggestions for routine care of these women while we develop evidence to better inform future practice.
Pepe, Franco; DE Luca, Francesco; Stracquadanio, Mariagrazia; Garraffo, Claudia; Santonocito, Veronica C; Privitera, Agata
Pregnancy after bariatric surgery has some peculiarities related to obesity, type of surgery, amount of weight loss, time elapsed from the surgery and adherence to medical prescriptions. Pregnant woman is at risk of nutritional deficiencies and it is unclear whether there is an increased incidence of intestinal complications during pregnancy after bariatric surgery and whether this kind of complications are more frequent during cesarean section. The fetus is at high risk of prematurity and fetal growth restriction, but they seem not at increased risk of birth defects (DTN) except in individual cases of folic acid deficiency (DTN) or vitamin K defect (similar abnormalities in patients receiving oral anticoagulants). In addition, the incidence of gestational diabetes and hypertension results to be decreased. Other postnatal outcomes from possible epigenetic modifications need to be evaluated in the long-term postnatal follow-up.
Vindigni, Vincenzo; Scarpa, Carlotta; Tommasini, Antonio; Toffanin, Maria Cristina; Masetto, Laura; Pavan, Chiara; Bassetto, Franco
Obesity is a worldwide problem that affects millions of people from a medical and psychological point of view. To solve the related complications, patients should lose weight with the consequent need to be subjected to body contouring due to the presence of a loose and redundant skin. We report our experience in the treatment of the post-bariatric breast. We considered all the post-bariatric patients subjected to a breast reshaping, and we viewed the features of the breast, the type of surgery performed, the outcomes, and the complications. All patients filled out BREAST-Q surveys both preoperatively and after 6 months to study the rate of satisfaction. Ninety post-bariatric patients underwent breast reshaping in the last 5 years. The average age was 40 years old. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 5 years. The most represented ptosis was second grade; the favorite technique has been mastopexy with parenchymal remodelling and augmentation with autologous tissue. The mean duration of the surgery has been 3 h. The most represented complications have been delayed healing, unfavorable scarring, hematoma, and seroma. Statistically significant improvements were observed in satisfaction with breast appearance, psychological, and physical well-being. Breast reshaping in post-bariatric patients is a big challenge and only a careful analysis of the degree of ptosis of the breast, its volume and shape, and a clear communication with the patients about the real outcomes and complications can make the winning surgeon.
Prevalência de transtornos depressivos e de ansiedade em pacientes obesos submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica Prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery
Full Text Available A obesidade mórbida está relacionada a muitos transtornos psiquiátricos e possui como opção terapêutica a cirurgia bariátrica. Objetivo: caracterizar a prevalência de transtornos depressivos e de ansiedade em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica no Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá e do Centro de Cirurgia de Obesidade de Maringá. Métodos: o estudo foi realizado com 50 pacientes obesos mórbidos submetidos à Cirurgia Bariátrica em diferentes períodos: pré-operatório, um mês de pós-operatório, três meses de pós-operatório e seis meses de pós-operatório. A avaliação do Transtorno Depressivo foi realizada pela aplicação do Inventário de Depressão de Beck, sendo outro instrumento utilizado neste trabalho a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão (HAD. Resultados: a prevalência de quadros sugestivos de ansiedade foi: 40% (20 pacientes no pré-operatório, 18% no primeiro mês pós-operatório, 8% no terceiro mês pós-operatório e 14% no sexto mês pós-operatório. Quadros sugestivos de depressão foram encontrados em: 26% (13 pacientes no pré-operatório, 10% no primeiro mês pós-operatório e no terceiro mês pós-operatório e 8% no sexto mês pós-operatório. Conclusão: Os níveis de Ansiedade foram altos no pré-operatório, diminuíram no 1º e 3º mês pós-operatório e voltaram a subir no sexto mês, atingindo níveis mais altos que no terceiro mês.Morbid obesity is associated to several psychiatric disorders and bariatric surgery is a therapeutic option. Current research characterizes the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in patients who underwent bariatric surgery at the Regional Hospital of Maringá and at the Obesity Surgery Center of Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil. Study was undertaken with 50 morbid obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery and comprised different periods, namely, pre-surgery, one month after surgery, three months after surgery and six months
Al-Mutawa, Aliaa; Anderson, Alfred Kojo; Alsabah, Salman; Al-Mutawa, Mohammad
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76%) and Vitamin B12 (16%). Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B6 (24%) was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery. PMID:29324643
Al-Mutawa, Aliaa; Anderson, Alfred Kojo; Alsabah, Salman; Al-Mutawa, Mohammad
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76%) and Vitamin B 12 (16%). Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B₆ (24%) was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery.
Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76% and Vitamin B12 (16%. Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B6 (24% was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery.
Owen, Jonathan G; Yazdi, Farshid; Reisin, Efrain
Obesity continues to increase in prevalence worldwide. Hypertension has long been associated with obesity, and weight loss continues to be a first-line therapy in the treatment of hypertension. Lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy, however, often meet with treatment failure. Bariatric surgery continues to be the most successful approach to sustained weight loss. This review focuses on the underlying physiologic mechanisms of obesity-hypertension, and the impact of bariatric surgery on the treatment of hypertension. Current available literature on the physiologic mechanisms of obesity-hypertension, and the major trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the impact of bariatric surgery procedures on hypertension are reviewed. Evidence suggests significant improvement in obesity-hypertension in patients who undergo surgical weight-reduction procedures. Malabsorptive techniques such as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or surgical resection techniques such as laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy appear to offer superior results in regards to hypertension control over restrictive techniques such as Gastric Banding. Though long-term control of hypertension following surgery remains a concern, available follow-up post-operative data of up to 10 years suggests a sustained, if lessened, effect on hypertension control over time. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Consalvo, Vincenzo; Canero, Antonio; Salsano, Vincenzo
Obesity is a worldwide disease affecting 13% of the world's adult female population. The reasons and the fetal risk are still unclear. The effect of weight loss as a result of bariatric surgery seems to induce an improvement in fertility in obese women. The main purpose of this prospective study is to demonstrate if there is an association between bariatric surgery-induced weight loss and an improvement in the fertility of women at reproductive age. From June 2013 to April 2016, all bariatric female patients from our institutes were prospectively evaluated for suitability in this study. A pool of 52 eligible patients was extracted from our database in the recruitment period. Of these, 28 underwent bariatric surgery and 24 did not. Both groups were observed for two-year follow-up. During follow-up, anthropometrics parameters, blood analysis, and comorbidities were checked and a gynaecological consultation was prescribed. Fifty participants were studied. Twenty-seven successfully underwent bariatric surgery with a percentage of excess weight loss (EWL) >70% at 24 months, while 23 accepted the observation and control for 24 months as an integral part of the pre-surgical bariatric program. The contingency table analysis showed an extremely significant association (Pbariatric surgery) and event (pregnancy), with a relative risk (RR) = 15.33 and confidence interval (CI) 95%=2.213 to 106.26. Bariatric surgery improves fertility in obese women at two years' postoperative. Every obese woman with difficulties becoming pregnant should undergo a bariatric surgery consultation. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results.
Zhu, Catherine; Pryor, Aurora D
Surgery has consistently been demonstrated to be the most effective long-term therapy for the treatment of obesity. However, despite excellent outcomes with current procedures, most patients with obesity- and weight-related comorbidities who meet criteria for surgical treatment choose not to pursue surgery out of fear of operative risks and complications or concerns about high costs. Novel minimally invasive procedures and devices may offer alternative solutions for patients who are hesitant to pursue standard surgical approaches. These procedures may be used for primary treatment of obesity, early intervention for patients approaching morbid obesity, temporary management prior to bariatric surgery, or revision of bypass surgery associated with weight regain. Novel bariatric procedures can in general be divided into four categories: endoluminal space-occupying devices, gastric suturing and restrictive devices, absorption-limiting devices, and neural-hormonal modulating devices. Many of these are only approved as short-term interventions, but these devices may be effective for patients desiring low-risk procedures or a transient effect. We will see the expansion of indications and alternatives for metabolic surgery as these techniques gain approval.
Carolina F. Nicoletti; Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira; Marcela A. S. Pinhel; Carla B. Nonino
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient’s genetic and epigenetic variables on the response t...
According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m² nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008, with 10% of men and 14% of women and a total of more than half a billion adults (aged >20 years old) being classed as obese. At least 2.8 million people die each year worldwide as a result of being overweight or obese, usually from the inevitable related comorbidities. It has been reported that approximately 65% of the worlds population inhabits countries where overweight and obesity are responsible for higher mortality than underweight. The recently published Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery note that despite the WHO stating that excess weight is considered the fifth leading risk for deaths worldwide, it has not yet been possible to successfully curb the obesity epidemic. Moreover, severe obesity (BMI>35 kg/m²) represents a rapidly growing segment of the epidemic in which the negative effects on health and disability are especially marked. Excess weight drastically elevates a persons risk of developing a number of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea, cancer, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and other serious comorbidities. The WHO emphasises that 44% of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 23% of ischaemic heart disease and around 741% of certain cancers are attributable to overweight and obesity. In the majority of European countries, overweight and obesity are responsible for about 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes, 35% of cases of ischaemic heart disease and 55% of cases of hypertensive disease among adults. Additionally, a range of debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis, respiratory difficulties, gallbladder disease, infertility, and psychosocial problems, among others, which lead to reduced life expectancy, quality of life and disability, are extremely costly in terms of both absence from work and use of health resources. Noteworthy, the
Malnutrition is a risk that is associated with all bariatric surgeries. Malnutrition is largely preventable after these surgeries if proper patient selection, thorough preoperative nutrition education, and postoperative nutritional follow-up take place along with patient compliance. Bariatric surgery is divided into 2 major categories: restrictive or malabsorptive (with or without the restrictive aspect). The more dramatic weight loss is generally associated with procedures that are malabsorptive in nature. There is an increased risk of specific nutritional deficiencies associated with these surgeries. With proper supplementation these deficiencies are largely avoidable. This article reviews the more common bariatric surgeries and the nutritional considerations associated specifically with each surgery. The article then summarizes the typical diet advancement schedule and reviews critical care nutrition in regards to total parenteral nutrition administration for the morbidly obese individual, following bariatric surgery.
Medeiros, Marina; Saunders, Cláudia; Chagas, Cristiane B; Pereira, Silvia E; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa
The objective of this study was to describe the main factors related to the installation and/or aggravation of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and its clinical consequences in pregnant women after bariatric surgery. An electronic search on VDD in pregnancy and after bariatric surgery was conducted in publications from 1998 until 2012 that presented studies performed in humans. We provided an overview of VDD after bariatric surgery, in pregnancy, and in pregnancy in women who underwent bariatric surgery. In view of the high percentage of VDD postoperatively and the role of this vitamin in pregnancy, we recommend the investigation of vitamin D nutritional status in prenatal care.
Carolina F. Nicoletti
Full Text Available This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient’s genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance.
Nicoletti, Carolina F; Cortes-Oliveira, Cristiana; Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nonino, Carla B
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient's genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance.
Full Text Available Background: Overweight is an increasing problem worldwide. Data from 2008 show that, in Portugal, 60% of the adult population was overweight and 25% was obese. The relation between mood disorders and obesity is well known and about 2/3 of those who search for bariatric surgery have a psychiatric diagnosis, being depression the most common. Aims: We reviewed the relation between depression and obesity before and after bariatric surgery and evaluated its impact in the pharmacokinetics of antidepressant medication and nutrients that influence depressive symptomatology. Methods: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature published in English between 1988 and 2015, through research in MEDLINE with the keywords absorption, bioavailability, bariatric surgery, obesity, depression, antidepressants. Results: Depression and obesity potentiates each other in a bidirectional way and the strength of this association is modulated by gender, physical activity, diet and antidepressant medication usage. Bariatric surgery leads to changes in the pharmacokinetics of antidepressant medication and nutrients that have a regulatory role on mood symptomatology. Discussion and Conclusions: Available data show we need to pay special attention to obese depressive patients proposed for bariatric surgery. The existence of depressive symptoms leads to a greater risk of not losing weight after a bariatric surgery but, in the opposite direction, bariatric surgery leads to a lower bioavailability of antidepressant medication.
The increasing utilization of bariatric surgery has been accompanied by an increased incidence and awareness of related neurologic complications. The purpose of this review is to provide up-to-date information on the neurologic complications related to bariatric surgery. Neurologic complications related to bariatric surgery are predominantly due to nutrient deficiencies. Common early complications include Wernicke encephalopathy due to thiamine deficiency, and late complications include myelopathy or myeloneuropathy due to vitamin B12 or copper deficiency. Early recognition and prompt institution of treatment is essential to prevent long-term disability. Often, life-long supplementation may be required.
Marco Aurelio SANTO
Full Text Available ContextBariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control.MethodThe medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2% patients were male and 445 (82.8% were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46, and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2.ResultsEarly complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5% patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%.ConclusionThe incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years.
Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.
The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techn...
Ma, Irene T.; Madura, James A.
Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical proc...
Azevedo Guerreiro, R; Ribeiro, R
Obesity is increasing vastly in the world, and the number of bariatric surgeries being performed is also increasing. Patients being submitted to bariatric surgeries, especially malabsorptive procedures, have an increased risk of developing nutrient deficiencies, which can culminate in symptomatic hypovitaminosis, if supplementation is not done correctly. The eye and the optic system need an adequate level of several vitamins and minerals to perform properly, especially vitamin A, and this art...
Woodard, Carla B
Gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity is considered an appropriate intervention when other weight-loss measures have proven unsuccessful. Weight loss often brings about improvement in overall health by lessening the effects of obesity-related comorbidities such as chronic hypertension and diabetes. In fact, the ability to become pregnant is enhanced, as weight loss often allows for a normalization of sex hormones. However, the nutrition challenges brought about by the surgery may have a profound impact on maternal health and pregnancy outcome. Surgical procedures for morbid obesity may be classified according to the digestive aftereffects brought about by the particular procedure. These categories include the "restrictive" procedures, "restrictive-malabsorptive" procedures, and the less common "malabsorptive" procedures. Deficiencies in iron, vitamin B12, folate, and calcium can result in maternal complications, such as severe anemia, and in fetal complications, such as neural tube defect, intrauterine growth restriction, and failure to thrive. Nutrient supplementation following bariatric surgery and close supervision before, during, and after pregnancy can help prevent nutrition-related complications and improve maternal and fetal health.
Coblijn, Usha K; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; de Raaff, Christel A L; van Wagensveld, Bart A; Smets, Ellen M A
The decision to undergo bariatric surgery is multifactorial and made both by patient and doctor. Information is of the utmost importance for this decision. To investigate the bariatric surgery patient's preferences regarding information provision in bariatric surgery. A teaching hospital, bariatric center of excellence in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. All patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy between September 2013 and September 2014 were approached by mail to participate. A questionnaire was used to elicit patient preferences for the content and format of information. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinicopathologic factors, and psychologic factors were explored as predictors for specific preferences. Of the 356 eligible patients, 112 (31.5%) participated. The mean age was 49.2 (±10.7) years, and 91 (81.3%) patients were female. Patients deemed the opportunity to ask questions (96.4%) the most important feature of the consult, followed by a realistic view on expectations-for example, results of the procedure (95.5%) and information concerning the consequences of surgery for daily life (89.1%). Information about the risk of complications on the order of 10% was desired by 93% of patients; 48% desired information about lower risks (.1%). Only 25 patients (22.3%) desired detailed information concerning their weight loss after surgery. Bariatric patients wished for information about the consequences of surgery on daily life, whereas the importance of information concerning complications decreased when their incidence lessened. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Obesity is caused by increased amounts of fatty tissue in the body and increasingly common serious health problem. The prevalence of obesity is increasing in all age groups throughout the world. This increase in the rate of obesity increases the incidence of obesity-related chronic diseases. In this respect, obesity is considered a risk factor for the chronic diseases. People who are more than 30 Body Mass Index called as obese and people who are over 40 called morbidly obese. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment providing in permanent weight loosing for obesity. Bariatric surgery techniques are applied as three different types. These techniques include; limit food intake, reduce nutrient absorption (malabsorption, and restricting food intake and malabsorption surgeries. In bariatric surgery, patient care is becoming increasingly important at before and after surgery due to the presence of concomitant diseases in obese patients. During this period, there are special nursing practices which include reducing the risks in the care of patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery, preventing the development of complications and supplying the recovery from illness as soon as possible. In this article nursing care of obese patients before and after surgery is to be discussed. In addition, bariatric surgery, complications and difficulties in live patients are to be examined [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 77-82
Lo Menzo, E; Szomstein, S; Rosenthal, R J
Bariatric surgery is considered the only long-lasting treatment for morbid obesity. Techniques and procedures have changed dramatically. We report on some of the major changes in the field. We reviewed some of the major changes in trends in bariatric surgery based on some landmark paper published in the literature. We identified three major phases in the evolution of bariatric surgery. The pioneer phase was mostly characterized by discovery of weight loss procedures serendipitously from procedures done for other purposes. The second phase can be identified with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. This is considered the phase of greatest expansion of bariatric surgery. The metabolic phase derives from the improved understanding of the mechanisms of actions of the bariatric operations at the hormonal and molecular level. Bariatric surgery has changed significantly over the years. The safety of the laparoscopic approach, along with the better understanding of the metabolic changes obtained postoperatively, has led to a more individualized approach and also an attempt to expand the indications for these procedures. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.
Nunez Lopez, Omar; Jupiter, Daniel C; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Bowen-Jallow, Kanika A
Bariatric surgery represents an appropriate treatment for adolescent severe obesity, but its utilization remains low in this patient population. We studied the impact of race and sex on preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery. Retrospective analysis (2007-2014) of adolescent bariatric surgery using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, a national database that collects bariatric surgical care data. We assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and outcomes (weight loss and remission of obesity-related conditions [ORCs]). Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. census data, we calculated the ratio of severe obesity and bariatric procedures among races and determined the ratio of ratios to assess for disparities. About 1,539 adolescents underwent bariatric surgery. Males had higher preoperative body mass index (BMI; 51.8 ± 10.5 vs. 47.1 ± 8.7, p adolescents underwent bariatric surgery at a higher proportion than blacks and Hispanics (2.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively). Preoperative characteristics vary according to race and sex. Race and sex do not impact 12-month weight loss or ORC's remission rates. Minority adolescents undergo bariatric surgery at lower-than-expected rates. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goodman, Jerry Clay
Obesity has attained pandemic proportions, and bariatric surgery is increasingly being employed resulting in turn to more neurological complications which must be recognized and managed. Neurological complications may result from mechanical or inflammatory mechanisms but primarily result from micro-nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin B12, thiamine, and copper constitute the most frequent deficiencies. Neurological complications may occur at reasonably predictable times after bariatric surgery and are associated with the type of surgery used. During the early post-operative period, compressive or stretch peripheral nerve injury, rhabdomyolysis, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy may occur. Late complications ensue after months to years and include combined system degeneration (vitamin B12 deficiency) and hypocupric myelopathy. Bariatric surgery patients require careful nutritional follow-up with routine monitoring of micronutrients at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively and then annually after surgery and multivitamin supplementation for life. Sustained vigilance for common and rare neurological complications is essential.
Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas (CP are epithelial neoplasms generally found in the area of the pituitary and hypothalamus. Despite benign histology, these tumors and/or their treatment often result in significant, debilitating disorders of endocrine, neurological, behavioral, and metabolic systems. Severe obesity is observed in a high percentage of patients with CP resulting in significant comorbidities and negatively impacting quality of life. Obesity occurs as a result of hypothalamic damage and disruption of normal homeostatic mechanisms regulating energy balance. Such pathological weight gain, termed hypothalamic obesity (HyOb, is often severe and refractory to therapy.Unfortunately, neither lifestyle intervention nor pharmacotherapy has proven truly effective in the treatment of CP-HyOb. Given the limited choices and poor results of these treatments, several groups have examined bariatric surgery as a treatment alternative for patients with CP-HyOb. While a large body of evidence exists supporting the use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of exogenous obesity and its comorbidities, its role in the treatment of HyOb has yet to be well defined. To date, the existing literature on bariatric surgery in CP-HyOb is largely limited to case reports and series with short term follow-up. Here we review the current reports on the use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of CP-HyOb. We also compare these results to those reported for other populations of HyOb, including Prader-Willi Syndrome and patients with melanocortin signaling defects. While initial reports of bariatric surgery in CP-HyOb are promising, their limited scope makes it difficult to draw any substantial conclusions as to the long term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in CP-HyOb. There continues to be a need for more robust, controlled, prospective trials with long term follow-up in order to better define the role of bariatric surgery in the treatment of all types of hypothalamic
Beamish, Andrew J; Olbers, Torsten; Kelly, Aaron S; Inge, Thomas H
Obesity is a major global health problem, and its multisystem effects are inextricably linked with elevated cardiovascular risk and adverse outcomes. The cardiovascular benefits of reversing obesity in adults are well-established. Compared with other weight-loss strategies, programmes that incorporate bariatric surgery for weight loss are beneficial for sustained BMI reduction. A marked improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been observed after bariatric surgery. This broad improvement in cardiovascular risk profile has led to substantial reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. As with all procedures, the benefits of bariatric surgery must be weighed against its potential risks. Modern bariatric surgery has an excellent safety profile, but important limitations remain, including the potential for surgical complications and nutritional deficiencies, and the lifelong requirement for nutritional supplementation. Surgery should be considered in patients with severe obesity, especially those with cardiovascular comorbidities. In this Review, we summarize the current management options for patients with obesity, and discuss the effects of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes.
Yu, Elaine W.
Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277
This article presents an overview of postoperative nutritional requirements and goals following bariatric surgery. It summarizes current diet progression and nutrient intake guidelines geared toward optimizing weight loss and maintaining adequate nutritional status, nutrient absorption, as well as hydration. The article further emphasizes the importance of postoperative follow-up with a bariatric multidisciplinary team for appropriate postoperative care, diet management, and nutrient deficiency screenings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Bariatric surgery offers a highly effective mode of treatment for obese patients. Some procedures such as bypass cause an alteration in normal gastrointestinal tract with possible consequences for the uptake of orally administered drugs. Methods: We assessed the literature to ascertain whether the use of oral drugs and especially oral contraceptives is effective and adequate after bariatric surgery. Results: The bioavailability of drugs could be affected by the solubility and pH of the modified medium after bariatric surgery and by the loss of gastrointestinal transporters. Bariatric surgery could potentially result in a transient change in the absorption of drugs such as analgesics, antibiotics, antiarrhythmics, anticoagulants, psychotropic, and oral contraceptive drugs. Effective contraception is especially critical in the postoperative period, and implants might be representing a safe contraceptive method in women undergoing bariatric surgery. Conclusion: Each drug will have to be evaluated with respect to its site of absorption and its mechanism of absorption, with special attention on parameters influencing the effectiveness of the absorption processes.
Bal, Bikram S; Finelli, Frederick C; Shope, Timothy R; Koch, Timothy R
Lifestyle intervention programmes often produce insufficient weight loss and poor weight loss maintenance. As a result, an increasing number of patients with obesity and related comorbidities undergo bariatric surgery, which includes approaches such as the adjustable gastric band or the 'divided' Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This Review summarizes the current knowledge on nutrient deficiencies that can develop after bariatric surgery and highlights follow-up and treatment options for bariatric surgery patients who develop a micronutrient deficiency. The major macronutrient deficiency after bariatric surgery is protein malnutrition. Deficiencies in micronutrients, which include trace elements, essential minerals, and water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, are common before bariatric surgery and often persist postoperatively, despite universal recommendations on multivitamin and mineral supplements. Other disorders, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, can promote micronutrient deficiencies, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recognition of the clinical presentations of micronutrient deficiencies is important, both to enable early intervention and to minimize long-term adverse effects. A major clinical concern is the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the development of metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis or osteomalacia; metabolic bone diseases may explain the increased risk of hip fracture in patients after RYGB. Further studies are required to determine the optimal levels of nutrient supplementation and whether postoperative laboratory monitoring effectively detects nutrient deficiencies. In the absence of such data, clinicians should inquire about and treat symptoms that suggest nutrient deficiencies.
The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21(st) century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery.
Hezelgrave, N. L.; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene
Maternal obesity is a major cause of obstetric morbidity and mortality. With surgical procedures to facilitate weight loss becoming more widely available and demanded and increasing number of women becoming pregnant after undergoing bariatric surgery, it is important and timely to consider the outcome of pregnancy following bariatric surgery. This paper aims to synthesize the current evidence regarding pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery. It concludes that bariatric surgery appears to ...
Fung, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Macpherson, Alison; Kuk, Jennifer L.
Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to comple...
Kim, Ki-Suk; Sandoval, Darleen A
Obesity increases the risks of metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is the most successful therapeutic option that causes sustained weight loss and improvements in obesity comorbidities. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are two of the most frequently performed bariatric surgeries. Despite their different anatomical rearrangement, they have remarkably similar success in both weight loss and T2DM remission. Interestingly, they also both cause a wide range of endocrine changes. Many of these endocrine changes are reflected specifically within the intestine and are implicated as mechanisms for the metabolic success of surgery. However, while most of the work shows that these hormonal changes are associated with the metabolic changes after surgery, causation has been difficult to ascertain. Here, we review the endocrine changes after RYGB and VSG and explore their mechanistic role in the success of bariatric surgery. Further, we explore important changes in gastrointestinal function and the role of these changes in the increase in postprandial endocrine responses after bariatric surgery. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:783-798, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ma, Irene T; Madura, James A
Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical procedures: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch.
Guerreiro, Rui Azevedo; Ribeiro, Rui
Obesity is increasing vastly in the world, and the number of bariatric surgeries being performed is also increasing. Patients being submitted to bariatric surgeries, especially malabsorptive procedures, have an increased risk of developing nutrient deficiencies, which can culminate in symptomatic hypovitaminosis, if supplementation is not done correctly. The eye and the optic system need an adequate level of several vitamins and minerals to perform properly, especially vitamin A, and this article wants to cover the main nutrients involved, the possible ophthalmic complications that can arise by their deficiency, and the management of those complications.
Ma, Irene T.
Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical procedures: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. PMID:27118949
Janik, Micha? R.; Stanowski, Edward; Pa?nik, Krzysztof
Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods ...
Fulton, Courtney; Sheppard, Caroline; Birch, Daniel; Karmali, Shazeer; de Gara, Christopher
Revisional surgery is an important component of addressing weight regain and complications following primary bariatric surgery. Owing to provincial need and the complexity of this patient population, a specialized multidisciplinary revision clinic was developed. We sought to characterize patients who undergo revision surgery and compare their outcomes with primary bariatric surgery clinic data. We completed a retrospective chart review of bariatric revision clinic patients compared with primary bariatric surgery patients from December 2009 to June 2014. We reviewed the charts of 2769 primary bariatric clinic patients, 886 of whom had bariatric surgery, and 534 revision bariatric clinic patients, 83 of whom had revision surgery. Fewer revision clinic patients underwent surgery than primary clinic patients (22% v. 32%). The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 44.7 ± 9.5 in revision patients compared with 45.7 ± 7.6 in primary bariatric surgery patients. Most revision patients had a prior vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG; 48%) or a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB; 24%). Bands were removed in 36% of all LAGB patients presenting to clinic. Of the 134 procedures performed in the revision clinic, 83 were bariatric weight loss surgeries, and 51 were band removals. Revision clinic patients experienced a significant decrease in BMI (from 44.7 ± 9.5 to 33.8 ± 7.5, p bariatric revision clinic manages a wide variety of complex patients distinct from those seen in a primary clinic. Operative candidates at the revision clinic are chosen based on favourable medical, anatomic and psychosocial factors, keeping in mind the resource constraints of a public health care system.
Aliaa Al-Mutawa; Alfred Kojo Anderson; Salman Alsabah; Mohammad Al-Mutawa
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseli...
It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients' outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented.
Full Text Available It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron, before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented.
Xanthakos, Stavra A; Inge, Thomas H
Bariatric surgery is being increasingly used to help treat morbidly obese adults and adolescents. As a greater percentage of this population faces a lifetime of living with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, increased awareness of the nutritional consequences is critical for all health care practitioners, as many of these patients may be lost to follow-up and can present with significant nutritional complications years after surgery. Nutritional deficiencies can occur after bariatric surgery, although to a lesser degree after restrictive procedures. Risk may increase over time, perhaps due to poor compliance with supplementation, continued inadequate intake and/or ongoing malabsorption. Adolescent patients may be at greater risk due to poor compliance and longer life span. Nutritional monitoring and supplementation among bariatric programs has been widely variable and few prospective studies of outcomes exist. Bariatric surgery can carry significant risk of nutritional complications. Compliance with dietary recommendations should be monitored and encouraged, with annual screening for selected deficiencies. Prospective longitudinal research is needed to identify the true prevalence and significance of nutritional deficiency in these patients and to determine optimum dietary recommendations.
Gebhart, Alana; Young, Monica T; Nguyen, Ninh T
Ample evidence supports the safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in the general adult population but more information is needed in patients age 60 years and older (elderly). We previously examined the outcome of bariatric surgery performed in the elderly between 1999 and 2005 using the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Clinical Database. The aim of this study was to analyze contemporary outcomes of bariatric surgery in the elderly and to compare them to previous data from 1999-2005. Using International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision diagnosis and procedure codes, we obtained data from the UHC database for all elderly (age >60 yr) and adult nonelderly (age 19-60 yr) patients who underwent bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity between 2009 and 2013. Outcome measures, such as patient characteristics, LOS, morbidity, and observed-to-expected (risk-adjusted) mortality ratio were compared between elderly and nonelderly patients. Bariatric surgery in the elderly made up 2.7% of all bariatric operations in 1999-2005. This represents an increase to 10.1% of all bariatric operations in 2009-2013. In-hospital mortality was .30% for the nonelderly and .70% for the elderly in 1999-2005, whereas contemporary in-hospital mortality has decreased to .11% for the nonelderly and .05% for the elderly. Our results show that the number of bariatric procedures performed in the elderly is increasing and now represents 10% of all bariatric operations performed at academic centers. In-hospital mortality in bariatric surgery in the elderly has improved so much that it is now even better than in-hospital mortality in the nonelderly in 1999-2005. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014. Results. A total of 371 patients (72% female completed the questionnaire. Only 87 of 371 (23% participants were interested in bariatric surgery. Individuals interested in bariatric surgery had a higher BMI (48.0 versus 46.2 kg/m2, P=0.03 and believed that they would lose more weight with surgery (51 versus 44 kg, P=0.0069. Those who scored highly on past weight loss success and financial concerns were less likely to be interested in bariatric surgery, whereas those who scored highly on high receptivity to surgery and positive social support were more likely to be interested in bariatric surgery. Conclusion. Although participants overestimated the effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, most were still not interested in bariatric surgery.
Fung, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Macpherson, Alison; Kuk, Jennifer L
Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014. Results. A total of 371 patients (72% female) completed the questionnaire. Only 87 of 371 (23%) participants were interested in bariatric surgery. Individuals interested in bariatric surgery had a higher BMI (48.0 versus 46.2 kg/m(2), P = 0.03) and believed that they would lose more weight with surgery (51 versus 44 kg, P = 0.0069). Those who scored highly on past weight loss success and financial concerns were less likely to be interested in bariatric surgery, whereas those who scored highly on high receptivity to surgery and positive social support were more likely to be interested in bariatric surgery. Conclusion. Although participants overestimated the effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, most were still not interested in bariatric surgery.
It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life aft...
Bastos, Emanuelle Cristina Lins; Barbosa, Emília Maria Wanderley Gusmão; Soriano, Graziele Moreira Silva; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima
Bariatric surgery leads to an average loss of 60-75% of excess body weight with maximum weight loss in the period between 18 and 24 months postoperatively. However, several studies show that weight is regained from two years of operation. To identify the determinants of weight regain in post-bariatric surgery users. Prospective cross-sectional study with 64 patients who underwent bariatric surgery with postoperative time > 2 years valued at significant weight regain. The variables analyzed were age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, work activity related to food, time after surgery, BMI, percentage of excess weight loss, weight gain, attendance monitoring nutrition, lifestyle, eating habits, self-perception of appetite, daily use of nutritional supplements and quality of life. There were 57 (89%) women and 7 (11%) men, aged 41.76 ± 7.93 years and mean postoperative period of 53.4 ± 18.4 months. The average weight and BMI were respectively 127.48 ± 24.2 kg and 49.56 ± 6.7 kg/m2 at surgery. The minimum weight and BMI were achieved 73.0 ± 18.6 kg and 28.3 ± 5.5 kg/m2, reached in 23.7 ± 12 months postoperatively. Regained significant weight occurred in 18 (28.1%) cases. The mean postoperative period of 66 ± 8.3 months and work activities related to food showed statistical significance (p=000 and p=0.003) for the regained weight. Bariatric surgery promotes adequate reduction of excess body weight, with significant weight regain observed after five years; post-operative time and work activity related to eating out as determining factors for the occurrence of weight regain.
Gadiraju, Silpa; Lee, Clare J; Cooper, David S
Based on the mechanisms of drug absorption, increased levothyroxine requirements are expected after bariatric surgery. However, there are conflicting data on this topic. This review evaluates the effects of bariatric surgery on levothyroxine dosing. Data were obtained from PubMed, Scopus, and review of published bibliographies. Six of 10 studies demonstrated decreased postoperative requirements. Most demonstrated correlations between weight loss and dose. Only 3 case reports and 1 case series demonstrated increased levothyroxine requirements, attributed to malabsorption. The loss of both fat and lean body mass may counteract malabsorptive effects from surgery, resulting in decreased postoperative levothyroxine requirements. In addition, the reversal of impaired levothyroxine pharmacokinetics and an altered set point of thyroid hormone homeostasis may also contribute to postoperative levothyroxine reductions.
Pallati, Pradeep; Buettner, Shelby; Simorov, Anton; Meyer, Avishai; Shaligram, Abhijit; Oleynikov, Dmitry
With increasing childhood obesity, adolescent bariatric surgery has been increasingly performed. We used a national database to analyze current trends in laparoscopic bariatric surgery in the adolescent population and related short-term outcomes. Discharge data from the University Health System Consortium (UHC) database was accessed using International Classification of Disease codes during a 36 month period. UHC is an alliance of more than 110 academic medical centers and nearly 250 affiliate hospitals. All adolescent patients between 13 and 18 years of age, with the assorted diagnoses of obesity, who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) were evaluated. The main outcome measures analyzed were morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS), overall cost, intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and readmission rate. These outcomes were compared to those of adult bariatric surgery. Adolescent laparoscopic bariatric surgery was performed on 329 patients. At the same time, 49,519 adult bariatric surgeries were performed. One hundred thirty-six adolescent patients underwent LAGB, 47 had SG, and 146 patients underwent LRYGB. LAGB has shown a decreasing trend (n = 68, 34, and 34), while SG has shown an increasing trend (n = 8, 15, and 24) over the study years. LRYGB remained stable (n = 44, 60, and 42) throughout the study period. The individual and summative morbidity and mortality rates for these procedures were zero. Compared to adult bariatric surgery, 30 day in-hospital morbidity (0 vs. 2.2 %, p adolescent bariatric surgery, while the ICU admission rate (9.78 vs. 6.30 %, p adolescent laparoscopic bariatric surgery reveal the increased use of sleeve gastrectomy and adjustable gastric banding falling out of favor.
Hennings, Dietric L; Baimas-George, Maria; Al-Quarayshi, Zaid; Moore, Rachel; Kandil, Emad; DuCoin, Christopher G
Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective method of achieving weight loss and alleviating obesity-related comorbidities. Yet, it is not being used equitably. This study seeks to identify if there is a disparity in payer status of patients undergoing bariatric surgery and what factors are associated with this disparity. We performed a case-control analysis of National Inpatient Sample. We identified adults with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with overweight inpatient adult controls not undergoing surgery. The sample was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. We identified 132,342 cases, in which the majority had private insurance (72.8%). Bariatric patients were significantly more likely to be privately insured than any other payer status; Medicare- and Medicaid-covered patients accounted for a low percentage of cases (Medicare 5.1%, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.29-0.37, p bariatric surgery had an increased risk of complications compared to privately insured patients. Publicly insured patients are significantly less likely to undergo bariatric surgery. As a group, these patients experience higher rates of obesity and related complications and thus are most in need of bariatric surgery.
... to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Estimate of Bariatric Surgery Numbers, 2011-2016 Published July 2016 2011 2012 ... Search Treat your Obesity | Patient Learning Center Bariatric Surgery FAQs Bariatric Surgery Procedures BMI Calculator Childhood and Adolescent Obesity ...
Harrison, Rachel K; Berkelhammer, Charles; Suarez, Victor; Kay, Helen H
Little information exists to guide monitoring and treatment of malnourishment during pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Here we present a case with severe deficiencies and recommendations for testing and treatment. Our patient underwent a duodenal switch procedure resulting in significant weight loss and numerous deficiencies. She then experienced a neonatal demise with multiple congenital abnormalities, including diaphragmatic hernia, possibly related to severe vitamin A deficiency. After high doses of oral and parenteral replacement, pancreatic enzymes, and total parenteral nutrition, she delivered an anatomically normal but growth-restricted neonate in a subsequent pregnancy. Bariatric procedures may result in nutritional deficiencies that affect pregnancy outcome. Women with severe deficiencies require pre-pregnancy counselling, monitoring, aggressive treatment, and a multidisciplinary approach to care. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hezelgrave, N L; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene
Maternal obesity is a major cause of obstetric morbidity and mortality. With surgical procedures to facilitate weight loss becoming more widely available and demanded and increasing number of women becoming pregnant after undergoing bariatric surgery, it is important and timely to consider the outcome of pregnancy following bariatric surgery. This paper aims to synthesize the current evidence regarding pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery. It concludes that bariatric surgery appears to have positive effects on fertility and reduces the risk of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Moreover, there appears to be a reduced incidence of fetal macrosomia post-bariatric procedure, although there remains uncertainty about the increased rates of small-for-gestational age and intrauterine growth restricted infants, as well as premature rupture of membranes in this group. A number of case reports highlight that pregnancy following bariatric surgery is not without complications and it must be managed as high risk by the multidisciplinary team.
N. L. Hezelgrave
Full Text Available Maternal obesity is a major cause of obstetric morbidity and mortality. With surgical procedures to facilitate weight loss becoming more widely available and demanded and increasing number of women becoming pregnant after undergoing bariatric surgery, it is important and timely to consider the outcome of pregnancy following bariatric surgery. This paper aims to synthesize the current evidence regarding pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery. It concludes that bariatric surgery appears to have positive effects on fertility and reduces the risk of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Moreover, there appears to be a reduced incidence of fetal macrosomia post-bariatric procedure, although there remains uncertainty about the increased rates of small-for-gestational age and intrauterine growth restricted infants, as well as premature rupture of membranes in this group. A number of case reports highlight that pregnancy following bariatric surgery is not without complications and it must be managed as high risk by the multidisciplinary team.
Christou, Nicolas V; Efthimiou, Evangelos
Severe obesity is reaching epidemic proportions throughout the world, including Canada. The only permanent treatment of severe or morbid obesity is bariatric surgery. Access to bariatric surgery is very limited in Canada. We sought to collect accurate data on waiting times for the procedure. We carried out a survey of members of the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons and performed a more detailed analysis within Quebec and at one Canadian bariatric surgery centre where a prospectively collected bariatric surgery registry has been maintained since 1983. The survey response rate was 85%. All centres determined whether patients were eligible for bariatric surgery based on the National Institutes of Health criteria. Patients entered the queue as "office contacts" and moved through the queue, with the exit point being completion of the procedure. In 2007, a total of 6783 patients were waiting for bariatric surgery and 1313 procedures were performed in Canada. Assuming these trends are maintained, the calculated average waiting time for bariatric surgery in Canada is just over 5 years (6783/1313). The Fraser Institute and the Wait Times Alliance benchmarks for reasonable surgical waiting times vary from 8 weeks for cancer surgery to 18 months for cosmetic surgery. At one Canadian centre, 12 patients died while waiting for bariatric surgery. The waiting times for bariatric surgery are the longest of any surgically treated condition. Given the significant reduction in the relative risk of death with bariatric surgery (40%-89% depending on the study), the current waiting times for the procedure in Canada are unacceptable.
Love, Kaitlin M; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Safavian, Dana; Schirmer, Bruce; Malin, Steven K; Hallowell, Peter T; Kirby, Jennifer L
Many insurance companies have considerable prebariatric surgery requirements despite a lack of evidence for improved clinical outcomes. The hypothesis of this study is that insurance-specific requirements will be associated with a decreased progression to surgery and increased delay in time to surgery. Retrospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing bariatric surgery evaluation from 2010-2015. Patients who underwent surgery (SGY; n = 827; mean body mass index [BMI] 49.1) were compared with those who did not (no-SGY; n = 648; mean BMI: 49.4). Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify specific co-morbidity and insurance specific predictors of surgical dropout and time to surgery. A total of 1475 patients using 12 major insurance payors were included. Univariate analysis found insurance requirements associated with surgical drop out included longer median diet duration (no-SGY = 6 mo; SGY = 3 mo; Psurgery dropout. Additionally, surgical patients had an average interval between initial visit and surgery of 5.8±4.6 months with significant weight gain (2.1 kg, Psurgery insurance requirements were associated with lack of patient progression to surgery in this study. In addition, delays in surgery were associated with preoperative weight gain. Although prospective and multicenter studies are needed, these findings have major policy implications suggesting insurance requirements may need to be reconsidered to improve medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Faintuch, J; Souza, S A F; Fabris, S M; Cecconello, I; Capodaglio, P
Bariatric surgery has grown from an obscure experimental procedure to one of the most popular operations in the world. Such accelerated progress left many gaps, notably concerning subsequent rehabilitation needs of this population. In the present study, a brief description of both the patients and the interventions is provided, along with potentially disabling features especially concerning the locomotor system, which has received comparatively little attention . Based on reported protocols and actual experience, major issues are addressed. Bariatric patients are initially managed in the hospital, however long-term and even lifetime needs may be recognized, requiring major lifestyle and physical activity changes. These have to be focused in all settings, inside and outside the healthcare institutions. Initially only adults were considered bariatric candidates, however currently also adolescents and the elderly are admitted in many centers. Bariatric weight loss is certainly successful for remission or prevention of metabolic, cardiovascular and cancer comorbidities. Yet benefits for bones, joints and muscles, along with general physical performance are still incompletely established. This should be no reason for denying continued care to such individuals, within the context of well-designed protocols, as available evidence points toward favorable rehabilitation in the realms of physical, social and workplace activities. The importance of a physiatric curriculum in medical schools has been emphasized. Even more crucial is the presence of such a specialists in obesity and bariatric teams, a requirement recognized in a few countries but not in others. The relevance of obesity as a disabling condition is reviewed, along with the positive changes induced by surgical weight loss. Although obesity alleviation is a legitimate end-point it is not a sufficient one. The shortcomings of such result from the point of view of physical normalization are outlined, and
Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E; Navaneethan, Sankar D
The prevalence of severe obesity in both the general and the chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations continues to rise, with more than one-fifth of CKD patients in the United States having a body mass index of ≥35 kg/m 2 . Severe obesity has significant renal consequences, including increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and nephrolithiasis. Bariatric surgery represents an effective method for achieving sustained weight loss, and evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that bariatric surgery is also effective in improving blood pressure, reducing hyperglycemia, and even inducing diabetes remission. There is also observational evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery may diminish the long-term risk of kidney function decline and ESRD. Bariatric surgery appears to be relatively safe in patients with CKD, with postoperative complications only slightly higher than in the general bariatric surgery population. The use of bariatric surgery in patients with CKD might help prevent progression to ESRD or enable selected ESRD patients with severe obesity to become candidates for kidney transplantation. However, there are also renal risks in bariatric surgery, namely, acute kidney injury, nephrolithiasis, and, in rare cases, oxalate nephropathy, particularly in types of surgery involving higher degrees of malabsorption. Although bariatric surgery may improve long-term kidney outcomes, this potential benefit remains unproved and must be balanced with potential adverse events.
Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Muñoz, José Luis; Royo, Pablo; Duran, Manuel; Redondo, Elisabeth; Ramirez, Jose Manuel
The essence of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs is the multimodal approach, and many authors have demonstrated safety and feasibility in fast track bariatric surgery. According to this concept, a multidisciplinary ERAS program for bariatric surgery has been developed by the Spanish Fast Track Group (ERAS Spain). The aim of this study was to analyze the initial implementation of this Spanish National ERAS protocol in bariatric surgery, comparing it with a historical cohort receiving standard care. A multi-centric prospective study was performed, including 233 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery during 2015 and following ERAS protocol. It was compared with a historical cohort of 286 patients, who underwent bariatric surgery at the same institutions between 2013 and 2014 and following standard care. Compliance with the protocol, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay and readmission were evaluated. Bariatric techniques performed were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. There were no significant differences in complications, mortality and readmission. Postoperative pain and hospital stay were significantly lower in the ERAS group. The total compliance to protocol was 80%. The Spanish National ERAS protocol is a safe issue, obtaining similar results to standard care in terms of complications, reoperations, mortality and readmissions. It is associated with less postoperative pain and earlier hospital discharge.
Walaa A. Kamel
CONCLUSION: We conclude that with the increasing popularity of bariatric surgery, clinicians will need to recognize and manage neurologic complications that may appear soon after or years to decades later. Thorough evaluation is essential for any patient who has undergone bariatric surgery and develops neurologic symptoms.
Bordalo, Lívia A; Mourão, Denise Machado; Bressan, Josefina
Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery are commonly reported in scientific literature on surgery and nutrition. It has been estimated that approximately 400,000 large obeses underwent bariatric surgery in 2010. The surgery technique and consequent altered gastrointestinal function done will particularly imply in variations on those deficiencies and health complications. A systematic review of several database was done from 1978 until 2010, using as keywords protein and micronutrients deficiencies, related to bariatric surgery. The better understand of these studies can provide an important improvement on this obese therapy, assuring a successful and health weight loss maintenance for long term. Therefore, this review provides a significant contribution about this topic, pointing several ways on the nutritional intervention and management of those patients.
Hng, Keng Ngee; Ang, Yeng S
The worldwide pandemic of obesity carries alarming health and socioeconomic implications. Bariatric surgery is currently the only effective treatment for severe obesity. It is safe, with mortality comparable to that of cholecystectomy, and effective in producing substantial and sustainable weight loss, along with high rates of resolution of associated comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes. For this reason, indications for bariatric surgery are being widened. In addition to volume restriction and malabsorption, bariatric surgery brings about neurohormonal changes that affect satiety and glucose homeostasis. Increased understanding of these mechanisms will help realise therapeutic benefits by pharmacological means. Bariatric surgery improves long-term mortality but can cause long-term nutritional deficiencies. The safety of pregnancy after bariatric surgery is still being elucidated.
Rickers, Lisa; McSherry, Ciara
Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients who are obese and therefore individuals considering bariatric surgery may require dietary supplementation with multivitamins and minerals before surgery. Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery are often proportional to the degree of malabsorption created by the surgical procedure or the extent of weight loss. Eating habits often contribute to nutritional deficiencies, so appropriate dietary and lifestyle counselling are essential following bariatric procedures to ensure appropriate macronutrient and micronutrient status. Nutritional supplementation following bariatric surgery commonly includes calcium with vitamin D, iron and vitamin B12 in addition to a daily multivitamin and mineral tablet. Although general guidelines exist, individual monitoring and tailoring are frequently required. This article provides an update of guidelines regarding the most common nutritional concerns and myths surrounding bariatric surgery.
Conclusions: Preoperative CRP had a significant lineal relation to weight and body mass index. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery had a significant decrease in CRP, weight, and fasting glucose at 6 months after surgery.
Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Wright, Breanne N
Moderate/severe obesity is on the rise in the United States. Weight management includes bariatric surgery, which is effective and can alleviate morbidity and mortality from obesity-associated diseases. However, many individuals are dealing with nutritional complications. Risk factors include: 1) preoperative malnutrition (e.g., vitamin D, iron); 2) decreased food intake (due to reduced hunger and increased satiety, food intolerances, frequent vomiting); 3) inadequate nutrient supplementation (due to poor compliance with multivitamin/multimineral regimen, insufficient amounts of vitamins and/or minerals in supplements); 4) nutrient malabsorption; and 5) inadequate nutritional support (due to lack of follow-up, insufficient monitoring, difficulty in recognizing symptoms of deficiency). For some nutrients (e.g., protein, vitamin B-12, vitamin D), malnutrition issues are reasonably addressed through patient education, routine monitoring, and effective treatment strategies. However, there is little attention paid to other nutrients (e.g., zinc, copper), which if left untreated may have devastating consequences (e.g., hair loss, poor immunity, anemia, defects in neuro-muscular function). This review focuses on malnutrition in essential minerals, including calcium (and vitamin D), iron, zinc, and copper, which commonly occur following popular bariatric procedures. There will be emphasis on the complexities, including confounding factors, related to screening, recognition of symptoms, and, when available, current recommendations for treatment. There is an exceptionally high risk of malnutrition in adolescents and pregnant women and their fetuses, who may be vulnerable to problems in growth and development. More research is required to inform evidence-based recommendations for improving nutritional status following bariatric surgery and optimizing weight loss, metabolic, and nutritional outcomes.
Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is a treatment modality which is becoming increasingly popular in the last decade in our country and around the world. Patients who treated with a conventional methods are unable to loose sufficient weight and even they regained most of their lost weight easily. The number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery are increasing day by day considering the success of bariatric surgery with regard to lose weight fast and the improvement in co-morbid conditions. Obesity and bariatric surgery are in a reciprocal relationship both with psychiatric disorders and psychosocial variables. Relations are begin with the evaluation of a patients eligibility for surgery in terms of psychiatric and psychosocial issues at a very early stage of the process. Presence of psychopathology, level of knowledge related to the surgical procedure and patients expectations about physical, psychological and social changes that may occur after surgery are the significant parts of the evaluation of bariatric surgery patients. These components should be considered in assessing capacity of patients to comply with medical advice in post-operative stage. In this article the needs for assesment of psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of obese patients who will undergo bariatric surgery is reviewed in the light of current literature . Possible medical, psychiatric and psychosocial complications of bariatric surgery and related issues are reviewed and psycosocial factors that may be predictors of the successful outcome of bariatric surgery are discussed.Discussions around the nature of specific eating disorders seen frequently in bariatric surgery patients, wheter it is a separate entities from well known eating disorders and controversial issues such as presence or absence of psychopathology like suicide as directly consequence of the surgical procedures are summarized. Discussions about performing of psychiatric and psychosocial assesment (i.e by whom, how and
Hofsø, Dag; Aasheim, Erlend T; Søvik, Torgeir T; Jakobsen, Gunn Signe; Johnson, Line Kristin; Sandbu, Rune; Aas, Alf Tore; Kristinsson, Jon; Hjelmesæth, Jøran
The number of bariatric surgical procedures in Norway is increasing. Patients who undergo bariatric surgery may experience surgical, medical and nutritional complications. Follow-up of these patients is therefore important. The article is based on non-systematic literature searches in PubMed and on the clinical experience of the authors. Bariatric surgery induces significant and sustained weight loss and improves obesity-related disorders. Gastric bypass is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure in Norway. This procedure is associated with a 30-day mortality of below 0.5 %, while severe complications occur in approximately 5 % of patients. Late complications include internal herniation, intestinal ulcers and gallbladder disease. After surgery all patients are given iron, vitamin D/calcium and vitamin B12 supplements to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Gastrointestinal symptoms and postprandial hypoglycaemia after surgery can be improved by dietary modifications, and the need for anti-diabetic and blood pressure lowering medications is reduced. Dose adjustment of other medications may also be necessary. Pregnancy is not recommended during the first year after bariatric surgery. Many patients need plastic surgery after the operation. Complications after bariatric surgery may manifest in the long term. Regular follow-up is required. General practitioners should be responsible for follow-up in the long term, and should be familiar with common and serious complications as well as normal symptomatology after bariatric surgery.
Tsur, Abraham; Machtinger, Ronit; Segal-Lieberman, Gabriella; Orvieto, R
Obesity is an increasingly widespread health problem. In addition to comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, obesity has a significant impact on reproductive life, including infertility, miscarriages and high prevalence of pregnancy complications. The present review describes the possible benefits of bariatric surgery regarding fertility and pregnancy outcome. It is well established that bariatric surgery leads to regular ovulatory cycles and improves spontaneous conception rates in obese women. While pregnancy after bariatric surgery is safe and associated with reduced pregnancy complications, pregnant women following bariatric surgery are still at high risk for preterm births and small dimensions of gestational age offsprings. The optimal interval that should be kept between surgery and subsequent pregnancy is controversial, with recent studies emphasizing the importance of nutritional balance rather than the time from surgery to conception as being the most important determinant. Strict peri-conceptional surveillance is mandatory in order to prevent nutritional deficiencies and for the early diagnosis of abnormal fetal growth.
Pomian, Andrzej; Majkusiak, Wojciech; Lisik, Wojciech; Tomasik, Paweł; Horosz, Edyta; Zwierzchowska, Aneta; Kociszewski, Jacek; Barcz, Ewa
Obesity is one of the well-documented risk factors of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs). The PFDs include urinary and fecal incontinence (UI, FI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Surgery-induced weight loss improves different kinds of incontinence as well as POP symptoms. However, there is a lack of evidence how bariatric surgery influences pelvic floor anatomy and function in women without previous PFDs and whether it may be concerned as PFD prophylaxis tool. The present analysis is a prospective, non-randomized case-control study from January 2014 to September 2017. Participants underwent pelvic floor ultrasound examination with bladder neck position estimation at rest, during levator ani tension, and at Valsalva maneuver before surgery and 12-18 months after. Pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) > 2 stage and PFD complaints were the exclusion criteria. Fifty-nine patients underwent bariatric surgery (57 sleeve gastrectomy and 2 gastric bypass). Mean BMI decreased from 43.8 ± 5.9 to 29 ± 4.6 kg/m 2 after surgery (p elevation at tension after weight loss. Bariatric surgery is associated with a betterment of bladder neck position at rest, tension, and Valsalva maneuver in women without PFDs. We postulate that bariatric surgery may be a tool for PFD prevention. It does not improve levator ani function and does not limit bladder neck mobility, which implicates that it has no influence on preexisting pelvic dysfunction.
Bétry, Cécile; Disse, Emmanuel; Chambrier, Cécile; Barnoud, Didier; Gelas, Patrick; Baubet, Sandrine; Laville, Martine; Pelascini, Elise; Robert, Maud
Severe nutrition complications after bariatric surgery remain poorly described. The aim of this case series was to identify specific factors associated with nutrition complications after bariatric surgery and to characterize their nutrition disorders. We retrospectively reviewed all people referred to the clinical nutrition intensive care unit of our university hospital after bariatric surgery from January 2013 to June 2015. Twelve persons who required artificial nutrition supplies (ie, enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition) were identified. Seven persons underwent a "one-anastomosis gastric bypass" (OAGB) or "mini gastric bypass," 2 underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 2 had a sleeve gastrectomy, and 1 had an adjustable gastric band. This case series suggests that OAGB could overexpose subjects to severe nutrition complications requiring intensive nutrition care and therefore cannot be considered a "mini" bariatric surgery. Even if OAGB is often considered a simplified surgical technique, it obviously requires as the other standard bariatric procedures a close follow-up by experimented teams aware of its specific complications.
Dorman, Robert B; Abraham, Anasooya A; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Parsons, Helen M; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Habermann, Elizabeth B
Mortality and complications following bariatric surgery occur at acceptable rates, but its safety in the elderly population is unknown. We hypothesized that short-term operative outcomes in bariatric surgery patients ≥65 years would be comparable to younger persons. Patients with a body mass index ≥35 kg/m(2) who underwent bariatric surgery in the 2005-2009 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were identified. Controlling for confounders, multivariate regression was used to predict the impact of age on mortality, major events and prolonged length of stay at 30 days. We identified 48,378 patients who underwent bariatric procedures between 2005 and 2009. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated advancing age trended towards predicting mortality, but was not statistically significant. Additionally, patients ≥65 years did not experience higher risk of major complications for either open or laparoscopic procedures. However, patients age ≥65 years were more likely to experience prolonged length of stay for both open and laparoscopic procedures. This multi-hospital study demonstrates older age predicts short-term prolonged length of stay but not major events following bariatric surgery. Older age trends toward predicting mortality, but it is not statistically significant.
Full Text Available Obesity affects sexual health negatively due to several reasons such as impaired body image, psychological disorders and hormonal changes. Bariatric surgery is frequently used in the treatment of obesity. Besides positive effects such as an increase in physical activity due to weight loss and hormonal changes after surgery, there are some adverse effects of bariatric surgery such as sagging and wrinkling of skin due to rapid weight loss. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of bariatric surgery on sexual function. The literature between 2004 and 2015 was reviewed by searching Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, Ebsco, Coochrane, Medline Complete, Ovid, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Taylor & Francis, PsychInfo databases, national thesis center and Ulakbim databases; ten studies appropriate to the criteria were included in the study. A total of 524 patients (152 males underwent bariatric surgery were included in study. Sexual function has been found to improve in all the studies. Also weight loss has been shown to have positive effects on reproductive hormones in both sexes. Bariatric surgery has positive effects on weight-loss and consequently on sexual function and reproductive hormones. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(3.000: 284-296
Benaiges, D; Goday, A; Pedro-Botet, J; Más, A; Chillarón, J J; Flores-Le Roux, J A
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity. Its effects go beyond weight loss, in a high percentage of cases achieving remission of comorbidities associated with obesity and reducing mortality. However, not all patients achieve satisfactory weight loss or resolution of comorbidities and perioperative complications are a constant risk. Correct preoperative evaluation is essential to predict the likelihood of success and choose the most appropriate surgical technique for this purpose. The aim of this review was to ascertain which obese subjects will benefit from bariatric surgery taking into account body mass index, age, comorbidities, risk of complications and the impact of different bariatric surgery techniques.
Full Text Available Introduction: Bariatric surgical practice changes in the community setting may be under-reported. We present the developments in a Spanish bariatric surgical practice in the community setting of Alcoy from 1977 through the present. Methods: Bariatric surgical techniques employed in a country community setting over the course of nearly four decades were reviewed retrospectively and qualitatively. Results: Surgeons and medical professionals from Alcoy, Spain were involved in the evolution of bariatric surgery patient management and surgical technique from 1977s through 2017. During the last 40 years, 1,495 patients were treated in our clinics. Spanish bariatric surgeons contributed to advances in gastric bypass (GBP in the 1970s, vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG in the 1980s, bilio-pancreatic diversion/duodenal switch (BPD/DS in the 1990s, and innovations associated with laparoscopy from the 1990s onward. Outcomes and approaches to prevention and treatment of bariatric surgical complications are reviewed from a community perspective. Contributions to the bariatric surgical nomenclature and weight-loss reporting are noted. Conclusions: The practice of bariatric surgery in the community hospital and private clinic must be updated continuously, as in any human and surgical endeavor. Medical professionals in community bariatric practices should contribute their experiences to the field through all avenues of scientific interaction and publication.
Sheiner, Eyal; Willis, Kent; Yogev, Yariv
The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age has resulted in approximately 1 in 5 women being obese when they conceive. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective long-term weight loss strategy in obese women in this age group. Clinicians should be aware of the effects of bariatric surgery on fertility and future pregnancies. Regarding certain complications, pregnancy after bariatric surgery appears to be safer than pregnancy in the obese. In patients where nutrition is properly maintained and monitored, the risks for obesity-related obstetric complications, such as gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertension, are significantly reduced, but possibly at the expense of an increase in neonates born small-for-gestational-age. At the present, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn concerning the risk for Caesarian delivery, differences in type of bariatric procedure, or the optimal surgery-to-conception interval.
Bordalo, Livia Azevedo; Teixeira, Tatiana Fiche Sales; Bressan, Josefina; Mourão, Denise Machado
Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery are at increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies from limited food intake and absorption of different nutrients. A systematic review of several database websites (PubMed and ISI Web of Science) was conducted from September 1983 to April 2010 to identify literature related to micronutrient deficiencies occurring after bariatric surgery. Keywords used individually or in various combinations in the search were bariatric surgery, obesity, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, protein deficiency, nutrient absorption and nutrient supplementation. Literature suggests that to prevent or treat nutritional deficiencies resulting from anatomical changes due to surgical techniques nutritional supplementation is usually necessary. The success of oral nutritional supplementation to correct or prevent nutritional deficiencies depends on several factors. Thus, to understand how nutrients can be administered is very important for clinical practice. This review aims to provide help for the best selection of nutrients to ensure an adequate replacement of nutrients in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery.
... Endocrine Society. www.hormone.org How are postoperative nutritional deficiencies managed? Because your body absorbs fewer nutrients after bariatric surgery, especially malabsorptive procedures, you need to keep a ...
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Fourman, Matthew M; Saber, Alan A
Obesity is a nationwide epidemic, and the only evidence-based, durable treatment of this disease is bariatric surgery. This field has evolved drastically during the past decade. One of the latest advances has been the increased use of robotics within this field. The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the recent data to determine the safety and efficacy of robotic bariatric surgery. The setting was the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (Cleveland, OH). A PubMed search was performed for robotic bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011. The inclusion criteria were English language, original research, human, and bariatric surgical procedures. Perioperative data were then collected from each study and recorded. A total of 18 studies were included in our review. The results of our systematic review showed that bariatric surgery, when performed with the use of robotics, had similar or lower complication rates compared with traditional laparoscopy. Two studies showed shorter operative times using the robot for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but 4 studies showed longer operative times in the robotic arm. In addition, the learning curve appears to be shorter when robotic gastric bypass is compared with the traditional laparoscopic approach. Most investigators agreed that robotic laparoscopic surgery provides superior imaging and freedom of movement compared with traditional laparoscopy. The application of robotics appears to be a safe option within the realm of bariatric surgery. Prospective randomized trials comparing robotic and laparoscopic outcomes are needed to further define the role of robotics within the field of bariatric surgery. Longer follow-up times would also help elucidate any long-term outcomes differences with the use of robotics versus traditional laparoscopy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.
Isac Jorge Filho
Full Text Available The development fo bariatric surgery made it necessary to define theethical an legal basis of the specialty. The bioethical principles mustbe followed: benefit the patient; do not cause prohibitive colatheraleffects; be avaible to anyone withot discrimination; the pacient haveto have the possibility to choose it´s treatment. The Ministery ofHealth and the Federal Medical Counsil have regulates the indicationsfor the surgical treatment, the techniques that are availble andnecessary of a multidisciplinary team for Bariatric Surgery Centre.
Full Text Available Abstract Morbid obesity has become a very common problem worldwide, causing severe health-related consequences including cardiovascular or metabolic diseases, arthritis, sleep apnea, or an increased risk of cancer. Bariatric surgery was shown to be the only way to achieve sustainable weight loss and to decrease the frequency and severity of metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities. The purpose of this article is to present a case of bariatric surgery complicated with lesion of the aorta with a lethal outcome.
Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D; Courcoulas, Anita P; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D
Studies on the impact of presurgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed. To evaluate whether a presurgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through a 24-month postsurgery period. Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center. Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual presurgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions, followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions before surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average body mass index was 47.5 kg/m(2) at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6 and 12 months after surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24 months after surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss compared with the usual care group (26.5% versus 29.5%, respectively, P = .02). Presurgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months after surgery. The findings from this study raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brethauer, Stacy A; Kothari, Shanu; Sudan, Ranjan; Williams, Brandon; English, Wayne J; Brengman, Matthew; Kurian, Marina; Hutter, Matthew; Stegemann, Lloyd; Kallies, Kara; Nguyen, Ninh T; Ponce, Jaime; Morton, John M
Reoperative bariatric surgery has become a common practice in many bariatric surgery programs. There is currently little evidence-based guidance regarding specific indications and outcomes for reoperative bariatric surgery. A task force was convened to review the current evidence regarding reoperative bariatric surgery. The aim of the review was to identify procedure-specific indications and outcomes for reoperative procedures. Literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting indications for and outcomes after reoperative bariatric surgery. Specifically, operations to treat complications, failed weight loss, and weight regain were evaluated. Abstract and manuscript reviews were completed by the task force members to identify, grade, and categorize relevant studies. A total of 819 articles were identified in the initial search. After review for inclusion criteria and data quality, 175 articles were included in the systematic review and analysis. The majority of published studies are single center retrospective reviews. The evidence supporting reoperative surgery for acute and chronic complications is described. The evidence regarding reoperative surgery for failed weight loss and weight regain generally demonstrates improved weight loss and co-morbidity reduction after reintervention. Procedure-specific outcomes are described. Complication rates are generally reported to be higher after reoperative surgery compared to primary surgery. The indications and outcomes for reoperative bariatric surgery are procedure-specific but the current evidence does support additional treatment for persistent obesity, co-morbid disease, and complications. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coblijn, U.K. (Usha K.); J. Karres (Julian); de Raaff, C.A.L. (Christel A. L.); S.M.M. de Castro (Steve); S.M. Lagarde (Sjoerd); W.F. van Tets (Willem); H.J. Bonjer (H. Jaap); B.A. van Wagensveld (Bart)
textabstractBackground: Around 20% of bariatric surgery patients develop a short- or long-term complication. Objective: Aim of this study was to develop a risk model predicting complications: the Bariatric Surgery Index for Complications (BASIC). Setting: The Obesity Center Amsterdam, located in a
Sugerman, H J
Severe obesity is associated with multiple comorbidities and is refractory to dietary management with or without behavioral or drug therapies. There are a number of surgical procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity, including purely gastric restrictive, a combination of malabsorption and gastric restriction or primary malabsorption. The purely gastric restrictive procedures, including vertical banded gastroplasty and laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding, do not provide adequate weight loss. African-American patients do especially poorly after the banding procedure with the loss of only 11% of excess weight in one study. Gastric bypass (GBP) is associated with the loss of 66% of excess weight at 1 to 2 years after surgery, 60% at 5 years and 50% at 10 years. For unknown reasons, African-American patients lose significantly less weight than Caucasians after GBP. There is a risk of micronutrient deficiencies after GBP, including iron deficiency anemia in menstruating women, vitamin B12, and calcium deficiencies. Prophylactic supplementation of these nutrients is necessary. Recurrent vomiting after bariatric surgery may be associated with a severe polyneuropathy and must be aggressively treated with endoscopic dilatation before this complication is allowed to develop. The malabsorptive procedures include the partial biliopancreatic bypass (BPD) and BPD with duodenal switch (BPD/DS). The BPD appears to cause severe protein-calorie malnutrition in American patients; the BPD/DS may be associated with less malnutrition. Weight loss failure after GBP does not respond to tightening a dilated gastrojejunal stoma or reducing the size of the gastric pouch. These patients may require conversion to a malabsorptive distal GBP, similar to the BPD. However, because of the risk of severe protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency BPD should be reserved for patients with severe obesity comorbidity. The risk of death following bariatric surgery is between 1
Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.
Background Studies of the impact of pre-surgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed. Objective To evaluate whether a pre-surgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through 24-months post-surgery. Setting Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center. Methods Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual pre-surgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions prior to surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted at 6-, 12- and 24-months post-surgery. Results Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average BMI was 47.5 kg/m2 at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12- and 24 month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6- and 12-months post-surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24-months post-surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss than the usual care group (26.5% vs. 29.5%, respectively, p = 0.02). Conclusions Pre-surgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months post-surgery. Findings raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients. PMID:26410538
Angstadt, John; Whipple, Oliver
We initiated a new bariatric surgery program in February 2004. Before starting the program, we initiated a systemic planning process to design, develop, and implement a comprehensive, multidisciplinary program. Between May 2004 and June 2006, 178 patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to treat morbid obesity at our institution. We have had no pulmonary emboli and no deaths. Twenty-one patients (11.8%) developed wound infection after surgery. Thirteen patients (7.3%) developed stenosis at the gastrojejunostomy. Five patients (2.8%) bled from the gastrojejunostomy. Four patients (2.2%) developed atelectasis. Three patients (1.6%) developed an internal hernia after surgery. One patient (0.5%) developed deep venous thrombosis. Two patients (1.1%) developed small bowel obstruction from adhesions. One patient developed a leak (0.6%). By 6 months after surgery, our patients have lost an average of 85 pounds (53% excess weight loss). By 12 months, they have lost an average of 104 pounds (65% excess weight loss). A focused effort to reduce infection has dropped our wound infection rate to 0 per cent in the past 6 months. Our results indicate that with proper planning, it is possible to initiate a new program and achieve excellent outcomes. Proper planning, systematic implementation, and a focus on patient education are critical to success.
Sheppard, Caroline E; Lester, Erica L W; Chuck, Anderson W; Kim, David H; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J; Birch, Daniel W
The objective of this study was to determine the short-term cost impact that medical tourism for bariatric surgery has on a public healthcare system. Due to long wait times for bariatric surgery services, Canadians are venturing to private clinics in other provinces/countries. Postoperative care in this population not only burdens the provincial health system with intervention costs required for complicated patients, but may also impact resources allotted to patients in the public clinic. A chart review was performed from January 2009 to June 2013, which identified 62 medical tourists requiring costly interventions related to bariatric surgery. Secondarily, a survey was conducted to estimate the frequency of bariatric medical tourists presenting to general surgeons in Alberta, necessary interventions, and associated costs. A threshold analysis was used to compare costs of medical tourism to those from our institution. A conservative cost estimate of $1.8 million CAD was calculated for all interventions in 62 medical tourists. The survey established that 25 Albertan general surgeons consulted 59 medical tourists per year: a cost of approximately $1 million CAD. Medical tourism was calculated to require a complication rate ≤ 28% (average intervention cost of $37,000 per patient) to equate the cost of locally conducted surgery: a rate less than the current supported evidence. Conducting 250 primary bariatric surgeries in Alberta is approximately $1.9 million less than the modeled cost of treating 250 medical tourists returning to Alberta. Medical tourism has a substantial impact on healthcare costs in Alberta. When compared to bariatric medical tourists, the complication rate for locally conducted surgery is less, and the cost of managing the complications is also much less. Therefore, we conclude that it is a better use of resources to conduct bariatric surgery for Albertan residents in Alberta than to fund patients to seek surgery out of province/country.
To review nutritional supplements commonly required after bariatric surgery to provide a practical guide and reference source for generalist healthcare providers. A PubMed literature search (1988-July 2008) was conducted, using the search term nutritional deficiency after bariatric surgery, and was limited to English-language literature on adult (aged >19 y) human subjects. Additional references from the selected literature were also included. Data were extracted from large clinical series and practice guidelines whenever possible. Case reports were used only when they were the sole information source. Nutritional deficiencies that occur after bariatric surgery depend significantly on the type of surgery performed. Restrictive procedures such as gastric banding are the least likely to cause nutritional deficits, since none of the intestine is bypassed. Malabsorptive procedures such as biliopancreatic diversion or mixed restrictive/malabsorptive procedures (eg, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) can result in serious nutritional problems when patients do not take required supplements after surgery. Vitamins and minerals that are commonly deficient in this circumstance include vitamin B(12), calcium, vitamin D, thiamine, folic acid, iron, zinc, and magnesium. Rare ocular complications have been reported with hypovitaminosis A. Healthcare professionals, especially those who practice outside large bariatric centers, must be aware of the supplements required by patients who have had bariatric surgery. Many patients fail to follow up with the surgery centers and are managed by their primary care teams and community pharmacists, especially in the selection of multivitamin and nutritional supplements.
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is the most efficient treatment for obesity and comorbidities. This treatment modality is the most potent for weight reduction with long-term weight maintenance and positive metabolic effects. The effect on weight loss and possible side effect depends of type of surgery. Micro and macronutrient deficiencies can occur after malapsorptive procedures. Iron deficiency occurs in almost half of patients following RYGB (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The main causes of iron deficiency are insufficient meat ingestion and lack of hydrochloric acid after removal of pylorus. B12 deficiency occured 6 months after RYGB in patients with oral supplementation of B12. Bone turnover increased three months after RYGB, and the levels of bone turnover markers increased 200% in next 12-18 months. Impaired vitamin D absorption leads to decreased calcium absorption and secondary hyperparathyroidism with lower bone mineral density. After the bariatric surgery, testosterone level becomes higher and all sexual quality indicators improving. Malapsorptive procedures with nutritive deficiency can cause oligo-astenozooteratospermia and male infertility. Due to the same reason pregnancy is not recommended in the first year bariatric surgery. Possible side effect of pregnancy within 12 months after surgery is fetal growth retardation. There is twice higher incidence for developing alcohol or other addition after bariatric surgery then in non-operated obese patients. The frequency of depressive episodes and suicide attempt is higher after bariatric surgery.
Yska, Jan Peter; Gertsen, Sanneke; Flapper, Gerbrich; Emous, Marloes; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N
Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided in bariatric surgery patients. If use of an NSAID is inevitable, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should also be used. To determine the effect of an, compared to care-as-usual, additional intervention to reduce NSAID use in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, and to determine the use of PPIs in patients who use NSAIDs after bariatric surgery. A randomized controlled intervention study in patients after bariatric surgery. Patients were randomized to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consisted of sending a letter to patients and their general practitioners on the risks of use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery and the importance of avoiding NSAID use. The control group received care-as-usual. Dispensing data of NSAIDs and PPIs were collected from patients' pharmacies: from a period of 6 months before and from 3 until 9 months after the intervention. Two hundred forty-eight patients were included (intervention group: 124; control group: 124). The number of users of NSAIDs decreased from 22 to 18 % in the intervention group and increased from 20 to 21 % in the control group (NS). The use of a PPI with an NSAID rose from 52 to 55 % in the intervention group, and from 52 to 69 % in the control group (NS). Informing patients and their general practitioners by letter, in addition to care-as-usual, is not an effective intervention to reduce the use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery (trial number NTR3665).
Tsamalaidze, Levan; Elli, Enrique F
Experience with bariatric surgery in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is still limited. We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent bariatric surgery after OHT from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2016. Two post-OHT patients with BMI of 37.5 and 36.2 kg/m² underwent laparoscopic robotic-assisted Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, respectively. Quality of life substantially improved for both patients. Bariatric surgery is safe and feasible in OHT patients, despite numerous risk factors. Careful selection of patients is required with proper preoperative management and overall care. Due to the complexity of treatment and perioperative care in this specific population, these operations should be done in high-volume centers with multidisciplinary teams composed of bariatric, cardiac transplant surgeons and critical care physicians. Bariatric surgery can be highly effective for treatment of obesity after OHT.
Valentino, Daniel; Sriram, Krishnan; Shankar, Padmini
Obesity is a growing worldwide epidemic. Obese patients are often deficient in micronutrients despite macronutrient excess. Bariatric surgery is an increasingly utilized modality in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Bariatric surgery itself may cause or exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with serious sequelae. This review will focus on perioperative strategies to detect, prevent and treat micronutrient deficiencies in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, and will highlight practical and clinical aspects of these nutritional problems. Micronutrient deficiency is common in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery both preoperatively and postoperatively. Bariatric procedures with a malabsorptive component are more likely to result in postoperative micronutrient deficiency. A system-based approach will facilitate clinical suspicion of specific or combined micronutrient deficiencies, leading to appropriate laboratory tests for confirmation. Supplementation by the oral route is always tried first, reserving parenteral administration for specific situations. Clinicians should be aware that micronutrient deficiencies are common in obese patients who may have macronutrient excess. Micronutrient deficiency may exist preoperatively or be caused by bariatric procedures themselves. A systematic and team-based approach will decrease morbidity associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment.
Michał R. Janik
Full Text Available Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods : A questionnaire regarding the numbers and types of bariatric procedures performed between 2007 and 2014 was e-mailed to all members of the Bariatric Society (a branch of the Association of Polish Surgeons and to 28 surgical departments. Trend analyses from 2007 to 2014 were performed. Results: Among the surgical departments, 16 (57% responded. The results showed that 1499 bariatric procedures were performed in Poland in 2014, with 96.4% done laparoscopically. The highest number was from Masovian Voivodeship. The most commonly reported procedures were laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG (60.7%, followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (19.2%, mini gastric bypass (11.1%, and adjustable gastric banding (7.6%. Most significant was the rise in prevalence of LSG from 8.0% to 60.4% of the total bariatric procedures from 2007 to 2014. Conclusions : Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is currently the most frequently performed bariatric procedure in Poland. The accuracy of the national survey of procedures would be enhanced if we could create a national registry.
Mazer, Laura M; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John M
The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to quality of life (QOL) outcomes after bariatric surgery and a summary of the current evidence. QOL has been emphasized in bariatric surgery since the NIH Consensus Conference statement in 1991. Initial studies were limited to 1- and 2-year follow-up. More recent findings have expanded the follow-up period up to 12 years, providing a better description of the impact on long-term QOL. Overall, there is little to no consensus regarding the definition of QOL or the ideal survey. Bariatric surgery has the greatest impact on physical QOL, and the impact on mental health remains unclear. There are some specific and less frequently reported threats to quality of life after bariatric surgery that are also discussed. Obesity has a definite impact on quality of life, even without other comorbidities, and surgery for obesity results in significant and lasting improvements in patient-reported quality of life outcomes. This conclusion is limited by a wide variety of survey instruments and absence of consensus on the definition of QOL after bariatric surgery.
Fumery, L; Pigeyre, M; Fournier, C; Arnalsteen, L; Rivaux, G; Subtil, D; Deruelle, P
Assessment of pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery and analysis of follow-up particularities of such pregnancies. A retrospective study of 63 post-bariatric surgery pregnancies compared to 259 pregnancies of obese un-operated patients. Pregnancy outcomes, neonatal datas, delay influence between surgery and pregnancy beginning, bariatric surgery type and gastric banding (GB) loosening consequences were analysed. In the surgical brand were developed less gestational diabetes (DG) (P=0,05), deliveries were more often normal (P=0,004) and births shown less macrosomias and small for gestational age newborns (P=0,04). Neonatal state was improved among operated patients: less Apgar scores less than 7 at 1 minute (P=0,05) and less cord blood pH less than 7,2 (P=0,03). They gained more weight during the pregnancy (P=0,0003) and only 53% had a nutritional management and assessment. Patients with GB loosening gained more weight (P=0,0003). Lastly, there were no difference due to the different bariatric surgery techniques or nutritional follow-up in the pregnancy course and neonatal state. Bariatric surgery improves obstetric and neonatal prognosis. Improvements have to be developed in the multidisciplinary follow-up in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies or important weight gain pregnancy in case of GB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Roberto Oliveira Dantas
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity; however, after surgery the patient may have difficulty in swallowing liquid and solid foods. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate liquid ingestion in patients who had undergone bariatric surgery. METHOD: We studied 43 volunteers with normal body mass index (BMI (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m², 55 subjects with class III obesity (BMI: >40.0 kg/m², and 48 subjects with bariatric surgery for treatment of class III obesity. The method chosen for evaluation was the water swallowing test. The subjects drank in triplicate 50 mL of water while being precisely timed and the number of swallows were counted. RESULTS: There was no difference between subjects with normal BMI and subjects with class III obesity. During the first 2 months after bariatric surgery the patients showed an increase in the time needed to drink the entire volume, in the number of swallows, and in the inter-swallow interval, and a decrease in the volume swallowing capacity (volume/swallowing and swallowing flow rate (volume swallowed/second. After 2 months, the results of the swallowing measurements moved in the direction of normal values. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery may cause more intense alterations of liquid bolus swallowing within 2 months after the procedure, which moved to normal values after this time.
Baimas-George, Maria; Hennings, Dietric L; Al-Qurayshi, Zaid; Emad Kandil; DuCoin, Christopher
The obesity epidemic is associated with a rise in coronary surgeries because obesity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Bariatric surgery is linked to improvement in cardiovascular co-morbidities and left ventricular function. No studies have investigated survival advantage in postoperative bariatric patients after coronary surgery. To determine if there is a benefit after coronary surgery in patients who have previously undergone bariatric surgery. National Inpatient Sample. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2003 to 2010. We selected bariatric surgical patients who later underwent coronary surgery (n = 257). A comparison of postoperative complications and mortality after coronary surgery were compared with controls (n = 1442) using χ 2 tests, linear regression analysis, and multivariate logistical regression models. A subset population was identified as having undergone coronary surgery (n = 1699); of this population, 257 patients had previously undergone bariatric surgery. They were compared with 1442 controls. The majority was male (67.2%), white (82.6%), and treated in an urban environment (96.8%). Patients with bariatric surgery assumed the risk of postoperative complications after coronary surgery that was associated with their new body mass index (BMI) (BMI999.9, 95% CI .18 to>999.9, P = .07). Length of stay was significantly longer in postbariatric patients (BMIbariatric patients have a return to baseline risk of morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup; Lauenborg, Jeannet; Breum, Birger Michael
The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery.......The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery....
Full Text Available The widespread use of bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity has led to a dramatic increase in the numbers of women who become pregnant post-surgery. This can present new challenges, including a higher risk of protein and calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy due to increased maternal and fetal demand. We undertook a focused, narrative review of the literature and present pragmatic recommendations. It is advisable to delay pregnancy for at least 12 months following bariatric surgery. Comprehensive pre-conception and antenatal care is essential to achieving the best outcomes. Nutrition in pregnancy following bariatric surgery requires specialist monitoring and management. A multidisciplinary approach to care is desirable with close monitoring for deficiencies at each trimester.
Slater, Christopher; Morris, Lauren; Ellison, Jodi; Syed, Akheel A
The widespread use of bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity has led to a dramatic increase in the numbers of women who become pregnant post-surgery. This can present new challenges, including a higher risk of protein and calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy due to increased maternal and fetal demand. We undertook a focused, narrative review of the literature and present pragmatic recommendations. It is advisable to delay pregnancy for at least 12 months following bariatric surgery. Comprehensive pre-conception and antenatal care is essential to achieving the best outcomes. Nutrition in pregnancy following bariatric surgery requires specialist monitoring and management. A multidisciplinary approach to care is desirable with close monitoring for deficiencies at each trimester.
Slater, Christopher; Morris, Lauren
The widespread use of bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity has led to a dramatic increase in the numbers of women who become pregnant post-surgery. This can present new challenges, including a higher risk of protein and calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy due to increased maternal and fetal demand. We undertook a focused, narrative review of the literature and present pragmatic recommendations. It is advisable to delay pregnancy for at least 12 months following bariatric surgery. Comprehensive pre-conception and antenatal care is essential to achieving the best outcomes. Nutrition in pregnancy following bariatric surgery requires specialist monitoring and management. A multidisciplinary approach to care is desirable with close monitoring for deficiencies at each trimester. PMID:29292743
Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B
Dietary carotenoids have attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential clinical relevance in conditions such as age-related maculopathy, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Surgical procedures have become the primary treatment of severe obesity, although nutrient deficiencies are common and long-term metabolic sequelae remain unknown. Thus, our aim was to assess the carotenoid status in serum of subjects after obesity surgery. We evaluated the status of lutein, zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha- and beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamins by a quality-controlled high-performance liquid chromatography method in serum of 53 patients. Subjects were consecutively included as they were monitored for nutritional status after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). Average follow-up time was 18 and 14 months for each protocol, respectively. After obesity surgery, a consistent and continuous decline in all carotenoids to almost undetectable levels occurs, especially in those who underwent BPD diversion who, on average, displayed serum levels about one half to one third of those found in RYGBP patients. The hypocarotenemia observed after bariatric surgery may compromise the availability of carotenoids to tissues and the vitamin A status, reducing the fat-soluble antioxidant capacity and constituting an additional risk factor for several clinical conditions. Given the emerging role of carotenoids in disease prevention, dietary advice on carotenoid-rich and fortified foods or the use of supplements in these patients should be considered.
Goldberg, Hanna R; Chin, Vivian L; Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Zhang, Chengchen; Williams, Kristen M; Oberfield, Sharon; Fennoy, Ilene
Anemia following bariatric surgery is a known complication. To prevent nutrient deficiencies, adolescents require multivitamin/mineral supplementation following bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate if routine multivitamin/mineral supplementation is sufficient to prevent anemia in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery, particularly sleeve gastrectomy (SG), a procedure that may induce nutrient malabsorption. We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric patients who underwent SG (34 patients) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) (141 patients) (January 2006 through December 2013). We examined anemia marker levels (iron, ferritin, folate, B 12 , hemoglobin, and hematocrit) at first visit and 3, 6, and 12 months postsurgery by repeated-measures analysis adjusting for weight loss. Following SG, folate levels decreased 3 and 6 months postsurgery but returned to baseline levels at 12 months. Furthermore, the SG group demonstrated lower folate levels compared with LAGB at 3 and 6 months. B 12 levels decreased 6 months post-SG but returned to baseline at 12 months. Following LAGB, B 12 levels decreased 12 months postsurgery compared with baseline. Ferritin levels decreased 3 months post-LAGB but returned to baseline levels at 6 months. There were no changes within groups or differences between groups in iron, hemoglobin, or hematocrit. While anemia did not occur in any patients while on recommended routine supplementation, folate levels were significantly reduced following SG and were lower in SG compared with LAGB patients. Additional folate supplementation seemed to improve folate levels, which highlights the importance of ongoing surveillance by primary care providers and the need for additional folate supplementation following SG.
Karmon, Anatte; Sheiner, Eyal
Obesity continues to be a global epidemic, and strong evidence exists linking it with gestational complications such as macrosomia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, and cesarean section. Bariatric surgery, a highly effective treatment for obesity, may prevent such complications in subsequent pregnancies. This review seeks to describe the risks and benefits of post-bariatric procedure pregnancies, in comparison to both community and obese cohorts. A thorough review of the literature suggests that post-surgery women are not at increased risk for poor perinatal outcomes, and moreover their risks for many obesity-related gestational complications are reduced after bariatric surgery. Data regarding fertility after bariatric surgery are quite ambiguous, however, and studies exist demonstrating both positive and negative associations between weight loss procedures and fertility. Clinicians should be aware that data collected on this subject were often gathered from post-op pregnant women provided with good prenatal care and screening for nutritional deficiencies. Although pregnancy after bariatric surgery appears to be safe, providers should take extra care to properly monitor their post-op pregnant patients for appropriate weight gain and nourishment.
Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery has been established as the best option of treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS has emerged as another modality of carrying out the bariatric procedures. While SILS represents an advance, its application in morbid obesity at present is limited. In this article, we review the technique and results of SILS in bariatric surgery. Methods: The PubMed database was searched and totally 11 series reporting SILS in bariatric surgery were identified and analyzed. The case reports were excluded. Since 2008, 114 morbidly obese patients receiving SILS bariatric surgeries were reported. Results: The procedures performed included SILS gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass. No mortality was reported in the literatures. Sixteen patients (14.05% needed an additional incision for a liver retractor, a trocar or for conversion. Only one complication of wound infection was reported in these series. All the surgeons reported that the patients were highly satisfied with the scar. Conclusion: Because of abundant visceral and subcutaneous fat and multiple comorbidities in morbid obesity, it is more challenging for surgeons to perform the procedures with SILS. It is clear that extensive development of new instruments and technical aspects of these procedures as well as randomized studies to compare them with traditional laparoscopy are essential before these procedures can be utilized in day-to-day clinical practice.
Carrodeguas, Lester; Kaidar-Person, Orit; Szomstein, Samuel; Antozzi, Priscila; Rosenthal, Raul
Nutritional deficiencies are a recognized complication of bariatric surgery. Thiamine deficiency has been reported as a possible consequence of both restrictive and malabsorptive bariatric procedures. Most of the reported cases occurred after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery; fewer were described after biliopancreatic diversion, vertical banded gastroplasty, or duodenal switch. Adults who have a high carbohydrate intake derived mainly from refined sugars and milled rice are at greater risk of developing thiamine deficiency, because thiamine is absent from fats, oils, and refined sugars. Currently, no reports have evaluated the preoperative thiamine status of bariatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of thiamine deficiency in obese patients before bariatric surgery at our institution. The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding at our institution between March 2003 and February 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were selected for this study on the basis of predetermined criteria. Preoperative thiamine levels were retrospectively recorded. Excluded from this study were patients who had been taking multivitamins or other nutritional supplements before surgical intervention, had a history of frequent alcohol consumption, any malabsorptive diseases, or previous restrictive-malabsorptive surgical interventions, such as RYGB, biliopancreatic diversion, or adjustable gastric banding, according to the initial evaluation and questionnaire. Of 437 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, 303 were included in the study. Forty-seven patients (15.5%) presented with low preoperative thiamine levels. The mean age and body mass index of these patients was 46 years and 60 kg/m(2), respectively. Male patients presented with greater mean preoperative thiamine levels (3.2 microg /dL) than female patients (2
Krdžalić, Alisa; Kovčić, Jasmina; Krdžalić, Goran; Jahić, Elmir
Background: The nutrition support complications after cardiac surgery should be detected and treated on time. Aim: To show the incidence and type of nutritional support complication in patients after cardiac surgery. Methods: The prospective study included 415 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2013 in Clinic for Cardiovascular Disease of University Clinical Center Tuzla. Complications of the delivery system for nutrition support (NS) and nutrition itself were analy...
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
Beamish, Andrew J; Reinehr, Thomas
Adolescent obesity has markedly increased worldwide in both its extent and prevalence in recent decades and obesity prevention strategies are failing. As a result, effective treatment strategies are urgently needed. As behavioral and pharmacological treatment approaches have only moderate effects in severe obesity, bariatric surgery has begun to emerge as a treatment option. In this debate article, we offer arguments opposing and supporting bariatric surgery in the treatment of severe obesity in adolescents. Bariatric surgery has superior therapeutic outcomes with respect to weight loss and resolution of comorbid diseases over other existing treatments. However, long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery in adolescents are only just beginning to emerge. Furthermore, the procedures are generally considered irreversible, apart from gastric banding. Most importantly, not all adolescents seem to benefit greatly from bariatric surgery and we are not yet able to reliably identify those who stand to gain the greatest benefit. The authors agree that adolescent bariatric surgery should be offered exclusively within formal adolescent obesity programs, delivered by specialist multidisciplinary child/adolescent obesity teams, and within specialist centers, in order to optimize outcomes and minimize potential detrimental effects. Patients and their family/carers must be educated regarding the benefits and risks, potential side effects, expected changes in eating behavior and the lifelong requirement for regular medical follow-up after surgery. Before embarking upon a surgical treatment pathway in adolescents with severe obesity, it may also be beneficial to ensure compliance to treatment is demonstrated, in order to minimize the risk of nutritional deficiencies and associated potential complications. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Pories, Mary Lisa; Hodgson, Jennifer; Rose, Mary Ann; Pender, John; Sira, Natalia; Swanson, Melvin
Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for morbid obesity, resulting in substantial weight loss and the resolution of co-morbid conditions. It is not clear what impact bariatric surgery and the subsequent life-style changes have on patients' couple relationships. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the lived experience of couples after one member of the couple underwent bariatric surgery. This study utilized a phenomenological approach of semi-structured interviews of the couples jointly (n = 10 couples). Colaizzi's method of analysis for phenomenological studies was utilized to elucidate the central themes and distill the essence of the participants' experience. All of the couples felt their post-operative success was due to a joint effort on both members of the couples' part. The participant couples described the following five emerging thematic experiences: (a) changes in physical health, (b) changes in emotional health, (c) changes in eating habits, (d) greater intimacy in the relationship, and (e) the joint journey. This research provides greater insight into the experience of the couple than has been previously reported. The use of qualitative research techniques offer new approaches to examine the biopsychosocial outcomes and needs of bariatric surgery patients. Further research is warranted in order to develop culturally appropriate interventions to improve the patient's surgical and biopsychosocial outcomes.
Quirante, Federico Perez; Montorfano, Lisandro; Rammohan, Rajmohan; Dhanabalsamy, Nisha; Lee, Aaron; Szomstein, Samuel; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Rosenthal, Raul J
Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in all age groups and is considered superior to medical treatment. The aim of our study was to report the outcomes of bariatric surgery in patients over 65 years of age at our institution. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was conducted of all patients > 65 years who underwent a bariatric procedure between 2005 and 2015 at our institution. We compared this group to a control group of patients 65 years of age at time of surgery. There was a significant difference in proportion of male patients among groups; 42 % in Group B were male compared to 30 % in Group A (p Elderly patients had longer length of stay (LOS) by one day on average (LOS = 3 days, p Elderly patients are usually sicker in terms of comorbidities than the younger population. However, age does not seem to represent a risk of surgical complications after bariatric surgery.
Stenberg, Erik; Cao, Yang; Szabo, Eva; Näslund, Erik; Näslund, Ingmar; Ottosson, Johan
Factors associated with risk for adverse outcome are important considerations in the preoperative assessment of patients for bariatric surgery. As yet, prediction models based on preoperative risk factors have not been able to predict adverse outcome sufficiently. This study aimed to identify preoperative risk factors and to construct a risk prediction model based on these. Patients who underwent a bariatric surgical procedure in Sweden between 2010 and 2014 were identified from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg). Associations between preoperative potential risk factors and severe postoperative complications were analysed using a logistic regression model. A multivariate model for risk prediction was created and validated in the SOReg for patients who underwent bariatric surgery in Sweden, 2015. Revision surgery (standardized OR 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-0.24, p prediction model. Despite high specificity, the sensitivity of the model was low. Revision surgery, high age, low BMI, large waist circumference, and dyspepsia/GERD were associated with an increased risk for severe postoperative complication. The prediction model based on these factors, however, had a sensitivity that was too low to predict risk in the individual patient case.
Peterhänsel, C.; Wagner, B.; Dietrich, A.; Kersting, A.
INTRODUCTION: Many patients undergoing bariatric surgery report current or past psychiatric disorders and controversy exists regarding their outcome after bariatric surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of an obese patient with a borderline personality disorder, a recurrent depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress symptoms and binge eating episodes who underwent bariatric surgery. DISCUSSION: Although the psychiatric disorders remained, the procedure contributed to an impro...
Malinowski, Scott S
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for patients with clinically severe obesity. In addition to significant weight loss, it is also associated with improvements in comorbidities. Unfortunately, bariatric surgery also has the potential to cause a variety of nutritional and metabolic complications. These complications are mostly due to the extensive surgically induced anatomical changes incurred by the patient's gastrointestinal tract, particularly with roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. Complications associated with vertical banded gastroplasty are mostly due to decreased intake amounts of specific nutrients. Macronutrient deficiencies can include severe protein-calorie malnutrition and fat malabsorption. The most common micronutrient deficiencies are of vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and vitamin D. Other micronutrient deficiencies that can lead to serious complications include thiamine, folate, and the fat-soluble vitamins. Counseling, monitoring, and nutrient and mineral supplementation are essential for the treatment and prevention of nutritional and metabolic complications after bariatric surgery.
Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Baur, Louise
Severe obesity is increasing in adolescents and is associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnoea, polycystic ovarian syndrome and a range of musculoskeletal problems. Premature death is the inevitable outcome of persistent severe obesity in adolescents. In adults with severe obesity, medical and lifestyle interventions have been shown to be expensive and less effective in terms of weight loss than has bariatric surgery. The single completed randomised controlled trial in adolescents shows the same outcome. This is supported by meta analyses of bariatric surgery in adolescent subjects. A more aggressive approach to severe obesity, utilising bariatric surgery in selected cases, within the context of a multi-disciplinary team, is required. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Broderick, Ryan C; Fuchs, Hans F; Harnsberger, Cristina R; Chang, David C; Sandler, Bryan J; Jacobsen, Garth R; Horgan, Santiago
Healthcare costs in the United States (U.S.) are rising. As outcomes improve, such as decreased length of stay and decreased mortality, it is expected that costs should go down. The aim of this study is to analyze hospital charges, cost of care, and mortality in bariatric surgery over time. A retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was performed. Adults with morbid obesity who underwent gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy were identified by ICD-9 codes. Multivariate analyses identified independent predictors of changes in hospital charges and in-hospital mortality. Results were adjusted for age, race, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, surgical approach (open versus laparoscopic), hospital volume, and insurance status. In order to estimate baseline surgical inflation, changes in hospital charges over time were also calculated for appendectomy. From 1998 to 2011, 209,106 patients were identified who underwent bariatric surgery. Adjusted in-hospital mortality for bariatric surgery decreased significantly by 2003 compared to 1998 (p bariatric surgery admission was 130 % from 1998 to 2011. Charges per stay increased by 2.1 % annually for bariatric surgery compared to 5.5 % for appendectomy. In-hospital mortality rate following bariatric surgery underwent a ninefold decrease since 1998 while maintaining surgical inflation costs less than appendectomy. Innovation in bariatric surgical technique and technology has resulted in improvement of outcomes while providing overall cost savings.
Full Text Available Introduction. Moderate obesity (BMI 30–35 kg/m2 affects 25% of the western population. The role of bariatric surgery in this context is currently debated, reserved for patients with comorbidity, as an alternative to conservative medical treatment. We describe our experience in moderately obese patients treated with bariatric surgery. Materials and Methods. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 25 patients with grade I obesity and comorbidities underwent bariatric surgery: preoperative mean BMI 33.2 kg/m2, 10 males, mean age 42 years. In presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (56%, gastric bypass was performed; in cases with hypertension (64% and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA (12%, sleeve gastrectomy was performed. All operations were performed laparoscopically. Results. Mean follow-up was 12.4 months. A postoperative complication occurred: bleeding from the trocar site was resolved with surgery in local anesthesia. Reduction in average BMI was 6 points, with a value of 27.2 kg/m2. Of the 14 patients with T2DM, 12 (86% discontinued medical therapy because of a normalization of glycemia. Of the 16 patients with arterial hypertension, 14 (87% showed remission and 2 (13% improvement. Complete remission was observed in patients with OSAS. Conclusions. The results of our study support the validity of bariatric surgery in patients with BMI 30–35 kg/m2. Our opinion is that, in the future, bariatric surgery could be successful in selected cases of moderately obese patients.
Moss, Heather E.
Background As the prevalence of obesity increases, so are the prevalences of weight related diseases and the incidence of surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. Evidence acquisition Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry and neurosurgery literature. Results Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals. There is level IV evidence that it is associated with improvement in idiopathic intracranial hypertension(IIH). Laboratory nutrient deficiencies are common following some types of bariatric procedures. Symptomatic deficiencies are less common but can be devastating. Thiamine deficiency can cause nystagmus and other symptoms in weeks to months following surgery, B12 or copper deficiency can cause optic neuropathy in the years to decades following bariatric surgery. Conclusions Bariatric surgery may be a treatment for IIH. Postoperative vitamin deficiencies may present with nystagmus, optic neuropathy, nyctalopia and/or ophthalmoparesis weeks to years after surgery. PMID:26764529
Schroeder, Robin; Harrison, T Daniel; McGraw, Shaniqua L
In 2013, approximately 179,000 bariatric surgery procedures were performed in the United States, including the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (42.1%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (34.2%), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (14.0%). Choice of procedure depends on the medical conditions of the patient, patient preference, and expertise of the surgeon. On average, weight loss of 60% to 70% of excess body weight is achieved in the short term, and up to 50% at 10 years. Remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs in 60% to 80% of patients two years after surgery and persists in about 30% of patients 15 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Other obesity-related comorbidities are greatly reduced, and health-related quality of life improves. The Roux-en-Y procedure carries an increased risk of malabsorption sequelae, which can be minimized with nutritional supplementation and surveillance. Overall, these procedures have a mortality risk of less than 0.5%. Cohort studies show that bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality by 30% to 50% at seven to 15 years postsurgery compared with patients with obesity who did not have surgery. Dietary changes, such as consuming protein first at every meal, and regular physical activity are critical for patient success after bariatric surgery. The family physician is well positioned to counsel patients about bariatric surgical options, the risks and benefits of surgery, and to provide long-term support and medical management postsurgery.
Moss, Heather E
As the prevalence of obesity increases, so, too, do the prevalences of weight-related diseases and surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry, and neurosurgery literature. Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals. There is Level IV evidence that it is associated with improvement in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Laboratory nutrient deficiencies are common following some types of bariatric procedures. Symptomatic deficiencies are less common but can be devastating. Thiamine deficiency can cause nystagmus and other symptoms in weeks to months after surgery, whereas B12 or copper deficiency can cause optic neuropathy in years to decades following bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is a potential treatment for IIH. Postoperative vitamin deficiencies may cause nystagmus, optic neuropathy, nyctalopia, and/or ophthalmoparesis weeks to years after surgery.
Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results.
Berger, Joseph R; Singhal, Divya
Bariatric surgery has been increasingly employed to manage morbid obesity. Approximately 150000 bariatric procedures are performed in the US annually. Neurologic complications arise in as many as 5% of individuals having this surgery. Although the etiology of some of these complications remains obscure, the majority are the consequence of vitamin (most commonly thiamine and vitamin B12) or mineral (most commonly copper) deficiency and familiarity with these disorders is essential. Their rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment is essential to avoid long-term, irreversible consequences including, in some instances, death. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Leigh A
Obesity is the most widespread nutritional problem globally. Bariatric surgery is the preeminent long-term obesity treatment. Bariatric procedures manipulate the intestines to produces malabsorption and/or restrict the size of the stomach. The most enduring bariatric procedure is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, which utilizes both restriction (small stomach pouch) and malabsorption (duodenum bypass). The in-vogue procedure is the vertical sleeve gastrectomy - resection of the greater curvature of the stomach (predominantly restrictive). Malabsorptive procedures function by decreasing nutrient absorption, primarily fat and fat-soluble nutrients (vitamins A, D, E, and K). Most studies of vitamin D status in bariatric surgery candidates reported a prevalence of over 50% vitamin D deficiency (deficient at 10 years post-bariatric surgery. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which may contribute to adverse surgical outcomes, e.g. poor healing and infection. Since vitamin D deficiency is also associated with chronic inflammation, obese individuals with vitamin D deficiency have extraordinary risk of adverse surgical outcomes, particularly delayed wound healing and infection due to the role of vitamin D in re-epithelialization and innate immunity. When the risk of adverse surgical outcomes in obesity is combined with that of vitamin D deficiency, there is likely an additive or potentially a synergistic effect. Furthermore, deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin D, is considered a metabolic complication of bariatric surgery. Thus, determining the vitamin D status of bariatric surgery candidates and amending it preoperatively may prove greatly beneficial acutely and lifelong.
Nogueira, Isadora; Hrovat, Kathleen
The prevalence of obesity in adolescents has dramatically increased over the past 3 decades in the United States. Weight loss surgery is becoming a viable treatment option for obese adolescents. The number of surgeries being performed yearly is rising, and this trend is likely to continue. Adolescent patients present a unique challenge to clinicians. There are currently best-practice recommendations and evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the treatment of the adolescent bariatric patient. A review of the current literature was performed to discuss bariatric surgery and nutrition for the adolescent patient. Studies show that most adolescents with obesity will become obese adults, thus increasing their risk of developing serious and debilitating health conditions. It is recommended that the candidates for surgery be referred to a practice that has a multidisciplinary team experienced in meeting the distinct physical and psychological needs of adolescents. Specific nutrition concerns for the adolescent bariatric patient include preoperative educational pathway, postoperative dietary progression, female reproduction, compliance with vitamin/supplementation recommendations, laboratory tests, and long-term monitoring. The medical literature has reported positive outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. Before surgery is offered as an option, unique factors to adolescents must be addressed. The multidisciplinary clinical team must consider the adolescents' cognitive, social, and emotional development when considering their candidacy for surgery. As the number of adolescent bariatric surgery programs increases, continued research and long-term outcome data need to be collected and shared to base future treatment decisions. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.
García-García, M L; Campillo-Soto, A; Martín-Lorenzo, J G; Torralba-Martínez, J A; Lirón-Ruiz, R; Aguayo-Albasini, J L
Rhabdomyolysis has been increasingly recognized as a complication of bariatric surgery. We report a case of this complication and its consequences, in a patient who had undergone bariatric surgery, with a very high creatine kinase (CK) concentration, and whose renal function failed. Obesity causes a range of effects on all major organ systems. Knowledge of these effects and issues specific to the intensive care unit care of bariatric patients can help to predict and manage this underestimated complication in this population in which early diagnosis can alter the outcome. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Christofolini, Juliana; Bianco, Bianca; Santos, Gustavo; Adami, Fernando; Christofolini, Denise; Barbosa, Caio Parente
To determine differences in follicle stimulation, oocyte retrieval, maturation, and fertilization among patients who underwent bariatric surgery, obese patients, and patients with 18 assisted reproduction techniques and check that these patients may have some impairment in ovarian response. The study comprised three groups: GI: 29 patients who had undergone restrictive and/or malabsorptive bariatric surgery; GII: 57 obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m²); and GIII: 94 patients (18 reproductive process can be impaired. Bariatric surgery appears to have an important impact on the formation of follicles and oocytes. © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Hutter, Matthew M
This manuscript addresses the question "Does outcomes research affect quality?" using examples from the field of bariatric surgery. The roles that outcomes research has played in each of the four major recent events in bariatric surgery are examined. In the first three major events, which include 1) the National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference on Bariatric Surgery in 1991, 2) the dramatic increase in numbers of bariatric operations performed, and 3) the move toward a laparoscopic approach in bariatric surgery, a multitude of outcomes studies seem to be the result, but not the cause, of these changes in the field of bariatric surgery. However, for the most recent event, the 2006 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services National Coverage Determination for bariatric surgery and the introduction of accreditation in general surgery, outcomes research has played a significant role in the determination of policy and, ultimately, quality.
Kuckelman, John; Bingham, Jason; Barron, Morgan; Lallemand, Michael; Martin, Matthew; Sohn, Vance
Bariatric surgery makes up an increasing percentage of general surgery training. The safety of resident involvement in these complex cases has been questioned. We evaluated patient outcomes in resident performed laparoscopic bariatric procedures. Retrospective review of patients undergoing a laparoscopic bariatric procedure over seven years at a tertiary care single center. Procedures were primarily performed by a general surgery resident and proctored by an attending surgeon. Primary outcomes included operative volume, operative time and leak rate with perioperative outcomes evaluated as secondary outcomes. A total of 1649 bariatric procedures were evaluated. Operations included laparoscopic bypass (690) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (959). Average operating time was 136 min. Eighteen leaks (0.67%) were identified. Graduating residents performed an average of 89 laparoscopic bariatric cases during their training. There were no significant differences between resident levels with concern to operative time or leak rate (p 0.97 and p = 0.54). General surgery residents can safely perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. When proctored by a staff surgeon, a resident's level of training does not significantly impact leak rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.
estimates of the management of obesity and its complications in patients eligible for bariatric surgery , and the impact of the potential use of different...than 5 days for bariatric admission; (3) no complications is defined as survived beyond 30 days from bariatric surgery , no PLOS, and no hospital...
Tan, Orkun; Carr, Bruce R
Obesity-related infertility is one of the most common problems of reproductive-age obese women who desire childbearing. The various types of bariatric surgeries have proved effective in controlling excessive weight gain, improving fertility, and preventing certain maternal and fetal complications in these women. This article summarizes the current evidence regarding the impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We have also attempted to draw conclusions about maternal and fetal risks and the benefits of bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y procedures are the two most commonly performed bariatric surgeries. Bariatric surgery was believed to improve menstrual irregularity and increase ovulation rate in anovulatory obese women, which lead to increased pregnancy rates. Although there are data in the literature suggesting the improvement of both the ovulatory function and the spontaneous pregnancy rates in obese women who lost weight after bariatric surgery, most of these are case-control studies with a small number of patients. The data are insufficient to determine an ideal time interval for pregnancy after bariatric surgery; however, the general consensus is that pregnancy should be delayed 12 to 18 months after bariatric surgery to avoid nutritional deficiencies. Few data exist regarding IVF success rates in women who have undergone bariatric surgery. One pairwise study discussed five patients who underwent bariatric surgery followed by IVF that resulted in three term pregnancies in three patients after the first IVF cycle. Many studies reported reductions in obesity-related pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders after bariatric surgery. Although data are inconsistent, some studies reported increased rate of preterm delivery and small for gestational age infants after bariatric surgery. Pregnancies after bariatric surgery may be
Shannon, Caroline; Gervasoni, Ashlee; Williams, Trudy
Bariatric surgery is an effective method of weight loss for the treatment of morbid obesity. It is more effective when combined with nutritional care, which is sometimes complex, always ongoing and differs between surgical procedures. In Australia, the three most common bariatric surgical procedures are the adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. This article introduces the nutritional and dietary considerations for each procedure, and provides practical advice to support the general practitioner's role in managing patients who are considering, or who have had, bariatric surgery. While bariatric procedures influence the volume of food consumed, none of the procedures necessarily improve the quality of food consumed or compliance with recommended supplement usage, leaving nutrition care and food choice important lifelong considerations. Ongoing coordinated care by the GP, that links with the bariatric dietitian and others in the health management team, maximises the benefits and health outcomes for the patient through ongoing monitoring of nutritional status, prevention of nutrient deficiencies and maximising long term weight loss.
Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I
The number of adolescent and adult patients submitting to bariatric surgery is increasing rapidly around the world. This review describes the literature published in the last few years concerning nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery as well as their etiology, incidence, treatment and prevention. Although bariatric surgery was first introduced in the 1950s, safe and successful surgical management has progressed over the last two decades and longer post-surgical follow-up data are now available. Most of the patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures will develop some nutritional deficiency, justifying mineral and multivitamin supplementation to all postoperatively. Nutrient deficiency is proportional to the length of absorptive area and to the percentage of weight loss. Low levels of iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D and calcium are predominant after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Protein and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are mainly detected after biliopancreatic diversion. Thiamine deficiency is common in patients with frequent vomiting. As the incidence of these deficiencies progresses with time, the patients should be monitored frequently and regularly to prevent malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies can be prevented if a multidisciplinary team regularly assists the patient. Malnutrition is generally reverted with nutrient supplementation, once it is promptly diagnosed. Especial attention should be given to adolescents, mainly girls at reproductive age who have a substantial risk of developing iron deficiency. Future studies are necessary to detect nutrient abnormalities after new procedures and to evaluate the safety of bariatric surgery in younger obese patients.
de Raaff, C.A.L.; Pierik, A.S.; Coblijn, U.K.; de Vries, N.; Bonjer, H.J.; van Wagensveld, B.A.
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), present in 60–70 % of bariatric surgery patients, is a potentially life-threatening condition when not detected and managed appropriately. The best available method to identify the severity of OSA is polysomnography. However, routine polysomnography
Salman Al Sabah
Conclusion: Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective procedure to assist renal transplant patients in losing weight. In addition, it has proven to be effective in the management of the co-morbidities that are associated with renal failure. Our study was also able to prove that converting form an SG to a bypass in a transplant patient is a safe and feasible option.
de Heide, L. J.M.; Emous, M.; van Beek, A. P.
Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (PHH) is a complication of bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The true incidence is not known as the definition of PHH is not clear. Continuous glucose monitoring shows a prevalence of hypoglycemia in 75% of patients, with only 1 in 5
Korelitz, Burton I; Sonpal, Niket; Schneider, Judy; Swaminath, Arun; Felder, Joseph; Roslin, Mitchell; Aronoff, Jeffrey
Crohn's disease (CD) following bariatric surgery has been previously described. It is not clear whether the clinical entity is due to rapid metabolism of fat, change in the bacterial milieu of the bowel, the loss of defense mechanisms of the stomach, or even a coincidence. To present observations which might serve to sort out these various etiologies. We present 5 cases of colitis, ileocolitis or enteritis, some with fistula formation, with clinical onset following bariatric surgery and add these to the 7 cases previously identified as CD reported elsewhere. We provide the clinical features of these 12 cases to reconcile with causative mechanisms. It remains possible that the onset of CD (or other inflammatory bowel disease) precedes the bariatric surgery which then accelerates the clinical manifestations described. Furthermore, without controls the association could remain a coincidence. We review the evidence for release of proinflammatory cells and cytokines contained in fat following the bariatric surgery, and also consider the roles that the surgical resection of stomach and shortening of the bowel may also bring about this syndrome. The earlier onset is more likely due to surgical loss of defenses of the stomach and the later onset to a metabolic alteration of the presurgical obesity, involving fat metabolism, and/or the microbiome. The role of characteristic creeping fat of CD is also addressed.
Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor
Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, Psurgery types (Psurgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199
Lee, Clare J; Brown, Todd T; Schweitzer, Michael; Magnuson, Thomas; Clark, Jeanne M
Hypoglycemia after bariatric surgery is an increasingly recognized metabolic complication associated with exaggerated secretion of insulin and gut hormones. We sought to determine the incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms (hypo-sx) after bariatric surgery and characteristics of those affected compared with those unaffected. University hospital. We collected retrospective survey data from the patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single center. Based on number and severity of postprandial hypo-sx in Edinburgh hypoglycemia questionnaire postoperatively, patients without preoperative hypo-sx were grouped into high versus low suspicion for hypoglycemia. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine potential baseline and operative risk factors for the development of hypo-sx after surgery. Among the 1119 patients who had undergone bariatric surgery who received the questionnaire, 464 (40.6%) responded. Among the 341 respondents without preexisting hypo-sx, 29% (n = 99) had new-onset hypo-sx, and most were severe cases (n = 92) with neuroglycopenic symptoms. Compared with the low suspicion group, the high suspicion group consisted of more female patients, younger patients, patients without diabetes, and those who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a longer time since surgery and more weight loss. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with incidence of hypo-sx after bariatric surgery were female sex (P = .003), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (P = .001), and absence of preexisting diabetes (P = .011). New onset postprandial hypoglycemic symptoms after bariatric surgery are common, affecting up to a third of those who underwent bariatric surgery. Many affected individuals reported neuroglycopenic symptoms and were more likely to be female and nondiabetic and to have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, Rachel J.; Inge, Thomas H.
Abstract Objective Adolescent obesity has dramatically increased in recent decades, and along with that so have other medical comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and pseudotumor cerebri. Obesity and related comorbidites may be contraindications to hormonal contraception, making contraception counseling of morbidly obese adolescents more challenging. Obese adolescent females seeking bariatric surgery need effective contraception in the postoperative period. This study is designed to determine the acceptance rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) and describe common menstrual problems in obese adolescent bariatric surgery patients. Methods This is a historic cohort study of adolescent females who underwent bariatric surgery over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral center for pediatric obesity. Data were systematically abstracted. The percent of patients with menstrual problems and the acceptance rate for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD were determined. Results Twenty-five adolescents met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 17.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.6), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 51.4 (SD 6.3) kg/m2. Eighty-four percent were white. Twenty-eight percent had menorrhagia, 32% had oligomenorrhea, 40% had dysmenorrhea, and 36% had PCOS. Ninety-two percent (23 of 25) underwent IUD placement. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of menstrual problems among this sample of severely obese adolescent females. The majority accepted the IUD, indicating it is a viable option among this population. PMID:21413894
Gidiri, Muchabayiwa; Greer, Ian A
Bariatric surgery is highly effective for weight loss in morbid obesity. With the high prevalence of severe obesity in the developed world, and the acknowledgement of the effectiveness of these procedures by National Institute for Clinical Excellence (in the UK) and the Food and Drug Administration (in the USA), women with severe obesity will increasingly seek such treatment. As the majority of these patients are women of reproductive age, obstetricians will encounter these patients frequently during pregnancy. It is therefore important for obstetricians to gain an insight into the types of surgery performed, the potential complications, including nutritional deficiency, and appropriate management of pregnancy following weight-loss surgery. In general, bariatric surgery is associated with a reduction in obesity related complication, with no apparent increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.
Kaska, Lukasz; Kobiela, Jarek; Abacjew-Chmylko, Anna; Chmylko, Lukasz; Wojanowska-Pindel, Magdalena; Kobiela, Paulina; Walerzak, Anna; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Stefaniak, Tomasz
Obesity is an escalating problem in all age groups and it is observed to be more common in females than males. About 25% of women meet the criteria of obesity and one-third of them are in the reproductive age. Because morbid obesity requiring surgical treatment is observed with increasing frequency, surgeons and gynecologists are undergoing new challenges. It is not only a matter of women's health and their quality of life but also proper development of the fetus, which should be a concern during bariatric treatment. Therefore complex perinatal care has to be provided for morbid obesity patients. The paper reviews pregnancy and fertility issues in bariatric surgery patients.
Full Text Available During laparoscopy, the main problems of patients who have undergone previous abdominoplasty are inadequate pneumoperitoneum secondary to fibrosis and reconstructed anatomic landmarks for trocar placement. In this study, we present our laparoscopic bariatric experience in two patients with previous abdominoplasty. The procedures were a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and a robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Both operations were done successfully by an abdominal wall traction technique, cutting fibrotic tissue and choosing new landmarks. We conclude that after abdominoplasty bariatric surgery can be performed safely either using conventional laparoscopic technique or robotically.
Slater, Chris; Morris, Lauren; Ellison, Jodi; Syed, Akheel
The widespread use of bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity has led to a dramatic increase in the numbers of women who become pregnant post-surgery. This can present new challenges, including a higher risk of protein and calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy due to increased maternal and fetal demand. We undertook a focused, narrative review of the literature and present pragmatic recommendations. It is advisable to delay pregnancy for at least 12 mo...
Czech Republic may be counted among the leading European Countries in regards of the level of delivered high quality multidisciplinary care in treatment of obesity and obesity related metabolic diseases. The 1st Faculty of Medicine (Charles University) and the Faculty General Hospital in Prague played the most important role in the development of bariatric and metabolic surgery in the Czech Republic. pCzech bariatric surgery achieves great successes both on national and international levels. Just to mention some of them: M. Fried and M. Pešková were among the very first worldwide to implant the non-adjustable gastric banding laparoscopically in 1993, the Czech Republic was among the seven Countries to establish the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity /IFSO/ (Fried in 1995), to organize the first IFSO World Congress in Prague (1996), to co-establish the IFSO-European Chapter in Prague (2004), to implant the first SAGB VC worldwide (Fried, Doležalová, 2007), to organize the first European Workshop on Gastric Plication (Fried, Doležalová, 2010), to co-lead development of the European Interdisciplinary Guidelines on Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (Fried et al.,2013), and many others. In the beginning of bariatric surgery, the almost only indication criterion for operation was the criterion of weight loss. On the turn of the Century metabolic surgery gradually gained importance. The most important indication criterion for metabolic operations started to be improvement and/or resolution of obesity related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, the criterion of successful treatment shifted from weight loss towards improvement and resolution of metabolic diseases regardless the body mass index. In conjunction with importance of metabolic surgery, more emphasis is given to lowering the invasiveness of so far available minimally invasive/laparoscopic approaches form the perioperative perspective as well as from the anatomically sparing
Polovina Snežana; Micić Dragan; Micić Dušan; Šumarac-Dumanović Mirjana 0000-0002-6216-6650; Kendereški Aleksandra; Micić J.; Stamenković-Pejković Danica; Cvijović Goran; Zorić S.; Jeremić D.; Bjelović Miloš
Bariatric surgery is the most efficient treatment for obesity and comorbidities. This treatment modality is the most potent for weight reduction with long-term weight maintenance and positive metabolic effects. The effect on weight loss and possible side effect depends of type of surgery. Micro and macronutrient deficiencies can occur after malapsorptive procedures. Iron deficiency occurs in almost half of patients following RYGB (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). The main causes of iron deficiency ...
Ahmed, Ameena T; Warton, E Margaret; Schaefer, Catherine A; Shen, Ling; McIntyre, Roger S
Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for severe obesity. People with bipolar disorder have increased risk of obesity, yet are sometimes considered ineligible for bariatric surgery due to their bipolar disorder diagnosis. This study aimed to determine if bariatric surgery alters psychiatric course among stable patients with bipolar disorder. A matched cohort study (2006-2009) with mean follow-up of 2.17 years was conducted within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a group practice integrated health services delivery organization that provides medical and psychiatric care to 3.3 million people. Participants were 144 severely obese patients with bipolar disorder who underwent bariatric surgery, and 1,440 control patients with bipolar disorder, matched for gender, medical center, and contemporaneous health plan membership. Controls met referral criteria for bariatric surgery. Hazard ratio for psychiatric hospitalization, and change in rate of outpatient psychiatric utilization from baseline to Years 1 and 2, were compared between groups. A total of 13 bariatric surgery patients (9.0%) and 153 unexposed to surgery (10.6%) had psychiatric hospitalization during follow-up. In multivariate Cox models adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio of psychiatric hospitalization associated with bariatric surgery was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-1.23]. In fully saturated multivariate general linear models, change in outpatient psychiatric utilization was not significantly different for surgery patients versus controls, from baseline to Year 1 (-0.4 visits/year, 95% CI: -0.5 to 0.4) or baseline to Year 2 (0.4 visits/year, 95% CI: -0.1 to 1.0). Bariatric surgery did not affect psychiatric course among stable patients with bipolar disorder. The results of this study suggest that patients with bipolar disorder who have been evaluated as stable can be considered for bariatric surgery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John
da Silva, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de Souza, Marcela Ramos; da Silva, Evane Moises; da Silva, Silvia Alves
The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives.
Burke, Anne E; Bennett, Wendy L; Jamshidi, Roxanne M; Gilson, Marta M; Clark, Jeanne M; Segal, Jodi B; Shore, Andrew D; Magnuson, Thomas H; Dominici, Francesca; Wu, Albert W; Makary, Martin A
Obesity is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity. Our objective was to determine the association of bariatric surgery with the incidence of GDM and related complications. We performed a retrospective study comparing rates of GDM and related outcomes (including cesarean section, large-for-gestational-age infant, shoulder dystocia, and infection) between a group of women with a delivery before bariatric surgery and a group with a delivery after bariatric surgery. We used a private insurance claims database with information on 23,594 women who had bariatric surgery between 2002 and 2006. The dataset was searched to identify women with codes for bariatric surgery and a pregnancy resulting in a delivery at greater than 22 weeks gestation. Incidences of GDM and selected delivery complications for delivery before versus after bariatric surgery were compared using Fisher exact test and logistic regression. There were 346 women who had a delivery before bariatric surgery, and 354 had a delivery after bariatric surgery. Women with delivery after bariatric surgery had lower incidences of GDM (8% vs 27%, odds ratio (OR) 0.23, (95% CI 0.15 to 0.36) and cesarean section (28% vs 43%, OR0.53, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.72) than those with delivery before bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is associated with a decreased incidence of GDM and cesarean section in subsequent pregnancies. This potential effect of bariatric surgery should be considered in the management of obese women of childbearing age. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holcomb, Carla N; Goss, Lauren E; Almehmi, Ammar; Grams, Jayleen M; Corey, Britney L
Weight loss after bariatric surgery improves both blood pressure and glycemic control following surgery. The effect of bariatric surgery on renal function is not well characterized. In this study, we sought to quantify the change in renal function over time following surgery. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) between 2012 and 2014 at our institution. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR, mL/min) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) and percent weight loss (%WL) were calculated following the surgery. A total of 149 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in this study: LRYGB (n = 86 and LSG (n = 63). In LRYGB group, baseline BMI (kg/m 2 , ±SD) and GFR (mL/min, ±SD) were 48.5 ± 6.8 and 94.7 ± 23.8, respectively. In comparison, BMI and GFR were 49.1 ± 11.9 kg/m 2 and 93.1 ± 28.0 mL/min in the LSG group, respectively. Over the follow-up period (19.89 ± 10.93 months), the patients who underwent LRGYB lost a larger percentage of weight as compared to those in the LSG group (29.9 ± 11.7% vs 22.3 ± 10.7%; p = weight loss surgery (n = 62), 42% had improvement of their GFR to > 90 mL/min postoperatively (p weight loss percentage and GFR improvement (p = 0.8703). Bariatric surgery was associated with improvement in postoperative renal function at almost two years following surgery but was not different for LRYGB versus LSG. The gain in GFR was independent of percentage of weight lost suggesting an alternate mechanism in the improvement of renal function other than weight loss alone.
Hansen, Carl Frederik
Considering that obesity and diabetes are some of the most important health problems in the world today, a lot studies have investigated the powerful effects of bariatric surgery on weight loss and diabetes remission during the past decade. An increased release of gut hormones is believed...... in response to surgical interventions. The increase in the number of endocrine cells is probably a mechanism involved in the enhanced blood levels of gut hormones following bariatric surgery....... to contribute to the positive effects of bariatic surgery but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract that produce and secrete hormones are difficult to examine as they are distributed as single cells. Several types of endocrine cells together produce more than...
Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.
Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117
Marcotte, Eric; Chand, Bipan
Bariatric surgery is well-recognized for its effects on health, beyond weight-loss. It underwent a revolution recently with the growing performance of laparoscopic procedures, leading to enhanced recovery and a reduction in procedural risk. However, surgical complications, although rare, do develop. It is important to recognize the complications, and ideally prevent them from happening. This article reviews the risks of the four most commonly performed bariatric procedures, with an emphasis on technique and management in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The nutritional aspect of bariatric surgery is of the utmost importance, because catastrophic consequences have been linked to malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez-Sánchez, Juan A; Corujo-Vázquez, Omar; Sahai-Hernández, Mrisa
Morbid obesity prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions in Western society. Long-term weight loss can be achieved by bariatric surgery. This surgery also has a positive impact in the reduction of obesity related co-morbid conditions. The purpose of this study is to determine the reasons that bariatric surgery patients had to visit the emergency department within a three month period after surgery. A retrospective chart review study was performed at the UPR Hospital in Carolina. Patients with the diagnosis of morbid obesity who had bariatric surgery were identified. Of the 283 patients who met the criteria, the following information was obtained: gender, age, height, weight, pre-operative BMI, obesity-related comorbid conditions, post operative length of stay (LOS), and reasons and length of stay of Emergency Department (ED) visits within a 3 month period after surgery. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Program. The same profile of gender and BMI was obtained between the population that had the surgery and the sample that visited the ED, the group of patients between 20-29 years old was more likely to visit the ED. No correlation was found between a longer post operative length of stay and an increased probability of visiting the ED. Of the population, 5% had to visit ED within a three month period. The most common post operative complications were: Abdominal Pain (46.2%), Emesis (38.5%), and Dehydration (30.8%). Other less frequent complications were nausea, DVT, pneumonia, dizziness, gastritis, infected wound and upper GI bleeding. The most common reasons that bariatric surgery patients had to visit the emergency department within a three month period after surgery were: abdominal pain, emesis, dehydration and nausea. These complications could most likely be attributed to patient poor compliance with diet, resulting in the classical symptoms of the dumping syndrome which is common in patients that have undergone
Al-Bahri, Shadi; Fakhry, Tannous K; Gonzalvo, John Paul; Murr, Michel M
Obesity is a relative contraindication to organ transplantation. Preliminary reports suggest that bariatric surgery may be used as a bridge to transplantation in patients who are not eligible for transplantation because of morbid obesity. The Bariatric Center at Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. We reviewed the outcomes of 16 consecutive patients on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who underwent bariatric surgery from 1998 to 2016. Demographics, comorbidities, weight loss, as well as transplant status were reported. Data is mean ± SD. Six men and ten women aged 43-66 years (median = 54 years) underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB, n = 12), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB, n = 3), or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, n = 1). Preoperative BMI was 48 ± 8 kg/m 2 . Follow-up to date was 1-10 years (median = 2.8 years); postoperative BMI was 31 ± 7 kg/m 2 ; %EBWL was 62 ± 24. Four patients underwent renal transplantation (25%) between 2.5-5 years after bariatric surgery. Five patients are currently listed for transplantation. Five patients were not listed for transplantation due to persistent comorbidities; two of these patients died as a consequence of their comorbidities (12.5%) more than 1 year after bariatric surgery. Two patients were lost to follow-up (12.5%). Bariatric surgery is effective in patients with ESRD and improves access to renal transplantation. Bariatric surgery offers a safe approach to weight loss and improvement in comorbidities in the majority of patients. Referrals of transplant candidates with obesity for bariatric surgery should be considered early in the course of ESRD.
Roust, Lori R; DiBaise, John K
The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent additions to our understanding of the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies and the potential role of preoperative weight loss in contributing to these deficiencies in obese individuals planning to undergo bariatric surgery. Recent reports that have included bariatric surgery candidates from sites around the world have shown consistent deficiencies in a variety of nutrients. Although protein-energy malnutrition is uncommon preoperatively, micronutrient deficiencies occur commonly with multiple deficiencies often present in the same individual. No difference in the prevalence of deficiency between men and women is apparent, and a standard profile of susceptibility to deficiency has not been identified. In the only studies that have evaluated dietary intake of total energy, macronutrients and micronutrients preoperatively, despite an excess of calories ingested, micronutrient intake tends to be lower than recommended. A high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, especially vitamin D, folate, B12 and iron, is present in obese individuals being considered for bariatric surgery. Despite high-caloric intake, the deficiencies present appear to be related to the poor quality of the diet and low micronutrient intake. These findings strengthen prior recommendations of routine preoperative nutritional screening. Because a standard profile of susceptibility to deficiency has not been identified, extensive nutritional screening, including micronutrient testing, should be considered in all patients in the preoperative setting. Finally, we recommend early supplementation of vitamins and minerals based on laboratory assessment and incorporation of a program to optimize eating behaviors prior to surgery.
Michaels, Alex D; Hunter Mehaffey, J; Brenton French, W; Schirmer, Bruce D; Kirby, Jennifer L; Hallowell, Peter T
The purposes of this study are to identify the cumulative incidence of post-bariatric surgery hypoglycemia (PBSH), describe its symptomatology, and characterize treatment patterns at a large academic institution. All patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single institution from 1985 to 2015 were identified using a clinical database, administrative billing data identified patients who were treated for hypoglycemia, and chart reviews were performed to make a diagnosis of PBSH based on Whipple's triad. PBSH cases were reviewed including patient diabetes history, symptomatology, and treatment measures. Univariate analyses were performed to identify correlations based on symptomatology, laboratory values, and treatments utilized. Ninety (2.6%) of 3487 patients were diagnosed with PBSH with preoperative median age of 43 years, mean BMI of 50.0 kg/m 2 , and median glycated hemoglobin of 6.0%. Median time-to-first hypoglycemic event was 40.6 months. No factors were identified which predict symptom severity or resolution. The 24 (27%) patients who received pharmacotherapy to treat hypoglycemia were younger, had lower nadir blood glucose levels, and more frequent symptoms. Sixty-nine (79%) cases eventually resolved. PBSH onset and severity are highly variable. Successful management of these patients can prove difficult and should include dietary therapy, the selective use of pharmacotherapy and surgery, and the use of a multidisciplinary team including bariatric surgeons and endocrinologists.
Nearing, Emanuel E; Santos, Tyler M; Topolski, Mark S; Borgert, Andrew J; Kallies, Kara J; Kothari, Shanu N
The association between obesity and osteoarthritis is well established, as is the increased risk of postoperative complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) among patients with obesity. To evaluate the outcomes after TKA/THA based on whether the surgery was performed before or after bariatric surgery. Integrated, multispecialty, community teaching hospital. The medical records of all patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2001 to 2014 were reviewed. Statistical analysis included χ 2 test and t tests. A P valuebariatric procedure, 66 underwent TKA/THA after their bariatric procedure. TKAs/THAs were performed at a mean of 4.9±3.2 years before and 4.3±3.3 years after bariatric surgery. Body mass index for those undergoing TKA/THA after bariatric surgery was lower than those with TKA/THA before bariatric surgery (37.6±7.4 versus 43.7±5.7 kg/m 2 ; Pbariatric surgery: 81.7±33.9 min versus 117±38.1 min; Pbariatric surgery. Patients who underwent TKA/THA after bariatric surgery had lower body mass index before and 1 year after TKA/THA. Postoperative complication rates were similar. Benefits of bariatric surgery and subsequent weight loss should be considered among patients with obesity requiring TKA/THA. Optimal timing of TKA/THA and bariatric surgery has yet to be established. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hagedorn, Judith C; Morton, John M
Genetics and environment both play a role in weight maintenance. Twin studies may help clarify the influence of nature vs nurture in weight loss. We present the largest U.S. experience with monozygotic (MZ) twins undergoing bariatric surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of four sets of MZ twins who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement at three different institutions. BMI and co-morbidities were examined pre- and postoperatively, and laboratory values were recorded. All four sets of twins are female, live together, and have similar professions. Twin cohort 1 had near identical weight loss patterns after open RYGBP surgery in 1996 (preop 146/142 kg; 2 years 82/82; and 10 years 108/107). Twin cohort 1 also both underwent cholecystectomies within the first year postoperatively. Twin cohort 2 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP surgery and also required cholecystectomies in the first postoperative year. Cohort 2 also experienced nearly identical weight loss at 1 year (36.7% vs 37.0% BMI loss). Twin cohort 3 underwent LAGB placement with two different surgeons with differing amounts of weight loss at 6 months (6.5% vs 15.7% BMI loss). Finally, twin cohort 4 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP with 2-year BMI loss of 39% vs 34%. In twin cohort 4, the twin who lost less weight lived apart from her twin and extended family, and her weight loss was less than the twin living with her family. Two sets of MZ twins had identical responses to bariatric surgery. The other two sets of identical twins had differential weight loss results, possibly due to differences in surgical approach and social support. While genetics do exert a strong influence on weight loss and maintenance, this case series demonstrates the potential effect of social support and postoperative management upon postoperative weight loss in the presence of identical genetics.
Rahman, Rafid; Azagury, Dan E
Obesity has been on the rise globally and more people are now clinically obese than ever before in the US. This issue has a significant impact on both health and cost to healthcare systems. Bariatric surgery is efficacious in treatment of obesity but only in late stages of the disease, and there is a requirement for less invasive techniques/devices to treat obesity at earlier stages. Currently a number of these are either in clinical trials or have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for weight loss. This review aims to give an overview of the newer technologies and techniques being used in bariatric surgery. It will also give a glimpse into future methods and those that have fallen short in recent times.
The number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery because of morbid obesity is increasing rapidly. Therefore, it is an important issue to be aware of outcome and complications after bariatric surgery. This mini-review presents a compilation of important gastrointestinal symptoms, as pain, diarrhea and dumping, and includes treatment options. It characterizes possible micronutrient deficiencies, gives instructions concerning the adaptation of drugs and illustrates possible adverse outcomes, such as excessive weight loss, insufficient weight loss and weight gain after bariatric surgery.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportion in the United States. Results of diet, exercise regimens, and/or medications are discouraging for most individuals; therefore, bariatric surgery is on the rise. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery are overwhelmingly female. There is a plethora of research regarding improvement of co-morbidities, but little focus has been placed on the impact of bariatric surgery on positive as well as negative psychosocial outcomes. The purposes of t...
da SILVA, Paola Turchiello; PATIAS, Luciana Dapieve; ALVAREZ, Glauco da Costa; KIRSTEN, Vanessa Ramos; COLPO, Elis?ngela; de MORAES, Cristina Machado Bragan?a
Background : Nowadays obesity is a chronic disease considered one of the greatest problems in public healthy. Showing to be effective in a short and long term, the bariatric surgery has emerged as an optional treatment for morbid obesity. Aim: Identify the profile of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Methods: Were interviewed 100 patients in preoperative nutritional monitoring of bariatric surgery. The study was conducted by applying a questionnaire prepared according to the research ob...
TEDESCO, Amanda Kaseker; BIAZOTTO, Rafaela; GEBARA, Telma Souza e Silva; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso
ABSTRACT Background: The bariatric surgery may cause some nutritional deficiencies. Aim: To compare the serum levels of biochemical markers, in iimmediate post-surgical patients who were submitted to bariatric surgery. Methods: Non-concurrent prospective cross-sectional study. The analysis investigated data in medical charts of pre-surgical and immediate post-surgical patients who were submitted to bariatric surgery, focusing total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerid...
Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali
The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.
Pedro Ferrand Miranda; Tomas Contreras Rivas; Stephanie Leigh Pacciarini
Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fert...
Beek, E.S.J. van der
The dramatic rise of morbid obesity worldwide and the success of bariatric surgery results in a significant rise in the demand for post-bariatric body contouring surgery, a new field in plastic surgery. This makes a national clinical guideline for patient selection and treatment mandatory. In
Dantas, Anna Carolina Batista; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Cleva, Roberto de; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Cecconello, Ivan
Esophageal and gastric cancer (GC) are related to obesity and bariatric surgery. Risk factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux and Helicobacter pylori, must be investigated and treated in obese population. After surgery, GC reports are anecdotal and treatment is not standardized. This review aims to discuss GC related to obesity before and after bariatric surgery
Ortiz, Selena E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Boyce, Angie M
This article examines how the medicalization of obesity validates the use of bariatric surgery to treat obesity in the United States and how expansions in access to bariatric surgery normalize surgical procedures as disease treatment and prevention tools. Building on this discussion, the article poses two questions for population health regarding health technology: (1) to what extent does bariatric surgery treat obesity in the United States while diverting attention away from the ultimate drivers of the epidemic and (2) to what extent does bariatric surgery improve outcomes for some groups in the US population while simultaneously generating disparities? We conduct a brief, historical analysis of the American Medical Association's decision to reclassify obesity as a disease through internal documents, peer-reviewed expert reports, and major media coverage. We use medicalization theory to show how this decision by the American Medical Association channels increased focus on obesity into the realm of medical intervention, particularly bariatric surgery, and use this evidence to review research trends on bariatric surgery. We propose research questions that investigate the population health dimensions of bariatric surgery in the United States and note key areas of future research. Our objective is to generate a discourse that considers bariatric surgery beyond the medical realm to better understand how technological interventions might work collectively with population-level obesity prevention efforts and how, in turn, population health approaches may improve bariatric surgery outcomes.
Khorgami, Zhamak; Arheart, Kristopher L; Zhang, Chi; Messiah, Sarah E; de la Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor
Previous studies have reported better weight loss after bariatric surgery among non-Hispanic whites (NHW) versus non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) and Hispanics. The majority of these studies took place in areas where NHW are the majority. This study aimed to compare post-surgery weight outcomes by ethnicity in a geographic area where Hispanics are the majority. A retrospective medical chart review of 3268 patients (1561 Hispanic, 660 NHB, and 1047 NHW) who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or Adjustable Gastric Band (AGB) placement from 2002 to 2012 were analyzed. Percentages of excess weight loss (EWL) and body mass index (BMI) changes at 6, 12, and 24 months post-surgery were compared by ethnic group. At 6 months, EWL was significantly different by ethnicity (52.7 ± 15.9 Hispanics, 49.7 ± 15.7 NHW, 43.0 ± 17.3 NHB, P surgery, and BMI category (40 kg/m(2). Up to 2 years after RYGB, mean EWL and BMI reduction patterns are similar among NHW and Hispanics and significantly better than NHB. These patterns were comparable but not as pronounced among patients with AGB surgery. Our findings suggest that social factors may contribute to successful weight loss after bariatric surgery.
Batchelder, Andrew J; Williams, Robert; Sutton, Christopher; Khanna, Achal
Obesity is a pandemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This historical article charts the progress of successful strategies that have been used to tackle weight loss from dietary modifications to the development of surgical interventions that have subsequently evolved. It also provides a précis of the reported outcome data following minimally invasive bariatric procedures. A literature review was performed. All articles relevant to the progression of bariatric surgery and minimally invasive surgery were assessed, as were those articles that described the ultimate evolution, combination, and establishment of the two techniques. This article charts the progression of early weight loss strategies, from early dietary modifications and pharmacologic interventions to initial techniques in small bowel bypass procedures, banding techniques, and sleeve gastrectomies. It also describes the simultaneous developments of endoscopic interventions and laparoscopic procedures. A range of procedures are described, which differ in their success in terms of loss of excess weight and in their complication rates. Weight loss is greatest for biliopancreatic diversion followed by gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy and least for adjustable gastric banding. Bariatric surgery is an evolving field, which will continue to expand given current epidemiologic trends. Developments in instrumentation and surgical techniques, including single access and natural orifice approaches, may offer further benefit in terms of patient acceptability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Hepp, Nicola; Juhl, Anna Julie Aavild
Background: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. It results in significant and sustained weight loss and reduces obesity-related co-morbidities. Despite an increasing prevalence of severe obesity, the number of bariatric operations performed in Denmark has decreased...... during the past years. This is only partly explained by changes in the national guidelines for bariatric surgery. The purpose of the cross-sectional study is to investigate referral patterns and possible reservations regarding bariatric surgery among Danish primary care physicians (PCPs). Setting......: Primary care physicians in Denmark. Methods: A total of 300 Danish PCPs were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey regarding experiences with bariatric surgery, reservations about bariatric surgery, attitudes to specific patient cases, and the future treatment of severe obesity. Most questions...
Panca, M; Viner, R M; White, B; Pandya, T; Melo, H; Adamo, M; Batterham, R; Christie, D; Kinra, S; Morris, S
Evidence shows that surgery for severe obesity in adults improves health and psychological functioning, and is cost-effective. Data on bariatric surgery for adolescents with severe obesity are extremely limited, with no evidence on cost-effectiveness. We evaluated the lifetime cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery compared with no surgery in adolescents with severe obesity from the UK's National Health Service perspective. Eighteen adolescents with body mass index ≥40 kg m -2 who underwent bariatric surgery (laparoscopic Roux en Y Gastric Bypass [RYGB] [N = 9], and laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy [SG] [N = 9]) at University College London Hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 were included. We used a Markov cohort model to compare the lifetime expected costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) between bariatric surgery and no surgery. Mean cost of RYGB and SG procedures were £7100 and £7312, respectively. For RYGB vs. no surgery, the incremental cost/QALY was £2018 (95% CI £1942 - £2042) for males and £2005 (95% CI £1974 - £2031) for females. For SG vs. no surgery, the incremental cost/QALY was £1978 (95% CI £1954 - £2002) for males and £1941 (95% CI £1915 - £1969) for females. Bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity is cost-effective; it is more costly than no surgery however it markedly improved quality of life. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Krishna, Somashekar G; Behzadi, Jennifer; Hinton, Alice; El-Dika, Samer; Groce, Jeffery R; Hussan, Hisham; Hart, Phil A; Conwell, Darwin L
The prevalence of obesity and number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery are increasing. Obesity has adverse effects in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). We investigated whether bariatric surgery affects outcomes of patients with AP. We performed a retrospective study, collecting data from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007-2011) on all adult inpatients (≥18 years) with a principal diagnosis of AP (n = 1,342,681). We compared primary clinical outcomes (mortality, acute kidney injury, and respiratory failure) and secondary outcomes related to healthcare resources (hospital stay and charges) among patient groups using univariate and multivariate analyses. We performed a propensity score-matched analysis to compare outcomes of patients with versus without bariatric surgery. Of patients admitted to the hospital with a principal diagnosis of AP, 14,332 (1.07%) had undergone bariatric surgery. The number of patients that underwent bariatric surgery doubled, from 1801 in 2007 to 3928 in 2011 (P < .001). AP in patients that had undergone bariatric surgery was most frequently associated with gallstones. Multivariate analysis associated prior bariatric surgery with decreased mortality (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.92), shorter duration of hospitalization (0.65 days shorter; P < .001), and lower hospital charges ($3558 lower) than in patients with AP not receiving bariatric surgery (P < .001). A propensity score-matched cohort analysis found that mortality and odds of acute kidney injury were similar between patients with versus without history of bariatric surgery, whereas respiratory failure was less frequent in patients who received bariatric surgery (1.34% vs 4.42%; P < .001). Prior bariatric surgery in patients hospitalized with AP is not adversely associated with in-hospital mortality, development of organ failure, or healthcare resource use. Bariatric surgery may mitigate the obesity-associated adverse prognostication in AP
Rosa, Simone Corrêa; Macedo, Jefferson Lessa Soares DE; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Canedo, Lucas Ribeiro; Marques, João Vitor Almeida
to evaluate the profile of patients submitted to post-bariatric plastic surgery at the North Wing Regional Hospital, Brasília, DF. we conducted a prospective, descriptive and analytical study of patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastroplasty, and subsequently to plastic surgery, from January 2011 to December 2016. We assessed body mass index before gastroplasty and after surgery plastic surgery, postoperative complications and comorbidities. we studied 139 patients (130 women and nine men), with a mean age of 41 years, who underwent 233 operations. The mean BMI at the time of plastic surgery was 27.44kg/m2. The mean weight loss was 47.02kg and the mean maximum BMI was 45.17kg/m2. The mean time between bariatric surgery and plastic surgery was 42 months. The most important co-morbidities before plastic surgery were arterial hypertension (11.5%), arthropathy (5.4%), diabetes mellitus (5%) and metabolic syndrome (4.3%) (pprofile of post-bariatric patients who underwent plastic surgery was similar to that reported in the literature, except for the low rate of associated surgeries and postoperative complications. Plastic surgery in post-bariatric patients has led to an improvement in the quality of life in most of these patients.
Zorron, R; Bothe, C; Junghans, T; Pratschke, J; Benzing, C; Krenzien, F
The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the therapy of choice in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding are showing higher rates of treatment failure, reducing obesity-associated morbidity and body weight insufficiently. Moreover, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can occur refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to RYGB can be reasonable as long as specific conditions are fulfilled.Endoscopic procedures are currently being applied to revise bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20 % of cases. Transoral outlet reduction is the minimally invasive method of choice to reduce gastrojejunal anastomosis of the alimentary limb. The diameter of a gastric sleeve can be unwantedly enlarged as well; that can be reduced by placement of a longitudinal full-thickness suture.Severe hypoglycemic episodes can be present in patients following RYGB. Hypoglycemic episodes have to be diagnosed first and can be treated conventionally. Alternatively, a laparoscopic approach according to Branco-Zorron can be used for non-responders. Hypoglycemic episodes can thus be prevented and body weight reduction can be assured.Conversional and endoscopic procedures can be used in patients with treatment failure following bariatric surgery. Note that non-invasive approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional procedure is performed.
Zwintscher, Nathan P; Azarow, Kenneth S; Horton, John D; Newton, Christopher R; Martin, Matthew J
Morbid obesity continues to be a significant problem within the United States, as overweight/obesity rates are nearing 33%. Bariatric surgery has had success in treating obesity in adults and is becoming a viable treatment option for obese adolescents. We studied 1615 inpatient admissions for children ≤20 years of age undergoing a bariatric procedure for morbid obesity in 2009 using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Patients had a principal diagnosis of obesity and a bariatric procedure listed as one of their first 5 procedures. Procedures (open gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastroplasty, and laparoscopic gastric band) and complications were defined by ICD-9 codes. There were 90 open gastric bypasses, 906 laparoscopic gastric bypasses, 150 sleeve gastrectomies, 18 laparoscopic gastroplasties, and 445 laparoscopic gastric bandings. The length of stay for each procedure was 2.44, 2.20, 2.33, 1.10, and 1.02 days, respectively (PBariatric surgery is an increasingly utilized option for the treatment of morbid obesity among adolescents. The procedures can be performed safely as evidenced by low complication rates. Additional long-term follow-up is necessary. © 2013.
Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe
While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Vijayvargiya, Priya; Anthanont, Pimjai; Erickson, Stephen B
With rising prevalence of morbid obesity, the number of bariatric surgeries performed each year has been increasing worldwide. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the risk of kidney stones following bariatric surgery. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through July 2015. Only studies reporting relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios (HRs) to compare risk of kidney stones in patients who underwent bariatric surgery versus no surgery were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Four studies (One randomized controlled trial and three cohort studies) with 11,348 patients were included in analysis to assess the risk of kidney stones following bariatric surgery. The pooled RR of kidney stones in patients undergoing bariatric surgery was 1.22 (95% CI, 0.63-2.35). The type of bariatric surgery subgroup analysis demonstrated an increased risk of kidney stones in patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with the pooled RR of 1.73 (95% CI, 1.30-2.30) and a decreased risk of kidney stones in patients following restrictive procedures including laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy with the pooled RR of 0.37 (95% CI, 0.16-0.85). Our meta-analysis demonstrates an association between RYGB and increased risk of kidney stones. Restrictive bariatric surgery, on the other hand, may decrease kidney stone risk. Future study with long-term follow-up data is needed to confirm this potential benefit of restrictive bariatric surgery.
Maggard, Melinda A; Yermilov, Irina; Li, Zhaoping; Maglione, Margaret; Newberry, Sydne; Suttorp, Marika; Hilton, Lara; Santry, Heena P; Morton, John M; Livingston, Edward H; Shekelle, Paul G
Use of bariatric surgery has increased dramatically during the past 10 years, particularly among women of reproductive age. To estimate bariatric surgery rates among women aged 18 to 45 years and to assess the published literature on pregnancy outcomes and fertility after surgery. Search of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2005) and multiple electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Controlled Clinical Trials Register Database, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness) to identify articles published between 1985 and February 2008 on bariatric surgery among women of reproductive age. Search terms included bariatric procedures, fertility, contraception, pregnancy, and nutritional deficiencies. Information was abstracted about study design, fertility, and nutritional, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes after surgery. Of 260 screened articles, 75 were included. Women aged 18 to 45 years accounted for 49% of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery (>50,000 cases annually for the 3 most recent years). Three matched cohort studies showed lower maternal complication rates after bariatric surgery than in obese women without bariatric surgery, or rates approaching those of nonobese controls. In 1 matched cohort study that compared maternal complication rates in women after laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery with obese women without surgery, rates of gestational diabetes (0% vs 22.1%, P bariatric surgery group. Findings were supported by 13 other bariatric cohort studies. Neonatal outcomes were similar or better after surgery compared with obese women without laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery (7.7% vs 7.1% for premature delivery; 7.7% vs 10.6% for low birth weight, P nutrition, fertility, cesarean delivery, and contraception were limited. Rates of many adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes may be lower in women who become pregnant after having had bariatric surgery compared with rates in pregnant women who are obese; however, further data
Folope, Vanessa; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre
Morbidly obese patients often have nutritional deficiencies, particularly in fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid and zinc. After bariatric surgery, these deficiencies may increase and others can appear, especially because of the limitation of food intake in gastric reduction surgery and of malabsorption in by-pass procedures. The latter result in more important weight loss but also increase the risk of more severe deficiencies. The protein deficiency associated with a decrease in the fat-free mass has been described in both procedures. It can sometimes require an enteral or parenteral support. Anemia can be secondary to iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency and even to vitamin B12 deficiency. Neurological disorders such as Gayet-Wernicke encephalopathy due to thiamine deficiency, or peripheral neuropathies may also be observed. Malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins and other nutrients, especially if diagnosed after by-pass surgery, rarely cause clinical symptoms. However, some complications have been reported such as bone demineralization due to vitamin D deficiency, hair loss secondary to zinc deficiency or hemeralopia from vitamin A deficiency. A careful nutritional follow-up should be performed during pregnancy after obesity surgery, because possible deficiencies can affect the health of both the mother and child. In conclusion, increased awareness of the risk of deficiency and the systematic dosage of micronutrients are needed in the pre- and postoperative period in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The case by case correction of these deficiencies is mandatory, and their systematic prevention should be evaluated.
Thibault, Ronan; Huber, Olivier; Azagury, Dan E; Pichard, Claude
In morbidly obese patients, i.e. body mass index ≥35, bariatric surgery is considered the only effective durable weight-loss therapy. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) are associated with risks of nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. Therefore, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, are advised. Dietetic counseling is mandatory during the first year, optional later. Planned and structured physical exercise should be systematically promoted to maintain muscle mass and bone health. In this review, twelve key perioperative nutritional issues are raised with focus on LRYGBP and LSG procedures, the most common current bariatric procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
McGlone, Emma Rose; Bond, Amanda; Reddy, Marcus; Khan, Omar A; Wan, Andrew C
Although the prevalence of obese elderly patients is increasing, the outcomes of bariatric surgery in this potentially high-risk cohort remain poorly understood, especially those relating to quality of life. Furthermore, there is no data on the efficacy of bariatric surgery in the super-obese elderly. We identified 50 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery aged 60 years or over, and compared the outcomes of the super-obese (BMI ≥ 50; n = 26) with those of BMI Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) 3.5 vs. 3.1; p = 0.64).
Ibrahim, Andrew M; Ghaferi, Amir A; Thumma, Jyothi R; Dimick, Justin B
In the United States, reports about perioperative complications associated with bariatric surgery led to the establishment of accreditation criteria for bariatric centers of excellence and many bariatric centers obtaining accreditation. Currently, most bariatric procedures occur at these centers, but to what extent they uniformly provide high-quality care remains unknown. To describe the variation in surgical outcomes across bariatric centers of excellence and the geographic availability of high-quality centers. This retrospective review analyzed the claims data of 145 527 patients who underwent bariatric surgery at bariatric centers of excellence between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013. Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's State Inpatient Database. This database included unique hospital identification numbers in 12 states (Arkansas, Arizona, Florida, Iowa, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin), allowing comparisons among 165 centers of excellence located in those states. Participants were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Those included in the study cohort were patients with a primary diagnosis of morbid obesity and who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric band placement, or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Excluded from the cohort were patients younger than 18 years or who had an abdominal malignant neoplasm. Data were analyzed July 1, 2016, through January 10, 2017. Risk-adjusted and reliability-adjusted serious complication rates within 30 days of the index operation were calculated for each center. Centers were stratified by geographic location and operative volume. In this analysis of claims data from 145 527 patients, wide variation in quality was found across 165 bariatric centers of excellence, both nationwide and
de Zwaan, Martina; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Stroh, Christine E; Teufel, Martin; Köhler, Hinrich; Tengler, Maxi; Müller, Astrid
Massive weight loss (MWL) following bariatric surgery frequently results in an excess of overstretched skin causing physical discomfort and negatively affecting quality of life, self-esteem, body image, and physical functioning. In this cross-sectional study 3 groups were compared: (1) patients prior to bariatric surgery (n = 79), (2) patients after bariatric surgery who had not undergone body contouring surgery (BCS) (n = 252), and (3) patients after bariatric surgery who underwent subsequent BCS (n = 62). All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing body image (Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, MBSRQ), quality of life (IWQOL-Lite), symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), and anxiety (GAD-7). Overall, 62 patients (19.2%) reported having undergone a total of 90 BCS procedures. The most common were abdominoplasties (88.7%), thigh lifts (24.2%), and breast lifts (16.1%). Post-bariatric surgery patients differed significantly in most variables from pre-bariatric surgery patients. Although there were fewer differences between patients with and without BCS, patients after BCS reported better appearance evaluation (AE), body area satisfaction (BAS), and physical functioning, even after controlling for excess weight loss and time since surgery. No differences were found for symptoms of depression and anxiety, and most other quality of life and body image domains. Our results support the results of longitudinal studies demonstrating significant improvements in different aspects of body image, quality of life, and general psychopathology after bariatric surgery. Also, we found better AE and physical functioning in patients after BCS following bariatric surgery compared to patients with MWL after bariatric surgery who did not undergo BCS. Overall, there appears to be an effect of BCS on certain aspects of body image and quality of life but not on psychological aspects on the whole.
de Zwaan, Martina; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Stroh, Christine E.; Teufel, Martin; Köhler, Hinrich; Tengler, Maxi; Müller, Astrid
Background: Massive weight loss (MWL) following bariatric surgery frequently results in an excess of overstretched skin causing physical discomfort and negatively affecting quality of life, self-esteem, body image, and physical functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 3 groups were compared: (1) patients prior to bariatric surgery (n = 79), (2) patients after bariatric surgery who had not undergone body contouring surgery (BCS) (n = 252), and (3) patients after bariatric surgery who underwent subsequent BCS (n = 62). All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing body image (Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, MBSRQ), quality of life (IWQOL-Lite), symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), and anxiety (GAD-7). Results: Overall, 62 patients (19.2%) reported having undergone a total of 90 BCS procedures. The most common were abdominoplasties (88.7%), thigh lifts (24.2%), and breast lifts (16.1%). Post-bariatric surgery patients differed significantly in most variables from pre-bariatric surgery patients. Although there were fewer differences between patients with and without BCS, patients after BCS reported better appearance evaluation (AE), body area satisfaction (BAS), and physical functioning, even after controlling for excess weight loss and time since surgery. No differences were found for symptoms of depression and anxiety, and most other quality of life and body image domains. Discussion: Our results support the results of longitudinal studies demonstrating significant improvements in different aspects of body image, quality of life, and general psychopathology after bariatric surgery. Also, we found better AE and physical functioning in patients after BCS following bariatric surgery compared to patients with MWL after bariatric surgery who did not undergo BCS. Overall, there appears to be an effect of BCS on certain aspects of body image and quality of life but not on psychological aspects on the whole. PMID:25477839
Martina eDe Zwaan
Full Text Available Background: Massive weight loss (MWL following bariatric surgery frequently results in an excess of overstretched skin causing physical discomfort and negatively affecting quality of life, self-esteem, body image and physical functioning.Methods: In this cross-sectional study 3 groups were compared: 1 patients prior to bariatric surgery (n=79, 2 patients after bariatric surgery who had not undergone BCS (n=252, and 3 patients after bariatric surgery who underwent subsequent body contouring surgery (BCS (n=62. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing body image (MBSRQ, quality of life (IWQOL-Lite, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9 and anxiety (GAD-7.Results: Overall, 62 patients (19.2% reported having undergone a total of 90 BCS procedures. The most common were abdominoplasties (88.7%, thigh lifts (24.2%, and breast lifts (16.1%. Post-bariatric surgery patients differed significantly in most variables from pre-bariatric surgery patients; however, there were fewer differences between patients with and without BCS. Patients after BCS reported better appearance evaluation, body area satisfaction, and physical functioning, even after controlling for excess weight loss and time since surgery. No differences were found for symptoms of depression and anxiety, and most other quality of life and body image domains. Discussion: Our results support the results of longitudinal studies demonstrating significant improvements in different aspects of body image, quality of life, and general psychopathology after bariatric surgery. Also, we found better appearance evaluation and physical functioning in patients after BCS following bariatric surgery compared to patients with MWL after bariatric surgery who did not undergo BCS. Overall, there appears to be an effect of BCS on certain aspects of body image and quality of life but not on psychological aspects on the whole.
Lupoli, Roberta; Lembo, Erminia; Saldalamacchia, Gennaro; Avola, Claudia Kesia; Angrisani, Luigi; Capaldo, Brunella
Bariatric surgery is recognized as a highly effective therapy for obesity since it accomplishes sustained weight loss, reduction of obesity-related comorbidities and mortality, and improvement of quality of life. Overall, bariatric surgery is associated with a 42% reduction of the cardiovascular risk and 30% reduction of all-cause mortality. This review focuses on some nutritional consequences that can occur in bariatric patients that could potentially hinder the clinical benefits of this the...
Sierżantowicz, Regina; Lewko, Jolanta; Hady, Hady Razak; Kirpsza, Bożena; Trochimowicz, Lech; Dadan, Jacek
Studies conducted in Poland have found that 1% (~300,000) of Polish adults are obese. The degree of weight loss and reduction of discomfort associated with severe obesity are used to evaluate bariatric surgery outcomes. From the patient's point of view, QoL and mental health are the most important determinants of successful surgery, which is why interest in QoL assessment has increased. To assess the effect of BMI on quality of life and depression levels depending on the type of bariatric surgery. The group included 57 women and 43 men aged 20-60 years (mean age 40 years) with BMI from 36 to 40 (31%) and > 40 (69%). Twelve patients (12%) underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric binding (LAGB), 58 (58%) sleeve gastrectomy, and 30 (30%) Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). The Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) was used to assess QoL. The severity of mood disorders was assessed using the Self-Rating Scale of Depression and Anxiety. Six months or 1 year after bariatric surgery, the number of patients with BMI > 40 had decreased from 69 to 14%. We found that the time since bariatric surgery contributed to a significant (p bariatric surgery, including quality of life. Long-term monitoring will be essential in determining psychological changes and the degree of weight loss.
Shoemaker, M Benjamin; Gidfar, Sanaz; Pipilas, Daniel C; Tamboli, Robyn A; Savio Galimberti, Eleonora; Williams, D Brandon; Clements, Ronald H; Darbar, Dawood
While AF is a disease of the elderly, it can occur earlier in the presence of risk factors such as obesity. Bariatric surgery patients are significantly younger and more obese than previously described populations with AF. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether current estimates of the prevalence and predictors for AF remain true in the bariatric surgery population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,341 consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery from January 2008 to October 2012. Baseline characteristics were compared between patients with and without AF. For additional comparison, 176 patients with AF and body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) were identified from the Vanderbilt AF Registry. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of AF within the bariatric surgery cohort. The prevalence of AF in the bariatric surgery cohort was 1.9 % (25/1,341). Patients with AF were older (median 56 years (interquartile range [52-64) vs.46 [38-56] years, p bariatric surgery. Risk of AF was found to increase with age and male gender, but not with higher BMI.
Memarian, Ensieh; Sundquist, Kristina; Calling, Susanna; Sundquist, Jan; Li, Xinjun
The prevalence of obesity, as well as use of bariatric surgery, has increased worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential differences in the use of bariatric surgery among Swedes and immigrants in Sweden and whether the hypothesized differences remain after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. A closed cohort of all individuals aged 20-64 years was followed during 2001-2010. Further analyses were performed in 2 periods separately (2001-2005 and 2006-2010). Age-standardized cumulative incidence rates (CR) of bariatric surgery were compared between Swedes and immigrants considering individual variables. Cox proportional hazards models were used in univariate and multivariate models for males and females. A total of 12,791 Swedes and 2060 immigrants underwent bariatric surgery. The lowest rates of bariatric surgery were found in immigrant men. The largest difference in CR between Swedes and immigrants was observed among low-income individuals (3.4 and 2.3 per 1000 individuals, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were lower for all immigrants compared with Swedes in the second period. The highest HRs were observed among immigrants from Chile and Lebanon and the lowest among immigrants from Bosnia. Except for Nordic countries, immigrants from all other European countries had a lower HR compared with Swedes. Men in general and some immigrant groups had a lower HR of bariatric surgery. Moreover, the difference between Swedes and immigrants was more pronounced in individuals with low socioeconomic status (income). It is unclear if underlying barriers to receive bariatric surgery are due to patients' preferences/lack of knowledge or healthcare structures. Future studies are needed to examine potential causes behind these differences. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
White, Billy; Doyle, Jacqueline; Matschull, Kirsten; Adamo, Marco; Christie, Deborah; Nicholls, Dasha; Kinra, Sanjay; Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Viner, Russell M
Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities currently available. Little is known about adolescents entering National Health Service (NHS) bariatric programmes. We aimed to characterise those entering a pathway and report their outcomes. Prospective service evaluation of patients assessed within a single NHS adolescent bariatric service. 50 patients assessed between 26 July 2007 and 27 January 2014; 6 (12%) were not eligible for surgery, 7 (14%) actively opted out, 8 (16%) were lost to follow-up and 29 (58%) underwent surgery (18 sleeve gastrectomy (SG) 11 Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 0 adjustable gastric band). Mean (SD) age at initial assessment was 16.0 (1.3) years and 18.3 (1.3) at surgery (youngest 15.7 years). Mean time taken to surgery was 1.8 years; longer in those with higher body mass index (BMI) and aged below 14 at first assessment. Mean (SD) BMI at surgery was 53.1 (8.3) kg/m 2 , lower in those undergoing RYGB (-5.2, 95% CI -11.6 to 1.13). Follow-up was inconsistent and challenging; 1/29 (3.5%) was transferred to a regional centre, 10/29 (34.5%) attended ongoing follow-up within our protocol, 6/29 (20.7%) had intermittent monitoring and 12/29 (41.4%) were lost to follow-up. Mean BMI change at 1 year (-14.0 kg/m 2 ) and complications were similar to published cohorts. Data from 11 lost to follow-up were obtained and outcomes appeared similar to those who actively followed up. Adolescent bariatric surgery in the NHS appears effective, with outcomes similar to those reported internationally. Further work is needed to optimise postsurgical surveillance and reduce age at surgery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Schofield, Carin K.
The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to grow. Bariatric surgery is becoming more common and accepted in the treatment of obesity. Clinical candidates for bariatric surgery should have a BMI > 40 kg/m[superscript 2] alone, or a BMI > 35 kg/m[superscript 2] plus one comorbidity. A trend is emerging in the literature showing…
Aarts, E.O.; Wageningen, B. van; Loves, S.C.; Janssen, I.; Berends, F.; Sweep, F.C.; Boer, H. de
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (OrHH) occurs in over 40% of morbidly obese men. Obesity-related hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism may reduce the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of OrHH on the outcome of bariatric surgery in men.
Bariatric surgery, addictive-like eating behaviour and obesity. The obesity epidemic in South Africa is completely ... bariatric surgery may reverse or cure type 2 diabetes in the majority of severely obese patients, added ... whose blood pressure, diabetes and asthma are controlled by. 30% by 2020. The implementation of the ...
Yska, Jan Peter; van der Meer, Douwe H.; Dreijer, Albert R.; Eilander, Willeke; Apers, Jan A.; Emous, Marloes; Totte, Erik R. E.; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N.
PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery can influence the prevalence and incidence of comorbidities, as well as the pharmacokinetics of drugs. This might lead to changes in the use of drugs. This study aimed to assess the influence of bariatric surgery on the use of medication in patients before and after
Elinton Adami CHAIM
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Bariatric surgery has become the gold standard treatment for morbid obesity, but access to surgery remains difficult and low compliance to postoperative follow-up is common. To improve outcomes, enable access and optimize follow-up, we developed a multidisciplinary preoperative approach for bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of this program in the outcomes of bariatric surgery in the Brazilian public health system. METHODS A prospective evaluation of the individuals who underwent a preoperative multidisciplinary program for bariatric surgery and comparison of their surgical outcomes with those observed in the prospectively collected historical database of the individuals who underwent surgery before the beginning of the program. RESULTS There were 176 individuals who underwent the multidisciplinary program and 226 who did not. Individuals who underwent the program had significantly lower occurrence of the following variables: hospital stay; wound dehiscence; wound infection; pulmonary complications; anastomotic leaks; pulmonary thromboembolism; sepsis; incisional hernias; eventrations; reoperations; and mortality. Both loss of follow-up and weight loss failure were also significantly lower in the program group. CONCLUSION The adoption of a comprehensive preoperative multidisciplinary approach led to significant improvements in the postoperative outcomes and also in the compliance to the postoperative follow-up. It represents a reproducible and potentially beneficial approach within the context of the Brazilian public health system.
Full Text Available Obesity is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS; however, safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in this population remain unclear. A database of 2,918 was retrospectively reviewed, yielding 22 (0.75% severely obese patients with MS who underwent bariatric surgery. Sixteen surgical patients with complete follow-up data were matched to a nonsurgical control group of MS patients, based on age, BMI, MS subtype, and length of follow-up. MS relapse rates and trends in the timed twenty-five foot walk test (T25FW were compared. In the surgical group (gastric bypass n=19, sleeve gastrectomy n=3, preoperative BMI was 46.5 ± 7.2 Kg/m2 and average excess weight was 60.4 kg. Follow-up data was collected at 59.0 ± 29.8 months. There were two major and four minor complications. Five patients required readmission and there were no mortalities. Percent excess weight loss was 75.5 ± 27.0%. In the 16 patients with follow-up data, patients who underwent bariatric surgery were significantly faster on the T25FW compared to the nonsurgical population. In conclusion, bariatric surgery is relatively safe and effective in achieving weight loss in patients with MS. In addition, surgery may help patients maintain ambulation. Findings support the need for further studies on bariatric surgery and disease-specific outcomes in this population.
Menke, Marie N; King, Wendy C; White, Gretchen E; Gosman, Gabriella G; Courcoulas, Anita P; Dakin, Gregory F; Flum, David R; Orcutt, Molly J; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Steffen, Kristine J; Wolfe, Bruce M; Yanovski, Susan Z
To examine contraceptive practices and conception rates after bariatric surgery. The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a multicenter, prospective cohort study of adults undergoing first-time bariatric surgery as part of routine clinical care at 10 U.S. hospitals. Recruitment occurred between 2005 and 2009. Participants completed preoperative and annual postsurgical assessments for up to 7 years until January 2015. This report was restricted to women 18-44 years old with no history of menopause, hysterectomy, or estrogen and progesterone therapy. Primary outcomes were self-reported contraceptive practices, overall conception rate, and early (less than 18 months) postsurgical conception. Contraceptive practice (no intercourse, protected intercourse, unprotected intercourse, or tried to conceive) was classified based on the preceding year. Conception rates were determined from self-reported pregnancies. Of 740 eligible women, 710 (95.9%) completed follow-up assessment(s). Median (interquartile range) preoperative age was 34 (30-39) years. In the first postsurgical year, 12.7% (95% CI 9.4-16.0) of women had no intercourse, 40.5% (95% CI 35.6-45.4) had protected intercourse only, 41.5% (95% CI 36.4-46.6) had unprotected intercourse while not trying to conceive, and 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.3) tried to conceive. The prevalence of the first three groups did not significantly differ across the 7 years of follow-up (P for all >.05); however, more women tried to conceive in the second year (13.1%, 95% CI 9.3-17.0; Pconception rate was 53.8 (95% CI 40.0-71.1) per 1,000 woman-years across follow-up (median [interquartile range] 6.5 [5.9-7.0] years); 42.3 (95% CI 30.2-57.6) per 1,000 woman-years in the 18 months after surgery. Age (adjusted relative risk 0.41 [95% CI 0.19-0.89] per 10 years, P=.03), being married or living as married (adjusted relative risk 4.76 [95% CI 2.02-11.21], Pconception. Postsurgical contraceptive use and conception rates do not reflect
Morel, Laurent; Fontana, Enzo; Michel, Jean-Marie; Ruffieux, André; Ottiger, Murielle; Regamey, Claude
Bariatric surgery has peripheral or central neurological complications in 5-10% of patients. We report the case of a 39-year-old man with metabolic syndrome who underwent gastric by-pass surgery and then lost 40 kg over a period of 2.5 months. He subsequently developed symptoms suggestive of Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy, secondary to stenosis of the gastrojejunal anastomosis, which led to repeated unreported vomiting. This neurological syndrome, linked to thiamine deficiency, can be found with insufficient nutrition after surgery or severe vomiting after bariatric surgery. The complications are essentially peripheral neuropathy and metabolic dysfunctions, including iron and vitamin (B12, D, folate) deficiencies. This case reminds us that bariatric surgery requires close metabolic follow-up with periodic assays of vitamin levels, including thiamine, even when supplementation was prescribed.
Full Text Available The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most common operations for morbid obesity. Although rare, gastropulmonary fistulas are an important complication of this procedure. There is only one recently reported case of this complication. The present report describes the serious nature of this complication in a patient after an uneventful laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.
Koch, Timothy R; Finelli, Frederick C
Bariatric surgery has become an increasingly important method for management of medically complicated obesity. In patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, up to 87% with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop improvement or resolution of their disease postoperatively. Bariatric surgery can reduce the number of absorbed calories through performance of either a restrictive or a malabsorptive procedure. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery require indefinite, regular follow-up care by physicians who need to follow laboratory parameters of macronutrient as well as micronutrient malnutrition. Physicians who care for patients after bariatric surgery need to be familiar with common postoperative syndromes that result from specific nutrient deficiencies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup; Nilas, Lisbeth
Background. When other weight loss attempts have failed, bariatric surgery offers a successful alternative against obesity. Since operations are performed during women´s reproductive years, the number of pregnant women with prior bariatric surgery is increasing. Bariatric surgery results...... in restriction of food intake and/or malabsorption leading to weight loss, but may induce a risk for malnutrition and pregnancy complications. Method. Systematically conducted review addressing pregnancy after bariatric surgery using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Main Outcome Measures. Birthweight......, gestational age, birth defects, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and mode of delivery. Results. We included 17 articles in English, comparing pregnancies in women with prior bariatric surgery to pregnancies in a control group without this. There was considerable heterogeneity in study design...
Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Marin, Flávia Andréia; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques
Restricted food intake after bariatric surgery can be an important factor both in the long-term control of body weight and in the onset of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the adequacy of food intake in women two or more years after bariatric surgery according to the excess weight lost. A group of 141 women who underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was divided according to the percentage of excess weight they lost (%EWL)surgery is associated with food habits that favor energy intake over micronutrient intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daigle, Christopher R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Tu, Chao; Petrick, Anthony T; Morton, John M; Schauer, Philip R; Aminian, Ali
National quality programs have been implemented to decrease the burden of adverse events on key outcomes in bariatric surgery. However, it is not well understood which complications have the most impact on patient health. To quantify the impact of specific bariatric surgery complications on key clinical outcomes. The Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) database. Data from patients who underwent primary bariatric procedures were retrieved from the MBSAQIP 2015 participant use file. The impact of 8 specific complications (bleeding, venous thromboembolism [VTE], leak, wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, myocardial infarction, and stroke) on 5 main 30-day outcomes (end-organ dysfunction, reoperation, intensive care unit admission, readmission, and mortality) was estimated using risk-adjusted population attributable fractions. The population attributable fraction is a calculated measure taking into account the prevalence and severity of each complication. The population attributable fractions represents the percentage reduction in a given outcome that would occur if that complication were eliminated. In total, 135,413 patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (67%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (29%), adjustable gastric banding (3%), and duodenal switch (1%) were included. The most common complications were bleeding (.7%), wound infection (.5%), urinary tract infection (.3%), VTE (.3%), and leak (.2%). Bleeding and leak were the largest contributors to 3 of 5 examined outcomes. VTE had the greatest effect on readmission and mortality. This study quantifies the impact of specific complications on key surgical outcomes after bariatric surgery. Bleeding and leak were the complications with the largest overall effect on end-organ dysfunction, reoperation, and intensive care unit admission after bariatric surgery. Furthermore, our findings suggest that an initiative targeting reduction of post-bariatric surgery
Kulick, Doina; Hark, Lisa; Deen, Darwin
Between 1998 and 2004, the total number of bariatric procedures increased almost 10-fold, from 13,386 procedures in 1998 to 121,055 in 2004. Current estimates suggest the number of bariatric operations will exceed 220,000 in 2010. Bariatric surgery encompasses several surgical techniques classified as restrictive or malabsorptive, based on the main mechanism of weight loss. Clinical studies and meta-analyses show that bariatric surgery decreases morbidity and mortality when compared with nonsurgical treatments. A successful long-term outcome of bariatric surgery is dependent on the patient's commitment to a lifetime of dietary and lifestyle changes. The registered dietitian (RD) is an important member of the bariatric team and provides critical instructions to help patients adhere to the dietary changes consistent with surgery. Referencing current literature, this article outlines the indications, contraindications, and types of bariatric surgery. The role of the RD for preoperative and postoperative nutrition assessment and medical nutrition therapy is highlighted. Management of long-term nutrition issues is also reviewed. The current recommendations include a multivitamin/mineral supplement plus vitamin B-12, calcium, vitamin D-3, iron, and folic acid. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and bariatric surgery procedures, caring for patients who have undergone surgery will be an expanding role for the RD. Close postoperative follow-up and careful monitoring will improve the odds for successful surgical outcomes, and RDs play a very important part in this process. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Litz, Megan; Rigby, Andrea; Rogers, Ann M; Leslie, Douglas L; Hollenbeak, Christopher S
Mental health disorders are common among bariatric surgery patients. Mental health disorders, particularly depression, have been associated with poorer surgical outcomes, indicating the bariatric surgery patient population warrants special clinical attention. Our study sought to examine the effect of diagnosed mental health disorders on 30-day readmission for those undergoing bariatric surgery in hospitals across Pennsylvania from 2011 to 2014. We used Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council data to perform this analysis. Inclusion criteria encompassed patients aged>18 years who underwent bariatric surgery at any hospital or freestanding surgical facility in Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2014. Mental health disorders were identified using predetermined International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes. Logistic regression was used to model the risk of 30-day readmission and estimate the effect of mental health disorders on 30-day readmission. Of the 19,259 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, 40.3% had a diagnosed mental health disorder; 6.51% of all patients were readmitted within 30 days. Patients with a diagnosed mental health disorder had 34% greater odds of readmission (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.51) relative to patients with no diagnosed mental health disorder. Patients with major depressive disorder/bipolar disorder had 46% greater odds of being readmitted compared with patients with no major depressive disorder/bipolar disorder diagnosis. Study findings imply the need for risk assessment of patients before postoperative discharge. Given that patients with mental health diagnoses are at increased risk of 30-day readmission after bariatric surgery, they may benefit from additional discharge interventions designed to attenuate potential readmissions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hern?ndez, Juli?n; Boza, Camilo
Bariatric surgery has been considered one of best treatments for obesity. As every surgical procedure?and any medical intervention, it is not exempt of complications, among which leaks, strictures, acute hemorrhages and fistulae highlight. Leaks are more common in the gastro-jejunal anastomosis (GJA) in the case of Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), while in Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) they locate in the stapler line. Stenosis can be seen in the gastro-jejunostomy in the RYGB and in the gastric tu...
Ferrand Miranda, Pedro; Contreras Rivas, Tomas; Leigh Pacciarini, Stephanie
Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy.
Pedro Ferrand Miranda
Full Text Available Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy.
Sclafani, Anthony P
Bariatric surgery can result in massive, rapid weight loss. Patients who undergo this surgery can be left with significant facial and neck skin redundancy and may request restorative facial plastic surgery. Optimal results require a thorough understanding of the unique physiologic, metabolic, and anatomic findings in these patients. Modifications of standard rhytidectomy techniques are necessary to suit the specific features of the patient after bariatric surgery.
Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet
Background Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Objective To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. Design A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened duri...
Stein, Emily M; Silverberg, Shonni J
Bariatric surgery is an effective and increasingly common treatment for severe obesity and its many comorbidities. The side-effects of bariatric surgery can include detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Bone disease in patients who have had bariatric surgery is affected by preoperative abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism related to severe obesity. Changes that arise after bariatric surgery are specific to procedure type: the most pronounced abnormalities in calciotropic hormones and bone loss are noted after procedures that result in the most malabsorption. The most consistent site for bone loss after all bariatric procedures is at the hip. There are limitations of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology in this population, including artefact introduced by adipose tissue itself. Bone loss after bariatric surgery is probably multifactorial. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in gut hormones. Few data for fracture risk in the bariatric population are available, and this is a crucial area for additional research. Treatment should be geared toward correction of nutritional deficiencies and study of bone mineral density in high-risk patients. We explore the skeletal response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for changes, and strategies for management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mesureur, L; Arvanitakis, M
Bariatric surgery is considered as the only effective durable weight-loss therapy and may be curative for obesity-related comorbidities such as diabetes. Nevertheless this surgery is not devoid of potential long-term complications such as dumping syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease and nutrient deficiencies. For this reason, preoperative nutritional assessment and rigorous postoperative follow-up with administration of multi-vitamins supplements and assessment of serum levels is recommended for each patient who is undergoing a bariatric surgery. The aim of this review is to identify and treat the metabolic and nutritional complications of bariatric surgery. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.
Tiago Wally Hartwig
Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.
Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Wright, Breanne N.
Moderate/severe obesity is on the rise in the United States. Weight management includes bariatric surgery, which is effective and can alleviate morbidity and mortality from obesity-associated diseases. However, many individuals are dealing with nutritional complications. Risk factors include: 1) preoperative malnutrition (e.g., vitamin D, iron); 2) decreased food intake (due to reduced hunger and increased satiety, food intolerances, frequent vomiting); 3) inadequate nutrient supplementation (due to poor compliance with multivitamin/multimineral regimen, insufficient amounts of vitamins and/or minerals in supplements); 4) nutrient malabsorption; and 5) inadequate nutritional support (due to lack of follow-up, insufficient monitoring, difficulty in recognizing symptoms of deficiency). For some nutrients (e.g., protein, vitamin B-12, vitamin D), malnutrition issues are reasonably addressed through patient education, routine monitoring, and effective treatment strategies. However, there is little attention paid to other nutrients (e.g., zinc, copper), which if left untreated may have devastating consequences (e.g., hair loss, poor immunity, anemia, defects in neuro-muscular function). This review focuses on malnutrition in essential minerals, including calcium (and vitamin D), iron, zinc, and copper, which commonly occur following popular bariatric procedures. There will be emphasis on the complexities, including confounding factors, related to screening, recognition of symptoms, and, when available, current recommendations for treatment. There is an exceptionally high risk of malnutrition in adolescents and pregnant women and their fetuses, who may be vulnerable to problems in growth and development. More research is required to inform evidence-based recommendations for improving nutritional status following bariatric surgery and optimizing weight loss, metabolic, and nutritional outcomes. PMID:24038242
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment modality in maintaining long-term weight reduction and improving obesity-related conditions in morbidly obese patients. In Korea, surgery for morbid obesity was laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy first performed in 2003. Since 2003, the annual number of bariatric surgeries has markedly increased, including adjustable gastric banding (AGB, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, mini-gastric bypass, and others. In Korea, AGB is much more common than in others countries. A large proportion of doctors, the public, and government misunderstand the necessity and effectiveness of bariatric surgery, believing that bariatric surgery has an unacceptably high morbidity, and that it is not superior to non-surgical treatments to improve obesity and obesity-related diseases. The effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery have been well demonstrated. The Korean Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery recommend bariatric surgery confining to morbidly obese patients (body mass index ≥40 or >35 in the presence of significant comorbidities.
Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude
In the context of the worldwide obesity epidemic, bariatric surgery is the only therapy associated with a sustainable weight loss and to midterm prevention of obesity-related complications. However, nutritional and behavioral multidisciplinary medical preparation, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, is strongly advised to avoid postoperative surgical, nutritional, or psychiatric complications. Due to a long history of restrictive diets and large body weight fluctuations, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and trace elements deficiencies are mandatory. A rapid and massive weight loss induces the loss of muscle mass and fat-free mass that could lead to malnutrition and osteoporosis. Dietetic counseling is advised to prevent postoperative food intolerance syndrome, malnutrition, and weight regain. Protein intake should be at least 60 g/day. Planned and structured physical exercise should be systematically promoted to maintain muscle mass and bone health. Bariatric surgery is mostly successful if patients are well prepared and monitored. The perfect patients' selection remains difficult in the absence of well defined predictive criteria of success. Future research is needed to define optimal perioperative nutritional management and its influence on long-term outcome, including quality of life and healthcare-related costs.
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method of sustainable weight loss among morbidly obese patients. The types of bariatric surgeries can be divided into three categories: restrictive procedures, malabsorptive procedures, and combination (restrictive and malabsorption) procedures. In general, patients undergoing restrictive procedures have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications, whereas patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures have the highest risk. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, such as decreased blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure and increased mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. Most diet-related surgical complications can be prevented by adhering to strict eating behavior guidelines and supplement prescriptions. Eating behavior guidelines include restricting portion sizes, chewing foods slowly and completely, eating and drinking separately, and avoiding foods that are poorly tolerated. Supplement prescriptions vary among practitioners and usually involve at least a multivitamin with minerals. Some practitioners may add other supplements only as needed for diagnosed deficiencies; others may prescribe additional prophylactic supplements. The most common nutrient deficiencies are of iron, folate, and vitamin B12. However, deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins have been reported in patients with malabsorption procedures, and thiamin deficiency has been reported among patients with very poor intake and/or nausea and vomiting. Frequent monitoring of nutrition status for all patients can aid in preventing severe clinical deficiencies.
Obesity is now a global epidemic affecting a significant and rapidly increasing number of adults, adolescents, and children. As the incidence of obesity has increased, so has the use of bariatric surgery as a medical solution. A growing number of studies now report that, despite calcium and vitamin D supplementation, the most frequently performed types of bariatric surgery, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy, cause significant ongoing bone loss. In resources available to the general public and to physicians, this adverse outcome is rarely mentioned or is attributed solely to reduced calcium absorption. Recent studies investigating micronutrient malabsorption and changes in a wide range of hormones induced by bariatric surgery now indicate that calcium malabsorption is the tip of a formidable iceberg. The current article, part 1 of a 2-part series, reviews the latest research findings confirming that obesity prevalence is skyrocketing and that bariatric surgery causes ongoing, accelerated bone loss. Part 1 also discusses the mechanisms through which the bariatric surgery-induced malabsorption of key nutrients adversely affects bone homeostasis. Part 2 discusses the specific changes seen in bone metabolism after bariatric surgery and reviews current data on the underlying mechanisms, in addition to nutrient malabsorption, which are thought to contribute to bariatric surgery-induced ongoing accelerated bone loss. These processes include mechanical unloading and changes in a wide variety of hormones (eg, leptin, adiponectin, testosterone, estradiol, serotonin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and gastric inhibitory peptide). Also, part 2 covers interventions that may help lessen bariatric surgery-induced bone loss, which are now beginning to appear in the medical literature. Bariatric surgery's adverse effects on bone must be widely recognized and protocols developed to prevent early onset osteoporosis in the recipients of an increasingly utilized
Full Text Available Context Obesity in the elderly is associated with exacerbation of functional decline (dependency, that occurs with aging, because of decreased muscle mass and strength, and increased joint dysfunction. Consequently, there is progressive loss of independence, autonomy, chronic pain and impaired quality of life. The weight loss can bring benefits in all these aspects, especially when accompanied by exercises. Elderly patients with morbid obesity may be submitted to surgical treatment, taking into account that the massive weight loss, eventually caused by bariatric surgery, may exacerbate the loss of muscle mass and nutritional complications that may bring harm to the overall health and quality of life of these patients. The functional assessment of elderly patients, candidates for bariatric surgery and the extent to which surgery can bring benefits to the patients, in the field of functionality, has still to be determined. Objective To describe profile functionality in obese elderly referred to a bariatric surgery program. Methods Patients with age ≥60 and BMI ≥35 underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that evaluates co morbidities, medication use, ability to perform basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, and the “Timedupandgo” test to evaluate mobility, whose cut-off point was ≤10 seconds. Statistical analysis was performed in order to see if there is a positive correlation of dependency with BMI and age (over or under 65 years. Results Forty subjects have completed evaluation. The mean age was 64.1 years (60-72 and 75% were women. They had an average weight of 121.1 kg (72.7-204 and a mean BMI of 47.2 kg/m2 (35.8-68.9. 16 patients (40% have shown dependency for activities of daily living, 19 (47,5% for instrumental activities of daily living and 20 patients (50% had a “Timedupandgo” test over 10 seconds. Statistical analysis (t-Student, Mann-Whitney, Binary Logistic Regression has shown
Pajecki, Denis; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Kanagi, Ana Lumi; Riccioppo, Daniel; de Cleva, Roberto; Cecconello, Ivan
Obesity in the elderly is associated with exacerbation of functional decline (dependency), that occurs with aging, because of decreased muscle mass and strength, and increased joint dysfunction. Consequently, there is progressive loss of independence, autonomy, chronic pain and impaired quality of life. The weight loss can bring benefits in all these aspects, especially when accompanied by exercises. Elderly patients with morbid obesity may be submitted to surgical treatment, taking into account that the massive weight loss, eventually caused by bariatric surgery, may exacerbate the loss of muscle mass and nutritional complications that may bring harm to the overall health and quality of life of these patients. The functional assessment of elderly patients, candidates for bariatric surgery and the extent to which surgery can bring benefits to the patients, in the field of functionality, has still to be determined. To describe profile functionality in obese elderly referred to a bariatric surgery program. Patients with age ≥ 60 and BMI ≥ 35 underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that evaluates co morbidities, medication use, ability to perform basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, and the "Timedupandgo" test to evaluate mobility, whose cut-off point was ≤ 10 seconds. Statistical analysis was performed in order to see if there is a positive correlation of dependency with BMI and age (over or under 65 years). Results Forty subjects have completed evaluation. The mean age was 64.1 years (60-72) and 75% were women. They had an average weight of 121.1 kg (72.7-204) and a mean BMI of 47.2 kg/m2 (35.8-68.9). 16 patients (40%) have shown dependency for activities of daily living, 19 (47,5%) for instrumental activities of daily living and 20 patients (50%) had a "Timedupandgo" test over 10 seconds. Statistical analysis (t-Student, Mann-Whitney, Binary Logistic Regression) has shown positive correlation of dependency in
Müller, S; Runkel, N
The increasing number of morbidly obese patients leads to a rising number of bariatric procedures in Germany. The operative techniques are highly standardized but such a standardization is lacking for the management of postoperative complications such as stenosis and ulceration after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The current literature is reviewed and a complication management is developed and presented in this article. Postoperative stenoses occure with a frequency of 0.1-3.9% after SG and 3-27% after RYGB. Stenosis is secondary to inadequate surgical technique or microinsufficiency. Ulcers can be due to reaction to foreign body, local ischemia, peptic lesion, fistula and microinsufficiency. Endoscopic interventions are successful in most cases for stenosis after RYGB and for short stenoses after SG. After SG long stenoses require redo surgery and conversion to RYGB. Ulcers can be managed by medication with the exception of perforation and hemorrhage, which require emergency laparoscopy.
Ana M. Ramos-Leví; Andrés Sánchez-Pemaute; Miguel A. Rubio Herrera
We present a patient who underwent successful classic duodenal switch and developed a marked dermatitis with a significant functional limitation. This is an unusual complication, despite the relatively moderate prevalence of nutrient deficiency after this type of bariatric surgery. We discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and emphasize the importance of an appropriate nutritional management.
Koeck, Emily; Davenport, Katherine; Barefoot, Leah C; Qureshi, Faisal G; Davidow, Daniel; Nadler, Evan P
As the obesity epidemic takes its toll on patients stricken with the disease and our health care system, debate continues regarding the use of weight loss surgery and its long-term consequences, especially for adolescents. One subset of patients regarding whom there is increased controversy is adolescents with extreme obesity (BMI > 60 kg/m(2)) because the risk of complications in this weight category is higher than for others undergoing bariatric surgery. Several strategies have been suggested for this patient group, including staged operations, combined operations, intragastric balloon use, and endoluminal sleeve placement. However, the device options are often not available to adolescents, and there are no data regarding staged or combined procedures in this age group. All adolescents with BMI >60 kg/m(2) referred to our program were evaluated for inpatient medical weight loss prior to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The program utilizes a multidisciplinary approach with a protein-sparing modified fast diet, exercise, and behavioral modification. Three patients completed the program, and each achieved significant preoperative weight loss through the inpatient program and successfully underwent bariatric surgery. Presurgical weight loss via an inpatient program for adolescents with a BMI >60 kg/m(2) results in total weight loss comparable to a primary surgical procedure alone, with the benefit of decreasing the perioperative risk.
Kominiarek, Michelle A.
The number of bariatric surgeries performed in the United States has risen exponentially. Given that the majority of patients are female and of reproductive age, it is important for clinicians who manage womenȉs health issues to be aware of the surgery, its long term goals, and the potential effect on future pregnancies. Most pregnancies after bariatric surgery have successful outcomes with decreased occurrences of gestational diabetes and hypertension and lower birth weight compared with con...
Penna, Marta; Markar, Sheraz; Hewes, James; Fiennes, Alberic; Jones, Niall; Hashemi, Majid
Opinions of healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom regarding bariatric surgery in adolescents are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the perspectives of medical professionals regarding adolescent bariatric surgery. Members of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society and groups of primary care practitioners based in London were contacted by electronic mail and invited to complete an anonymous online survey consisting of 21 questions. Ninety-four out of 324 questionnai...
Quigley, S.; Colledge, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Patel, K.
The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.
Quigley, S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Colledge, J. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, S. [Bariatric Surgery Unit, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, K. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)
The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.
Nor Hanipah, Zubaidah; Punchai, Suriya; Brethauer, Stacy A; Schauer, Philip R; Aminian, Ali
While bariatric surgery leads to significant prevention and improvement of type 2 diabetes, patients may rarely develop diabetes after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the characteristic of new-onset diabetes after bariatric surgery over a 17-year period at our institution. Non-diabetic patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single academic center (1997-2013) and had a postoperative glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dl, or positive glucose tolerance test were identified and studied. Out of 2263 non-diabetic patients at the time of bariatric surgery, 11 patients had new-onset diabetes in the median follow-up time of 9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 4-12). Bariatric procedures performed were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 7), adjustable gastric banding (n = 3), and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). The median interval between surgery and diagnosis of diabetes was 6 years (IQR, 2-9). At the last follow-up, the median HbA1c and FBG values were 6.3% (IQR, 6.1-6.5) and 95 mg/dl (IQR, 85-122), respectively. Possible etiologic factors leading to diabetes were weight regain to baseline (n = 6, 55%), steroid-induced after renal transplantation (n = 1), pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatitis (n = 1), and unknown (n = 3). De novo diabetes after bariatric surgery is rare with an incidence of 0.4% based on our cohort. Weight regain was common (> 50%) in patients who developed new-onset diabetes suggesting recurrent severe obesity as a potential etiologic factor. All patients had good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7%) in the long-term postoperative follow-up.
Background: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of treatment in patients who develop gastrointestinal leaks after different bariatric surgeries. Methods: Retrospective review of 632 consecutive bariatric surgical procedures performed from 1999–2009 in Alexandria University Hospital, ...
Chagas, Cristiane Barbosa; Saunders, Cláudia; Pereira, Silvia; Silva, Jacqueline; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa
This study aims to describe the clinical consequences of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Included are studies on VAD during pregnancy and after bariatric surgery conducted in humans from 1993 to 2011. There are few investigations on the relationship between pregnancy and bariatric surgery and on the damage to the binomial mother-child resulting from VAD in this relationship. The high percentage of VAD in the postoperative period is a cause for concern, especially considering the function of this vitamin in certain biological moments and in moments of intense nutritional demand. This vitamin serum evaluation is recommended during the prenatal period.
Becker, Danielle A; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L
Neurologic complications of bariatric surgery have become increasingly recognized with the rising numbers of procedures and the increasing prevalence of obesity in the US. Deficits are most commonly seen with thiamine, vitamin B(12), folate, vitamin D, vitamin E, and copper deficiencies. The neurological findings observed with these nutritional deficiencies are variable and include encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, myelopathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and polyneuropathy. We review the neurological complications of bariatric surgery and emphasize that these findings may vary based on the specific type of bariatric surgery and time elapsed from the procedure.
Danielle A. Becker
Full Text Available Neurologic complications of bariatric surgery have become increasingly recognized with the rising numbers of procedures and the increasing prevalence of obesity in the US. Deficits are most commonly seen with thiamine, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D, vitamin E, and copper deficiencies. The neurological findings observed with these nutritional deficiencies are variable and include encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, myelopathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and polyneuropathy. We review the neurological complications of bariatric surgery and emphasize that these findings may vary based on the specific type of bariatric surgery and time elapsed from the procedure.
Tolone, Salvatore; Savarino, Edoardo; Yates, Robert B
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. There is increasing evidence that obesity is associated with benign gastroesophageal disease, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal dysmotility. Bariatric surgery-including sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass, and adjustable gastric band placement-can effectively result in weight loss and control of obesity-related conditions, including GERD. However, there is increasing evidence that bariatric surgery itself can have a deleterious effect on esophageal function. In this review, we address the effect of obesity and bariatric surgery on esophageal dysfunction. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S
In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.
Fisher, Carolyn J; Heinberg, Leslie J; Lapin, Brittany; Aminian, Ali; Sullivan, Amy B
Bariatric surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective intervention for patients with comorbid obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS); however, this sub-population may be at heightened risk for pre- and postoperative depressive symptoms. This current exploratory study aims to describe the prevalence and nature of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with MS who undergo bariatric surgery. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who received bariatric surgery and had a diagnosis of MS (n = 31) and a control sample of non-surgical MS patients with severe obesity (n = 828). Longitudinal outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Multiple Sclerosis Performance Scale (MSPS). There were no significant differences in PHQ-9 total and item scores between groups at baseline. PHQ-9 scores significantly improved at years 1 (p bariatric surgery when compared to non-surgical controls. Higher BMI (p = 0.03) and worse overall quality of life (p bariatric group. When compared to controls, the bariatric group demonstrated improved MSPS scores on a trend level 1 year post-surgery (p = 0.08). Consistent with the literature on more general bariatric surgery populations, current findings highlight the possible early benefits of bariatric surgery for reducing depressive symptoms in this population when compared to controls. Importantly, results should be viewed as preliminary and additional research is needed to examine bariatric surgery and associations with depressive symptoms and performance in the MS population.
Yacoubian, Aline A; Nasr, Rami
Obesity is a worldwide challenging health problem. Weight loss through medical management of obesity has not always been successful, thus, giving rise to the need for surgical intervention. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be helpful for morbidly obese patients. However, studies have also shown the effect of surgery on stone formation, fertility and erectile function. This review summarizes the main findings of several studies that analyze stone formation and fertility in men as well as erectile function post bariatric surgery. The underlying pathophysiologic alterations post bariatric surgery include increased absorption of oxalate leading to hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Contradicting data exist on the effect of bariatric surgery on fertility and erectile function. Further studies are needed to analyze the mechanisms. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.
Larsen, M; Polat, F; Stook, F P; Oostenbroek, R J; Plaisier, P W; Hesp, W L E M
Bariatric surgery is an expanding field, with subsequent increases in the number of patients seeking additional corrective procedures including abdominoplasty. Complication rates and body image changes may be different from the general population seeking corrective procedures. We performed a retrospective study by questionnaire and chart-based review of the patients who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and abdominoplasty at our hospital between 1995 and 2004. Outcome variables included minor and major complications and satisfaction with body image and functional outcome. Patients who returned the completed questionnaire were included in the study (n = 25). The most prevalent complications were seroma formation (25%) and wound infections requiring antibiotics (13%). Hygiene, mobility and general functional capacity improved in 68%, 72%, and 80%, respectively. Body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI) did not markedly change, while self-efficacy improved after abdominoplasty. Abdominoplasty is a safe and effective method of body contour correction in patients with massive weight loss after bariatric surgery. However, a BMI as close to the ideal as possible is necessary for the complication rate to approach that of the general population undergoing abdominoplasty. Patients should be made aware of the difference in body image changes after abdominoplasty as compared to post-LAGB, as well as the trend towards an unchanged BMI.
Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Hady, Razak Hady; Mariak, Zofia; Dadan, Jacek
Bariatric procedures, associated with gastrointestinal malabsorption of vitamins and microelements, may constitute a risk factor for nutritional optic neuropathy (NON). We present a case of a 34-year-old female patient who developed bilateral NON after sleeve gastrectomy. Despite postoperative ophthalmological supervision, 10 months after the procedure the woman presented with a bilateral decrease in visual acuity down to 0.8, bilateral visual field loss and abnormal visual evoked potential recordings. Laboratory abnormalities included decreased serum concentration of vitamin B12 (161 pg/ml). Treatment was based on intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 (1000 units per day). After 1 week of the treatment, we observed more than a three-fold increase in the serum concentration of vitamin B12 and resolution of the bilateral symptoms of NON. The incidence of NON is likely to increase due to the growing number of these bariatric procedures performed worldwide. Therefore, all persons subjected to such surgery should receive long-term ophthalmological follow-up and supplementation with vitamins and microelements.
Peterhänsel, C; Wagner, B; Dietrich, A; Kersting, A
Many patients undergoing bariatric surgery report current or past psychiatric disorders and controversy exists regarding their outcome after bariatric surgery. We present a case of an obese patient with a borderline personality disorder, a recurrent depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress symptoms and binge eating episodes who underwent bariatric surgery. Although the psychiatric disorders remained, the procedure contributed to an improvement of the health status and well-being of the patient. Adequate psychological care after the surgical procedure is necessary to enable a long-term stabilization of patients with mental co-morbidities. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidities should not be excluded from the procedure if adequate post-operative support is provided. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Endevelt, Ronit; Ben-Assuli, Ofir; Klain, Ehud; Zelber-Sagi, Shira
A growing number of patients have been undergoing bariatric surgery in recent years. The role of adherence with regular dietician follow-up in successful long-term weight reduction has yet to be determined, and there are no studies characterizing the utilization of nutritional services after bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary counseling by a dietician can contribute to weight reduction after surgery in a follow-up of morbidly obese adult patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Inclusion criteria were age 20-70 at the time of the bariatric surgery and available body mass index (BMI) measurements before and at least 1 month after the surgery. Medical history and blood test results (triglycerides, cholesterol, and glucose) were recorded. Furthermore, data were collected on the utilization of healthcare services. The final study sample consisted of 1680 patients. Only 681 (40.54%) patients in the cohort attended dietician counseling in Maccabi, and only 471 (28%) patients received such counseling at least twice. Patients attending significant diet counseling had significantly higher proportions of at least 5% reduction in BMI. Two or more visits to dietician counseling were significantly and independently associated (odds ratio = 1.56, 1.02-2.38, 95% CI, P = .04) with a BMI reduction of at least 5%, adjusting for age, gender, number of expert counseling sessions, additional surgery, type of operation, and the interval between BMI measurements. Structured nutritional counseling after bariatric surgery can help in achieving clinically significant weight reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nurullah Bulbuller,1 Mani Habibi,1,2 Mustafa Yuksel,3 Onur Ozener,1 Mehmet Tahir Oruc,1 Osman Zekai Oner,1 Mehmet Altug Kazak1 1General Surgery Department, Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Antalya, 2General Surgery Department, Esenler Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Istanbul, 3Urology Department, Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey Introduction: Obesity is an important modifiable etiological factor associated with several diseases. There is strong evidence that urinary incontinence (UI is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI. Aim: One of the many benefits experienced by obese patients after bariatric surgery is decrease in UI. To investigate this correlation, we aimed to examine the effects of weight loss on UI in female patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG. Materials and methods: Obese female patients (n=120, ≥18 years of age, and planning to undergo LSG were included in this prospective study. We administered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7 to the patients prior to surgery and 6 months after the surgery. Using the collected data, we determined the incidence of UI and examined the relationship between the preoperative and postoperative BMI and UI values. Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.19 (standard deviation [SD] =9.94 years and the mean preoperative BMI was 46.17 (SD =5.35. Of the 120 patients, 72 (60% complained of UI preoperatively. Among these 72 patients, 23 (31.95% described urge incontinence, 18 (25% stress incontinence, and 31 (43.05% mixed-type incontinence. At 6 months postoperatively, the percentage of excess weight loss was 70.33% (SD =14.84%. For all three UI subtypes, the 6-month postoperative ICIQ-UI-SF and IIQ-7 scores decreased significantly compared to the preoperative scores (P<0.05. Conclusion: LSG results in a clinically
Billeter, Adrian T.; Fischer, Lars; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Senft, Jonas; Müller-Stich, Beat
Summary Background The increasing prevalence of obese patients will lead to a more frequent use of bariatric procedures in the future. Compared to conservative medical therapy, bariatric procedures achieve greater weight loss and superior control of comorbidities, resulting in improved overall mortality. Methods A search for current literature regarding mechanisms, indications, and outcomes of bariatric surgery was performed. Results In order to care for patients after bariatric surgery properly, it is important to understand its mechanisms of action and effects on gastrointestinal physiology. Recent investigations indicate that the beneficial effects of bariatric procedures are much more complex than simply limiting food intake or an associated malabsorption. Changes in gastrointestinal hormone secretion, energy expenditure, intestinal bacterial colonization, bile acid metabolism, and epigenetic modifications resulting in altered gene expression are likely responsible for the majority of the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery. Malabsorptive bariatric procedures divert the flow of bile and pancreatic enzymes from food and therefore limit the digestion and absorption of nutrients, resulting in reduced calorie intake and subsequent weight loss. Essential micronutrients such as vitamins and trace elements are also absorbed to a lesser extent, potentially leading to severe side effects. Conclusion To prevent malnutrition, dietary supplementation and regular control of micronutrient levels are mandatory for patients undergoing malabsorptive bariatric procedures, in whom the fat-soluble vitamins A and D are commonly deficient. PMID:26288594
Trofa, David; Smith, Eric L; Shah, Vivek; Shikora, Scott
Retrospectively, our institution noticed an increased number of patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric surgery is a proven modality to reduce osteoarthritic pain, we sought to identify a reason some patients may later require TJA. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that rapid or increased weight loss after bariatric surgery may be a risk factor for TJA. Weight loss parameters were retrospectively assessed in 15 bariatric surgery patients who subsequently received a primary TJA and compared with matched bariatric controls. Patients who required a TJA lost 27.9% more of their body mass index (BMI) compared with controls (P = .049). Furthermore, patients who underwent TJA 25-48 months postbariatric surgery lost 78.2% more of their BMI compared with controls (Pweight loss is universally protective against arthritis and merit larger prospective investigations. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.
Bariatric surgery frequently leads to several nutritional deficiencies that are well reported in the literature. However, numerous other aspects of the patients' life are concerned by bariatric interventions, so that the follow-up of these patients after bariatric surgery does not only encompass a mere correction of the well-known nutritional deficiencies. Only a thorough knowledge of all possible consequences of bariatric interventions permits an adequate follow-up of these patients. Overtly addressing all these issues with the patients before performing a bariatric intervention is the best way for them to be prepared for the intervention itself and to understand the need of a life-long follow-up thereafter.
de Lima, Karla Vanessa Gomes; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Sousa, Bruno Soares
Data already demonstrated the increased prevalence of obesity in various segments of the population. In this context, bariatric surgery is accepted nowadays as the most effective tool in the treatment and control of morbid obesity. Several studies have evaluated the nutritional status after bariatric surgery, especially mixed by detecting a reduction in food intake of protein, vitamins and minerals. However, other studies have investigated the presence of nutritional deficiencies prior to surgery, which may be aggravated by the surgical procedure, resulting in serious postoperative complications. To analyze the literature in relationship to micronutrient deficiencies in obese patients before bariatric surgery. Was carried out a systematic review in several electronic databases, such as PubMed/ Medline, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. The following keywords were used alone or in combination: bariatric surgery, obesity, preoperative, gastric bypass, vitamin deficiencies, deficiencies and mineral nutrient absorption. Were included 40 review and original articles published between 2005 to 2012. There were consensus on the combination of preoperative nutritional deficiencies, restrictions and malabsorption, possibly induced by bariatric surgery that can lead patients to experience significant nutritional deficits during the late postoperative period, especially of micronutrients, resulting in serious complications. The high occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies preoperatively detected in morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery, plus a malabsorptive procedure, may involve worse prognosis during the late postoperative period. Preoperative evaluation of nutritional parameters and food intake is recommended in conjunction with surgical interventions.
Frame-Peterson, Leigh A; Megill, Robin D; Carobrese, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Michael
Obesity, defined as a body mass index >30 kg/m 2 , is a growing worldwide epidemic currently effecting 1 in 10 adults, with rates as high as 40% in the United States. The only proven long-term treatment of severe obesity on a population level is surgical modification of the gastrointestinal anatomy to induce weight loss, termed bariatric surgery. With adequate physician guidance and appropriate candidate criteria, bariatric surgery is an option for effective long-term treatment of obesity and its related comorbidities. Complications of bariatric surgery can be seen in patients who are not compliant to the recommended lifestyle and dietary changes required following bariatric surgery, including nausea, vomiting, dumping syndrome, acid reflux, and nutrition deficiencies. Despite caloric density, the diet of patients prior to bariatric surgery is often of poor nutrition quality and does not meet recommended dietary guidelines for micronutrient intake, making this an at-risk population for micronutrient malnutrition. Currently, improvements are needed in standardization of nutrition assessment as well as micronutrient cutoffs for deficiency and insufficiency. In the meantime, utilizing our current tools to conduct nutrition assessment at baseline and implement supplementation where necessary may improve the nutrition status of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, both before and after surgery, which may improve their surgical outcomes.
Penna, Marta; Markar, Sheraz; Hewes, James; Fiennes, Alberic; Jones, Niall; Hashemi, Majid
Opinions of healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom regarding bariatric surgery in adolescents are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the perspectives of medical professionals regarding adolescent bariatric surgery. Members of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society and groups of primary care practitioners based in London were contacted by electronic mail and invited to complete an anonymous online survey consisting of 21 questions. Ninety-four out of 324 questionnaires were completed. 66% of professionals felt that adolescents with a body mass index (BMI) >40 or BMI >35 with significant co-morbidities can be offered surgery. Amongst pre-requisites, parental psychological counseling was chosen most frequently. 58% stated 12 months as an appropriate period for weight management programs, with 24% regarding 6 months as sufficient. Most participants believed bariatric surgery should only be offered ≥16 years of age. However, 17% of bariatric surgeons marked no minimum age limit. Over 80% of the healthcare professionals surveyed consider bariatric surgery in adolescents to be acceptable practice. Most healthcare professionals surveyed feel that adolescent bariatric surgery is an acceptable therapeutic option for adolescent obesity. These views can guide towards a consensus opinion and further development of selection criteria and care pathways. PMID:24384777
Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H
Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is known about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adherence for adolescents who have undergone bariatric surgery. The study used a prospective, longitudinal observational design to assess subjective (self-reported) and objective (electronic monitors) multivitamin adherence in a cohort of 41 adolescents (Mean age = 17.1 ± 1.5; range = 13-19) who have undergone bariatric surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Mean adherence as derived from electronic monitoring for the entire 6-month study period was 29.8% ± 23.9. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher than electronically monitored adherence across both the 1 and 6-month assessment points (z = 4.5, P bariatric surgery, high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy were observed in adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery with forgetting and difficulty swallowing pills as reported barriers to adherence. These high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy should be considered when devising treatment and family education pathways for adolescents considering weight loss surgery. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Opinions of healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom regarding bariatric surgery in adolescents are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the perspectives of medical professionals regarding adolescent bariatric surgery. Members of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society and groups of primary care practitioners based in London were contacted by electronic mail and invited to complete an anonymous online survey consisting of 21 questions. Ninety-four out of 324 questionnaires were completed. 66% of professionals felt that adolescents with a body mass index (BMI >40 or BMI >35 with significant co-morbidities can be offered surgery. Amongst pre-requisites, parental psychological counseling was chosen most frequently. 58% stated 12 months as an appropriate period for weight management programs, with 24% regarding 6 months as sufficient. Most participants believed bariatric surgery should only be offered ≥16 years of age. However, 17% of bariatric surgeons marked no minimum age limit. Over 80% of the healthcare professionals surveyed consider bariatric surgery in adolescents to be acceptable practice. Most healthcare professionals surveyed feel that adolescent bariatric surgery is an acceptable therapeutic option for adolescent obesity. These views can guide towards a consensus opinion and further development of selection criteria and care pathways.
Penna, Marta; Markar, Sheraz; Hewes, James; Fiennes, Alberic; Jones, Niall; Hashemi, Majid
Opinions of healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom regarding bariatric surgery in adolescents are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the perspectives of medical professionals regarding adolescent bariatric surgery. Members of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society and groups of primary care practitioners based in London were contacted by electronic mail and invited to complete an anonymous online survey consisting of 21 questions. Ninety-four out of 324 questionnaires were completed. 66% of professionals felt that adolescents with a body mass index (BMI) >40 or BMI >35 with significant co-morbidities can be offered surgery. Amongst pre-requisites, parental psychological counseling was chosen most frequently. 58% stated 12 months as an appropriate period for weight management programs, with 24% regarding 6 months as sufficient. Most participants believed bariatric surgery should only be offered ≥ 16 years of age. However, 17% of bariatric surgeons marked no minimum age limit. Over 80% of the healthcare professionals surveyed consider bariatric surgery in adolescents to be acceptable practice. Most healthcare professionals surveyed feel that adolescent bariatric surgery is an acceptable therapeutic option for adolescent obesity. These views can guide towards a consensus opinion and further development of selection criteria and care pathways.
Schweiger, Chaya; Weiss, Ram; Berry, Elliot; Keidar, Andrei
To assess the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies amongst people who suffer from morbid obesity and are candidates for bariatric surgery and to evaluate the relations between pre-operative nutritional deficiencies and demographic data and co-morbidities. Preoperative blood tests of 114 patients (83 women and 31 men) were collected. The blood tests included plasma chemistry (including albumin, total protein, iron, ferritin, vitamin B12, folic acid, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and phosphorous) and a blood count (for hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)). Demographic and socio-economic details were collected from all patients. Mean age, weight, and BMI of the patients were 38 years (15-77), 122.9 kg (87-250), and 44.3 kg/m(2) (35.3-74.9), respectively. The prevalence of pre-operative nutritional deficiencies were: 35% for iron, 24% for folic acid, 24% for ferritin, 3.6% for vitamin B12, 2% for phosphorous, and 0.9% for calcium, Hb and MCV level was low in 19%. High levels of PTH were found among 39% of the patients. No hypoalbuminemia was encountered. Low iron was more common in females relative to men (40.8 vs.14.3%, p = 0.04) as well as ferritin levels (31.8 vs. 0%, p = 0.001). Men showed a greater prevalence of anemia (35.5% and 12% respectively, p = 0.01) relative to women. Patients with BMI > 50 kg/m(2) were at greater risk for low folic acid (OR = 14.57, 95% CI:1.4-151.34). Patients with high income were less likely to have iron deficiency (OR = 0.19, 95% CI:0.038-0.971). A high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies was found amongst bariatric surgery candidates suffering from morbid obesity.
Svane, Maria Saur; Madsbad, Sten
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the three most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Obesity responds well to bariatric surgery, with major long-lasting weight loss that is most pronounced...... hormone responses, especially a 10-fold increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which improves insulin secretion. After gastric banding, the remission of diabetes depends more on weight loss. Bariatric surgery reduces cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, lipid disturbances, non......-alcoholic fatty liver, musculoskeletal pain and reduces mortality of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Bariatric surgery also improves quality of life. The acute complications of surgery are infection, bleeding and anastomotic leak. Long-term complications are nutritional deficiencies, including...
Susan E. Williams
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery has proven to be a life-saving measure for some, but for others it has precipitated a plethora of metabolic complications ranging from mild to life-threatening, sometimes to the point of requiring surgical revision. Obesity was previously thought to be bone protective, but this is indeed not the case. Morbidly obese individuals are at risk for metabolic bone disease (MBD due to chronic vitamin D deficiency, inadequate calcium intake, sedentary lifestyle, chronic dieting, underlying chronic diseases, and the use of certain medications used to treat those diseases. After bariatric surgery, the risk for bone-related problems is even greater, owing to severely restricted intake, malabsorption, poor compliance with prescribed supplements, and dramatic weight loss. Patients presenting for bariatric surgery should be evaluated for MBD and receive appropriate presurgical interventions. Furthermore, every patient who has undergone bariatric surgery should receive meticulous lifetime monitoring, as the risk for developing MBD remains ever present.
Brynskov, Troels; Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Svenningsen, Annette Lykke
BACKGROUND: To investigate the need for closer perioperative monitoring of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS: Prospective observational clinical study of 56 patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery. The patients were...... examined with 7-field fundus images and optical coherence tomography scans 2 weeks before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery. Worsening was defined as a two-step change in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy scale or appearance or worsening of macular edema...... preoperatively where HbA1c was 6.4 ± 1.9 %. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic retinopathy was clinically stable after bariatric surgery, and none of the observed changes would have resulted in a changed screening interval at our center. This supports adherence to regular diabetic retinopathy screening guidelines following...
Hernández-Gil de Lamadrid, José; Nieves-Rivera, Juan J; Mora, Laura; Corretjer, Lisa; Altieri, Pablo I; Suárez, Albert; Banchs, Héctor L; Muñiz, Jesús; Soto, Marie Ivelisse; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María
The objective was to describe the metabolic outcomes 12 months after bariatric surgery (Roux-N-Y) in morbidly obese Hispanic patients, and evaluate the correlation between weight loss and the observed changes. Medical records from a hundred-and-two Hispanic obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were identified at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Hospital. The following variables were obtained before and 12 months after surgery: Body Mass Index (BMI), body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and fasting blood sugar (FBS). Ninety-seven percent of patients underwent Roux-N-Y surgery; 79.4% were females and 44% were diabetics. We observed statistically significant reductions (p N-Y significantly improves the lipid profile and FBS levels in obese Hispanic patients. The poor correlation factor between weight loss and these variables suggests that other mechanisms, independent from weight loss, are responsible for these changes.
Kubik, Jeremy F.; Gill, Richdeep S.; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer
Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental ...
Svane, Maria Saur; Madsbad, Sten
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the three most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Obesity responds well to bariatric surgery, with major long-lasting weight loss that is most pronounced...... vitamins and minerals, and anemia. Some patients have dumping after meals, and a few patients will develop postprandial hypoglycemia after RYGB. About 25% of patients require plastic surgery to provide relief from excessive skin tissue....
Koball, Afton M; Jester, Dylan J; Domoff, Sarah E; Kallies, Kara J; Grothe, Karen B; Kothari, Shanu N
Support following bariatric surgery is vital to ensure long-term postoperative success. Many individuals undergoing bariatric surgery are turning to online modalities, especially the popular social media platform Facebook, to access support groups and pages. Despite evidence suggesting that the majority of patients considering bariatric surgery are utilizing online groups, little is known about the actual content of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a content analysis of bariatric surgery support groups and pages on Facebook. Online via Facebook, independent academic medical center, United States. Data from bariatric surgery-related Facebook support groups and pages were extracted over a 1-month period in 2016. Salient content themes (e.g., progress posts, depression content, eating behaviors) were coded reliably (all κ> .70). More than 6,800 posts and replies were coded. Results indicated that seeking recommendations (11%), providing information or recommendations (53%), commenting on changes since surgery (19%), and lending support to other members (32%) were the most common types of posts. Content surrounding anxiety, eating behaviors, depression, body image, weight bias, and alcohol was found less frequently. Online bariatric surgery groups can be used to receive support, celebrate physical and emotional accomplishments, provide anecdotal accounts of the "bariatric lifestyle" for preoperative patients, and comment on challenges with mental health and experiences of weight bias. Providers should become acquainted with the content commonly found in online groups and exercise caution in recommending these platforms to information-seeking patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frichtel, Christina M
Bariatric surgery is on the rise as treatment for the increasing number of obese patients in the US population. As this procedure becomes more common, primary care physicians are assuming increased responsibility not only for preoperative selection and education of bariatric surgery candidates but also for their postoperative care and monitoring—two factors necessary for a successful surgical outcome. This article highlights some issues relevant for primary care physicians and reports an illu...
Isabel Brandão; Ana Luísa Fernandes; Eva Osório; Maria da Conceição Calhau; Rui Coelho
Abstract Background Bariatric surgery is the only procedure that has significant results in weight loss and improvements in medical comorbidities in morbid obese patients. Severely obese patients are also associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and poor quality of life. Objective To evaluate specific areas of psychopathology in individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A review of the literature was conducted from January 2002 to March 2014 by researching PubMe...
Jumbe, S.; Hamlet, C.; Meyrick, J.
Little is known about the psychological effects on life after bariatric surgery despite the high prevalence of psychological disorders in candidates seeking this procedure. Our review discusses the psychological impact of bariatric surgery, exploring whether the procedure addresses underlying psychological conditions that can lead to morbid obesity and the effect on eating behaviour postoperatively.\\ud \\ud Findings show that despite undisputed significant weight loss and improvements in comor...
Mancini, Marcio C.
Obesity is a major public health problem, is associated with increased rates of mortality risk and of developing several comorbidities, and lessens life expectancy. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbidly obese patients, reducing risk of developing new comorbidities, health care utilization and mortality. The establishment of centers of excellence with interdisciplinary staff in bariatric surgery has been reducing operative mortality in the course of time, improving sur...
Miller-Matero, Lisa R; Bryce, Kelly; Saulino, Caroline K; Dykhuis, Kate E; Genaw, Jeffrey; Carlin, Arthur M
There are no clear psychosocial predictors of weight loss following bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preoperative problematic eating behaviors predict weight loss outcomes following bariatric surgery. Clinical records were utilized to examine outcomes of 101 patients who completed a pre-surgical psychosocial evaluation and underwent gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy. Information analyzed included binge eating history and scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yale Food Addiction Scale, and Emotional Eating Scale. Measures of weight loss 1 year post-surgery were compared to pre-surgical assessments. One-year follow-up data were available for 60 patients. Patients with higher levels of eating in response to anger/frustration (p = .02), anxiety (p = .01), or depression (p = .05) were more likely to miss the 1-year follow-up appointment. Eating in response to anger/frustration and depression were related to poorer weight loss outcomes. There was a trend for binge eating to predict greater %EWL (p = .06). A higher number of food addiction symptoms increased the likelihood that patients would experience less weight loss (p = .01). Psychiatric symptoms were not related to weight loss outcomes. Patients who endorsed higher levels of pre-surgical emotional eating and food addiction symptoms had poorer weight loss 1 year post-surgery. Providers should consider screening patients for these behaviors during the pre-surgical psychosocial evaluation which would allow opportunities for psychotherapy and potential improvement in weight loss outcomes. Future research should examine which interventions are successful at improving problematic eating behaviors.
Van Hout, Gerbrand C M; Leibbrandt, Anke J; Jakimowicz, Jack J; Smulders, J Frans; Schoon, Erik J; Van Spreeuwel, Jan P; Van Heck, Guus L
Obesity is a chronic, multifactorially caused disease with serious somatic and psychosocial comorbidity as well as economical consequences. In the Netherlands, between 1993 and 1997, the prevalence of morbid obesity was 0.2% for men and 0.6% for women. Although bariatric surgery generally is an effective intervention, it does not lead to equal results in every patient. The long-term efficacy is predominantly determined by compliance to adequate dietary rules in which psychosocial factors can play a major role. Questionnaires were sent to the surgery departments of all hospitals in the Netherlands. Subsequently, a second questionnaire was sent to clinical psychology departments of hospitals which perform bariatric surgery. In 28 Dutch hospitals (19%), bariatric surgery is being performed, mostly using restrictive procedures. Almost all hospitals have a multidisciplinary selection-process, and all surgeons and psychologists use multiple selection-criteria. Regarding these criteria, there is more consensus between surgeons than between psychologists. In most hospitals, patients are psychologically assessed prior to surgery. However, postoperative assessment is relatively rare, as is preoperative and postoperative psychological treatment. In the Netherlands, bariatric surgery is still relatively uncommon and mostly limited to restrictive procedures. Irrespective of BMI and eating behavior, the majority of patients will be offered a restrictive procedure. The involvement by the psychological and/or psychiatric discipline is not optimal yet; especially, postoperative assessment and pre- and postoperative treatment are not frequently performed, in spite of the fact that these programs can enhance the success rate of bariatric surgery.
Lupoli, Roberta; Lembo, Erminia; Saldalamacchia, Gennaro; Avola, Claudia Kesia; Angrisani, Luigi; Capaldo, Brunella
Bariatric surgery is recognized as a highly effective therapy for obesity since it accomplishes sustained weight loss, reduction of obesity-related comorbidities and mortality, and improvement of quality of life. Overall, bariatric surgery is associated with a 42% reduction of the cardiovascular risk and 30% reduction of all-cause mortality. This review focuses on some nutritional consequences that can occur in bariatric patients that could potentially hinder the clinical benefits of this therapeutic option. All bariatric procedures, to variable degrees, alter the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract; this alteration makes these patients more susceptible to developing nutritional complications, namely, deficiencies of macro- and micro-nutrients, which could lead to disabling diseases such as anemia, osteoporosis, protein malnutrition. Of note is the evidence that most obese patients present a number of nutritional deficits already prior to surgery, the most important being vitamin D and iron deficiencies. This finding prompts the need for a complete nutritional assessment and, eventually, an adequate correction of pre-existing deficits before surgery. Another critical issue that follows bariatric surgery is post-operative weight regain, which is commonly associated with the relapse of obesity-related co-morbidities. Nu-tritional complications associated with bariatric surgery can be prevented by life-long nutritional monitoring with the administration of multi-vitamins and mineral supplements according to the patient's needs.
Lupoli, Roberta; Lembo, Erminia; Saldalamacchia, Gennaro; Avola, Claudia Kesia; Angrisani, Luigi; Capaldo, Brunella
Bariatric surgery is recognized as a highly effective therapy for obesity since it accomplishes sustained weight loss, reduction of obesity-related comorbidities and mortality, and improvement of quality of life. Overall, bariatric surgery is associated with a 42% reduction of the cardiovascular risk and 30% reduction of all-cause mortality. This review focuses on some nutritional consequences that can occur in bariatric patients that could potentially hinder the clinical benefits of this therapeutic option. All bariatric procedures, to variable degrees, alter the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract; this alteration makes these patients more susceptible to developing nutritional complications, namely, deficiencies of macro- and micro-nutrients, which could lead to disabling diseases such as anemia, osteoporosis, protein malnutrition. Of note is the evidence that most obese patients present a number of nutritional deficits already prior to surgery, the most important being vitamin D and iron deficiencies. This finding prompts the need for a complete nutritional assessment and, eventually, an adequate correction of pre-existing deficits before surgery. Another critical issue that follows bariatric surgery is post-operative weight regain, which is commonly associated with the relapse of obesity-related co-morbidities. Nu-tritional complications associated with bariatric surgery can be prevented by life-long nutritional monitoring with the administration of multi-vitamins and mineral supplements according to the patient’s needs. PMID:29204255
Williamson, J M L; Rink, J A; Hewin, D H
Bariatric and metabolic surgery is a recent introduction into mainstream surgical practice. It has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the health of an individual and a positive economic impact for society. Nonetheless, bariatric surgery faces a problem of perception from both the public and healthcare commissioners. The media functions as an interface between the medical community, government and the public. It therefore plays a critical role in shaping public opinion regarding health issues. Articles relating to bariatric surgery in the ten most frequently read UK daily newspapers were assessed over a 24-month period (January 2010-December 2011). Each article was rated via a five-point scale from very negative (1) to very positive (5) by two independent assessors to produce an average score. A total of 197 relevant articles were identified and analysed for content. Sixty-four (33 %) of all articles were negatively slanted (mean score 1-2.5), 105 (53 %) were positive (mean score 3.5-5) and 28 (14 %) were neutral (mean score 2.5-3.5). The average score of all articles was 3.3 (neutral, but slightly positive). The print media will influence public perceptions of bariatric surgery. There is huge variation in how bariatric surgery is reported, but overall the coverage is neutral. We feel that negative reportage distorts the overall awareness of bariatric surgery and may affect both how and when the obese seek medical intervention.
Nielsen, Alexander W; Helm, Melissa C; Kindel, Tammy; Higgins, Rana; Lak, Kathleen; Helmen, Zachary M; Gould, Jon C
Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after bariatric surgery. Perioperative chemoprophylaxis is used routinely with bariatric surgery to decrease the risk of VTE. When bleeding occurs, routine chemoprophylaxis is often withheld due to concerns about inciting another bleeding event. We sought to evaluate the relationship between perioperative bleeding and postoperative VTE in bariatric surgery. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset between 2012 and 2014 was queried to identify patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Gastric bypass (n = 28,145), sleeve gastrectomy (n = 30,080), bariatric revision (n = 324), and biliopancreatic diversion procedures (n = 492) were included. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to determine perioperative factors predictive of postoperative VTE within 30 days in patients who experience a bleeding complication necessitating transfusion. The rate of bleeding necessitating transfusion was 1.3%. Bleeding was significantly more likely to occur in gastric bypass compared to sleeve gastrectomy (1.6 vs. 1.0%) (p surgeries, increased age, length of stay, operative time, and comorbidities including hypertension, dyspnea with moderate exertion, partially dependent functional status, bleeding disorder, transfusion prior to surgery, ASA class III/IV, and metabolic syndrome increased the perioperative bleeding risk (p Bariatric surgery patients who receive postoperative blood transfusion are at a significantly increased risk for VTE. The etiology of VTE in those who are transfused is likely multifactorial and possibly related to withholding chemoprophylaxis and the potential of a hypercoagulable state induced by the transfusion. In those who bleed, consideration should be given to reinitiating chemoprophylaxis when safe, extending treatment after discharge, and screening ultrasound.
Hassan, Sobia; Hassan, Chandra
A staggering 76 million adults are obese in the United States. It is known that obesity contributes to increased incidence and worse disease outcomes in many rheumatic conditions. Bariatric surgery has emerged as the most effective treatment modality for the morbidly obese, leading to substantial and sustained weight loss. The purpose of this review article is to summarize the findings of studies investigating the effect of substantial weight loss achieved through bariatric surgery on rheumatic disease and outcomes. Second, with an increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, it is important for the rheumatologist to have a basic understanding of the commonly performed bariatric procedures and to be aware of important nutritional deficiencies and medication restrictions that apply to this patient population.
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery (surgery for obesity is, in many cases, the last resort for the clinically overweight. Drawing on ethnographic materials in a unit of morbid obesity, this article explores how "bariatric bodies" are configured so that bariatric surgery is a sustainable solution beyond the operation theatre. However, what medicine calls ?side-effects?, are, in terms of body configuration, a new set of semiotic-material relationships which start, but do not end, in the operating theatre. The bariatric digestive system might not necessarily fit with the set of relations with which it has to deal on leaving the hospital: the person will have to cope with eating very little, and with being able to ingest only a very limited amount of nutrients.
Jumbe, Sandra; Hamlet, Claire; Meyrick, Jane
Little is known about the psychological effects on life after bariatric surgery despite the high prevalence of psychological disorders in candidates seeking this procedure. Our review discusses the literature around the psychological impact of bariatric surgery, exploring whether the procedure addresses underlying psychological conditions that can lead to morbid obesity and the effect on eating behaviour postoperatively. Findings show that despite undisputed significant weight loss and improvements in comorbidities, current literature suggests some persisting disorder in psychological outcomes like depression and body image for patients at longer term follow-up, compared to control groups. Lack of postoperative psychological monitoring and theoretical mapping limits our understanding of reasons behind these findings. Reframing bariatric approaches to morbid obesity to incorporate psychological experience postoperatively would facilitate understanding of psychological aspects of bariatric surgery and how this surgical treatment maps onto the disease trajectory of obesity.
Yan, Jingliang; Cohen, Ricardo; Aminian, Ali
Primary bariatric surgery has been proven to be effective in weight loss and improvement of weight-related metabolic co-morbidities. However, a small proportion of patients after bariatric surgery either have persistent hyperglycemia or relapse after initial remission of their metabolic disease. Revisional bariatric surgery has been evaluated extensively for weight recidivism and postoperative complications. However, there has not been any high-level evidence validating the utility of revisional bariatric surgery on recurrent metabolic diseases, especially diabetes. In this review of 30 studies, we aimed to summarize the evidence and determine whether revisional surgery can have a positive impact on metabolic diseases that were not reversed by initial bariatric intervention. Overall, 14-38% of patients had residual diabetes at the time of revisional surgery. Depending on the index surgery and subsequent reconstruction, revisions induced 20-80% additional excess weight loss, or further decrease of body mass index by 10-30%. Improvement of diabetes was seen in 65-100% of patients. Specifically, conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) yielded improvement of diabetes in 79%, 72%, and 62% of patients who previously had vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), or sleeve gastrectomy (SG), respectively. Converting AGB to SG improved diabetes in 65% of patients, and SG to duodenal switch improved diabetes in 79% of patients. Revision of the gastric pouch or stoma in RYGB yielded improvement of diabetes in 79% of patients. Further clinical and mechanistic research is needed to better delineate the role of revisional bariatric surgery in patients with residual metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steenackers, Nele; Van der Schueren, Bart; Mertens, Ann; Lannoo, Matthias; Grauwet, Tara; Augustijns, Patrick; Matthys, Christophe
The growing prevalence of obesity explains the rising interest in bariatric surgery. Compared with non-surgical treatment options, bariatric surgery results in greater and sustained improvements in weight loss, obesity associated complications, all-cause mortality and quality of life. These encouraging metabolic and weight effects come with a downside, namely the risk of nutritional deficiencies. Particularly striking is the risk to develop iron deficiency. Postoperatively, the prevalence of iron deficiency varies between 18 and 53 % after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and between 1 and 54 % after sleeve gastrectomy. Therefore, preventive strategies and effective treatment options for iron deficiency are crucial to successfully manage the iron status of patients after bariatric surgery. With this review, we discuss the risks and the contributing factors of developing iron deficiency after bariatric surgery. Furthermore, we highlight the discrepancy in the diagnosis of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia and highlight the evidence supporting the current nutritional recommendations in the field of bariatric research. In conclusion, we advocate for more nutrition-related research in patient populations in order to provide strong evidence-based guidelines after bariatric surgery.
Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R
Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented.
Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R
Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771
Messiah, Sarah E; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L; Reichard, Kirk W; Michalsky, Marc P; Lipshultz, Steven E; Miller, Tracie L; Livingstone, Alan S; de la Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor
Bariatric surgery is 1 of the few effective treatments of morbid obesity. However, the weight loss and other health-related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations have not been well characterized. Our objective was to analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. The BOLD data are collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. The main outcome measures included the anthropometric and co-morbidity status at baseline (n = 890) and at 3 (n = 786), 6 (n = 541), and 12 (n = 259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) aged 11 to 19 years were included in the present analyses. The overall 1-year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 versus 20 kg, P surgery types (P surgery. A total of 45 readmissions occurred among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients, with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. The weight loss at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related co-morbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for ≥1 year. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ciangura, Cécile; Nocca, David; Lindecker, Valérie
Bariatric surgery is intended for subjects with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) or ≥ 35 kg/m(2) with comorbidities. In any case, the indication can only be envisaged in patients who have had access to specialized medical care, and agree with a prolonged medical follow-up. After 60 years old, physiological age and comorbidities need to be highly considered. In genetic obesity and craniopharyngioma, surgery is exceptional. Main contraindications consist in severe disorders in feeding behaviour, non-stabilized psychiatric disorders, alcoholism, drug addiction, inability to participate in prolonged medical follow-up. Surgical process includes many important stages: preparation and information by a multidisciplinary team (identify contraindication, give optimal information, look for and treat comorbidities [as sleep apneoas syndrome, diabetes, cardiopulmonary disease], assess nutritional and psychological status and feeding behaviour); the decision of intervention during a concerted analysis by a multidisciplinary team; follow-up (for life) led to screen for nutritional deficiencies and surgical complications, to reinforce diet and physical activity counselling, to adapt to new situations (as pregnancy), and advise psychological care if necessary. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
In the UK, 62% of the population are now described as being either overweight or obese. People with weight-management issues are more likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as having an increased risk of cancer, including bowel cancer. Following the initial National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance in 2006, revised in 2014, health professionals have a more proactive role in identifying people with weight-management issues and supporting them to achieve a weight that helps reduce their health risks. This includes referrals to bariatric surgeons for consideration for surgery if appropriate. One particular surgical procedure, the Roux-en-Y, is not reversible and alters the capacity of the stomach and function of the small bowel in order to achieve weight loss. Using a case study, this article will highlight the role of the stoma nurse in managing a patient, who previously had a Roux-en-Y procedure for weight loss and subsequently needed formation of a loop ileostomy after surgery for bowel cancer.
Sermondade, Nathalie; Massin, Nathalie; Boitrelle, Florence; Pfeffer, Jérôme; Eustache, Florence; Sifer, Christophe; Czernichow, Sébastien; Lévy, Rachel
Recent studies have underlined the impact of obesity on sperm parameters, but very few data are available on the effect of weight loss on male fertility. This article reports the case series of three male patients who underwent rapid and major weight loss following bariatric surgery and the consequences of this surgery on semen parameters and fertility. A severe worsening of semen parameters was observed during the months after bariatric surgery, including extreme oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, but azoospermia was not observed. This effect may hypothetically be the result of two opposite mechanisms: (i) the suppression of the deleterious effects of obesity; and (ii) the negative impact of both nutritional deficiencies and the release of toxic substances. Information about potential reproductive consequences of bariatric surgery should be given to patients and sperm cryopreservation before surgery proposed. However, for one case, the alterations of spermatogenesis were reversible 2 years after the surgical procedure. Finally, intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh spermatozoa after male bariatric surgery can be successful, as demonstrated here, where clinical pregnancies were obtained for two out of the three couples. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2 or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2. In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The
Austin, Heather; Smith, Kevin C; Ward, Wendy L
Rates of obesity in adolescents continue to rise, and available lifestyle and pharmacological interventions have had limited success in reducing excess weight and risk for comorbid health issues. However, ongoing health risks, psychosocial issues, and increased risk of mortality place these adolescents in jeopardy and warrant ongoing investigation for available treatments. Bariatric surgery for adults has had positive medical and psychological outcomes. However, bariatric surgery is a relatively new option for adolescents. Initial findings suggest positive results for excess weight loss and psychosocial improvements, but not without possible risks. Selection of appropriate candidates is essential in the process, specifically considering developmental maturity, family support, and resultant disease burden without surgery. Surgery is not a panacea for the obesity epidemic. Outcome studies are limited and long-term results are unknown, but for extremely obese adolescents, bariatric surgery is promising and should be considered a viable option for appropriate adolescent candidates.
Bland, Christopher M; Quidley, April Miller; Love, Bryan L; Yeager, Catherine; McMichael, Bliss; Bookstaver, P Brandon
Pharmacists' role in optimizing long-term pharmacotherapy for bariatric surgery patients is detailed. Bariatric surgery patients provide a difficult challenge in terms of many pharmacotherapy issues, especially in the chronic care setting, where data on long-term effects of bariatric surgery are limited. The most common procedures are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding, and sleeve gastrectomy. Sleeve gastrectomy has become the most common procedure in the United States, primarily because it has less overall chronic malabsorption effects than RYGB. Pharmacotherapy management is complicated by rapid weight loss combined with a number of pharmacokinetic changes, such as decreased absorption of some medications due to altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy and potentially increased concentrations of some medications due to a decreased volume of distribution resulting from weight loss. Nutritional and metabolic supplementation are of the utmost importance in order to limit deficiencies that can lead to a number of conditions. Many chronic diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and urinary incontinence, are improved by bariatric surgery but require close monitoring to ensure the effectiveness of maintenance pharmacotherapy and avoidance of adverse effects. Psychotropic medication management is also an important pharmacotherapy concern, as evidenced by antidepressants being the most commonly used medication class among preoperative bariatric surgery patients. Pharmacists have an increasing role in the chronic management of the bariatric surgery patient due to their knowledge of medication dosage forms and expertise in disease states affected by bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehaffey, J Hunter; Charles, Eric J; Kron, Irving L; Schirmer, Bruce; Hallowell, Peter T
Bariatric surgery leads to dramatic weight loss and improved overall health, which may affect insurance status for certain patients. Traditional Medicaid provides coverage for children, pregnant women, and disabled adults, while expanded Medicaid provides insurance coverage to all adults with incomes up to 138% of the federal poverty level. We hypothesized that successful bariatric surgery would lead to improved health status but an unintended loss of Medicaid coverage. All patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single institution in a non-expansion state from 1985 through 2015 were identified using a prospectively collected database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify differences in patients who lost Medicaid coverage after bariatric surgery. Over the 30-year study period, 3487 patients underwent bariatric surgery, with 373 (10.7%) having Medicaid coverage at the time of surgery. This cohort of patients had a median age of 37 years and a preoperative Body Mass Index (BMI) of 54 kg/m 2 . At one-year follow-up, 155 (41.6%) patients lost Medicaid coverage, of which 76 (49.0%) had no coverage. The preoperative prevalence of diabetes (32.3 vs. 44.0%, p = 0.02), age (36 vs. 38 years, p = 0.01), and BMI (53 vs. 55 kg/m 2 , p = 0.04) were significantly lower in patients who no longer qualified for Medicaid after bariatric surgery. Multivariate regression demonstrated that for every 10 point increase in BMI (OR 0.755, p = 0.01), a patient was 25% less likely to lose their coverage at one year. Successful surgery in a state not expanding Medicaid resulted in over 40% of patients losing Medicaid coverage postoperatively, with half of those patients returning for follow-up with no insurance coverage at all. This barrier to care has major implications in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, which requires life-long follow-up and nutrition screening.
Silecchia, Gianfranco; Iossa, Angelo
With over 600 million people being obese, and given the scientific demonstration of the advantages of surgical treatment, bariatric surgery is on the rise. The promising long-term results in terms of weight loss, and particularly in relation to comorbidities and the control/cure rate, mean that the number of procedures performed in all countries remains high. However, the risk of potentially complex or fatal complications, though small, is present and is related to the procedures per se . This review is a guide for bariatric and/or general surgeons, offering a complete overview of the pathogenesis of anastomosis and staple line following the most common laparoscopic bariatric procedures: sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass, and mini-gastric bypass. The review is divided according to the procedure and the complications (leak, bleeding and stenosis), and evaluates all the factors that can potentially improve or worsen the complication rate, representing a "unicum" in the present literature on bariatric surgery.
Silecchia, Gianfranco; Iossa, Angelo
With over 600 million people being obese, and given the scientific demonstration of the advantages of surgical treatment, bariatric surgery is on the rise. The promising long-term results in terms of weight loss, and particularly in relation to comorbidities and the control/cure rate, mean that the number of procedures performed in all countries remains high. However, the risk of potentially complex or fatal complications, though small, is present and is related to the procedures per se. This review is a guide for bariatric and/or general surgeons, offering a complete overview of the pathogenesis of anastomosis and staple line following the most common laparoscopic bariatric procedures: sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass, and mini-gastric bypass. The review is divided according to the procedure and the complications (leak, bleeding and stenosis), and evaluates all the factors that can potentially improve or worsen the complication rate, representing a “unicum” in the present literature on bariatric surgery. PMID:29333067
Dimitrios K Papamargaritis
Full Text Available Dimitrios K Papamargaritis, Dimitrios J Pournaras, Carel W Le RouxImperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Obesity is an epidemic disease, and its prevalence is predicted to rise in the future. Many health and social comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, arthritis, infertility, eating disorders, unemployment, and low quality of life, have been associated with obesity. Nowadays, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for severe obesity. An increasing body of literature demonstrates significant remission of obesity-related comorbidities and an increase in life expectancy after surgical treatment. Unfortunately, serious complications can appear after surgery, and the careful preoperative assessment of patients is necessary to estimate the indications and contraindications of bariatric surgery. Recent studies report the lower complication and mortality rates when bariatric procedures are performed in high-volume centers. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques of the currently used surgical procedures and the clinical effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Additionally, the possible complications and mortality rates after bariatric surgery are discussed.Keywords: obesity, surgery, assessment, clinical effectiveness, complications
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bariatric surgery is the only procedure that has significant results in weight loss and improvements in medical comorbidities in morbid obese patients. Severely obese patients are also associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and poor quality of life. Objective To evaluate specific areas of psychopathology in individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A review of the literature was conducted from January 2002 to March 2014 by researching PubMed database using the following query: “morbid AND obesity AND bariatric AND surgery AND (psychiatry OR psychology”. Results Overall improvements in eating behaviors, mood disorders and body image are reported after bariatric surgery, and the mechanism is not enlightened. Risk of suicide and consumption of substances of abuse, especially alcohol, after gastric bypass surgery are problems that clinicians must be aware. Discussion Bariatric patients should be monitored after surgery to identify who did not show the expected benefits postoperatively and the ones who develop psychiatric symptoms after an initial positive response.
McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Desai, Nirav K
This update explores the current management options for adolescent obesity with a specific focus on bariatric surgery. Research has highlighted the serious health complications associated with adolescent obesity and thus emphasized the need for effective interventions. With the increasing severity of obesity seen in younger populations, coupled with the modest effects of most behavioral and even pharmacologic interventions, there has been increased interest in, and attention on, bariatric surgery in younger populations. Recent adult-focused guidelines regarding the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient outline the importance of careful patient selection, in addition to close monitoring, with a particular focus on preventing nutritional deficiencies. Several recent publications have focused on issues specific to bariatric surgery in the adolescent patient including the relationship between a patient's physical and emotional maturity and timing of surgery. Adolescent obesity is prevalent with increasing severity and long-term health implications. To date nonsurgical interventions have had modest effects. Bariatric surgery is becoming more common and has been shown to be well tolerated and effective in adolescents, but requires careful preoperative screening and postoperative monitoring.
Shantavasinkul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai; Omotosho, Philip; Corsino, Leonor; Portenier, Dana; Torquati, Alfonso
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a highly effective treatment for obesity and results in long-term weight loss and resolution of co-morbidities. However, weight regain may occur as soon as 1-2 years after surgery. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of weight regain and possible preoperative predictors of this phenomenon after RYGB. An academic medical center in the United States. A total of 1426 obese patients (15.8% male) who underwent RYGB during January 2000 to 2012 and had at least a 2-year follow-up were reviewed. We included only patients who were initially successful, having achieved at least 50% excess weight loss at 1 year postoperatively. Patients were then categorized into either the weight regain group (WR) or sustained weight loss (SWL) group based upon whether they gained≥15% of their 1-year postoperative weight. Weight regain was observed in 244 patients (17.1%). Preoperative body mass index was similar between groups. Body mass index was significantly higher and percent excess weight loss was significantly lower in the WR group (Pweight regain was 19.5±9.3 kg and-.8±8.5 in the WR and SWL groups, respectively (Pweight loss. Moreover, a longer duration after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The present study confirmed that a longer interval after RYGB was associated with weight regain. Younger age was a significant predictor of weight regain even after adjusting for time since RYGB. The findings of this study underscore the complexity of the mechanisms underlying weight loss and regain after RYGB. Future prospective studies are needed to further explore the prevalence, predictors, and mechanisms of weight regain after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helm, Melissa C; Simon, Kathleen; Higgins, Rana; Kindel, Tammy L; Gould, Jon C
Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following surgery. This study explores the impact of a perioperative complication on the risk of VTE after bariatric surgery. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset (2012-2014). The 17 most common perioperative complications were analyzed by multivariate regression analysis to determine the effect of complications on the risk of VTE. The postoperative incidence of VTE was 0.5% (n = 59,424 bariatric surgeries). The average time to diagnosis of VTE was 11.6 days. 80% of VTE events occurred after discharge. A major complication occurred prior to VTE in 22.6% of patients. The more complications experienced by an individual patient, the more likely they were to experience VTE. Unadjusted thirty-day mortality increased 13.89-fold following VTE (p bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The plague of obesity afflicts an increasing group of people. Moreover type 2 diabetes, which is the most serious illness accompanying excessive weight, is becoming more and more common. Traditional methods of obesity treatment, such as diet and physical exercise, fail. This applies especially to people with class III obesity. The only successful way of treating obesity in their case is bariatric surgery. There are three types of bariatric surgery: restrictive procedures (reducing stomach volume, malabsorptive procedures, and mixed procedures, which combine both methods. In spite of the risk connected with the surgery and complications after it, bariatric procedures are advised to patients with class III obesity and class II with an accompanying illness which increases the probability of death. It has been proved that bariatric surgery not only eliminates obesity but also very frequently (in 90�0of cases leads to the remission of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the remission occurs very fast – it takes place a long time before the patients reduce their weight, even within a few days after surgery. Detailed studies have shown that the remission of diabetes is caused mostly by the change of the gastro-intestinal hormones’ profile, resulting from the surgery. These hormones include GLP-1, GIP, peptide YY, ghrelin and oxyntomodulin. Additionally, the change of the amount of adipose tissue after the surgery influences the level of adipokines, i.e. the hormones of the adipose tissue, among which the most important are leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Thus, bariatric surgery not only changes the shape of the gastrointestinal tract but it also modulates the hormonal activity. Bariatric surgery is considered as therapy not only for the obese but also for diabetic patients.
Pelizzo, Gloria; Calcaterra, Valeria; Fusillo, Mario; Nakib, Ghassan; Ierullo, Antonio Maria; Alfei, Alessandro; Spinillo, Arsenio; Stronati, Mauro; Cena, Hellas
Bariatric surgery results in decreased food intake and a variable degree of malabsorption. Without adequate supplementation, the most common complications of this surgery are nutritional disorders. Pregnancy following surgery for obesity is a particular condition requiring strict monitoring of nutrient intake necessary for fetal development and a favourable neonatal prognosis. Malnutrition in pregnancy and congenital neural malformations are reported in three women who had previously undergone bariatric surgery (1, 5 and 18 years before pregnancy, respectively). Two patients underwent the Roux en Y bypass and one bilio-pancreatic diversion with gastroplasty. None of the three received pre-conceptional nutritional counselling. Patients 1 and 2 did not undergo postoperative nutritional surveillance; nutrient supplementation was started at 22 and 20 weeks gestation, respectively. In patient 3, supplementation was stopped at six weeks gestation. Newborns 1 and 2 presented with dorsal myelomeningocele and ventricular dilation. Both underwent surgery and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted in the first month of life. Newborn 3 had microcephaly, bilateral microphthalmia and sensorineural deafness. Diet and nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, play an important role in the early processes of fetal development and neonatal outcome. Women of childbearing age who have had bariatric surgery, should be encouraged to follow a well-balanced diet as part of a weight management strategy. They should be advised to take recommended maternal supplements.
Merrell, Julie; Lavery, Megan; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie
Obesity has been associated with abnormalities in reproductive functioning and fertility in women. A number of potential mechanisms have been identified, including neuroendocrine functioning and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Associations between infertility, depression, and anxiety have been found in nonobese populations; however, the relationship between depression and infertility in women pursuing bariatric surgery has not been examined. This study sought to explore potential psychosocial correlates of infertility in a female bariatric population. Data were analyzed from female patients of childbearing age (n = 88; 70.5% Caucasian; mean age 36.2; mean education 14.3 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 47.9 kg/m(2)) psychologically evaluated for bariatric surgery. Participants were dichotomized as Infertility+(n = 43) or Infertility-(n = 45) based on a medical history self-report questionnaire. Medical records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, BMI, physical and/or sexual abuse history, psychiatric medication usage, outpatient behavioral health treatment, and psychiatric diagnoses. Women identified as Infertility+were more likely to have been diagnosed with a depressive disorder not otherwise specified or a major depressive disorder (χ(2) = 3.71, Pwomen. However, Infertility+women were less likely to be involved in outpatient behavioral health treatment (χ(2) = 5.65, PWomen struggling with infertility may be more psychiatrically vulnerable than other bariatric surgery candidates and less likely to have received mental health treatment. Additional research on the association between fertility, depression, behavioral health treatment, and obesity is warranted. Future research should consider whether this potential relationship changes after bariatric surgery. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.
Nimeri, Abdelrahman A; Bautista, Jejomar; Ibrahim, Maha; Philip, Ruby; Al Shaban, Talat; Maasher, Ahmed; Altinoz, Ajda
Bariatric surgery patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and chemoprophylaxis is recommended. Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) is an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) member since 2009. We report the rates of VTE in bariatric surgery patients from 2010 to 2016 compared to ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs before and after switching from heparin to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), initiating mandatory risk assessment using Caprini scoring for VTE and adopting an aggressive strategy for high-risk patients regarding dosage of LMWH and chemoprophylaxis after discharge. During the study period, there were 1152 cases (laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) 625 and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) 527) at Bariatric & Metabolic Institute (BMI) Abu Dhabi compared to 65,693 cases (LRYGB 32,130 and LSG 33,563) at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs. VTE rates remained stable at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs from 2010 to 2016 (0.45, 0.45, 0.45, 0.25, 0.35, 0.3, and 0.3%). In contrast, VTE rates at BMI Abu Dhabi decreased from 2.2% in 2011 to 0.35% after we adopted an aggressive strategy to VTE without an increase in bleeding complications. LRYGB patients with VTE had higher OR time, leak, collection, and mortality at ACS NSQIP hospitals compared to those at BMI Abu Dhabi. In contrast, rates were similar in LSG patients with VTE. Changing our approach to VTE management led our VTE rates to decrease and become like those of ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery patients in LSG and LRYGB.
Full Text Available With the rise in a number of bariatric procedures, surgeons are facing more complex and technically demanding surgical situations. Robotic digital platforms potentially provide a solution to better address these challenges. This review examines the published literature on the outcomes and complications of bariatric surgery using a robotic platform. Use of robotics to perform adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch and revisional bariatric procedures (RBP is assessed. A search on PubMed was performed for the most relevant articles in robotic bariatric surgery. A total of 23 articles was selected and reviewed in this article. The review showed that the use of robotics led to similar or lower complication rate in bariatric surgery when compared with laparoscopy. Two studies found a significantly lower leak rate for robotic gastric bypass when compared to laparoscopic method. The learning curve for RYGB seems to be shorter for robotic technique. Three studies revealed a significantly shorter operative time, while four studies found a longer operative time for robotic technique of gastric bypass. As for the outcomes of RBP, one study found a lower complication rate in robotic arm versus laparoscopic and open arms. Most authors stated that the use of robotics provides superior visualisation, more degrees of freedom and better ergonomics. The application of robotics in bariatric surgery seems to be a safe and feasible option. Use of robotics may provide specific advantages in some situations, and overcome limitations of laparoscopic surgery. Large and well-designed randomised clinical trials with long follow-up are needed to further define the role of digital platforms in bariatric surgery.
Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Peris, Pilar; Gifre, Laia; Guañabens, Nuria
Obesity is an ever-increasing disease in our environment, and a major risk factor for the development of other chronic diseases that increase morbidity and mortality. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity, since it not only allows a significant and sustained loss of weight, but also an important reduction of its co-morbidities. However, this treatment is not free of complications, since along with weight loss, frequent nutritional and metabolic deficiencies have been described. These complications are particularly frequent when mixed surgical procedures with a restrictive and malabsortive component such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion are performed. The nutritional deficiencies observed include, to a greater or lesser extent, malabsorption of fat and liposoluble vitamins, as well as other micronutrients such as calcium. As a result, disorders of bone mineral metabolism with skeletal manifestations that include bone mass reduction, increased bone turnover and defective bone mineralization may develop. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Goulart Fernandes
Obesity has become a new worldwide health problem with significant impact not only on cardiovascular diseases but also on many other related disorders, highlighting infertility. Obesity may adversely affect male reproduction by endocrinologic, thermal, genetic, and sexual mechanisms. There is good evidence that obesity can be associated with reduced sperm concentrations, but studies about sperm motility, morphology, and DNA fragmentation have been less numerous and more conflicting. Although weight loss is the cornerstone of the treatment of obesity-related infertility, with promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles, bariatric surgery impact on male fertility is still unclear and until now there is not enough data to support the informed consent in this scenario. Physicians are encouraged to highlight possible positive and/or negative impacts concerning male capacity of fertilization when informing patients. A balanced judgment and a personalized case-by-case management with patient involvement in decisions are fundamental in this setting and indication of cryopreservation of semen samples should be considered in selected circumstances. Well-structured trials controlled for confounders including female factors and based on solid outcomes (ie, birth rates) must urgently come up to clarify this emerging scenario.
Kominiarek, Michelle A.
The number of bariatric surgeries performed in the United States has risen exponentially. Given that the majority of patients are female and of reproductive age, it is important for clinicians who manage womenȉs health issues to be aware of the surgery, its long term goals, and the potential effect on future pregnancies. Most pregnancies after bariatric surgery have successful outcomes with decreased occurrences of gestational diabetes and hypertension and lower birth weight compared with controls. Adherence to nutritional guidelines and supplementation in the event of deficiencies are critical in the provision of prenatal care to this unique population. Other important issues include a multidisciplinary team management, a different approach to screening for gestational diabetes, careful evaluation of any gastrointestinal complaints, and appropriate counseling for gravidas who still remain obese during pregnancy. Further research should investigate the long-term maternal outcomes in pregnancies after bariatric surgery as well as the effect on the offspring. PMID:22108087
Kominiarek, Michelle A
The number of bariatric surgeries performed in the United States has increased exponentially. Given that most patients are female and of reproductive age, it is important for clinicians who manage women's health issues to be aware of the surgery, its long-term goals, and the potential effect on future pregnancies. Most pregnancies after bariatric surgery have successful outcomes with decreased occurrences of gestational diabetes and hypertension and lower birth weight compared with control patients. Following nutritional guidelines and supplementation in the event of deficiencies are critical in the provision of prenatal care to this unique population. Other important issues include a multidisciplinary team management, a different approach to screening for gestational diabetes, careful evaluation of any gastrointestinal complaints, and appropriate counseling for gravidas who still remain obese during pregnancy. Further research should investigate the long-term maternal outcomes in pregnancies after bariatric surgery as well as the effect on the offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlene Johnson Stoklossa
Full Text Available Achieving optimal weight outcomes for patients with obesity is important to the management of their chronic disease. All interventions present risks for weight regain. Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment, producing greater weight losses that are sustained over more time compared to lifestyle interventions. However, approximately 20–30% of patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes, and patients may experience a regain of 20–25% of their lost weight. This paper reviews several factors that influence weight regain after bariatric surgery, including type of surgery, food tolerance, energy requirements, drivers to eat, errors in estimating intake, adherence, food and beverage choices, and patient knowledge. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach can provide the best care for patients with weight regain. Nutrition care by a registered dietitian is recommended for all bariatric surgery patients. Nutrition diagnoses and interventions are discussed. Regular monitoring of weight status and early intervention may help prevent significant weight regain.
Harris, Amy A; Barger, Mary K
Growing numbers of women today will seek bariatric surgery before pregnancy. Protein-calorie malnutrition; hyperemesis; intestinal hernias; dumping syndrome; anemia; and deficiencies in calcium, folic acid, and vitamins B12, D, and K are all possible complications that can impact pregnancy. This article reviews the nutritional and pregnancy-related consequences of current surgical procedures and summarizes existing research showing positive and negative effects of weight-loss surgery on pregnancy outcomes. Practice-based clinical recommendations will help guide clinicians caring for the increasing number of women who become pregnant after having bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shimada, Yuichi J; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Camargo, Carlos A; Brown, David F M; Hasegawa, Kohei
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity are major health problems in the United States. However, little is known about whether bariatric surgery affects AF-related morbidities. This study investigated whether bariatric surgery is associated with short-term and long-term changes in the risk of emergency department (ED) visits or hospitalizations for AF. We performed a self-controlled case series study of obese adults with AF who underwent bariatric surgery by using population-based ED and inpatient databases in California, Florida, and Nebraska from 2005 to 2011. The primary outcome was ED visit or hospitalization for AF. We used conditional logistic regression to compare each patient's risk of the outcome event during sequential 12-month periods, using presurgery months 13 to 24 as a reference period. Our sample consisted of 523 obese adults with AF who underwent bariatric surgery. The median age was 57 years (interquartile range 48 to 64 years), 59% were female, and 84% were non-Hispanic white. During the reference period, 15.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.7% to 19.0%) of patients had an ED visit or hospitalization for AF. The risk remained similar in the subsequent 12-month presurgery period (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.29 [95% CI, 0.94 to 1.76] p = 0.11). In contrast, the risk significantly increased within 12 months after bariatric surgery (aOR 1.53 [95% CI 1.13 to 2.07] p = 0.006). The risk remained elevated during 13-24 months after bariatric surgery (aOR 1.41 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91] p = 0.03). In conclusion, this population-based study demonstrated that bariatric surgery was associated with an increased risk of AF episodes requiring an ED visit or hospitalization for at least 2 years after surgery among obese patients with AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cole, Abigail J; Beckman, Lauren M; Earthman, Carrie P
Individuals with extreme obesity who qualify for bariatric surgery are frequently vitamin D deficient before and after surgery. The anatomical changes that occur during some bariatric procedures may lead to decreased absorption of vitamin D, although vitamin D absorption and metabolism has not been quantified or compared across surgeries, and multiple other factors could influence vitamin D status in these individuals. Vitamin D treatment and dosing studies show that there is variability in how individuals respond to supplementation regimens regardless of the bariatric procedure. It is unknown if improving vitamin D status before and/or after bariatric surgery can affect health-related outcomes in this population beyond the traditional roles of vitamin D. Vitamin D has been purported to positively influence a variety of obesity-related comorbidities. Furthermore, in light of the potential role of vitamin D in immunity and inflammation, it seems important to consider the ramifications of vitamin D deficiency in the postbariatric individual in the critical care setting and particularly in the context of aging. Additional research is needed to develop evidence-based guidelines for optimal treatment of vitamin D deficiency in individuals before and after bariatric surgery and to determine the impact of vitamin D repletion on non-bone health-related outcomes in these individuals. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Giordano, Salvatore; Victorzon, Mikael
Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of bariatric/metabolic surgery in elderly patients. We performed a systematic review on this issue in patients aged 60 years or older. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched until August 2015 for studies on outcomes of bariatric surgery in elderly patients. The results were expressed as pooled proportions (%) with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by the I (2) test, and a random-effects model was used. Twenty-six articles encompassing 8,149 patients were pertinent with this issue and included data on bariatric surgery outcomes in elderly population. Fourteen patients died during the 30-day postoperative period, with a pooled mortality of 0.01%. Pooled overall complication rate was 14.7%. At 1-year follow-up, pooled mean excess weight loss was 53.77%, pooled diabetes resolution was 54.5%, and pooled hypertension resolution was 42.5%, while pooled lipid disorder resolution was 41.2%. Outcomes and complication rates of bariatric surgery in patients older than 60 years are comparable to those in a younger population, independent of the type of procedure performed. Patients should not be denied bariatric surgery because of their age alone.
Ostrowska, Lucyna; Lech, Medard; Stefańska, Ewa; Jastrzębska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Smarkusz, Joanna
Obesity in women of reproductive age is a serious concern regarding reproductive health. In many cases of infertility in obese women, reduction of body weight may lead to spontaneous pregnancy, without the need for more specific methods of treatment. Bariatric surgery is safe and is the most effective method for body weight reduction in obese and very obese patients. In practice there are two bariatric techniques; gastric banding, which leads to weight loss through intake restriction, and gastric bypass, leads to weight loss through food malabsorption. Gastric bypass surgery (the more frequently performed procedure), in most cases, leads to changes in eating habits and may result in vomiting, diarrhea and rapid body mass reduction. There are reliable data describing the continuous increase in the number of women who are trying to conceive, or are already pregnant, following bariatric surgery. Most medical specialists advise women to avoid pregnancy within 12-18 months after bariatric surgery. This allows for time to recover sufficiency from the decreased absorption of nutrients caused by the bariatric surgery. During this period there is a need for the use of reliable contraception. As there is a risk for malabsorption of hormones taken orally, the combined and progestogen-only pills are contraindicated, and displaced by non-oral hormonal contraception or non-hormonal methods, including intrauterine devices and condoms.
McBride, Corrigan L; Rosenthal, Raul J; Brethauer, Stacy; DeMaria, Eric; Kelly, John J; Morton, John M; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Moore, Rachel; Pomp, Alfons; Nguyen, Ninh T
Bariatric fellowship training after general surgery has historically been time based and competence was determined at completion based on a minimum number of cases during the fellowship. Graduate medical education is moving toward competency-based medical education where learners are evaluated during the course of their training and competence assessment occurs throughout. The Executive Council of the American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) at the direction of the American Board of Surgery wanted to transition the bariatric surgery fellowship curriculum from its traditional format to a competency-based curriculum using competency-based medical education principles. The ASMBS Education and Training Committee established a task force of 9 members to create a new curriculum and all of the necessary evaluation tools to support the curriculum, and initiate a pilot program. A competency-based curriculum consisting of 6 modules with cognitive and technical milestones, and the innovative evaluation tools needed to evaluate the learners, was created. A pilot program consisting of 10 programs and 19 fellows has been undertaken for the 2016-2017 academic year. The Education Committee of the ASMBS is leading the charge in curriculum development for competency-based medical education for bariatric fellowship. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Salvatore Giordano,1 Mikael Victorzon2,3 1Department of Plastic and General Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, 3University of Turku, Turku, Finland Abstract: Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of bariatric/metabolic surgery in elderly patients. We performed a systematic review on this issue in patients aged 60 years or older. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched until August 2015 for studies on outcomes of bariatric surgery in elderly patients. The results were expressed as pooled proportions (% with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by the I2 test, and a random-effects model was used. Twenty-six articles encompassing 8,149 patients were pertinent with this issue and included data on bariatric surgery outcomes in elderly population. Fourteen patients died during the 30-day postoperative period, with a pooled mortality of 0.01%. Pooled overall complication rate was 14.7%. At 1-year follow-up, pooled mean excess weight loss was 53.77%, pooled diabetes resolution was 54.5%, and pooled hypertension resolution was 42.5%, while pooled lipid disorder resolution was 41.2%. Outcomes and complication rates of bariatric surgery in patients older than 60 years are comparable to those in a younger population, independent of the type of procedure performed. Patients should not be denied bariatric surgery because of their age alone. Keywords: morbid obesity, bariatric surgery, elderly, gastric bypass, weight loss, laparoscopy
Dell'Agnolo, Cátia Millene; Cyr, Caroline; de Montigny, Francine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa
Several outcomes of pregnancy after bariatric surgery are currently being studied. This cross-sectional, retrospective study evaluated the obstetric and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies in 19 women who underwent bariatric surgery, as well as the growth and development of their children, in the Southern Brazil. Among these women, 11 children were born prior to surgery and 32 were born post-surgery. The mean time between the surgery and the first pregnancy was 42.96 months. Preterm newborns were more common among the pre-surgery childbirths. Regarding growth, normal weights were observed in 27.3 % of the children in the pre-surgery births and obesity was observed in 54.5 %. In contrast, normal weights were observed in 59.4 % of the children born during the postoperative period and obesity was observed in 31.2 %. The average excess weight that the women lost prior to pregnancy was 64.88. Speech delays were found in three male children evaluated using the Denver Developmental Screening Test II. A statistical association was found between the interval from the surgery to the pregnancy and the outcome of the questionable Denver II test results (p = 0.011). Except for the large index of low birth weight, it can be concluded that pregnancy after bariatric surgery is safe. The growth rate was found to be adequate in the children born after the surgery, with reduced obesity. Although changes in speech development were detected, no factors were supported an association with pregnancy after bariatric surgery.
Wei-Jei Lee, Wei-Jei Lee; Keong Chong, Keong Chong; Jung-Chien Chen, Jung-Chien Chen; Kong-Han Ser, Kong-Han Ser; Yi-Chih Lee, Yi-Chih Lee; Jun-Juin Tsou, Jun-Juin Tsou; Shu-Chun Chen, Shu-Chun Chen
Background: Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are closely related and difficult to control by current medical treatment. Bariatric surgery has been proposed for inadequately controlled T2DM in association with obesity. However, prediction of successful T2DM remission after surgery has not been clearly studied in Asian patients. This information might be helpful for applying gastrointestinal surgery as metabolic surgery for T2DM. Methods: This was a retrospective clinical study. ...
Ginsburg, Elizabeth S
Increases in rates of bariatric surgery are staggering, and many obese individuals who undergo such procedures are women of reproductive age. So, how does the surgery affect women's fertility and pregnancy outcomes thereafter? A new systemic review aimed to find out.
Energetic adaptations induced by bariatric surgery have not been studied in adolescents or for extended periods postsurgery. Energetic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery were investigated in extremely obese adolescents. At baseline and at 1.5, 6, and...
Edwards, Claire; Hindle, A Katharine; Fu, Sidney; Brody, Fredrick
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) resolves rapidly after bariatric surgery, even before substantial weight is lost. However, the molecular pathways underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Microarray data has shown that numerous genes are differentially expressed in blood after bariatric surgery, including resistin and leptin. Resistin and leptin are circulating hormones derived from adipose tissue, which are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This study examined expression of these genes before and after bariatric surgery in diabetic and nondiabetic obese patients. The study included 16 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery, either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or adjustable gastric banding. Eight patients had T2D. Preoperative blood samples were collected in PAXgene tubes to stabilize mRNA. Postoperative samples were collected 3 months after surgery. Total RNA was isolated and cDNA was synthesized. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify mRNA. Results were analyzed using Student's t test with a P<0.05 considered significant. Postoperatively, five diabetic patients had discontinued hypoglycemic medications and one showed improved glycemic control. Both leptin and resistin mRNA levels were elevated in the diabetic group but decreased after surgery to levels near those of the nondiabetic group. Greater downregulation of resistin and leptin expression occurred in patients who lost more excess body weight (EBW), while patients who lost less than 10% EBW had a mean increase in expression of the two genes. Downregulation of both genes was more pronounced after RYGB compared to gastric banding. Downregulation of resistin and leptin gene expression after bariatric surgery may play a role in normalizing obesity-associated insulin resistance. Interestingly, downregulation is greater after RYGB and in patients who lose a greater proportion of EBW. Targeted therapies for obesity and diabetes may be developed by understanding the pathways by which these
Lespessailles, Eric; Toumi, Hechmi
Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries. Interactions and relationships between obesity and bone tissue and its metabolism are complex but are more and more studied and recognized. Obesity is associated with an altered hormonal profile including particularly bone-regulating hormones like vitamin D. Bariatric surgery procedures, thanks to their effectiveness to achieve therapeutic endpoints for comorbidities associated with obesity, have had an increasing success. However, these surgeries by producing mechanical restriction and or malabsorption syndrome lead to nutritional deficiencies including vitamin D. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the nutritional deficiency of vitamin D in the obese, (2) to summarize the different surgical options in bariatric surgery and to present the evidence concerning these procedures and their associated profile in vitamin D post-operative insufficiency, (3) to present the different recommendations in clinical practice to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiencies or insufficiencies in patients treated by bariatric surgery and finally to introduce emerging assumptions on the relationship between vitamin D, microbiota composition and circulating bile acids. Impact statement Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries with a prevalence increasing from 6.4 in 1975 to 14.9% in 2014. This present review summarizes currently available data on vitamin D deficiencies in the obese population before and after bariatric surgery. The important evidence emerging from our evaluation confirms that obese patients are at risk of multiple nutritional deficiencies, especially vitamin D deficiency, before bariatric surgery. Our survey confirms that the precise role of the gut microbiome and its associated changes on the vitamin D metabolism after the different bariatric surgery procedures has not yet been
Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Pomares-Callejón, María Ángeles; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Belda-Lozano, Ricardo; Vidaña-Márquez, Elisabet; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto
Bariatric surgery improves sexual function in obese individuals, although the extent to which sexual satisfaction is improved following surgery is unknown. The aims of this study were 1) to describe sexual satisfaction in severely/morbidly obese men and women candidates for bariatric surgery; 2) to assess the effects of bariatric surgery on sexual satisfaction at 12-months follow-up; and 3) to assess whether weight changes at follow-up following bariatric surgery are associated with changes in sexual satisfaction. We conducted a prospective observational study from February 2011 to June 2014. A total of 44 patients with severe/morbid obesity participated in the study. Sexual satisfaction was assessed (at baseline and 12-months follow-up) through the Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS) questionnaire. Of 44 patients who completed the ISS at baseline (mean age 40.3 [SD=9.4] years and BMI 46.9 [SD=6.2] kg/m 2 ), 17 were lost to follow-up. The baseline ISS total scores were 32.0 (SD=20.1) in women and 24.4 (SD=16.0) in men (P>0.05). The proportion of sexually satisfied men and women at baseline was 62.5% and 46.4%, respectively (P=0.360). At follow-up, sexual satisfaction improved significantly in women (average difference 13.7 units; P=0.032) but not in men (average difference 3.6 units; P=0.717). The percentage of women with sexual satisfaction problems was reduced by 33% at follow-up (P=0.038). A relatively large percentage of severely/morbidly obese women and men present clinically significant sexual satisfaction problems before undergoing bariatric surgery. Sexual satisfaction improves significantly 12 months following bariatric surgery, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wakamatsu, Kotaro; Seki, Yosuke; Kasama, Kazunori; Uno, Kohei; Hashimoto, Kenkichi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kurokawa, Yoshimochi
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Japanese morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the impact of bariatric surgery on their renal function has not previously been investigated. The aims were to assess the prevalence of CKD patients who underwent bariatric surgery in our institution and to elucidate the impact of bariatric surgery on their kidney function as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate by Cystatin-C (eGFRcys). The setting of the study was in a single private hospital. Two hundred fifty-four consecutive Japanese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the prevalence of CKD. The eGFRcys was calculated to assess the change in the kidney function for 1 year after surgery. The preoperative prevalence of CKD was as follows: G1, 45.3%; G2, 47.2%; G3, 6.5%; and G4, 0.9%. The eGFRcys values before and after surgery were compared; the G1 and G2 patients showed significantly improved eGFRcys values after surgery (G1 101 [94-108] vs 114 [103-127]; G2 79 [74-84] vs 97 [87-104] ml/min/1.73 m 2 ; p surgery (44 [42-47] vs 45 [43-63] ml/min/1.73 m 2 ; p = 0.08), successful weight loss was achieved (36.1 ± 6.3 vs 26.6 ± 3.6 kg/m 2 ; p Bariatric surgery resulted in the significant improvement in the eGFRcys values of Japanese patients with morbid obesity, particularly those with pre-CKD (eGFRcys ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ), while the eGFRcys values of CKD patients (surgery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: To observe the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the influence of the body mass index (BMI, gender and age on the prevalence of atelectasis. Method: Retrospective study of 407 patients and reports on chest X-rays carried out before and after bariatric surgery over a period of 14 months. Only patients who underwent bariatric surgery by laparotomy were included. Results: There was an overall prevalence of 37.84% of atelectasis, with the highest prevalence in the lung bases and with greater prevalence in women (RR = 1.48. There was a ratio of 30% for the influence of age for individuals under the age of 36, and of 45% for those older than 36 (RR = 0.68. There was no significant influence of BMI on the prevalence of atelectasis. Conclusion: The prevalence of atelectasis in bariatric surgery is 37% and the main risk factors are being female and aged over 36 years.
Abdal Raheem, Sulieman; Deen, Omer J; Corrigan, Mandy L; Parekh, Neha; Quintini, Cristiano; Steiger, Ezra; Kirby, Donald F
Obesity is a major chronic disease affecting the U.S. population. Bariatric surgery has consistently shown greater weight loss and improved outcomes compared with conservative therapy. However, complications after bariatric surgery can be catastrophic, resulting in short bowel syndrome with a potential risk of intestinal failure, ultimately resulting in the need for a small bowel transplant. A total of 6 patients became dependent on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) after undergoing bariatric surgery at an outside facility. Four of the 6 patients required evaluation for small bowel transplant; 2 of the 6 patients were successfully managed with parenteral nutrition and did not require further small bowel transplant evaluation. Catheter-related bloodstream infection, a serious complication of HPN, occurred in 3 patients despite extensive patient education on catheter care and use of ethanol lock. Two patients underwent successful small bowel transplantation, 1 died before transplant could be performed, and 1 was listed for a multivisceral transplantation. Surgical procedures to treat morbid obesity are common and growing in popularity but are not without risk of serious complications, including intestinal failure and HPN dependency. Despite methods to prevent complications, failure of HPN may lead to the need for transplant evaluation. In selected cases, the best therapeutic treatment may be a small bowel transplant to resolve irreversible, post-bariatric surgery intestinal failure.
Baltieri, Letícia; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Rasera-Junior, Irineu; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima; Costa, Dirceu; Pazzianotto-Forti, Eli Maria
To observe the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the influence of the body mass index (BMI), gender and age on the prevalence of atelectasis. Retrospective study of 407 patients and reports on chest X-rays carried out before and after bariatric surgery over a period of 14 months. Only patients who underwent bariatric surgery by laparotomy were included. There was an overall prevalence of 37.84% of atelectasis, with the highest prevalence in the lung bases and with greater prevalence in women (RR=1.48). There was a ratio of 30% for the influence of age for individuals under the age of 36, and of 45% for those older than 36 (RR=0.68). There was no significant influence of BMI on the prevalence of atelectasis. The prevalence of atelectasis in bariatric surgery is 37% and the main risk factors are being female and aged over 36 years. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Baltieri, Letícia; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Rasera-Junior, Irineu; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima; Costa, Dirceu; Pazzianotto-Forti, Eli Maria
To observe the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the influence of the body mass index (BMI), gender and age on the prevalence of atelectasis. Retrospective study of 407 patients and reports on chest X-rays carried out before and after bariatric surgery over a period of 14 months. Only patients who underwent bariatric surgery by laparotomy were included. There was an overall prevalence of 37.84% of atelectasis, with the highest prevalence in the lung bases and with greater prevalence in women (RR=1.48). There was a ratio of 30% for the influence of age for individuals under the age of 36, and of 45% for those older than 36 (RR=0.68). There was no significant influence of BMI on the prevalence of atelectasis. The prevalence of atelectasis in bariatric surgery is 37% and the main risk factors are being female and aged over 36 years. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Caetano de QUEIROZ
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND -In recent decades, the high prevalence of obesity in the general population has brought serious concerns in terms of public health. Contrarily to conventional treatment involving dieting and physical exercising, often ineffective in generating long term results, bariatric operations have been an effective method for sustained weight loss in morbidly obese individuals. The Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS is an objective and recognized system in the overall evaluation of results after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE To investigate results concerning a casuistic of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery over a 2-year follow-up in terms of weight loss, related medical conditions, safety and changes in quality of life. METHODS A total of 120 obese (17 male and 103 female patients, who underwent bariatric surgery, were assessed and investigated using the BAROS system after a 2- year follow-up. RESULTS Patients obtained a mean excess weight loss of 74.6 (±15.9 % and mean body mass index reduction of 15.6 (±4.4 Kg/m2. Pre-surgical comorbidities were present in 71 (59% subjects and they were totally (86% or partially (14% resolved. Complications resulting specifically from the surgical procedure were observed in 4.2% of cases (two bowel obstructions requiring re-operation, and three stomal stenosis treated with endoscopic dilation. Sixteen subjects (13% of total number of patients presented minor clinical complications managed through outpatient care. The final scores for the BAROS questionnaire showcased excellent to good results in 99% of cases (excellent 44%, very good 38%, good 23%, acceptable 1%. CONCLUSION According to the BAROS questionnaire, bariatric surgery is a safe and effective method for managing obesity and associated clinical comorbidities, allowing for satisfactory results after a 2-year follow-up. Future studies should address other clinical and psychosocial variables that impact
Queiroz, Caetano de; Sallet, José Afonso; DE Barros E Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo; Queiroz, Luzia da Gloria Pereira de Sousa; Pimentel, Jélis Arenas; Sallet, Paulo Clemente
-In recent decades, the high prevalence of obesity in the general population has brought serious concerns in terms of public health. Contrarily to conventional treatment involving dieting and physical exercising, often ineffective in generating long term results, bariatric opera-tions have been an effective method for sustained weight loss in morbidly obese individuals. The Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) is an objective and recognized system in the overall evaluation of results after bariatric surgery. - To investigate results concerning a casuistic of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery over a 2-year follow-up in terms of weight loss, related medical conditions, safety and changes in quality of life. - A total of 120 obese (17 male and 103 female) patients, who underwent bariatric surgery, were assessed and investigated using the BAROS system after a 2- year follow-up. - Patients obtained a mean excess weight loss of 74.6 (±15.9) % and mean body mass index reduction of 15.6 (±4.4) Kg/m2. Pre-surgical comorbidities were present in 71 (59%) subjects and they were totally (86%) or partially (14%) resolved. Complications resulting specifically from the surgical procedure were observed in 4.2% of cases (two bowel obstructions requiring re-operation, and three stomal stenosis treated with endoscopic dilation). Sixteen subjects (13% of total number of patients) presented minor clinical complications managed through outpatient care. The final scores for the BAROS questionnaire showcased excellent to good results in 99% of cases (excellent 44%, very good 38%, good 23%, acceptable 1%). - According to the BAROS questionnaire, bariatric surgery is a safe and effective method for managing obesity and associated clinical comorbidities, allowing for satisfactory results after a 2-year follow-up. Future studies should address other clinical and psychosocial variables that impact outcome as well as allow for longer follow-ups.
Maciejewski, Matthew L; Arterburn, David E; Van Scoyoc, Lynn; Smith, Valerie A; Yancy, William S; Weidenbacher, Hollis J; Livingston, Edward H; Olsen, Maren K
Bariatric surgery induces significant weight loss for severely obese patients, but there is limited evidence of the durability of weight loss compared with nonsurgical matches and across bariatric procedures. To examine 10-year weight change in a large, multisite, clinical cohort of veterans who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared with nonsurgical matches and the 4-year weight change in veterans who underwent RYGB, adjustable gastric banding (AGB), or sleeve gastrectomy (SG). In this cohort study, differences in weight change up to 10 years after surgery were estimated in retrospective cohorts of 1787 veterans who underwent RYGB from January 1, 2000, through September 30, 2011 (573 of 700 eligible [81.9%] with 10-year follow-up), and 5305 nonsurgical matches (1274 of 1889 eligible [67.4%] with 10-year follow-up) in mixed-effects models. Differences in weight change up to 4 years were compared among veterans undergoing RYGB (n = 1785), SG (n = 379), and AGB (n = 246). Data analysis was performed from September 9, 2014, to February 12, 2016. Bariatric surgical procedures and usual care. Weight change up to 10 years after surgery through December 31, 2014. The 1787 patients undergoing RYGB had a mean (SD) age of 52.1 (8.5) years and 5305 nonsurgical matches had a mean (SD) age of 52.2 (8.4) years. Patients undergoing RYGB and nonsurgical matches had a mean body mass index of 47.7 and 47.1, respectively, and were predominantly male (1306 [73.1%] and 3911 [73.7%], respectively). Patients undergoing RYGB lost 21% (95% CI, 11%-31%) more of their baseline weight at 10 years than nonsurgical matches. A total of 405 of 564 patients undergoing RYGB (71.8%) had more than 20% estimated weight loss, and 224 of 564 (39.7%) had more than 30% estimated weight loss at 10 years compared with 134 of 1247 (10.8%) and 48 of 1247 (3.9%), respectively, of nonsurgical matches. Only 19 of 564 patients undergoing RYGB (3.4%) regained weight back to within an
Klebanoff, Matthew J; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Nudel, Jacob D; Corey, Kathleen E; Kaplan, Lee M; Hur, Chin
Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery. In the no surgery strategy, patients remained at their initial body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) over time. In the bariatric surgery strategy, patients were subjected to risks of perioperative mortality and complications as well as initial morbidity but also experienced longer-term quality-of-life improvements associated with weight loss. Cohort demographic information-of the 228 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years, the mean (range) body mass index was 53 (34-88), and 171 (75.0%) were female-surgery-related outcomes, and base case time horizon (3 years) were based on data from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), total costs (in US dollars adjusted to 2015-year values using the Consumer Price Index), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). A willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY was used to assess cost-effectiveness. After 3 years, surgery led to a gain of 0.199 QALYs compared with no surgery at an incremental cost of $30 747, yielding an unfavorable ICER of $154 684 per QALY. When the clinical study results were extrapolated to 4 years, the ICER decreased to $114 078 per QALY and became cost-effective by 5 years with an ICER of $91 032 per QALY. Outcomes were robust in most 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Bariatric surgery incurs
Lazzati, Andrea; Katsahian, Sandrine; Maladry, David; Gerard, Emma; Gaucher, Sonia
Bariatric patients are often candidates for plastic surgery. However, the rate of postbariatric procedures is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of plastic surgery, and factors related to surgery, in bariatric patients. University hospital, France. This was a cohort study based on administrative data. All adult patients who received bariatric surgery in France between 2007 and 2013 were included to estimate the rate of plastic surgery and related predictive factors. Data are reported according to the reporting of studies conducted using observational routinely collected data guidelines for observational studies on administrative data. Among the 183,514 patients who underwent bariatric surgery in the study period, 23,120 plastic surgeries were performed on 17,695 patients, including abdominoplasty (62%), dermolipectomy of the upper or lower limbs (25%), and reconstruction of the breast (14%). The rates of plastic surgery were 13%, 18%, and 21% at 3, 5, and 7 years post-bariatric surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients who had a biliopancreatic diversion or a gastric bypass had a hazard ratio of 2.67 and 2.67 for subsequent plastic surgery, respectively, compared with patients who had adjustable gastric banding. Women had a 2-fold probability of surgery compared with men (hazard ratio 2.02). Important variability in the rate of surgery was found among different hospitals; rates ranged from 6.1% to 41.3% at 5 years. This study showed that 21% of bariatric patients undergo plastic surgery. Large variability exists among hospitals, suggesting that several unmeasured factors may limit access to contouring surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Schweiger, Chaya; Keidar, Andrei
The number of people suffering from surgery and obesity in the western world is constantly growing. In 1997 the World Health Organization (WHO) defined obesity as a plague and one of greatest public health hazards of our time. The National Institution of Health (NIH) declared that surgery is the only long-term solution for obesity. Today there are four different types of bariatric surgery. Each variation has different implications on the nutritional status of bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery candidates are at risk of developing vitamin and mineral nutritional deficiencies in the post-operative stage, due to vomiting, decrease in food intake, food intolerance, diminution of gastric secretions and bypass of absorption area. It is easier and more efficient to treat nutritional deficiencies in the preoperative stage. Therefore, preoperative detection and correction are crucial. Blood tests before surgery to detect and treat nutritional deficiencies are crucial. In the postoperative period, blood tests should be conducted every 3 months in the first year after operation, every six months in the second year and annually thereafter. Multivitamin is recommended to prevent nutritional deficiencies in all bariatric surgery patients. Furthermore, iron, calcium, Vitamin D and B12 are additionally recommended for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass patients. Patients with Biliopancreatic diversion and Duodenal Switch should also take fat soluble vitamins.
Sarker, Anita; Meek, Claire L; Park, Adrian
Obesity, defined as a body mass index over 30 kg/m(2) for adults, poses a major healthcare challenge with important economic, personal and social consequences. Although public health measures, lifestyle change and pharmacological therapies have an important role in the management of obesity, patients with established morbid obesity (body mass index over 40 kg/m(2)) may also require bariatric surgery. Bariatric or metabolic surgery is associated with effective and enduring weight loss but is also known to improve glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and dyslipidaemia. Patients who have bariatric surgery need lifelong clinical follow-up to identify and prevent nutritional deficiencies and other complications. Clinical biochemistry laboratories have an important role in the nutritional assessment of obese patients and in the identification of complications following bariatric surgery. The aim of this article is to review the different bariatric procedures available and to summarize their complications, especially nutrient deficiencies and those of particular relevance to clinical biochemistry laboratories. © The Author(s) 2015.
Selzer, Faith; Smith, Mark D.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Inabnet, William B.; King, Wendy C.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Raum, William J.; Schrope, Beth; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Patterson, Emma J.
Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all common conditions in patients referred for bariatric surgery, and it may predict early postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined using updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and compare the prevalence of baseline co-morbid conditions and select operative and 30-day postoperative outcomes by metabolic syndrome status. Methods: Complete metabolic syndrome data were available for 2275 of 2458 participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2), an observational cohort study designed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in obese adults. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 79.9%. Compared to those without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be men, to have a higher prevalence of diabetes and prior cardiac events, to have enlarged livers and higher median levels of liver enzymes, a history of sleep apnea, and a longer length of stay after surgery following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric sleeves but not open RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Metabolic syndrome status was not significantly related to duration of surgery or rates of composite end points of intraoperative events and 30-day major adverse surgical outcomes. Conclusions: Nearly four in five participants undergoing bariatric surgery presented with metabolic syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in bariatric surgery patients may identify a high-risk patient profile, but does not in itself confer a higher risk for short-term adverse postsurgery outcomes. PMID:24380645
Xanthakos, Stavra A
The presence of nutritional deficiencies in overweight and obesity may seem paradoxical in light of excess caloric intake, but several micronutrient deficiencies appear to be higher in prevalence in overweight and obese adults and children. Causes are multifactorial and include decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, increased intake of high-calorie, but nutritionally poor-quality foods, and increased adiposity, which may influence the storage and availability of some nutrients. As the obesity epidemic continues unabated and the popularity of bariatric surgery rises for severely obese adults and adolescents, medical practitioners must be aware of pre-existing nutritional deficiencies in overweight and obese patients and appropriately recognize and treat common and rare nutritional deficiencies that may arise or worsen following bariatric surgery. This article reviews current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese and overweight individuals and those that commonly present after bariatric surgery and summarizes current recommendations for screening and supplementation.
Frey, Daniel M
Worldwide the obesity epidemic is becoming one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The rates of bariatric surgery procedures are sharply increasing. Today it is the only treatment option for a substantial and durable long-term weight loss. However, bariatric surgery is not a guarantee of successful weight loss and maintenance. For all patients undergoing bariatric surgery, education and clinical management to prevent and detect nutritional deficiencies are recommended. Particularly for patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures, the management of potential nutritional deficiencies is important. Strategies should be employed to compensate for food intolerance aiming at risk reduction for nutritional deficiencies. All patients should receive care from a multidisciplinary team and be considered for comprehensive perioperative program for nutrition and lifestyle management.
Bassam Ahmed Al-Mutlaq
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of gallstones formation association with the obesity epidemic and rapid weight loss is dramatically increasing in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the review of literature was to discuss the gallstone formation prophylaxis and weight loss procedure with especial focus to the available related literature from Saudi Arabia. Methods: A review of the literature was made using the most common electronic sources including: electronic database, EMBASE, MEDLINE search using keywords: gallstones, bariatric surgery, weight loss, and Saudi Arabia. The major outcomes gained were related with the different procedure associated with bariatric surgeries to find out possible predictive factors for the development of gallstone and prevention measures. Conclusion: Although there a gap in literature from Saudi Arabia, the real movement towards a more conservative attitude in the gallstone formation prophylaxis after bariatric surgery needs more physicians to be involved to face the increasing biliary complications.
Mulla, Christopher M; Storino, Alessandra; Yee, Eric U; Lautz, David; Sawnhey, Mandeep S; Moser, A James; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth
Hypoglycemia is increasingly recognized as a complication of bariatric surgery. Typically, hypoglycemia does not appear immediately postoperatively, but rather more than 1 year later, and usually occurs 1-3 h after meals. While rare, insulinoma has been reported after bariatric surgery. Clinical factors which should raise suspicion for insulinoma and the need for comprehensive clinical and biochemical evaluation include hypoglycemia occurring in the fasting state, predating bariatric surgery, and/or worsening immediately postoperatively, and lack of response to conservative therapy. Localization and successful resection of insulinoma can be achieved using novel endoscopic ultrasound and surgical approaches. In summary, hypoglycemia presenting shortly after gastric bypass or with a dominant fasting pattern should be fully evaluated to exclude insulinoma. Additionally, evaluation prior to gastric bypass should include screening for history of hypoglycemia symptoms.
Full Text Available Introduction: The general practitioner (GP can play a key role in this multi-disciplinary team, coordinating care provided by dietitians and surgeons, maximizing the potential benefits of surgery. Therefore, it seems important to verify changes in GPs’ knowledge about surgical treatment of obesity. Aim : To reassess knowledge of obesity surgical treatment among Polish primary care physicians and their willingness to improve it in the future. Material and methods: To assess the knowledge of Polish primary care physicians about surgical treatment of obesity, a prospective study, which included an anonymous online questionnaire, was conducted in the years 2015–2016. Results : Two hundred and six physicians answered the invitation. One hundred and sixty-six (81.8% respondents were familiar with the indications for bariatric operation. The great majority of respondents, 198 (96.6%, were aware that bariatric surgery is efficient in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The study revealed a disproportion between the number of patients who would be potential candidates for bariatric treatment, who are currently under care of participating physicians, and the number of patients who are referred to a bariatric surgeon. Conclusions : Our study demonstrates that nowadays bariatric surgery is a recognized method of treatment, but physicians remain reluctant to refer their patients for surgical treatment of obesity. It was found that there is a large disproportion between the number of patients who are referred to a bariatric surgeon and the number of patients who require this treatment. It may be a result of lack of knowledge in the field of bariatric surgery.
Wulkan, Mark L; Walsh, Stephanie M
The multi-disciplinary team is essential for the success of an adolescent bariatric surgical program. This article will describe the components of the team and their roles. Essential members include a pediatrician or pediatric subspecialist with an interest and expertise in adolescent obesity, a pediatric surgeon with bariatric expertise, or an adult bariatric surgeon with adolescent experience, adolescent/child psychologist, pediatric nutritionist, exercise physiologist or physical therapist, nursing support, and a patient coordinator. Some programs have found a social worker to be helpful as well. The function of the team members is more important than the title. A physical therapist may develop an activity program or a social worker may function as the coordinator. The whole team, led by the pediatric bariatrician, makes decisions concerning the selection of candidates for bariatric surgery. During team rounds, each patient is discussed and treatment decisions are made. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A
We present a patient who underwent successful classic duodenal switch and developed a marked dermatitis with a significant functional limitation. This is an unusual complication, despite the relatively moderate prevalence of nutrient deficiency after this type of bariatric surgery. We discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and emphasize the importance of an appropriate nutritional management. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Gulliford, Martin C; Charlton, Judith; Prevost, Toby; Booth, Helen; Fildes, Alison; Ashworth, Mark; Littlejohns, Peter; Reddy, Marcus; Khan, Omar; Rudisill, Caroline
To estimate costs and outcomes of increasing access to bariatric surgery in obese adults and in population subgroups of age, sex, deprivation, comorbidity, and obesity category. A cohort study was conducted using primary care electronic health records, with linked hospital utilization data, for 3,045 participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 247,537 participants who did not undergo bariatric surgery. Epidemiological analyses informed a probabilistic Markov model to compare bariatric surgery, including equal proportions with adjustable gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy, with standard nonsurgical management of obesity. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and net monetary benefits at a threshold of £30,000 per QALY. In a UK population of 250,000 adults, there may be 7,163 people with morbid obesity including 1,406 with diabetes. The immediate cost of 1,000 bariatric surgical procedures is £9.16 million, with incremental discounted lifetime health care costs of £15.26 million (95% confidence interval £15.18-£15.36 million). Patient-years with diabetes mellitus will decrease by 8,320 (range 8,123-8,502). Incremental QALYs will increase by 2,142 (range 2,032-2,256). The estimated cost per QALY gained is £7,129 (range £6,775-£7,506). Net monetary benefits will be £49.02 million (range £45.72-£52.41 million). Estimates are similar for subgroups of age, sex, and deprivation. Bariatric surgery remains cost-effective if the procedure is twice as costly, or if intervention effect declines over time. Diverse obese individuals may benefit from bariatric surgery at acceptable cost. Bariatric surgery is not cost-saving, but increased health care costs are exceeded by health benefits to obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Childerhose, Janet E; Alsamawi, Amal; Mehta, Tanvi; Smith, Judith E; Woolford, Susan; Tarini, Beth A
Bariatric surgery has been performed on adolescents since the 1970s, but little is known about the guidance offered to providers in recommendation documents published in the United States. A systematic review was conducted to generate a complete record of all US recommendation documents and describe variability across the documents. This study had 3 aims: to identify the developers, examine selection criteria, and document reasons why developers have recommended this intervention for adolescents. Four databases (MEDLINE, National Guidelines Clearinghouse, Trip, and Embase) ertr searched, followed by a hand search. Documents were eligible for inclusion if they satisfied 5 criteria: written in the English language; developed and published by a US organization; comprised a clinical practice guideline, position statement, or consensus statement; offered a minimum 1-sentence recommendation on bariatric surgery for the treatment of obesity or related co-morbidities; and offered a minimum 1-sentence recommendation on bariatric surgery for children, adolescents, or both. No date limits were applied. Sixteen recommendation documents published between 1991 and 2013 met our inclusion criteria: 10 clinical practice guidelines, 4 position statements, and 2 consensus statements. Nine were produced by medical organizations, 3 by surgical organizations, and 4 by public health/governmental bodies. One document recommended against bariatric surgery for minors, and 15 endorsed the intervention for this population. Body mass index (a measure of obesity calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters) thresholds were the selection criteria most often provided. Minimum age varied widely. Of the 15 endorsing documents, 10 provided a reason for performing bariatric surgery on minors, most often to treat obesity-related co-morbidities that threaten the health of the adolescent. We make 3 suggestions to improve the quality of future recommendation documents
Hernández, Julián; Boza, Camilo
Bariatric surgery has been considered one of best treatments for obesity. As every surgical procedure-and any medical intervention, it is not exempt of complications, among which leaks, strictures, acute hemorrhages and fistulae highlight. Leaks are more common in the gastro-jejunal anastomosis (GJA) in the case of Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), while in Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) they locate in the stapler line. Stenosis can be seen in the gastro-jejunostomy in the RYGB and in the gastric tube in case of the LSG. For each of these complications, many innovative solutions have been developed, including new surgical devices. In spite of promising good results, evidence regarding utility and safeness of these technologies is still scarce. Self-expandable endoscopic stents have been used to treat leaks, with an overall success rate of 80-90 % and a migration rate of 15-35 %. The bear trap-like over-the-scope (Ovesco) clips have been used to treat GI hemorrhages, leaks and even fistulae, with a 70-80 % success rate, although more endoscopic sessions may be needed. Overstitch, an endosurgical suture devices, have been used to treat leaks, fistulae and perforations. Overall, technical success achievement approaches to 90 %, while clinical success ranges from 80 to 90 %, except for leaks closure, where a lower success rate has been observed. Despite of all of these advances, early diagnosis and treatment remains the main strategy to achieve success. In summary, novel therapies for complication management can be very useful, though further studies with larger series are still needed in order to confirm their efficacy and safeness.
Houben, J J; Barea, M; Maroquin, L; Isabo, O; Desmarets, A
Bariatric surgery has considerably developed during the last 20 years in Belgium. The increase of prevalence of the morbid obesity and the development of multiple surgical procedures widened the spectrum of treatment. If a rigorous selection and a multidisciplinary approach of the patients are inescapable, the various decision-making algorithms plunge the practitioner into a certain confusion. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the advantages and the inconveniences of the different surgical treatments in light of the evolution of the principles and the objective results of the literature. Among the techniques proven and validated in the long run, one can mention the Silastic Ring Vertical Gastroplasty according to Mac Lean by minilaparotomy, the laparoscopic adjustable ring and the more recent gastric by pass. The evaluation of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and of duodenal switch is on course. The bilio-pancreatic by-pass according to Scopinaro remains strongly controversed. A meta-analysis of the literature confirms the success of the gastric bypass. Regarding to the long term follow-up, the adjustable gastric banding deceives. The sleeve gastrectomy should be analyzed in the long term. The preliminary results of a epidemiologic and financial study within a private hospital of Brussels reveals that the cost effective ratio is in favor the Silastic Ring Vertical Gastroplasty and the laparoscopic adjustable banding, as well in terms of public health support than the charge for the private insurance and the patient. The projection beyond 5 years reverses the tendency to plead in favor of the gastric by-pass. First with the hit-parade of comfort, food diversification, tolerance, gastro-esophageal reflux, and undoubtedly of the rate of recurrence, it supplants the others techniques for sweet eaters. The volume eaters can profit from a sleeve gastrectomy which undoubtedly supplants the Silastic Ring Vertical Gastroplasty responsible for late annular stenoses and
Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso
Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual
Doyle, J; Colville, S; Brown, P; Christie, D
The National Institute of Clinical Excellence states that bariatric surgery may be considered for adolescents with severe obesity in 'exceptional circumstances'. However, it is not clear what is deemed to be exceptional, and there is a lack of long-term outcomes data or research, which would inform patient selection. This is an in-depth qualitative study involving five adolescents who had previously undergone bariatric surgery (between 1 and 3 years postoperatively) and four who were being assessed for the treatment. All patients were from one tertiary NHS weight management service offering bariatric surgery to adolescents. Participants were interviewed to explore how young people decide whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention for them. Of the nine adolescents recruited, four were male and five female, aged between 17 and 20 years at the time of interview. Participants who had already undergone surgery did so between the ages of 16 and 18. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, and key themes were identified, such as (i) wanting a different future, (ii) experiences of uncertainty, (iii) managing the dilemmas and (iv) surgery as the last resort. The findings suggest that young people are prepared to accept a surgical solution for obesity despite numerous dilemmas. Young people choose this intervention as a way of 'normalizing' when they perceive there is nothing better available. It is argued that these findings may have implications for the counselling of young people living with overweight and obesity and for government policy. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.
White, B; Doyle, J; Colville, S; Nicholls, D; Viner, R M; Christie, D
The psychological and social outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents, together with psychological and social predictors of success, were systematically reviewed. PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and PsychInfo were searched on July 2014. Existing data were sparse; 15 were suitable for qualitative review and six for meta-analysis (four quality of life [QOL], two depression). One study was a randomized controlled trial. A total of 139 subjects underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 202 underwent adjustable gastric band and 64 underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Overall QOL improved after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgical type with peak improvement at 6-12 months. Meta-analysis of four studies showed changed in overall QOL at latest follow-up of 2.80 standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-4.37). Depression improved across all studies, regardless of procedure (effect size -0.47 SD [95% CI -0.76, -0.18] at 4-6 months). Two cohorts reported changes in both overall QOL and depression following a quadratic trajectory, with overall improvement over 2 years and deterioration in the second post-operative year. There were limited data on other psychological and social outcomes. There were insufficient data on psychosocial predictors of outcome to form evidence-based recommendations for patient selection for bariatric surgery at this time. © 2015 World Obesity.
Benoit, Stephen C; Hunter, Tina D; Francis, Diane M; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor
This study was conducted to determine the contributions of various predictors to the large variations in absolute weight loss and percent body mass index (BMI) loss after bariatric surgery. The data source was the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database(SM) by the Surgical Review Corporation. Eligibility criteria included a first bariatric surgery for adjustable gastric band (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYBG), or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) between January 2007 and February 2010; age 21 years or older; presurgery BMI > 30 kg/m2; and at least one preoperative visit within 6 months and at least one postoperative visit 30 days or more after surgery. Potential predictor variables included procedural details, patient demographics, comorbidities, and prior surgical history. Linear regression models of absolute weight loss and %BMI loss were fitted at 12, 18, and 24 months. The 12-month absolute weight loss endpoint was then chosen for a more in-depth analysis of variability through variable transformations and separate models by procedure. A total of 31,443 AGB, 40,352 RYGB, and 2,194 SG patients met all inclusion criteria. Regression models explained 37 to 55% of the variability in %BMI loss and 52 to 65% of variability in absolute weight loss. The key predictors for absolute weight loss at 12 months were procedure (44.8%) and baseline weight (18.5%), with 34.2% of the variability unexplained. Other significant predictors, each of which accounted for bariatric surgery.
Giordano S; Victorzon M
Salvatore Giordano,1 Mikael Victorzon2,3 1Department of Plastic and General Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, 3University of Turku, Turku, Finland Abstract: Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of bariatric/metabolic surgery in elderly patients. We performed a systematic review on this issue in patients aged 60 years or older. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been increasingly diagnosed worldwide and is now recognized as a source of public health concern. It comprises a wide spectrum of histological features that range from simple steatosis to severe forms of fibrosis, steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. The impact of bariatric surgery on the course of NAFLD in individuals with obesity has been extensively studied. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review; public university hospital. METHODS: A comprehensive review was conducted based on an online search on the electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS using the MeSH terms “fatty liver” and “bariatric surgery”. RESULTS: The exact mechanisms that lead to improvement in NAFLD following bariatric surgery are not completely understood. Since Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB is the bariatric surgical procedure most performed worldwide, it is also the one from which the effects on NAFLD have been most studied, although there is also consistent evidence regarding the effects from gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and biliopancreatic diversions. CONCLUSION: According to the currently available evidence, bariatric surgery leads to significant improvement in NAFLD. Further research, especially by means of randomized controlled trials enrolling larger cohorts of individuals, is needed to determine the optimal procedure for this group of subjects.
Angrisani, L; Santonicola, A; Iovino, P; Vitiello, A; Zundel, N; Buchwald, H; Scopinaro, N
Several bariatric surgery worldwide surveys have been previously published to illustrate the evolution of bariatric surgery in the last decades. The aim of this survey is to report an updated overview of all bariatric procedures performed in 2014.For the first time, a special section on endoluminal techniques was added. The 2014 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO) survey form evaluating the number and the type of surgical and endoluminal bariatric procedures was emailed to all IFSO societies. Trend analyses from 2011 to 2014 were also performed. There were 56/60 (93.3%) responders. The total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures performed in 2014 consisted of 579,517 (97.6%) surgical operations and 14,725 (2.4%) endoluminal procedures. The most commonly performed procedure in the world was sleeve gastrectomy (SG) that reached 45.9%, followed by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (39.6%), and adjustable gastric banding (AGB) (7.4%). The annual percentage changes from 2013 revealed the increase of SG and decrease of RYGB in all the IFSO regions (USA/Canada, Europe, and Asia/Pacific) with the exception of Latin/South America, where SG decreased and RYGB represented the most frequent procedure. There was a further increase in the total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures in 2014 and SG is currently the most frequent surgical procedure in the world. This is the first survey that describes the endoluminal procedures, but the accuracy of provided data should be hopefully improved in the next future. We encourage the creation of further national registries and their continuous updates taking into account all new bariatric procedures including the endoscopic procedures that will obtain increasing importance in the near future.
Zevin, Boris; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P
To systematically examine the association between annual hospital and surgeon case volume and patient outcomes in bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery remains a technically demanding field with significant risk for morbidity and mortality. To mitigate this risk, minimum annual hospital and surgeon case volume requirements are being set and certain hospitals are being designated as "Bariatric Surgery Centers of Excellence." The effects of these interventions on patient outcomes remain unclear. A comprehensive systematic review on volume-outcome association in bariatric surgery was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews databases. Abstracts of identified articles were reviewed and pertinent full-text versions were retrieved. Manual search of bibliographies was performed and relevant studies were retrieved. Methodological quality assessment and data extraction were completed in a systematic fashion. Pooling of results was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of the studies. A qualitative summary of results is presented. From a total of 2928 unique citations, 24 studies involving a total of 458,032 patients were selected for review. Two studies were prospective cohorts (level of evidence [LOE] 1), 3 were retrospective cohorts (LOE 3), 2 were retrospective case controls (LOE 3), and 17 were retrospective case series (LOE 4). The overall methodological quality of the reviewed studies was fair. A positive association between annual surgeon volume and patient outcomes was reported in 11 of 13 studies. A positive association between annual hospital volume and patient outcomes was reported in 14 of 17 studies. There is strong evidence of improved patient outcomes in the hands of high-volume surgeons and high-volume centers. This study supports the concept of "Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence" accreditation; however, future research into the quality of care characteristics of successful bariatric
Lopez-de-Andres, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentin; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel; Jiménez-Trujillo, M Isabel; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar
Bariatric surgery is associated with a significant improvement in glucose control and even diabetes remission. There are no studies investigating national trends in the use of bariatric surgery in people with type 2 diabetes. We examine trends in the use of bariatric surgery in patients with and without type 2 diabetes between 2001 and 2010 in Spain. We identified patients who underwent bariatric surgery using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status. Incidence of discharges due to bariatric surgery were calculated and stratified by diabetes status, procedure and year. We calculated length of stay (LOS) and in-hospital mortality (IHM). From 2001 to 2010 13,038 bariatric surgery procedures were performed. Over the study period 23.6% (n=3080) of all patients undergoing bariatric procedure had DM as a co-diagnosis. This prevalence increased from 17.3% in 2001 to 25.5% in 2010. LOS and IHM were similar among patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The proportion of subjects with type 2 diabetes among bariatric surgery patient has increased over time, in part due to an increase in the use of laparoscopic techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nor Hanipah, Zubaidah; Punchai, Suriya; Karas, Linden A; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Rahul J; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali; Schauer, Philip R
Bariatric surgery has been shown to be safe and effective in patients aged 60-75 years; however, outcomes in patients aged 75 or older are undocumented. Patients aged 75 years and older who underwent bariatric procedures in two academic centers between 2006 and 2015 were studied. A total of 19 patients aged 75 years and above were identified. Eleven (58%) were male, the median age was 76 years old (range 75-81), and the median preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 41.4 kg/m 2 (range 35.8-57.5). All of the bariatric procedures were primary procedures and performed laparoscopically: sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (n = 11, 58%), adjustable gastric band (AGB) (n = 4, 21%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 2, 11%), banded gastric plication (n = 1, 5%), and gastric plication (n = 1, 5%). The median operative time was 120 min (range 75-240), and the median length of stay was 2 days (range 1-7). Three patients (16%) developed postoperative atrial fibrillation which completely resolved at discharge. At 1 year, the median percentage of total weight loss (%TWL) was 18.4% (range 7.4-22.0). The 1-year %TWL varied among the bariatric procedures performed: SG (21%), RYGB (22%), AGB (7%), and gastric plication (8%). There were no 30-day readmissions, reoperations, or mortalities. Our experience suggests that bariatric surgery in selected patients aged 75 years and older would be safe and effective despite being higher risk. Age alone should not be the limiting factor for selecting patients for bariatric surgery.
Carvalho, Iara Ribeiro; Loscalzo, Izabella Tesoto; Freitas, Mayteé Fernandes Borges de; Jordão, Regina Esteves; Friano, Tatiane de Cássia
Patients undergoing bariatric surgery may develop over time, some complications and anemia is an important one due to gastric resection, leading to iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency. To determine the incidence of deficiency of vitamin B12 and other anthropometric and biochemical data comparing the preoperative and postoperative (six months) period in patients who underwent bariatric surgery with Fobi-Capella (Roux-en-Y) technique. Retrospective and descriptive analysis of 91 charts of patients who underwent surgery. It was collected personal information, date of surgery and pre-and postoperative (six months) values, weight loss, comorbidities, serum analysis of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, vitamin B12, hemoglobin and hematocrit. For statistical analysis, it was considered significance level of 5% (pdeficiency of vitamin B12 after six months of surgery could not be observed; this fact can be attributed to the use of nutritional supplements or to the short follow-up time after surgery.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has become the gold-standard treatment for refractory morbid obesity. Obesity is frequently associated with certain syndromes that include coexisting cognitive deficits. However, the outcomes from bariatric surgery in this group of individuals remain incompletely determined. CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old male with Prader-Willi syndrome, whose intelligence quotient (IQ was 54, was admitted with a body mass index (BMI of 55 kg/m2, associated with glucose intolerance. He underwent the Scopinaro procedure for biliopancreatic diversion, with uneventful postoperative evolution, and presented a 55% loss of excess weight one year after the surgery, with resolution of glucose intolerance, and without any manifestation of protein-calorie malnutrition. A 28-year-old male with Down syndrome, whose IQ was 68, was admitted with BMI of 41.5 kg/m2, associated with hypertension. He underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with uneventful postoperative evolution. He presented a 90% loss of excess weight one year after the surgery, with resolution of the hypertension. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery among individuals with intellectual impairment is a controversial topic. There is a tendency among these individuals to present significant weight loss and comorbidity control, but less than what is observed in the general obese population. The severity of the intellectual impairment may be taken into consideration in the decision-making process regarding the most appropriate surgical technique. Bariatric surgery is feasible and safe among these individuals, but further research is necessary to deepen these observations.
Ataliba de Carvalho Jr.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the increased number of bariatric surgeries over the years, aspects contributing or hindering the achievement of outcomes, among them weight regain, have acquired increased significance. Psychological factors directly influence on this unwanted situation, but there are few studies and controversies about the degree of participation of these factors. We propose a qualitative investigation to analyze the meanings of weight regain after surgery among women and how these factors influence this outcome.METHOD: This study uses the clinical-qualitative method, by means of a semi-structured interview with open questions in an intentional sample, closed by saturation, with eight women who underwent surgery at the Bariatric Surgery Outpatient Clinic of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.RESULTS: A feeling of defeat and failure emerges with weight regain, which contributes to social isolation; there is no regret, but gratitude for the surgery; among patients, there is a sense of feeling rejected greater than a rejection that actually exists.CONCLUSION: We found out the need for further qualitative studies that help the health team to better understand the dynamic psychological factors involved in the meaning of weight regain after bariatric surgery among women, in order to adopt appropriate conducts to deal with this problem.
Dell'Agnolo, Cátia Millene; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa
The present study aimed to identify the implications for the mother and the newborn in pregnancies occurring after the bariatric surgery. The present retrospective, exploratory cohort study was conducted to analyze the implications for the mother and the newborn in women of childbearing age (10 to 49 years) who became pregnant after undergoing bariatric surgery in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, during the period from 1999 through 2008. The study identified 32 women with the following characteristics: the majority of the women were Caucasian, slightly more than half were living with a partner, had some higher education, and most of them were without surgical complications. In addition, the mean weight loss post-surgery was 44.09 lbs, with an average interval of 40 months between the surgery and the pregnancy, with improvement of various comorbidities post-surgery. Conversely, they presented more neuropsychiatric disorders, post-surgery anemia, and higher prevalence of cesarean delivery. The majority of children were born at term with normal birth weight and no history of anemia. Hospitalization was required for 36.58% of the post-surgery pregnant women, while 17.07% of such cases required blood transfusion due to anemia. Lastly, there were fewer pregnancy-related hypertension cases than before the surgery. Pregnancy after bariatric surgery has proven to be safe for both the mother and the newborn. The newborn birth weight was not compromised even though some of the pregnant women were anemic.
Abdelgawad, Mohamed; De Angelis, Francesco; Iossa, Angelo; Rizzello, Mario; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Silecchia, Gianfranco
Laparoscopic revisional bariatric surgery (RBS) is increasingly common. A tailored decision-making process is advocated. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the RBS experience of a single center, analyzing perioperative complications to provide insight into management options and midterm outcomes. Records from November 2011 to March 2015 were reviewed from prospectively maintained database. Six hundred eighteen patients underwent laparoscopic bariatric procedures; of these, 81 (13.1 %) underwent RBS. Patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months (n = 77) were evaluated. Fifty-nine underwent revised laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and 18 underwent revised Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Indications for RBS were inadequate weight loss or weight regain in 42 cases (54.5 %) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), procedure-related complications, or technical failure in 35 cases (45.5 %). There were no deaths or conversions to open surgery. After a mean follow-up of 22 months, body mass index (BMI) decreased from 40.9 ± 6.7 to 31.9 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), mean % excess weight loss (%EWL) was 58 ± 24.3 %, and 55.3 % of patients had resolution of comorbidities. Eight major complications (10.4 %) occurred: five leaks and three intra-abdominal hematomas. Non-surgical management succeeded in 50 % of complications. This study confirms that RBS is challenging; a complication rate of 10 % is expected. Major surgery can be avoided when devoted endoscopists and radiologists are available. Intensive follow-up after complications allows early diagnosis and treatment of unfavorable sequelae. RBS induced a mean %EWL of 58 % at 2 years and resolution of comorbidities in 50 % of cases. However, the durability of these effects remains questionable.
Salgado, Wilson; Modotti, Caue; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; Ceneviva, Reginaldo
Iron deficiency and anemia are changes often associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery is responsible for increasing the iron loss and reducing its absorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery and to relate them to possible predisposing factors. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients submitted to open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in which clinical and laboratory data were obtained up to 48 months postoperatively. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of anemia and to the presence or absence of iron deficiency (even without anemia), and all data were compared between these groups. Preoperatively, 21.5% of patients had anemia and 20% had iron deficiency. The number of patients with anemia did not vary through the 4 years of the study, but ferritin levels significantly decreased with time (Pdeficiency. Anemia and iron deficiency are frequent in obese patients and must be treated before surgery. Medical and nutritional surveillance is important in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery. Management of each condition must be directed at correcting the 2 major sources of iron deficiency and anemia: food intolerance (mostly meat intolerance) and losses (frequently due to menstruation). These are the factors more related to iron deficient anemia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narayanan, Ram Prakash; Syed, Akheel A
Bariatric surgery is most commonly carried out in women of childbearing age. Whilst fertility rates are improved, pregnancy following bariatric surgery poses several challenges. Whilst rates of many adverse maternal and foetal outcomes in obese women are reduced after bariatric surgery, pregnancy is best avoided for 12-24 months to reduce the potential risk of intrauterine growth retardation. Dumping syndromes are common after bariatric surgery and can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in pregnancy. Early dumping occurs due to osmotic fluid shifts resulting from rapid gastrointestinal food transit, whilst late dumping is characterized by a hyperinsulinemic response to rapid absorption of simple carbohydrates. Dietary measures are the mainstay of management of dumping syndromes but pharmacotherapy may sometimes become necessary. Acarbose is the least hazardous pharmacological option for the management of postprandial hypoglycemia in pregnancy. Nutrient deficiencies may vary depending on the type of surgery; it is important to optimize the nutritional status of women prior to and during pregnancy. Dietary management should include adequate protein and calorie intake and supplementation of vitamins and micronutrients. A high clinical index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis of surgical complications of prior weight loss procedures during pregnancy, including small bowel obstruction, internal hernias, gastric band erosion or migration and cholelithiasis.
Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Bariatric surgery has become the gold standard treatment for morbid obesity, but there is no consensus regarding its safety and efficacy among individuals with chronic liver diseases. Objective: To critically evaluate the existing evidence on literature about bariatric surgery in individuals with liver cirrhosis. Method: Narrative review performed by means of an online search in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. Results: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in individuals with chronic liver disease without clinical decompensation or significant portal hypertension. Individuals with severe liver function impairment present significantly higher surgical morbidity and mortality. Among candidates to liver transplantation, surgery may be performed before, after and even during transplantation, and there is a predominant trend to perform it after. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy seems to be the most adequate technique in this group of subjects. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in individuals with compensated cirrhosis without significant portal hypertension, but presents higher morbidity. Among candidates to liver transplantation and/or individuals with severe portal hypertension, morbidity and mortality are significantly higher.
Bradley, Joel F; Ross, Samuel W; Christmas, Ashley Britton; Fischer, Peter E; Sachdev, Gaurav; Heniford, Brant Todd; Sing, Ronald F
Complications of bariatric surgeries are common, can occur throughout the patient's lifetime, and can be life-threatening. We examined bariatric surgical complications presenting to our acute care surgery service. Records were reviewed from January 2007 to June 2013 for patients presenting with a complication after bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was the most common index operation (n = 20), followed by open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 6), laparoscopic gastric band (n = 4), and vertical banded gastroplasty (n = 3). Diagnoses included internal hernia (n = 10), small bowel obstruction (n = 5), lap band restriction (n = 4), biliary disease (n = 3), upper GI bleeding or ulcer (n = 3), ischemic bowel (n = 2), marginal ulcer (n = 2), gastric outlet obstruction (n = 2), perforated ulcer (n = 2), intussusception (n = 1), and incarcerated ventral hernia (n = 1). Operations were required in 91% of the patients. Laparoscopic outcomes were similar to open; however, open cases were more emergent (23.5% vs 69.2%) and had longer hospital length of stay (4.8 ± 3.5 vs 11.0 ± 10.3 days, P complications of bariatric surgery. Internal hernias or obstructive etiologies are the most common presentations and often require emergent or urgent surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata
In the field of bariatric surgery, research on symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their interrelationships with other psychological risk factors such as depression and anxiety is scarce. The symptoms of adult ADHD seem to be common in the obese population, but they are rarely investigated before bariatric surgery. ADHD-related symptoms such as impulsivity have at the same time been identified as potential risk factors for less successful weight loss among bariatric surgery patients. The aims of the current study were to screen for symptoms of adult ADHD and to investigate their relationships with other psychological risk factors. Candidates for bariatric surgery (N = 187) were anonymously screened for symptoms of anxiety, depression, and adult ADHD, in addition to disordered eating patterns, by means of questionnaires. The relations between these symptoms were investigated. In the current sample, 10% of patients screened positively for adult ADHD, and the symptoms of adult ADHD were significantly correlated with those of anxiety, depression, and disordered eating. The results show that adult ADHD is more common in this clinical group than in the general population (4%) and that adult ADHD is associated with disordered eating patterns, depression, and anxiety. Further prospective research, using multivariate analysis, is needed to investigate whether the symptoms of adult ADHD, and their interaction with anxiety, depression, or disordered eating, may possibly constitute a risk factor in terms of difficulties in adhering to the post-surgery regime and its potential unfavorable outcome.
Beamish, A J; Johansson, S E; Olbers, T
Obesity represents a vast and rapidly increasing global burden. Bariatric surgery is the only intervention achieving sustained weight loss, among its wide-ranging benefits. In this article, we describe the growing challenges presented by adolescents with severe obesity and review the literature on surgical and other treatment options. Outcomes in terms of weight loss, metabolic and quality of life improvement, reversal of obstructive sleep apnea, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia appear comparable to those seen in adults. However, long-term data on safety and sustainability are lacking. There is a growing acceptance of the need for surgery as a treatment for the morbidly obese adolescent population, and the number of studies reporting outcomes after adolescent bariatric surgery is increasing. Accumulating evidence suggests that the benefits seen in adult bariatric surgery can be reproduced in adolescents. Thus, adolescent bariatric surgery appears to be safe and effective in achieving benefits desired in terms of weight control and improvements in metabolic health and quality of life. However, particular care must be taken when treating a young population, and long-term outcomes are awaited to properly define indications and limitations. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.
Ratnasingham, Kumaran; Knight, James; Liu, Mamie; Karatsai, Eleni; Humadi, Samer; Irukulla, Shashi
Negligence claims in the UK NHS has increased over the last 30 years. The aim of this present study was determine the number of claims and the cost of litigation in Bariatric Surgery and compare it to similar other specialties. Data was received from NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) in response to Freedom of Information data request. There was a total of 7 claims, of which 4 were successful. The total pay out sum was £210,000 in 10 years. This is a very low amount compared to other surgical specialties. This low level of litigation probably indicates that the current bariatric surgical services in the NHS are delivering safe care with good patient satisfaction. This needs to be carefully considered prior to changing the payment tariffs for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kong, Wing Tai; Chopra, Shawn; Kopf, Michael; Morales, Carlos; Khan, Shahzad; Zuccala, Keith; Choi, Laura; Chronakos, John
The use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) perioperatively in bariatric surgery patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been controversial. Although studies have demonstrated that CPAP use is safe in bariatric patients, prior studies have not shown improvement in outcomes in these patients. A retrospective review of patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2009 was performed. All patients underwent polysomnography preoperatively. Patient age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, polysomnogram data, type of bariatric procedure, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications were reviewed. The Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. Among the 352 patients studied, 47 with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 did not receive CPAP postoperatively. A total of 7/47 (14.9 %) developed postoperative pulmonary complications. There were no non-pulmonary complications. Some 9/305 (2.95 %) with CPAP developed pulmonary complications. There were 26/305 patients with all-cause complications (8.52 %). The AHI was higher in the group receiving treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in pulmonary complications between patients with and those without treatment (p value 0.0002). The average length of stay was 3.0 and 3.2 days in treatment and comparison groups, respectively, a difference that did not reach statistical significance. Patients who did not receive CPAP postoperatively developed more pulmonary complications than those with CPAP, suggesting that CPAP might be beneficial in decreasing pulmonary complications in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. However, further investigation is warranted to better delineate other risk factors due to small sample size in our study group.
Davies, Dafydd A; Hamilton, Jill; Dettmer, Elizabeth; Birken, Catherine; Jeffery, Allison; Hagen, John; Anvari, Mehran; Langer, Jacob C
Canada faces a similar epidemic of obesity in their adolescent population as other Western countries. However, the development of programs to treat obesity and manage its sequelae has evolved in a unique way. This is in part due to differences in health care funding, population distribution, public demand, and availability of expertise and resources. In this article, we will describe the evolution of adolescent bariatric care in Canada and describe the current programs and future directions. The focus will be on the province of Ontario, the site of the first adolescent bariatric program in the country. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nijhawan, Sheetal; Richards, William; O'Hea, Martha F; Audia, Jonathon P; Alvarez, Diego F
Obesity and its attendant comorbidities are an emerging epidemic. Chronic metabolic inflammation (metainflammation) is thought to precipitate obesity-associated morbidities; however, its mechanistic progression is poorly understood. Moreover, although interventions such as diet, exercise, and bariatric surgery can control body weight, their effects on metainflammation are also poorly understood. Recently, metainflammation and the pathobiology of obesity have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein we examined the effects of bariatric surgery on mitochondrial respiration as an index of resolving metainflammation in morbidly obese patients. This institutional review board-approved study involved morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in peripheral blood monocytes and in skeletal muscle samples before surgery and at 12 weeks after surgery. Patient biometrics, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, C-reactive protein, and lipid profile were analyzed. Twenty patients were enrolled and showed an average percent excess body weight loss of 30.3% weight loss at 12 weeks after surgery. Average HOMA-IR score decreased from 3.0 to 1.2 in insulin-resistant patients. C-reactive protein, an index of metainflammation, showed a modest decrease. Lipid profile remained stable. Intriguingly, mitochondrial basal and maximal respiration rates in peripheral blood monocytes increased after surgery. Basal rates of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration were unchanged, but the maximal respiration rate trended toward an increase after surgery. Cellular and tissue mitochondrial respiration increased in a morbidly obese patient cohort after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. These changes were consistent in patients with postsurgical weight loss. Importantly, no significant changes or improvements occurred in canonical indices used to
Full Text Available Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the modern world. Because it alters the relationship between the lungs, chest wall and diaphragm, it is to be expected that it impacts on the respiratory function. In Portugal, there is not much data about the relationship between obesity and pulmonary function.The aim of this study was to characterize respiratory function in morbidly obese patients and to evaluate whether weight loss in patients submitted to bariatric surgery affects pulmonary function tests (PFT.We conducted a retrospective study with 36 morbidly obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery, with a mean age of 40.6 years, 64% female and with a mean body mass index (BMI of 49.7Â kg/m2. All patients were clinical and functionally evaluated before surgery and after their weight had stabilized following surgery. They underwent a complete pulmonary function testing with spirometry, lung volumes, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO, maximum respiratory pressures and arterial blood gases analysis. Prior to surgery almost all the patients had functional respiratory changes, 34 had a decrease in functional residual capacity (FRC 6 of whom a restrictive syndrome. Only 2 patients did not show any functional or arterial blood gas change. After bariatric surgery, BMI decreased to 34Â kg/m2 and there was a significant improvement in almost all functional parameters with resolution of restrictive disorders. Nevertheless, in 13 patients the FRC remained decreased.After weight loss, the only correlation found was between reduction of BMI and increased FRC (rÂ =Â â0.371; pÂ =Â 0.028. This study suggests a relationship between obesity and pulmonary restriction and a positive impact of bariatric surgery in PFT. Resumo: A obesidade Ã© considerada um problema de saÃºde pÃºblica da atualidade. Devido ao facto de alterar a relaÃ§Ã£o entre pulmÃµes, parede torÃ¡cica e diafragma, a obesidade tem
Jeng, Eric I; Aranda, Juan M; Ahmed, Mustafa; Klodell, Charles T
Obesity poses significant challenges in advanced heart failure patients who otherwise meet criteria for listing for heart transplant. We present a patient who underwent bariatric surgery while on LVAD support that subsequently lost weight and was successfully bridged to heart transplantation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Courcoulas, Anita P
This review summarizes recent evidence related to the safety, efficacy, and metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery to guide clinical decision making. Several short term randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of bariatric procedures for inducing weight loss and initial remission of type 2 diabetes. Observational studies have linked bariatric procedures with long term improvements in body weight, type 2 diabetes, survival, cardiovascular events, incident cancer, and quality of life. Perioperative mortality for the average patient is low but varies greatly across subgroups. The incidence of major complications after surgery also varies widely, and emerging data show that some procedures are associated with a greater risk of substance misuse disorders, suicide, and nutritional deficiencies. More research is needed to enable long term outcomes to be compared across various procedures and subpopulations, and to identify those most likely to benefit from surgical intervention. Given uncertainties about the balance between the risks and benefits of bariatric surgery in the long term, the decision to undergo surgery should be based on a high quality shared decision making process. PMID:25164369
Creel, David B; Schuh, Leslie M; Newton, Robert L; Stote, Joseph J; Cacucci, Brenda M
Few studies have quantified cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Treadmill testing allows researchers to determine exercise capacity through metabolic equivalents. These findings can assist clinicians in understanding patients' capabilities to carry out various activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to determine exercise tolerance and the variables associated with fitness, among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates completed submaximal treadmill testing and provided ratings of perceived exertion. Each participant also completed questionnaires related to history of exercise, mood, and perceived barriers/benefits of exercise. Over half of participants reported that exercise was "hard to very hard" before reaching 70% of heart rate reserve, and one-third of participants reported that exercise was "moderately hard" at less than 3 metabolic equivalents (light activity). Body mass index and age accounted for the majority of the variance in exercise tolerance, but athletic history, employment status, and perceived health benefits also contributed. Perceived benefit scores were higher than barrier scores. Categories commonly used to describe moderate-intensity exercise (3-6 metabolic equivalents) do not coincide with perceptions of intensity among many bariatric surgery candidates, especially those with a body mass index of 50 or more.
Arterburn, David E; Courcoulas, Anita P
This review summarizes recent evidence related to the safety, efficacy, and metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery to guide clinical decision making. Several short term randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of bariatric procedures for inducing weight loss and initial remission of type 2 diabetes. Observational studies have linked bariatric procedures with long term improvements in body weight, type 2 diabetes, survival, cardiovascular events, incident cancer, and quality of life. Perioperative mortality for the average patient is low but varies greatly across subgroups. The incidence of major complications after surgery also varies widely, and emerging data show that some procedures are associated with a greater risk of substance misuse disorders, suicide, and nutritional deficiencies. More research is needed to enable long term outcomes to be compared across various procedures and subpopulations, and to identify those most likely to benefit from surgical intervention. Given uncertainties about the balance between the risks and benefits of bariatric surgery in the long term, the decision to undergo surgery should be based on a high quality shared decision making process. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2014.
Full Text Available Obesity is a well-known major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and is associated with various comorbidities. The impact of obesity on pulmonary function remains unclear. Reductions in chest wall compliance and respiratory muscle strength due to a high percent body fat and localized fat distribution contributes to impaired pulmonary function and the occurrence of adverse respiratory symptoms. Dietary modifications and pharmaceutical agents are not effective in the long-term treatment of obesity. Treatment of morbidly obese patients using bariatric surgery has increased each year, especially after the introduction of video laparoscopic techniques. Effective weight loss after bariatric surgery may improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, inflammation, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Bariatric surgery has also been associated with significantly improved respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. We currently present a review of principal studies that evaluated the effects of obesity on pulmonary function and the identification of anthropometric factors of obesity that correspond to the reversal of respiratory symptoms and impaired pulmonary function after bariatric surgery.
W.H.W. Tse (Win Hou W); H.M. Kroon (Herman); J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan)
textabstractBackground/Aims: The incidence of morbid obesity has exponentially increased over the last decades. Bariatric surgery (BS) has been proven effective in inducing weight loss and resolving comorbidities associated with morbid obesity. However, BS can also lead to major diagnostic and
da Silva, Paola Turchiello; Patias, Luciana Dapieve; Alvarez, Glauco da Costa; Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos; Colpo, Elisângela; de Moraes, Cristina Machado Bragança
Nowadays obesity is a chronic disease considered one of the greatest problems in public healthy. Showing to be effective in a short and long term, the bariatric surgery has emerged as an optional treatment for morbid obesity. Identify the profile of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Were interviewed 100 patients in preoperative nutritional monitoring of bariatric surgery. The study was conducted by applying a questionnaire prepared according to the research objectives. From the individuals that were seeking bariatric surgery, 78% were female, 62% were married and 69% reported physical activity. The average age of those surveyed was 37±10.83 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.51± 6.25 kg/m². The comorbidity more prevalent in this group was high blood pressure (51%). In previous treatments for weight reduction, 92% have already done hypocaloric diet followed by anorectic drug (83%). The success of these treatments was reported by 92% of patients; however, the weight lost was recovered in less than one year of 75%. Patients with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia had higher BMI values. The patients with comorbidities showed lower levels of BMI. The profile of patients who sought surgical treatment for their obesity were predominantly women with a family background of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Eddy, F; Elvin, S; Sanmani, L
Bariatric surgery is becoming increasingly common in the UK. Little has been done to evaluate its place in HIV-positive patients. Here, we discuss a successful case and the complexities surrounding highly active antiretroviral therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Due to population ageing, the elderly obese population is increasing. Bariatric surgery is the standard treatment option for morbid obesity nowadays, but there is some controversy regarding its routine indication in the elderly population. Objetive: To review the current evidence about bariatric surgery in the elderly. Method: On-line search in the electronic databases Medline and Lilacs and compilation of the most significant data. The most relevant studies in the area over the past 16 years have been considered for this review. Results: There was significant methodological heterogeneity in the studies found in the literature. Historically, old age was associated with poorer outcomes after bariatric surgery, both in regards to early postoperative complications and less weight loss, and resolution of comorbidities. More recent studies have shown better results, with morbidity and mortality comparable to those observed in younger populations. More cautious patient selection and the evolution of the surgical technique appear to be the cause of such improvement. An extended multidisciplinary team including a geriatrician and a social worker may also help to improve the preoperative approach. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective therapeutic option in the elderly population, but careful patient selection and specific preoperative assessment are mandatory.
Cazzo, Everton; Gestic, Martinho Antonio; Utrini, Murillo Pimentel; Chaim, Felipe David Mendonça; Callejas-Neto, Francisco; Pareja, José Carlos; Chaim, Elinton Adami
Due to population ageing, the elderly obese population is increasing. Bariatric surgery is the standard treatment option for morbid obesity nowadays, but there is some controversy regarding its routine indication in the elderly population. Objetive: To review the current evidence about bariatric surgery in the elderly. On-line search in the electronic databases Medline and Lilacs and compilation of the most significant data. The most relevant studies in the area over the past 16 years have been considered for this review. There was significant methodological heterogeneity in the studies found in the literature. Historically, old age was associated with poorer outcomes after bariatric surgery, both in regards to early postoperative complications and less weight loss, and resolution of comorbidities. More recent studies have shown better results, with morbidity and mortality comparable to those observed in younger populations. More cautious patient selection and the evolution of the surgical technique appear to be the cause of such improvement. An extended multidisciplinary team including a geriatrician and a social worker may also help to improve the preoperative approach. Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective therapeutic option in the elderly population, but careful patient selection and specific preoperative assessment are mandatory.
Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo
When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Yska, Jan Peter; Gertsen, Sanneke; Flapper, Gerbrich; Emous, Marloes; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N.
Background Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided in bariatric surgery patients. If use of an NSAID is inevitable, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should also be used. Aim To determine the effect of an, compared to care-as-usual, additional intervention to reduce NSAID
Sarwer, David B; Dilks, Rebecca J; Spitzer, Jacqueline C; Berkowitz, Robert I; Wadden, Thomas A; Moore, Renee H; Chittams, Jesse L; Brandt, Mary L; Chen, Mike K; Courcoulas, Anita P; Harmon, Carroll M; Helmrath, Michael A; Michalsky, Marc P; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Zeller, Meg H; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H
A growing number of studies suggest that bariatric surgery is safe and effective for adolescents with severe obesity. However, surprisingly little is known about changes in dietary intake and eating behavior of adolescents who undergo bariatric surgery. Investigate changes in dietary intake and eating behavior of adolescents with obesity who underwent bariatric surgery (n = 119) or lifestyle modification (LM) (n = 169). University-based health systems METHODS: A prospective investigation of 288 participants (219 female and 69 male) prior to bariatric surgery or LM and again 6, 12, and 24 months (surgery patients only) after treatment. Measures included changes in weight, macronutrient intake, eating behavior, and relevant demographic and physiological variables. Adolescents who underwent bariatric surgery experienced significantly greater weight loss than those who received LM. The two groups differed in self-reported intake of a number of macronutrients at 6 and 12 months from baseline, but not total caloric intake. Patients treated with surgery, compared to those treated with LM, also reported significantly greater reductions in a number of disordered eating symptoms. After bariatric surgery, greater weight loss from postoperative month 6 to 12 was associated with self-reported weight consciousness, craving for sweets, and consumption of zinc. Adolescents who underwent bariatric surgery, compared to those who received LM, reported significantly greater reductions in weight after 1 year. They also reported greater reductions in disordered eating symptoms. These findings provide new information on changes in dietary intake and eating behavior among adolescents who undergo bariatric surgery.
Gregory, Deborah M; Temple Newhook, Julia; Twells, Laurie K
In Canada waiting lists for bariatric surgery are common, with wait times on average > 5 years. The meaning of waiting for bariatric surgery from the patients' perspective must be understood if health care providers are to act as facilitators in promoting satisfaction with care and quality care outcomes. The aims of this study were to explore patients' perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery, the meaning and experience of waiting, the psychosocial and behavioral impact of waiting for treatment and identify health care provider and health system supportive measures that could potentially improve the waiting experience. Twenty-one women and six men engaged in in-depth interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis between June 2011 and April 2012. The data were subjected to re-analysis to identify perceived health care provider and health system barriers to accessing bariatric surgery. Thematic analysis identified inequity as a barrier to accessing bariatric surgery. Three areas of perceived inequity were identified from participants' accounts: socioeconomic inequity, regional inequity, and inequity related to waitlist prioritization. Although excited about their acceptance as candidates for surgery, the waiting period was described as stressful, anxiety provoking, and frustrating. Anger was expressed towards the health care system for the long waiting times. Participants identified the importance of health care provider and health system supports during the waiting period. Recommendations on how to improve the waiting experience included periodic updates from the surgeon's office about their position on the wait list; a counselor who specializes in helping people going through this surgery, dietitian support and further information on what to expect after surgery, among others. Patients' perceptions of accessing and waiting for bariatric surgery are shaped by perceived
Donaldson, Kendall E; Fishler, Jane
To review the case of a 41-year-old woman who underwent bariatric surgery in 2000. She subsequently underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery in 2008 and complained of dry eye since the LASIK surgery. In November 2010, she was diagnosed with a corneal melt and was treated with aggressive lubrication, followed by eventual amniotic membrane placement and a tarsorrhaphy. She then presented for consultation at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute when she developed a corneal infiltrate. She was diagnosed with fungal keratitis with corneal xerosis. At that time, vitamin A levels were measured and were less than 2 μ/dL. The patient admitted noncompliance with nutritional supplements. Case report. The patient was treated with aggressive lubrication and natamycin. Vitamin supplements were restarted, and the patient experienced dramatic improvement in symptoms with resolution of the infection. A central corneal scar with corneal thinning remains. The patient underwent a penetrating keratoplasty for visual rehabilitation. Patient education with emphasis on compliance with nutritional supplements is essential after bariatric surgery. Consider vitamin A deficiency in the differential diagnosis of dry eye after LASIK surgery.
Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B
AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...
Ji Chung Tham
Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide problem with numerous associated health problems. The number of patients eligible for surgery outnumber surgical capacity and so patients need to be prioritised based on their obesity- related health burden and comorbidities. Weight loss as a result of bariatric surgery is significant and maintained in the long term. In addition to weight loss, patient health improves in terms of metabolic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease. As a result, quality of life is better, along with psychosocial wellbeing. Bariatric surgery is associated with a relatively low number of complications and appears to result in a reduction in mortality risk due to the resolution of comorbidities. Hence, surgery can now be routinely considered as an adjunct to medical therapy in the management of obesity.
Guelinckx, Isabelle; Devlieger, Roland; Vansant, Greet
After many cycles of weight loss and weight gain, more and more morbidly obese patients undergo bariatric surgery, like gastric banding or gastric bypass, as the ultimate treatment for their obesity-problem. Since women of reproductive age are candidates for bariatric surgery, concerns arise regarding the potential impact on future pregnancy. English-language articles were identified in a PUBMED search from 1982 to January 2008 using the keywords for pregnancy and bariatric surgery or gastric bypass or gastric banding. The few reported case-control and cohort studies clearly show improved fertility and a reduced risk in obstetrical complications, including gestational diabetes, macrosomia and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in women after operatively induced weight loss when compared with morbidly obesity women. The incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) appears to be increased, however. No conclusions can be drawn concerning the risk for preterm labour and miscarriage, although these risks are probably increased compared with controls matched for body mass index. Operative complications are not uncommon with bariatric surgery and several cases have pointed to the increased risk for intestinal hernias and nutritional deficiencies in subsequent pregnancy. Deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, vitamin B(12), vitamin K, folate and calcium can result in both maternal complications, such as severe anaemia, and fetal complications, such as congenital abnormalities, IUGR and failure to thrive. Close supervision before, during and after pregnancy following bariatric surgery and nutrient supplementation adapted to the patient's individual requirements can help to prevent nutrition-related complications and improve maternal and fetal health, in this high-risk obstetric population.
Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.
This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645
Wolfe, Bruce M; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H
This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health, which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by nonsurgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the comorbidities, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea, and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors after weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality after weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed, and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Parker, Katrina; Mitchell, Sarah; O'Brien, Paul; Brennan, Leah
Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective weight loss intervention for obese persons. However, accurate assessment is essential to identify disordered eating that may impair achievement of optimal post-surgical outcomes. Measures of disordered eating are yet to be thoroughly psychometrically evaluated in bariatric surgery patients, therefore their utility is unknown. Participants were 108 adults who completed psychological measures approximately 12 months after bariatric surgery. The fit of the original scale structures was tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and alternative factor solutions were generated using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Reliability (internal consistency) and construct validity (convergent and divergent) were also assessed. Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns Revised (QEWP-R), Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA). CFA revealed none of the original disordered eating measures met adequate fit statistics. EFA produced revised scales with improved reliability (original scales α=0.47-0.94; revised scales α=0.76-0.98) and correlational analyses with measures of psychological wellbeing and impairment demonstrated adequate convergent validity. Reported prevalence of disordered eating behaviours differed between the EDE-Q and QEWP-R. Psychometric evaluation did not support the use of the commonly used disordered eating measures in bariatric patients in their original form. The revised version of the EDE-Q replicates findings from recent research in bariatric surgery candidates. The alternate structures of the CIA and TFEQ suggest differences in the manifestation of disordered eating following surgery. Results suggest that revised measures are required to overcome the limitations of existing measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puia, Aida; Puia, Ion Cosmin; Cristea, Paul Gabriel
Obesity is the fastest growing health problem worldwide. Ethical issues linked to obesity are numerous and still under debate even in countries with a long history in obesity treatment. From 2007 to 2015 we performed several types of bariatric surgical approaches on 250 patients with an average body mass index (BMI) of 42. The age range was 12-64 years. No death was recorded. Direct or phone contact was possible with 90% of them during follow-up. Starting from a specific question based approach in ethics we present aspects regarding obesity surgery in Romania. Patients' safety, informed consent, cost cover, the role of bariatric surgery in children and bariatric surgeons' training are discussed. Co-morbidities improved or even disappeared in 90% of our patients. Informed consent is a major problem, due to the lack of public knowledge necessary. The private system in Romania offers bariatric surgery at lower prices than Western Europe but is still out of reach for a person with an average income. Lack of maturity and disharmonic family relations raise a series of challenges in assessing the best interest of children and adolescents. Ethics committees, which operate according to well-defined processes, are more and more active in universities and research centers in Romania, checking that methods and performance of scientific studies meet adequate standards. A detailed informed consent, thorough preoperative patient assessment and method selection are mandatory for good results in obesity surgery. Insufficient financial resources combined with the long time necessary to acquire the expertise for laparoscopic bariatric surgery may represent an additional pressure on both physicians and patients.
Hommel, Christophe; Delgrange, Etienne
We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient with hypothyroidism who underwent bariatric surgery and developed severe hypothyroidism despite high doses of oral levothyroxine (L-T4) tablets. Initially, a high-dose L-T4 tablets absorption test was performed to exclude pseudo-malabsorption. In view of a modest increase in serum T4 levels, L-T4 liquid formulation absorption test was performed, and showed faster and more efficient absorption of thyroid hormones. We discuss the issue of distinguishing malabsorption from pseudo-malabsorption, review the literature concerning the benefits of liquid L-T4 in cases of impaired absorption such as bariatric surgery and consider the socio-economic implications of different liquid formulations.
Full Text Available Objective: Cushing's syndrome (CS is extremely rare in morbidly obese patients. To date, no occurrences in obese patients with BMI above 60 kg/m2 have been reported in the literature. Case Report: This case report describes a patient who was admitted to the ward of the Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Medical University of Vienna in preparation for bariatric surgery. The patient was a 49-year-old female who showed morbid obesity (BMI 61.6 kg/m2, hypertension, and substituted hypothyroidism. Preoperative work-up revealed CS due to an adrenal adenoma. Therefore, the patient underwent unilateral adrenalectomy followed by bariatric surgery 6 months later. Conclusion: Since undiagnosed CS might result in severe perioperative complications in a population already at increased risk, this case report underlines the importance of careful endocrine evaluation of morbidly obese patients. After all, even rare endocrine causes should be excluded.
Delgado Floody, Pedro; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Concha Díaz, Manuel; Ovalle Elgueta, Héctor; Osorio Poblete, Aldo
in Chile, a high prevalence of women presents morbid obesity, this condition generates serious medical complications and high costs for public health. to determine the effects of a total treatment program consisting of physical exercise, psychological therapy and nutrition education on the preoperative conditions of obese women candidates for bariatric surgery. nineteen women between the ages of 30 and 55 applicants to bariatric surgery, with morbid obesity (n=6) or obesity and comorbidities (n=13), underwent a program of comprehensive treatment of sixteen weeks duration (3 session/week). Before and 72 hours after the last intervention session was evaluated on fasting (≥12 hours): body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (% BF), contour waist (CW) and basal blood glucose. Cardiorespiratory fitness was also estimated. the average age was 40.32 years, post-sixteen weeks of comprehensive treatment study variables improved significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the feasibility and safety of bariatric procedures nowadays, high-risk patients with vast obesity and severe comorbidities demonstrate relatively high perioperative morbidity and mortality rates and, therefore, form a distinguished challenge for the bariatric surgeons. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed high-risk patients, who underwent bariatric surgery in University Hospital Leipzig between May 2012 and December 2016. High-risk patients were defined when (Bergeat et al., 2016 at least one of the following risk factors was met: age ≥ 70 years, body mass index (BMI > 70 kg/m2, liver cirrhosis, end-organ failure, or immunosuppression by status after organ transplantation along with (Birkmeyer et al., 2010 at least two comorbidities associated with obesity. Our analysis included early postoperative complications. Results. A total of 25 high-risk obese patients were identified. All patients had a standardized postoperative management with a mean length of hospital stay of 4 ± 1.4 days. One patient required an operative revision due to a stapler line leak after sleeve gastrectomy. No other major postoperative complications occurred. Conclusion. Bariatric surgery for severe high-risk patients can be performed safely in high-volume centers following standardized procedures.
Kruljac, Ivan; Mirošević, Gorana; Kirigin, Lora S; Nikolić, Marko; Ljubičić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Bekavac Bešlin, Miroslav; Vrkljan, Milan
Although various metabolic hormones have been implicated in bariatric-related weight loss, their use as predictors of weight loss is unknown. Our study evaluates changes in metabolic hormones after bariatric surgery, and their role as predictors of weight loss. This nonrandomized study included 51 patients, 21 underwent laporascopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), 15 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 15 Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Serum ghrelin, leptin, insulin, growth hormone, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β was recorded at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, and correlated with weight loss. Successful weight loss was defined as excess weight loss >50% at 12 months for all groups. Weight loss pattern was similar in all groups. Ghrelin increased only in the LAGB group (P = 0·016). However, baseline ghrelin concentrations >664·6 pg/mL in the LSG group predicted successful weight loss with 81·8% sensitivity and 100·0% specificity, and ghrelin >969·8 pg/mL in the 1st postoperative month predicted success with 83·3% sensitivity and 83·3% specificity in the LAGB group. Insulin and HOMA-IR decreased significantly in the LSG and RYGB group, HOMA-β increased in the LAGB and LSG group. Serum leptin decreased and GH increased in all groups (P Validation studies are required to confirm the role of ghrelin in predicting weight loss after bariatric surgery, but also in selecting candidates for specific bariatric procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Quyên Pham, Thu; Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Verkindt, Hélène; Deruelle, Philippe; Pattou, François
Bariatric surgery is performed mostly on obese women of reproductive age. Many authors have studied pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery. Only a small number of studies have analyzed the impact of maternity on the results of bariatric surgery. To study the effect of pregnancy on long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery. Lille University Hospital. A retrospective study was conducted on 591 women aged 18 to 42 years who had undergone laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) surgery or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery between 1996 and 2012. A comparison of the results after a 5-year follow-up was performed between patients who became pregnant after their bariatric surgery (pregnant group, n = 84) and postoperative nonpregnant women (nonpregnant group, n = 507). At the 5-year visit, 84.8% patients were seen. The preoperative body mass index (BMI) was the same in the 2 groups (pregnant group: 47.8±6.9 kg/m(2); nonpregnant group: 47.5±7.2 kg/m(2); P = .755). The percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) was lower in the pregnant group at 2 years (pregnant group = 45.9±24.6%; nonpregnant group = 56.9±28.6%, P = .002) but was similar at 5 years (47.7±27.7% versus 49.9±28.9%, P = .644). The decrease in co-morbidities was similar after 5 years. The gestational weight gain (GWG) was higher when the band was deflated during pregnancy (GWG =+12.7±10.5 kg) compared to the band without fluid removal (GWG =+4.9±7 kg) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GWG =+4.4±1.1 kg) (Pbariatric surgery slows down postoperative weight loss but does not affect weight results at 5-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koball, Afton M; Clark, Matthew M; Collazo-Clavell, Maria; Kellogg, Todd; Ames, Gretchen; Ebbert, Jon; Grothe, Karen B
Food addiction (FA) may be related to poor weight loss outcomes; however, the literature on food addiction in bariatric surgery-seeking populations is limited. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of FA in a bariatric surgery-seeking population and its association with mood, problematic eating behaviors, and substance use. The relationship between prebariatric surgery food addiction screening and postsurgical outcomes was assessed. Academic medical center. Adult outpatients (n = 923) seeking bariatric surgery underwent psychological evaluation between January 2012 and May 2014. Patients were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to assess FA. Of the original sample, 195 patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients returned for medical follow-up at 6 (n = 169) and 12 (n = 113) months postsurgery; 26 (13%) patients at 6 months and 82 (42%) patients at 12 months were lost to follow-up or had not reached 1 year postsurgery. Fourteen percent of patients met FA criteria. Patients positive for FA were more likely to endorse greater levels of depression, anxiety, binge eating episodes, nighttime eating syndrome, and low eating self-efficacy. No relationship was observed between FA and current substance use. FA did not predict postoperative outcomes including weight loss, rehospitalization, or attendance at follow-up medical appointments. FA is related to psychological distress and eating disordered behaviors among bariatric patients. However, FA was not predictive of short-term (6-12 mo) bariatric surgery outcomes. Future research should determine how FA affects long-term postoperative outcomes and mood stability. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
I-Ching Lin; Ying Li Lin
A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an impo...
Burgmer, Ramona; Legenbauer, Tanja; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Fischer, Charlotte; Herpertz, Stephan
Extreme obesity is associated with severe psychiatric and somatic comorbidity and impairment of psychosocial functioning. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment not only with regard to weight loss but also with obesity-associated illnesses. Health-related psychological and psychosocial variables have been increasingly considered as important outcome variables of bariatric surgery. However, the long-term impact of bariatric surgery on psychological and psychosocial functioning is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the course of weight and psychological variables including depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and self-esteem up to 4 years after obesity surgery.By standardized questionnaires prior to (T1) and 1 year (T2), 2 years (T3), and 4 years (T4) after surgery, 148 patients (47 males (31.8 %), 101 females (68.2 %), mean age 38.8 ± 10.2 years) were assessed.On average, participants lost 24.6 % of their initial weight 1 year after surgery, 25.1 % after 2 years, and 22.3 % after 4 years. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvements in depressive symptoms, physical dimension of quality of life, and self-esteem with peak improvements 1 year after surgery. These improvements were largely maintained. Significant correlations between weight loss and improvements in depression, physical aspects of HRQOL (T2, T3, and T4), and self-esteem (T3) were observed.Corresponding to the considerable weight loss after bariatric surgery, important aspects of mental health improved significantly during the 4-year follow-up period. However, parallel to weight regain, psychological improvements showed a slow but not significant decline over time.
Schneider, Nicole M; Tully, Carrie B; Washington, Gia A; Price, Karin L
Bariatric surgery is an invasive medical treatment for morbid obesity that requires behavioral maintenance for physical success. Patient knowledge, motivation, and adherence are important factors in optimizing results. The purpose of the present study was to identify perceived informational gaps of adolescent and young adult bariatric surgery patients with morbid obesity (body mass index≥40 kg/m(2)). This study took place in a pediatric tertiary care academic medical center. Thirty-one adolescents/young adults who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery at the authors' institution were recruited to complete questionnaires at their postsurgical visits (≥3 months postsurgery). Seventeen caregivers also participated in this study. The questionnaire used in the present study prompted patients and caregivers to reflect on information they wish they had known before surgery; questionnaire items included multiple choice and open-ended questions. Participants indicated that their informational needs were generally well met before surgery, although there were more needs noted by patients than by caregivers. Adolescent/young adult participants expressed a desire to have had more information about the necessity of taking vitamins daily and about having more gas. An association between informational needs and satisfaction was also found. Qualitative data revealed the importance of conveying cognitive-behavioral aspects of surgery to families (e.g., adherence, motivation). Despite most patients and caregivers being satisfied with the adolescent bariatric surgery program at the authors' institution, informational gaps exist. Teen-friendly ways to disseminate information would be helpful in influencing patients' satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elbahrawy, Aly; Bougie, Alexandre; Loiselle, Sarah-Eve; Demyttenaere, Sebastian; Court, Olivier; Andalib, Amin
Indications and outcomes of bariatric surgery in older adults suffering from morbid obesity remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate safety and medium to long-term outcomes of bariatric procedures in this patient population. University Hospital, Canada. This is a single-center retrospective study of a prospectively collected database. We included patients aged ≥60 years who underwent sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch between January 2006 and December 2014 and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Of patients, 115 underwent bariatric surgeries (11 patients had 2 procedures). There were 66 were super-obese patients (body mass index>50 kg/m 2 ). Of patients, 74% had sleeve gastrectomy, 16% Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and 8% underwent biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Mean age and body mass index were 63.3 ± 2.6 years and 51.7 ± 8.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. Average follow-up time was 42 ± 19 months. At baseline, 78% had hypertension, 60% had type 2 diabetes, and 30% had obstructive sleep apnea. There was no 30-day mortality. Complication rate was 14% (n = 16): 2 leaks post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 1 leak post-biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, 1 obstruction post-sleeve gastrectomy, 1 bleeding requiring transfusion, 1 liver injury with bile leak, 2 port-site hernias, 1 myocardial infarction, 2 gastrojejunal strictures, 1 wound infection, 1 urinary tract infection, and 3 gastric reflux exacerbations. Mean percent excess weight loss at 2 years was 52.2 ± 23.8. Remission rates of hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea were 26%, 44%, and 38%, respectively. Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in improving obesity-related co-morbidities in older patients suffering from morbid obesity. Age alone should not preclude older patients from getting the best bariatric procedure for obesity and related co-morbidities. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric
Jeremy F. Kubik
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
Kubik, Jeremy F; Gill, Richdeep S; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer
Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient's sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
Dubern, Béatrice; Tounian, Patrice
The increased frequency of extreme forms of obesity in adolescents and the disappointing results of conventional treatments are now leading pediatricians to consider bariatric or cosmetic surgery as the only real long-term effective therapeutic alternative. The two main techniques currently used for bariatric surgery in adolescents are gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding. Whatever the technique, weight loss is significant with improvement of comorbidities and quality of life. In addition, the complications are identical to those in adults and equally frequent. However, because of the particularities of this age, caution is still required. Adolescence is indeed characterized by specific nutritional needs, but also changes in body image in which surgery could have a negative effect. Currently, all obese teenagers making a request for bariatric surgery should have a comprehensive assessment with global care for at least 6 months. The indication is then discussed on a case-by-case basis by multidisciplinary teams and experts. To date, the type of surgery (gastric banding, gastric sleeve, or bypass) is still widely discussed. Based on experience with adults, we believe that gastric sleeve and bypass should be preferred. In addition, obesity in adolescents almost always involves psychosocial consequences, while somatic complications are rare. Thus, the care of adipo- or gynecomastia, abdominal fat excess, and concealed penis is essential and therefore justifies cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
González Navarro, I; Pereira Cunill, J L; Serrano Aguayo, P; Morales Conde, S; Martos Martínez, J M; García Luna, P P
Obesity is the most frequent metabolic disease in the World, and is associated with several comorbidities. Bariatric procedures arise as a promising treatment when classical approach is ineffective. Half of the operated patients are reproductive-aged women and there is evidence that obesity is related to worse maternal and fetal outcomes. Because nutritional status is affected by bariatric surgery and is a vital component during pregnancy, the aim of our study is to asses the impact of bariatric surgery on pregnancy in these patients. We studied 10 women and 15 pregnancies following bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2009. The visits took place every three months by an obstetrician and an endocrinologist with experience in nutrition, recording clinical features and lab work. We found iron deficiency in 80% of the pregnancies, vitamin D in 46,7%, vitamin A in 20%, vitamin E in 13,3% and vitamin B12 in 26,7%. There were no complications during pregnancy, except one case of gravidic hiperemesis. There were nine deliveries without malformations, three of them were small for gestational age newborns and one suffered aspiration pneumonia. There were three stillbirths and one preterm delivery with fetal death. our results show fewer complications during pregnancy in these women than obese women and similar to general population.
Nagendran, Myura; Carlin, Arthur M; Bacal, Daniel; Genaw, Jeffrey A; Hawasli, Abdelkader A; Birkmeyer, Nancy J; Finks, Jonathan F
Evidence on remission of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after bariatric surgery and its relation to weight loss is conflicting. We sought to identify factors associated with successful self-reported OSA remission in a large cohort of bariatric surgery patients. We analyzed data from the statewide, prospective clinical registry of the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative and identified 3,550 patients with OSA who underwent a primary bariatric procedure between June 2006 and October 2011 and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify preoperative factors associated with successful self-reported OSA remission, defined as discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure or bilevel positive airway pressure at 1 year. Our regression model also included procedure type and weight loss at 1 year, divided into equal quintiles, as covariates. The overall 1-year self-reported OSA remission rate was 60%. Significant predictors of remission included age category (per 10 yr) (OR .73, CI .69-.78), body mass index category (per 10 units) (OR .57, CI .54-.62), male gender (OR .58, CI .52-.69), hypertension (OR .83, CI .74-.99), depression (OR .78, CI .69-.88), pulmonary disease (OR .88, CI .78-.98), and baseline Health and Activities Limitations Index score (OR 1.70, CI 1.32-2.23). Relative to gastric banding, the adjusted odds of OSA remission were greater with gastric bypass (OR 2.38, CI 1.89-3.08), sleeve gastrectomy (OR 2.01, CI 1.44-2.55), and duodenal switch (OR 2.57, CI 1.02-7.26). The odds ratio of OSA remission increased stepwise through quintiles of 1-year weight loss. Relative to the lowest quintile, the odds ratios of remission in the 2(nd) through 5(th) quintiles were 1.44 (CI 1.11-1.84), 2.03 (CI 1.48-2.57), 2.47 (1.85-3.40), and 3.53 (CI 2.56-4.85). Weight loss is an important predictor of self-reported OSA remission after bariatric surgery. However, independent of weight loss, there remain significant
Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective immediate weight loss method for the morbidly obese, despite widely reported weight regain after a few years. Appetite, satiety and satiation control are essential to maintaining a long-term result post-surgery. Dietary fatty acids composition may be implicated in the satiety. As flaxseed is a food high in linolenic acid, we aimed to verify the influence of flaxseed fat on appetite and satiety of women after bariatric surgery.Material and methods: Six women who underwent bariatric surgery at least 2 years before participated in a single-blind crossover trial that compared the effect of two isocaloric meals on satiety, one containing whole golden flaxseed (high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber (G1 and another withdefatted flaxseed (high in fiber (G2, with one week of washout period. This variable was estimated by visual analogue scales in both meals at baseline (T0, immediately after ingestion (T1 and 60, 120, and 180 minutes after the meal (T60, T120 and T180. Fasting anthropometric, body composition, laboratory tests (glucose and lipids and dietary variables, were evaluated while fasting.Results: The volunteers were obese and had excess central adiposity, even after two years of surgery and still showed habitual fibre intake below recommended levels. G1 had reduced hunger after 180 minutes compared to G2 (P=.046. Other parameters related to appetite and satiety did not differ between groups.Conclusions: Less hunger was observed after 180 minutes in whole golden flaxseed meal compared with the defatted flaxseed meal, indicating that the whole golden flaxseed meal, possibly, supports obesity treatment in the long-term after bariatric surgery by controlling appetite and satiety sensations.
Boules, Mena; Chang, Julietta; Haskins, Ivy N; Sharma, Gautam; Froylich, Dvir; El-Hayek, Kevin; Rodriguez, John; Kroh, Matthew
Understanding the technical constructs of bariatric surgery is important to the treating endoscopist to maximize effective endoluminal therapy. Post-operative complication rates vary widely based on the complication of interest, and have been reported to be as high as 68% following adjustable gastric banding. Similarly, there is a wide range of presenting symptoms for post-operative bariatric complications, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and weight regain, all of which may provoke an endoscopic assessment. Bleeding and anastomotic leak are considered to be early (complications, whereas strictures, marginal ulcers, band erosions, and weight loss failure or weight recidivism are typically considered late (> 30 d) complications. Treatment of complications in the immediate post-operative period may require unique considerations. Endoluminal therapies serve as adjuncts to surgical and radiographic procedures. This review aims to summarize the spectrum and efficacy of endoscopic management of post-operative bariatric complications.
Hamdan, K; Somers, S; Chand, M
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and the past decade has witnessed an exponential rise in the number of bariatric operations performed. As a consequence, an increasing number of patients are presenting to non-specialist units with complications following bariatric procedures. This article outlines the management of the most common late postoperative complications that are likely to present to the general surgeon. A search was conducted for late postoperative complications after bariatric surgery using PubMed, Embase, OVID and Google search engines, and combinations of the terms bariatric surgery, gastric bypass, gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy, and late or delayed complications. Only studies with follow-up longer than 6 months were included. The most common long-term complications after gastric banding include band slippage and erosion. Deflation or removal of the band is often required. Internal hernia, adhesions and anastomotic stenosis are common causes of intestinal obstruction after gastric bypass surgery. Hepatobiliary complications pose a particular challenge because of the altered anatomy. Functional disorders such as reflux and dumping, and nutritional deficiencies are common and should be differentiated from conditions that require urgent investigations and timely surgical intervention. The immediate management of bariatric patients presenting with complications outside the immediate postoperative period requires adherence to basic surgical principles. Accurate diagnosis often relies on high-quality contrast and cross-sectional imaging, and effective surgical intervention necessitates a broad understanding of the altered anatomy, advanced surgical skills and liaison with specialists in the field when necessary. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E
Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 and those with BMI > 35 kg/m2 with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review. PMID:25429323
Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E
Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) and those with BMI > 35 kg/m(2) with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review.
Moaad, Farraj; Zakhar, Bramnik; Anton, Kvasha; Moner, Merie; Wisam, Sbeit; Safy, Farraj; Igor, Waksman
The objective of this study was to evaluate the coagulation profile by thromboelastography in morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Morbid obesity entails increased risk for thromboembolic events. There is no clear protocol for thromboembolic prophylaxis, regarding timing and length of treatment, in bariatric surgery. Thromboelastography provides data on a coagulation process from creation of the clot until the fibrinolysis. Ninety-three morbidly obese patients were prospectively recruited within a 2-year period. Coagulation profile was measured by thromboelastography before surgery, in the immediate postoperative period, within 3 h from surgery, and in the late postoperative period, within 10-14 days after surgery. Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis was achieved by giving low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), once a day. Of the eligible patients, 67 underwent sleeve gastrectomy while 23 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Normal values of coagulation factor function, clotting time, and fibrin function, as measured by R, K, and α (angle), were demonstrated in addition to higher maximal amplitude (MA) values, reflecting increased function of platelets. The average MA value before the surgery was above normal and continued rising consistently in the immediate postoperative as well as in the early postoperative period. Morbidly obese patients have a strong tendency toward thrombosis, as demonstrated by pathologically elevated MA values. Altered coagulation profiles were demonstrated 2 weeks postoperatively; thus, prophylaxis that continued at least for 2 weeks after bariatric surgery should be considered. Since LMW heparin is not sufficient alone as thromboembolic prophylaxis, we recommend adding antiplatelet therapy. Further evaluation of appropriate thromboprophylaxis is warranted.
Chuang, Janet; Zeller, Meg H; Inge, Thomas; Crimmins, Nancy
Bariatric surgery has been effective in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); it has not been used frequently in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This is the first case series reporting on the effect of bariatric surgery on diabetes control in adolescents with T1DM. Patient A is a 19-year-old obese man with T1DM who underwent vertical sleeve gastrectomy. At 12 months after surgery he demonstrated 28% reduction in BMI. His daily total insulin requirement had decreased; however, hemoglobin A1c remained primarily unchanged at 8.8%. Patient B is a 13-year-old obese girl with an initial clinical diagnosis of T2DM controlled on only metformin. She underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; at 1 month after surgery she presented in diabetic ketoacidosis and was found to have positive islet cell antibodies, which were also present before surgery. Her diagnosis was revised to T1DM, and she was started on insulin. By 28 months after surgery her BMI had decreased by 42%. Since initiation of insulin, her daily total insulin requirement had decreased, but hemoglobin A1c had significantly worsened from 6.3% to 10%. We found that despite significant weight loss, improvements in cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea), and quality of life in our patients, bariatric surgery does not necessarily lead to improved glycemic control of T1DM. Patients with T1DM have ongoing dependency on exogenous insulin, and optimal glycemic control still depends on patient compliance with diabetes care.
Julio F.M. Marchini
Full Text Available Objective The objective of the present study was to identify new risk factors associated with longer hospitalization following bariatric surgery. Methods Patient clinical, social, and biochemical data in addition to multidisciplinary team experience were analyzed in a cohort that included all patients undergoing bariatric surgery at our hospital. The primary outcome was length of hospital stay (LOS. Mortality was recorded to validate the obesity surgery mortality risk score (OS-MRS. Results This study included 299 sequential patients, 41 ± 10 years of age, and BMI of 50 ± 8 kg/m 2 who underwent bariatric surgery. Two thirds (196 of patients were hypertensive, a third (86 were diabetic and a third (91 were current or former smokers. Overall, LOS was 8 ± 5 days. The predictors of a longer LOS were smoking ( P < 0.05 and less multidisciplinary team experience ( P < 0.05. Looking at only the last three years of data, LOS was 6 ± 5 days, and the predictors of a longer LOS were low educational attainment ( P < 0.02 and smoking ( P < 0.01 but not team experience. The global mortality was 2.6%, with the OS-MRS identifying a high-risk group. Conclusion Excluding the initial learning phase, longer LOS independent predictors were patient low educational attainment and smoking. These predictors can help guide care to reduce complications.
Dane, Bari; Clark, Jaclyn; Megibow, Alec
The purpose of this study is to review multidetector computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of mesenteric venous thrombosis occurring following bariatric surgery. To our knowledge, this complication has not been described in the radiologic literature. Multidetector CT examinations of 6 patients known to have developed mesenteric venous thrombosis after laparoscopic bariatric surgery were reviewed. The thrombus was characterized, and associated imaging findings including presence of mesenteric edema, small bowel edema, and thrombotic complications were described. Four patients underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy approximately 12 days before CT diagnosis of mesenteric thrombosis and 2 patients had a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass approximately 11 years before imaging diagnosis of mesenteric thrombosis.The thrombus occupied the entire length of the superior mesenteric vein in all cases. Extension into jejunal branches was present in 4 cases. The thrombus was completely occlusive in 4 of 6 patients. Mesenteric venous thrombosis is an increasingly recognized complication of laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Awareness demands that postbariatric surgery patients with acute abdominal pain be studied with intravenous contrast material.
Lee, Wei-Jei; Almulaifi, Abdullah
Abstract Obesity and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are becoming a serious medical issue worldwide. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective and durable therapy for the treatment of morbid obese patients. Increasing data indicates bariatric surgery as metabolic surgery is an effective and novel therapy for not well controlled obese T2DM patients. The review of recent developments in bariatric/metabolic surgery covers 4 major fields. 1) Improvement of safety: recen...
Lee, Wei-Jei; Chong, Keong; Chen, Jung-Chien; Ser, Kong-Han; Lee, Yi-Chih; Tsou, Jun-Juin; Chen, Shu-Chun
Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are closely related and difficult to control by current medical treatment. Bariatric surgery has been proposed for inadequately controlled T2DM in association with obesity. However, prediction of successful T2DM remission after surgery has not been clearly studied in Asian patients. This information might be helpful for applying gastrointestinal surgery as metabolic surgery for T2DM. This was a retrospective clinical study. From January 2002 to December 2008, 88 consecutive patients with morbid obesity, who were enrolled into a surgically supervised weight loss program, and who had T2DM before surgery with at least 1 year complete follow-up data were included. Sixty-eight (77.2%) patients received gastric bypass procedures, and the remaining 20 (22.8%) received restrictive procedures. We analyzed the available information during the initial evaluation of patients who were referred for bariatric surgery, by logistic regression analysis and data mining methods for predictors of successful diabetes remission after surgery. Overall, 68 (77.2%) of the 88 patients had remission of their T2DM 1 year after surgery. Patients in the bypass group had a higher remission rate than those in the restrictive group [59/68 (86.7%) vs. 9/20 (45.0%), p=0.000]. In univariate analysis, patients who had T2DM remission after surgery were younger, heavier, had a wider waist, less severe disease, shorter duration, and higher C-peptide levels than those without remission. Type of operation and T2DM duration remained independent predictors of success after multivariate logistical regression analysis (pBariatric surgery is a treatment option for T2DM. Duration of diabetes is the most predictor of success after surgery. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Shekelle, Paul G; Newberry, Sydne; Maglione, Margaret; Li, Zhaoping; Yermilov, Irina; Hilton, Lara; Suttorp, Marika; Maggard, Melinda; Carter, Jason; Tringale, Carlo; Chen, Susan
The use of bariatric surgery for treating severe obesity has increased dramatically over the past 10 years; about half of patients who undergo these procedures are women of reproductive age. This report was commissioned to measure the incidence of bariatric surgery in this population and review the evidence on the impact of bariatric surgery on fertility and subsequent pregnancy. To measure the incidence of contemporary bariatric surgery procedures in women age 18-45 and to assess its impact on fertility, contraception, prepregnancy risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes, including those of neonates. Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a national sample of over 1,000 hospitals, to measure the trend in the number of women of reproductive age who underwent bariatric procedures from 1998-2005. We searched numerous electronic databases, including MEDLINE and Embase, for potentially relevant studies involving bariatric surgery (gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, vertical-banded gastroplasty, biliopancreatic diversion), and consequent fertility, contraception, pregnancy, weight management, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and nutritional deficiencies. We scanned reference lists for additional relevant articles and contacted experts in the fields of bariatric surgery and obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN). Of 223 screened articles, we accepted 57 that reported on fertility following surgery (19 articles), contraception use/recommendations (11), maternal weight or nutrition management (28), maternal outcomes including morbidity and mortality (48), cesarean-section rates (16), and neonatal outcomes (44). These articles included reports on gastric bypass, both open and laparoscopic (27 articles), laparoscopic adjustable band (15), biliopancreatic diversion (16), and vertical-banded gastroplasty (6). Studies could contribute to one or more analyses. We found one case-control study and the observational data accepted included 12 cohort studies, 21 case series, and
Full Text Available A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an important role in pathogenesis. This uncommon neurological complication might be due to rapid weight loss and vitamin deficiency. Physicians who take care for patients after bariatric surgery should have a high index of awareness for the neurologic complications, and routine vitamin supplementation might be useful for these patients.
Syed Abdul Majid Mufaqam1, Soni Dhwani Satishkumar2, Patel Palak Arvindkumar2
Full Text Available Since more than half of the population in America falls under the category of obesity, scientists have discovered a surgical technique to reduce the weight of the obese patients. Bariatric surgery or gastric bypass surgery is a procedure that has been successful in reducing the weight for obese people. This technique requires a permanent gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y where part of the stomach and duodenum is removed. Since the size of the stomach is reduced to 20% of its original size along with the removal of duodenum – this may lead to improper absorption of several vitamins and minerals. This review showed that several vitamins and mineral deficiencies are observed in patients, post-operative bariatric surgery. Thiamin, folate, and B12 deficiencies were most commonly observed, and Vitamin A, D, C and B6 deficiencies were also seen in some cases. Iron and calcium deficiencies were also reported by some of the studies.
Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce; Flum, David R; Spaniolas, Konstatinos; Bessler, Mark; Devlin, Michael; Marcus, Marsha D; Kalarchian, Melissa; Engel, Scott; Khandelwal, Saurobh; Yanovski, Susan
To determine whether binge eating disorder (BED) status is associated with medical comorbidities in obese adults scheduled for bariatric surgery. The study utilized Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 data obtained from six clinical centers around the United States. This is a well-phenotyped cohort of individuals who were evaluated within 30 days before their scheduled surgery using standardized protocols. In the cohort, 350 participants were classified as having BED and 1,875 as not having BED (non-BED). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether BED status was independently related to medical comorbidities. As an exploratory analysis, significance was based on nominal p-values (p obese adults. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Basora Macaya, M
Iron deficiency in patients with morbid obesity can occur before bariatric surgery due to its inflammatory component and after surgery as the result of implementing the malabsorptive techniques. For patients with morbid obesity, micronutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, iron and folate, should be suspected. Iron deficiency and other hematinics should be corrected, even when anemia has not been established. Normal ferritin levels do not allow us to rule out a possible iron deficiency, given that ferritin can increase due to the chronic inflammatory condition of obesity. After bariatric surgery, patients should take iron supplements; however, these supplements are frequently poorly tolerated. Rapid and effective correction of hemoglobin levels might require the intravenous administration of iron preparations. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery was born in the 1950s at the University of Minnesota. From this time, it continues to evolve and, by the same token, gives new or better possibilities to treat not only obesity but also associated comorbidities. Metabolomics is also a relatively young science discipline, and similarly, it shows great potential for the comprehensive study of the dynamic alterations of the metabolome. It has been widely used in medicine, biology studies, biomarker discovery, and prognostic evaluations. Currently, several dozen metabolomics studies were performed to study the effects of bariatric surgery. LC-MS and NMR are the most frequently used techniques to study main effects of RYGB or SG. Research has yield many interesting results involving not only clinical parameters but also molecular modulations. Detected changes pertain to amino acid, lipids, carbohydrates, or gut microbiota alterations. It proves that including bariatric surgery to metabolic surgery is warranted. However, many molecular modulations after those procedures remain unexplained. Therefore, application of metabolomics to study this field seems to be a proper solution. New findings can suggest new directions of surgery technics modifications, contribute to broadening knowledge about obesity and diseases related to it, and perhaps develop nonsurgical methods of treatment in the future.
Wasserman, Halley; Inge, Thomas H
Extreme obesity is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a body mass index (BMI) higher than 120% of the 95th percentile for age. Four to six percent of American youths fall into this subcategory and are at increased risk for developing comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, sleep apnea, and bone and joint problems. Many studies have shown that nonsurgical treatment programs do not provide significant long-term improvements in BMI in adolescents with severe obesity. In adults, bariatric (weight loss) surgery has been shown to dramatically reduce BMI and to reverse or prevent many complications of obesity; thus, bariatric surgery is being used in an attempt to reverse clinically severe obesity in adolescents. This review highlights the indications for bariatric surgery in adolescents and outlines practice guidelines for adolescent surgical weight loss programs. The authors summarize available data on the effects of adolescent weight loss surgery on metabolic comorbidities and highlight the important acute and long-term complications that must be monitored by their general pediatricians. After reading this article, the general pediatrician should be able to identify adolescents who may be candidates for weight loss surgery and have the knowledge to assist in their postoperative medical management. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Milone, Marco; Sosa Fernandez, Loredana M; Sosa Fernandez, Laura V; Manigrasso, Michele; Elmore, Ugo; De Palma, Giovanni D; Musella, Mario; Milone, Francesco
Little is known about the impact of bariatric surgery on obese infertile women seeking an assisted reproductive technology. All obese women with a history of assisted reproductive technology (ART) failure that underwent ART treatment cycles both prior to and following bariatric surgery were included. ART outcomes were compared evaluating the duration and dose of gonadotrophins used; the measurement of day 3 FSH; the anti-mullerian hormone dosage; the number of follicles >15 mm; the number of retrieved and fertilized oocytes; the number of metaphase II, metaphase I and germinal vesicle oocytes; the number of embryos obtained; the number of top-quality oocytes and embryos; the number of transferred embryo; the pregnancy rate and the live birth rate. Forty women were included. The total number of gonadotropin units required and in the length of stimulation following bariatric surgery decreased (p = .001), with an increase of the number of follicles ≥15 mm (p = .005), of retrieved oocytes (p = .004), of top-quality oocytes (p = .001) and metaphase II oocytes (p = .008). More oocytes were fertilized (4.2 ± 1.7 vs 5.3 ± 2.4; p = .02). After surgery, we have registered also a better number of top-quality embryos (0.5 ± 0.6 vs 1.1 ± 0.9; p = .003). Pregnancy rate following the bariatric surgery increased to 15/40 (37.5%) (p women seeking an ART treatment.
Lee, Wei-Jei; Almulaifi, Abdullah
Obesity and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are becoming a serious medical issue worldwide. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective and durable therapy for the treatment of morbid obese patients. Increasing data indicates bariatric surgery as metabolic surgery is an effective and novel therapy for not well controlled obese T2DM patients. The review of recent developments in bariatric/metabolic surgery covers 4 major fields. 1) Improvement of safety: recent advances in laparoscopic/metabolic surgery has made this minimal invasive surgery more than ten times safer than a decade ago. The safety profile of laparoscopic/metabolic surgery is compatible with that of laparoscopic cholecystectomy now. 2) New bariatric/metabolic surgery: laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is becoming the leading bariatric surgery because of its simplicity and efficacy. Other new procedures, such as gastric plication, banded plication, single anastomosis (mini) gastric bypass and Duodeno-jejunal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy have all been accepted as treatment modalities for bariatric/metabolic surgery. 3) Mechanism of bariatric/metabolic surgery: Restriction is the most important mechanism for bariatric surgery. Weight regain after bariatric surgery is usually associated with loss of restriction. Recent studies demonstrated that gut hormone, microbiota and bile acid changes after bariatric surgery may play an important role in durable weight loss as well as in T2DM remission. However, weight loss is still the cornerstone of T2DM remission after metabolic surgery. 4) PATIENT SELECTION: patients who may benefit most from bariatric surgery was found to be patients with insulin resistance. For Asian T2DM patients, the indication of metabolic surgery has been set to those with not well controlled (HbA1c > 7.5%) disease and with their BMI > 27.5 Kg/m(2). A novel diabetes surgical score, ABCD score, is a simple system for predicting the success of surgical therapy
Padin, Esther Mariño; Santos, Raquel Sánchez; Fernández, Sonia González; Jimenez, Antonia Brox; Fernández, Sergio Estevez; Dacosta, Ester Carrera; Duran, Agata Rial; Artime Rial, Maria; Dominguez Sanchez, Ivan
3D laparoscopy allows the surgeon to regain the sense of depth and improve accuracy. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of 3D in bariatric surgery. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All our patients who underwent bariatric surgery (sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or gastric bypass (GB)) between 2013 and 2016 were included. We compared 3D laparoscopy cohort and 2D laparoscopy cohort. Variables are as follows: age, sex, DM, hypertension, surgeon experience, and type of intervention. Comparisons of operative time, hospital stay, conversion, complications, reoperation, and exitus are completed. Three hundred twelve consecutive patients were included. 56.9% of patients underwent GB and 43.1% SG. Global complications were 3.2% (fistula 2.5%, hemoperitoneum 0.3%, others 0.4%). One hundred four procedures were performed in the 3D cohort and 208 in the 2D cohort. The 2D cohort and 3D cohort were similar regarding the following: percentage of GB vs SG, age, gender, learning curve, diabetes mellitus 2, hypertension, and sleep apnea. The operating time and hospital stay were significantly reduced in the 3D cohort (144.07 ± 58.07 vs 172.11 ± 76.11 min and 5.12 ± 9.6 vs 7.7 ± 13.2 days. It was the same when we stratified the sample by type of surgery or experience of the surgeon. Complications were reduced in the 3D cohort in the surgeries performed by novice surgeons (10.2 vs 1.8%, p = 0.034). The use of 3D laparoscopy in bariatric surgery in our center has helped reducing the operating time and hospital stay, and improving the safety of the surgery, either in GB or SG, being equally favorable in novice or more experienced surgeons.
Di Bello, Vitantonio; Santini, Ferruccio; Di Cori, Andrea; Pucci, Andrea; Talini, Enrica; Palagi, Caterina; Delle Donne, Maria Grazia; Marsili, Alessandro; Fierabracci, Paola; Valeriano, Rocco; Scartabelli, Giovanna; Giannetti, Monica; Anselmino, Marco; Pinchera, Aldo; Mariani, Mario
Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on structural and functional myocardial alterations in severely obese subjects treated with bariatric surgery. Thirteen severely obese patients (2 males and 11 females) were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent conventional 2D color Doppler echocardiography. The new ultrasonic techniques used were: (a) integrated backscatter for the analysis of myocardial reflectivity, referred to pericardial interface as expression of myocardial structure (increase in collagen content) and of cyclic variation index as expression of intrinsic myocardial contractility and (b) color Doppler myocardial imaging (CDMI) for the analysis of strain and strain rate (myocardial deformability). All subjects underwent bariatric surgery and were resubmitted to echocardiographic and biochemical examination 6-24 months after surgery. The main finding of the present study was a quite complete normalization of myocardial functional and structural alterations after weight loss. In particular, the cyclic variation index at septum level improved from 14.6 +/- 7.0 before to 25.7 +/- 11.2 (means +/- SD) after surgery (controls: 36.2 +/- 9.1). Mean reflectivity at septum level significantly decreased from 55.8 +/- 9.5 to 46.5 +/- 8.8 (controls: 43.0 +/- 8.0). Also, the strain at septum level significantly improved after surgery (from -11.9 +/- 3.2 to -20.4 +/- 5.3; controls: -23.4 +/- 9). This study establishes: (a) the utility of new ultrasonic techniques to detect very early structural and functional myocardial alterations in severely obese patients, and (b) the regression of these subclinical abnormalities after weight loss achieved by bariatric surgery. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (Hp is one of the most important human pathogens that can cause duodenal and gastric ulcers, gastritis and stomach cancer. Hp infection is considered to be a cause of limiting access to bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hp in patients with obesity going into bariatric surgery and to reveal the relationship between Hp and clinical data. The study group was formed of 68 preoperative bariatric surgery patients (body mass index (BMI 44.7 ± 4.8. Gastric biopsies (antrum and corpus were used for histological and molecular (caqA and glmM genes examinations. The PCR method revealed Hp infection in 64.7% of obese patients that is higher in comparison with histological analysis (55.9%. The prevalence of cagA and glmM genes in antrum mucosa was 45.6% and 47.0% while in the corpus it was 41.2% and 38.3%, respectively. The coincidence of both cagA and glmM virulence genes in the antrum and corpus mucosa was 33.8% and 22.1%, respectively. Either of the genes was found in 58.8% of antrum and 57.3% of corpus mucosa. Presence of caqA and glmM genes was in association with active and atrophic chronic gastritis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that two thirds of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery are infected with Hp and have a high prevalence of cagA and glmM virulence genes that points out the necessity for diagnostics and treatment of this infection before surgery.
Ma, Pearl; Reddy, Subhash; Higa, Kelvin D
Bariatric/metabolic surgery is currently the only effective long-term treatment for morbid obesity- and obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, and dyslipidemia. In addition, bariatric/metabolic surgery has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes and cancer and prolong life when compared to non-surgical therapies. However, as obesity is a chronic disease, recidivism of weight and comorbid conditions can occur. In addition, the surgical construct can lead to long-term consequences such as marginal ulceration, bowel obstruction, reflux, and nutritional deficiencies. Despite these drawbacks, prospective randomized controlled studies and long-term longitudinal population-based comparative studies greatly favor surgical intervention as opposed to traditional lifestyle, diet, and exercise programs. Revisional surgery can be quite complex and technically challenging and may offer the patient a wide variety of solutions for treatment of weight recidivism and complications after primary operations. Given the paucity of high quality published data, we have endeavored to provide indications for revisions after bariatric surgery.
Background Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review. Methods A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science. Results Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days). Conclusions The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy). PMID:24199869
Martin, Allison N; Marino, Miguel; Killerby, Marie; Rosselli-Risal, Liliana; Isom, Kellene A; Robinson, Malcolm K
Bariatric centers frequently provide preoperative educational programs to inform patients about the risks and benefits of weight loss surgery. However, most programs are conducted in English, which may create barriers to effective treatment and access to care for non-English speaking populations. To address this concern, we instituted a comprehensive Spanish-language education program consisting of preoperative information and group nutrition classes conducted entirely in, and supported with Spanish-language materials. The primary aim was to examine the effect of this intervention on Spanish-speaking patients' decision to undergo surgery in a pilot study. University Hospital/Community Health Center, United States. Three cohorts of patients seeking bariatric surgery between January 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012 were identified: 1) primary English speakers attending English-language programs ("English-English"); 2) primary Spanish speakers attending Spanish-language programs ("Spanish-Spanish"); and 3) primary Spanish speakers attending English-speaking programs with the assistance of a Spanish-to-English translator ("Spanish-English"). 26% of the English-English cohort ultimately underwent surgery compared with only 12% of the Spanish-Spanish cohort (P = .009). Compared with the English-English group, time to surgery was 35 days longer for the Spanish-Spanish and 185 days longer for the Spanish-English group (both P< .001). Spanish-speaking patients were less likely to undergo bariatric surgery regardless of the language in which educational sessions are provided. For those choosing surgery, providing Spanish-language sessions can shorten time to surgery. A barrier to effective obesity treatment may exist for Spanish speakers, which may be only partially overcome by providing support in Spanish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Masoomi, Hossein; Rimler, Jonathan; Wirth, Garrett A; Lee, Christine; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Evans, Gregory R D
There are limited data regarding blood transfusion following abdominoplasty, especially in post-bariatric surgery patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the frequency and outcomes of blood transfusion in post-bariatric surgery patients undergoing abdominoplasty and (2) the predictive risk factors of blood transfusion in this patient population. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, the authors examined the clinical data of patients with a history of bariatric surgery who underwent abdominoplasty from 2007 to 2011 in the United States. A total of 20,130 post-bariatric surgery patients underwent abdominoplasty during this period. Overall, 1871 patients (9.3 percent) received blood transfusion. Chronic anemia patients had the highest rate of blood transfusion (25.6 percent). Post-bariatric surgery patients who received blood transfusion experienced a significantly higher complication rate (10.1 percent versus 4.8 percent; p blood transfusion. The blood transfusion rate in post-bariatric surgery abdominoplasty patients is not insignificant. Chronic anemia and congestive heart failure are the two major predictors of transfusion. Modifying risk factors such as anemia before abdominoplasty might significantly decrease the possibility of blood transfusion. Risk, III.
Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew
Over the past few years, obesity has become a major clinical and population concern in the majority of developed countries. Obesity leads to significant systemic disorders, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, and also increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke), metabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes), certain types of cancer, and degenerative bone disorders (osteoarthritis). Health hazards associated with epidemic of obesity and potential benefits of weight loss have spurred interest in new treatment methods. Bariatric surgical procedures constitute a recognized alternative in cases where conservative management of obesity fails. Several bariatric operations can be distinguished: restrictive procedures, such as adjustable gastric band (AGB) and vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG); predominantly malabsorptive procedures, such as biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), and a combination of both methods, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The adverse consequences of surgical treatment of obesity include i.a.: intestinal anastomotic leakage, impaired intestinal permeability and internal hernia, dilatation of the stomach, gastrointestinal anastomotic stenosis, marginal ulceration, incisional hernia. Basic knowledge of procedures in the surgical treatment of obesity is of vital importance for the radiologist during evaluation of upper gastrointestinal tract in the early and late postoperative period, allowing correct interpretation of acquired images as well as recognition of typical complications.
Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew
Over the past few years, obesity has become a major clinical and population concern in the majority of developed countries. Obesity leads to significant systemic disorders, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, and also increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke), metabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes), certain types of cancer, and degenerative bone disorders (osteoarthritis). Health hazards associated with epidemic of obesity and potential benefits of weight loss have spurred interest in new treatment methods. Bariatric surgical procedures constitute a recognized alternative in cases where conservative management of obesity fails. Several bariatric operations can be distinguished: restrictive procedures, such as adjustable gastric band (AGB) and vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG); predominantly malabsorptive procedures, such as biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), and a combination of both methods, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The adverse consequences of surgical treatment of obesity include i.a.: intestinal anastomotic leakage, impaired intestinal permeability and internal hernia, dilatation of the stomach, gastrointestinal anastomotic stenosis, marginal ulceration, incisional hernia. Basic knowledge of procedures in the surgical treatment of obesity is of vital importance for the radiologist during evaluation of upper gastrointestinal tract in the early and late postoperative period, allowing correct interpretation of acquired images as well as recognition of typical complications
Järvholm, Kajsa; Karlsson, Jan; Olbers, Torsten; Peltonen, Markku; Marcus, Claude; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Gronowitz, Eva; Johnsson, Per; Flodmark, Carl-Erik
About 20% of adolescents experience substantial mental health problems after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to explore differences between adolescents with poor mental health (PMH) 2 years after surgery and those with average/good mental health. Three university hospitals in Sweden. Mental health and health-related quality of life were assessed in 82 of 88 adolescents (mean age: 16.8 yr, 67% female) at baseline and 1 and 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Possible associations among mental health, weight, and biochemical outcomes were explored. Two years after surgery 16 (20%) adolescents were identified as having PMH. More symptoms of anxiety and depression and worse mental health at baseline significantly predicted PMH 2 years later. The decline in mental health for the PMH group happened mainly during the second year after surgery. Suicidal ideation was reported in 14% of the total sample 2 years postsurgery and was more frequent in the PMH group. Weight outcomes between groups were comparable at all time points, and physical health was equally improved 2 years after surgery. Although adolescents with PMH after surgery lose as much weight and have similar improvements in physical health compared with other adolescents, special attention should be given to adolescents who report mental health problems at baseline and follow-up, especially during the second year after gastric bypass. The high prevalence of suicidal ideation in adolescents 2 years after bariatric surgery is another indication that longer follow-up is necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stuart, Andrea; Källen, Karin
To compare the rates of abdominal surgery during pregnancy among women with previous bariatric surgery (women in the case group) and women with first-trimester body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 and no previous bariatric surgery (women in the control group). We conducted a national cohort study, merging data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and the Swedish National Patient Registry, comparing women who had bariatric surgery from 1987 to 2011 with women in a control group with first-trimester B