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  1. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  2. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-03-01

    We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study sample comprised 29,633 Korean adolescent girls who are normal weight and underweight. Chi-square tests and correlations were used to assess bivariate relationships between the variables. To assess the mediating effect of body image distortion on the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile and weight loss efforts, a 3-step regression analysis was used. There was a significant correlation between body mass index-for-age percentiles and body image distortion, and both significantly correlated with weight loss efforts. In addition, a distorted perception of being overweight or obese was a significant mediating variable. School-based health education and intervention programs are needed to promote the formation of a positive body image, not only for obese adolescents, but also for normal-weight and underweight adolescent girls. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  3. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

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    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  4. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and normal weight in French youth from 2009 to 2013.

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    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Baudelet, Jean-Benoît; Fardy, Paul S; Béghin, Laurent; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zékya

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in French youth from 2009 to 2013 and to determine if there are differences in weight categories according to socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study performed in different regions of France. Physical measures included weight, height and BMI. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined according to age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points from the International Obesity Task Force. France. Children and adolescents (n 9670; 4836 boys, 4834 girls) from the French national BOUGE Program between 2009 and 2013. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than girls (P0·05) and remained unchanged in boys (7·1-7·3 %) between 2009 and 2013. Overweight and obesity were higher in low socio-economic families (Pobesity increased significantly. Changes in underweight, although not significant, were high in girls and merit further attention. Improving public health interventions, especially in high-risk low socio-economic populations, may help to modify the behaviour that contributes to underweight, overweight and obesity in young boys and girls.

  5. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

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    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  6. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

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    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: underweight is associated with several negative health outcomes, including nutritional deficiency, osteoporosis, and unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. However, evidence which would help deal with this problem from a public health perspective is scarce. Here, we aimed to identify the dietary characteristics of underweight female university students, particularly those with a desire for thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits.

  7. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

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    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  8. The recommendations of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM for normal and underweight women to reduce the risk of low birth weight

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    Yieh-Loong Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: For underweight women, it is suggested that they follow the upper range of the IOM recommendation in order to avoid LBW. For normal weight women, although the IOM guidelines provide a good basis, it is suggested that they carefully follow the recommended GWG and the RWG values during the 2nd trimester, which is a very important period for fetal growth.

  9. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

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    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  10. Perceived discrimination and favourable regard toward underweight, normal weight and obese eating disorder sufferers: implications for obesity and eating disorder population health campaigns.

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    Star, Anita; Hay, Phillipa; Quirk, Frances; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity stigma has been shown to increase binge eating, whilst positive regard for eating disorders (EDs) may increase dietary restriction which can also lead to binge eating and weight gain. In the context of increasing prevalence of both obesity and EDs exploring community attitudes towards these illnesses may uncover new variables worthy of consideration in population health campaigns. The aim of the study was to explore community perceived stigma and conversely favourable regard toward eating disorder (ED) sufferers of varying weight status, and understand how the attitudes of obese individuals may differ from those of non-obese individuals. Data for this purpose were derived from interviews with individuals participating in a general population health survey. Vignettes of an underweight female with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), a normal weight male with an atypical eating disorder (NWED) and an obese female with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were presented to three randomly selected sub-samples of n = 983, 1033 and 1030 respectively. Questions followed that assessed participants' attitudes towards and beliefs about the person described in the vignette and their eating behaviours. Sixty-six per cent of participants who responded to the obese BED vignette believed that there would be discrimination against the person described (primarily because of her weight). Corresponding figures were for the AN and NWED vignettes were 48% and 35%, respectively. A positive regard for weight-loss or body-image-enhancing ED behaviours was reported 'occasionally' or more often by 8.8% of respondents to the AN vignette and by 27.5% of respondents to the NWED vignette. Positive regard for ED behaviours was significantly more likely in obese participants (AN: 15%; NWED: 43%). The findings support integrated ED and obesity prevention programs that address weight stigma and the social desirability of ED behaviours in vulnerable individuals.

  11. Foot morphology of normal, underweight and overweight children.

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    Mauch, M; Grau, S; Krauss, I; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that there is a global increase in obesity, knowledge about the impact of obesity on the development of a child's foot is of great importance for orthopaedic and paediatric physicians with regard to prevention, clinical treatment and management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass on the development of a child's foot based on a foot type classification. The feet of 1450 boys and 1437 girls aged 2-14 years were measured using a three-dimensional (3D) foot scanner (Pedus, Human Solutions Inc., Germany) in a bipedal upright position. Twelve relevant 3D foot measures were recorded, as well as the children's age, gender, height and mass. Factor analysis of principal components was used to obtain a smaller number of independent and standardized variables. The variables were used for cluster analysis to classify the children's feet. Five foot types were identified: flat, robust, slender, short and long feet. There were significant differences among foot types with respect to the children's body mass index. Normal weight children displayed an almost equal distribution of all foot types throughout childhood. Flat and robust feet were more common in overweight children, whereas underweight children showed more slender and long feet. The influence of excess, as well as deficient mass could be verified for the comprehensive foot morphology based on a foot type classification. Subsequently, foot discomfort as a result of various musculoskeletal disorders may develop. In turn, this might keep the children from being active and therefore reinforce the risk of developing obesity. However, there is still a lack of information regarding these relationships, which needs to be determined. This knowledge may help prevent orthopaedic foot problems and injuries.

  12. Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

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    Choi, O Jin Ee; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the ...

  13. Underweight and mortality.

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    Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Keeho; Ahn, Song Vogue; Kang, Dae Ryong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Willett, Walter C; Suh, Il

    2016-07-01

    According to most prospective studies, being underweight (BMICorporation study with 14 years of follow-up. After excluding deaths within the first 5 years of follow-up (1993-1997) to minimize reverse causation and excluding participants without information about smoking and health status, 94 133 men and 48 496 women aged 35-59 years in 1990 were included. We documented 5411 (5·7 %) deaths in men and 762 (1·6 %) in women. Among never smokers, hazard ratios (HR) for underweight individuals were not significantly higher than those for normal-weight individuals (BMI=18·5-22·9 kg/m2): HR=0·87 (95 % CI 0·41, 1·84, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=1·12 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·65, P=0·58) for underweight women. Among ex-smokers, HR=0·86 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·93, P=0·72) for underweight men and HR=3·77 (95 % CI 0·42, 32·29, P=0·24) for underweight women. Among current smokers, HR=1·60 (95 % CI 1·28, 2·01, Pmen and HR=2·07 (95 % CI 0·43, 9·94, P=0·36) for underweight women. The present study does not support that being underweight per se is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Korean men and women.

  14. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  15. Ghrelin response to hedonic eating in underweight and short-term weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa.

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    Maria Monteleone, Alessio; Monteleone, Palmiero; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Nigro, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Cimino, Monica; Maj, Mario

    2016-01-30

    Recently, anorexia nervosa (AN) has been conceptualized as a reward-related disorder, and alterations in brain reward processes have been documented in both acute and recovered AN patients. However, the role of endogenous biochemical mediators, such as ghrelin, in the modulation of reward processes has been poorly investigated in this eating disorder. Hedonic eating, that is the consumption of food exclusively for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis, is a useful paradigm to investigate the physiology of food-related reward. Therefore, we assessed the response of peripheral ghrelin to hedonic eating in 7 underweight and 7 recently weight-restored AN patients and compared it to that of previously studied healthy controls. We found that in satiated underweight patients with AN plasma ghrelin levels progressively decreased after the exposure and the consumption of both the favorite and unfavorite food whereas in satiated weight-restored AN patients and satiated healthy controls plasma ghrelin concentrations significantly increased after the exposure to the favorite food and after eating it, but decreased after the unfavorite food. These results suggest a derangement in the ghrelin modulation of food-related pleasurable and rewarding feelings, which might sustain the reduced motivation toward food intake of acute AN patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Desire to Be Underweight: Exploratory Study on a Weight Loss App Community and User Perceptions of the Impact on Disordered Eating Behaviors.

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    Eikey, Elizabeth Victoria; Reddy, Madhu C; Booth, Kayla M; Kvasny, Lynette; Blair, Johnna L; Li, Victor; Poole, Erika S

    2017-10-12

    Mobile health (mHealth) apps for weight loss (weight loss apps) can be useful diet and exercise tools for individuals in need of losing weight. Most studies view weight loss app users as these types of individuals, but not all users have the same needs. In fact, users with disordered eating behaviors who desire to be underweight are also utilizing weight loss apps; however, few studies give a sense of the prevalence of these users in weight loss app communities and their perceptions of weight loss apps in relation to disordered eating behaviors. The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of users' body mass indices (BMIs) in a weight loss app community and examples of how users with underweight BMI goals perceive the impact of the app on disordered eating behaviors. We focused on two aspects of a weight loss app (DropPounds): profile data and forum posts, and we moved from a broader picture of the community to a narrower focus on users' perceptions. We analyzed profile data to better understand the goal BMIs of all users, highlighting the prevalence of users with underweight BMI goals. Then we explored how users with a desire to be underweight discussed the weight loss app's impact on disordered eating behaviors. We found three main results: (1) no user (regardless of start BMI) starts with a weight gain goal, and most users want to lose weight; (2) 6.78% (1261/18,601) of the community want to be underweight, and most identify as female; (3) users with underweight BMI goals tend to view the app as positive, especially for reducing bingeing; however, some acknowledge its role in exacerbating disordered eating behaviors. These findings are important for our understanding of the different types of users who utilize weight loss apps, the perceptions of weight loss apps related to disordered eating, and how weight loss apps may impact users with a desire to be underweight. Whereas these users had underweight goals, they often view the app as helpful in reducing

  17. Underweight among rural Indian adults: burden, and predictors of incidence and recovery.

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    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Fawzi, Wafaie Wahib; Bromage, Sabri; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2018-03-01

    To study the magnitude and predictors of underweight, incident underweight and recovery from underweight among rural Indian adults. Prospective cohort study. Each participant's BMI was measured in 2008 and 2012 and categorized as underweight (BMIBirbhum Health and Demographic Surveillance System, West Bengal, India. Predominantly rural individuals (n 6732) aged ≥18 years enrolled in 2008 were followed up in 2012. In 2008, the prevalence of underweight was 46·5 %. From 2008 to 2012, 25·8 % of underweight persons transitioned to normal BMI, 12·9 % of normal-weight persons became underweight and 0·1 % of overweight/obese persons became underweight. Multivariable models reveal that people aged 25-49 years, educated and wealthier people, and non-smokers had lower odds of underweight in 2008 and lower odds of incident underweight. Odds of recovery from underweight were lower among people aged ≥36 years and higher among educated (Grade 6 or higher) individuals. The current study highlights a high incidence of underweight and important risk factors and modifiable predictors of underweight in rural India, which may inform the design of local nutrition interventions.

  18. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

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    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  19. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

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    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  20. Developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children: A longitudinal study

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    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Almenara, Carlos A.; Jezek, Stanislav; Erriu, Michela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed developmental trajectories from childhood to adolescence of internalizing/externalizing problems, limited attention has been given to underweight children. Two groups were recruited for this study from a community sample: underweight (Ug, N?=?80, 50% female) and normal weight (NWg, N?=?80, 50% female) to examine the developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children from the age two years, and thei...

  1. Are normal-weight adolescents satisfied with their weight?

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    Mariana Contiero San Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of obesity has led to public policies for combating it. People with normal weight may gain greater awareness of this issue and change their perceptions of their weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction among normal-weight adolescents, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables, health-related behavior and morbidities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey conducted in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, in 2008-2009. METHODS: The prevalence and prevalence ratios of weight dissatisfaction were estimated according to independent variables, by means of simple and multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: 573 normal-weight adolescents aged 10 to 19 years (mean age 14.7 years were analyzed. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction was 43.7% (95% confidence interval, CI: 37.8-49.8. Higher prevalences of weight dissatisfaction were observed among females, individuals aged 15 to 19 years, those whose households had eight or more domestic appliances, former smokers, individuals who reported alcohol intake and those who had one or more chronic diseases. Lower prevalence of dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents living in substandard housing. Among the normal-weight adolescents, 26.1% wished to lose weight and 17.6% wished to gain weight. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that even when weight is seen to be within the normal range, a high proportion of adolescents express dissatisfaction with their weight, especially females, older adolescents and those of higher socioeconomic level.

  2. Childhood underweight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project.

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    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan-José; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2011-07-01

    To assess associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Participants were asked to select which of nine body images most closely represented their body shape at ages 5 and 20 years, and it was used as a proxy of BMI. An incident case of MetS was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult MetS were estimated by multiple-adjusted odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals. University of Navarra, Spain. The study included 5317 university graduates, followed-up for a median of 6·1 years. The incidence of MetS was 2·9 % (1·7 % in women and 5·1 % in men). Among men, body shape at age 5 years was inversely related to adult MetS (OR = 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97), whereas weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood was directly associated with adult MetS (OR = 1·49, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·18); both childhood underweight (OR = 5·20, 95 % CI 1·87, 14·50) and childhood obesity (OR = 4·66, 95 % CI 1·40, 15·51) increased the likelihood of adult MetS. No association was apparent among women. These results support treating childhood underweight and weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood as part of comprehensive adult MetS prevention efforts in men.

  3. Normal Weight Obesity: A Hidden Health Risk?

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    ... lipoprotein (HDL, or "good") cholesterol High blood pressure Metabolic syndrome If you're concerned about your body fat ... et al. Overfat and underfat: New terms and definitions long overdue. ... behavior and metabolic risk factors associated with normal weight obesity in ...

  4. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

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    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Normal weight obesity in Korean adults.

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    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon

    2014-02-01

    A better way to define obesity is in terms of the percentage of body fat (BF). Subjects with normal weight, but excess BF are vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of subjects having normal weight obesity (NWO) using optimal cut-offs of the BF percentage reflecting risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean adults. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the Korean population conducted in 2009-2010. We surveyed 5313 men and 6904 women aged 20 years or older. We investigated the relations between the BF percentage (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-related risk factors for CVD (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia) in Korean adults. NWO was defined as the combination of a normal body mass index (BMI; 18·5-22·9 kg/m(2) in Asian subjects) and BF percentages above the determined cut-off values. There were strong and graded associations of increasing BF percentages with the prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cut-off values (defined as being overweight) in men and women were 20·6% and 33·4% BF, respectively, and the second cut-off values (defined as obesity) were 25·7% and 36·0% BF. Thirty-two per cent of normal weight adults had BF percentages greater than or equal to the overweight or obesity cut-offs (NWO). Subjects with NWO had a lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass, a more atherogenic lipid profile and greater insulin resistance. Obesity can be defined as 26% BF or greater in Korean men and 36% BF or greater in Korean women. There was a high prevalence of clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities among subjects with NWO. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three......, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8–11 year old Danish children. Subjects/methods The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011–2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated......). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test...

  7. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A; Amy, Nancy K

    2011-06-26

    Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children differ from children of other weights in that thin children are less

  8. Growth monitoring in children with low and normal birth weight up to two years: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Danaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted aimed to compare the growth indices in 2 years old children with a history of low birth weight with normal birth weight children.Methods: Current retrospective cohort study on all two-year children with low birth weight and three times the normal weight children covered by health centers of Kahnooj, was conducted in 2015. Cares at birth, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months of age were studied and, child growth indices (weight, height, head circumference, along with some demographic variables were studied. Information were entered SPSS version 20 and the analysis was performed.Results: There were significant differences in children's growth of both groups in all periods of care. Despite the same slope, growth pattern in children showed a significant difference. Young mother, girl sex of baby and preterm birth are predictor factors of low birth weight.Conclusion: Trends and growth patterns of weight, height and head circumference in underweight children have significant difference with normal children and, despite the same slope, these children can not compensate for the backwardness of its growth to the age of two. So you need to plot separate growth curves for these children and, possible preventive measures should be taken to prevent bearing underweight baby.

  9. Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

  10. [Analysis on influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lianguo; Wang, Haijun; Sun, Lili; Yang, Yide; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiangkun; Wang, Zhenghe; Ma, Jun

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight. The primary and middle school students who were selected from Changping district of Bejing city using the stratified cluster sampling method were measured body height, weight, and waist circumference. Body image cognitive attitude of students or their parents was surveyed using 'Ma figural shape'. The cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was surveyed by self-designed questionnaires. The students with normal weight were selected according to 'reference norm for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents (WGOC) in 2005' and 'reference norm for screening underweight in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-19 years'. The association between body image dissatisfaction and cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was analyzed for each gender. The study validly surveyed and measured 680 students, and there were 36.6% (249/680) students with overweight or obesity, 4.0% (27/680) students with underweight, and 59.4% (404/680) students with normal weight. Prevalence of body image satisfaction, expecting to be thinner, and to be fatter in students with normal weight was 32.7% (132/404), 35.1% (142/404), and 32.2% (130/404), respectively. The prevalence of expecting to be thinner in females and middle students was higher than that in males and primary students (46.4% (102/220) vs 21.8% (40/184)), (39.8% (88/221) vs 29.5% (54/183)), respectively; χ² values were 26.65 and 4.67 respectively (P body image cognitive attitude between students and their parent was 60.4% (244/404), and the consistency coefficient was 0.41 (P body image dissatisfaction among students with normal weight was high, and the concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between themselves and their parents was low. Guiding students to have the correct cognitive attitude on less drinking sugary beverages, having breakfast per day, and less eating high

  11. Weight reduction in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofler, O B; Musk, A A; Woodings, T; Atkin, K; Meecham, C; Bruce, S; Mina, L

    1981-03-07

    Weight loss of more than 2 kg under the guidance of a trained nurse was achieved over a 12-month period in 38% of overweight hospital and transport workers. Males over 50 were the subgroup most successful in losing weight. Weight loss achieved by older males with an "off-hand" as compared with an "energetic" approach was similar up until nine months, after which the "energetic" approach was more effective. Females on an "energetic" diet were successful up until nine months only. The "off-hand" approach is acceptable to more people and is less time-consuming. It should therefore be seriously considered by a public health authority which seeks to promote weight reduction in the general community.

  12. Health ratings for underweight, overweight and obese adolescents: disparities between adolescent's own report and the parent's report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Christy; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2010-01-01

    In many Asian countries, overweight and obese children are sometimes considered healthier than their underweight or normal weight counterparts. Using Taiwan as an example, this research aims to examine the relationship between inappropriate weight and self-rated health (SRH) for adolescents, and inappropriate weight and the parent's impression of their adolescent's general health. We analyzed data from 1,879 adolescents (933 boys and 946 girls) from the third year (2003) of a panel survey conducted by the Academia Sinica of Taiwan. Adolescents were identified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese using body mass index (BMI). Kappa statistic was used to determine agreements between adolescent's own report and their health as reported by their parent. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of reporting reduced health by adolescents with inappropriate weight. A separate regression was carried out using the parent's reports for these adolescents. We found that underweight boys were more likely to report reduced health (OR=2.15, pOverweight girls had lower odds of reporting reduced health compared with normal weight girls (OR=0.42, phealth for underweight girls (OR=2.10, phealth for overweight boys compared with reports for normal weight subjects (OR=0.51, phealth by both the adolescents and their parents. This contrasts with overweight and obesity, which are not. Health educational programs could help in adjusting perceptions concerning the health consequences associated with overweight and obesity.

  13. Underweight, Markers of Cachexia, and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study of Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, Emily M; Krumholz, Hannah A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-04-01

    Underweight patients are at higher risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than normal weight patients; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is explained by confounding due to cachexia or other factors associated with low body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) does comprehensive risk adjustment for comorbid illness and frailty measures explain the higher mortality after AMI in underweight patients, and (2) is the relationship between underweight and mortality also observed in patients with AMI who are otherwise without significant chronic illness and are presumably free of cachexia? We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a cohort-based study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for AMI between January 1994 and February 1996 with 17 y of follow-up and detailed clinical information to compare short- and long-term mortality in underweight and normal weight patients (n = 57,574). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association of low BMI with 30-d, 1-y, 5-y, and 17-y mortality after AMI while adjusting for patient comorbidities, frailty measures, and laboratory markers of nutritional status. We also repeated the analyses in a subset of patients without significant comorbidity or frailty. Of the 57,574 patients with AMI included in this cohort, 5,678 (9.8%) were underweight and 51,896 (90.2%) were normal weight at baseline. Underweight patients were older, on average, than normal weight patients and had a higher prevalence of most comorbidities and measures of frailty. Crude mortality was significantly higher for underweight patients than normal weight patients at 30 d (25.2% versus 16.4%, p underweight patients had a 13% higher risk of 30-d death and a 26% higher risk of 17-y death than normal weight patients (30-d hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20; 17-y HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.23-1.30). Survival curves for underweight and normal weight patients separated early

  14. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p overweight individuals (p overweight (p adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  15. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight

  16. Bulimia nervosa in overweight and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin; White, Marney A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine overweight bulimia nervosa (BN) in a community sample of women. Volunteers (n = 1964) completed self-report questionnaires of weight, binge eating, purging, and cognitive features. Participants were classified as overweight (body mass index ≥25) or normal weight (body mass index <25). Rates of BN within the overweight and normal-weight classes did not differ (6.4% vs 7.9%). Of the 131 participants identified as BN, 64% (n = 84) were classified as overweight BN and 36% (n = 47) as normal-weight BN. The overweight BN group had a greater proportion of ethnic minorities and reported significantly less restraint than the normal-weight BN group. Otherwise, the 2 groups reported similarly, even in terms of purging and depression. In summary, rates of BN did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. Among BN participants, the majority (two thirds) were overweight. Differences in ethnicity and restraint, but little else, were found between overweight and normal-weight BN. Findings from the present study should serve to increase awareness of the weight range and ethnic diversity of BN, and highlight the need to address weight and cultural sensitivity in the identification and treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  18. Association between underweight and hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality among patients in community medical homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi.1 Jennifer L St Sauver,2 Timothy C Olson,1 Jill M Huber,1 Stephen S Cha,2 Jon O Ebbert11Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: In older adults, underweight (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5 has been associated with increased mortality. This increased mortality risk may be associated with increased health care utilization. We evaluated the relationship between underweight and hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality.Methods: An analysis of a retrospective cohort study was conducted at a multisite academic primary care medical practice in Minnesota. The patients were ≥60 years of age, impaneled within primary care on January 1, 2011, and had a BMI measurement recorded between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011. Individuals were excluded if they refused review of their medical record. The primary measurement was BMI, which was categorized as underweight (BMI < 18.5 or normal and obese (BMI ≥ 18.5. The outcomes were hospitalization, emergency room visits, and mortality in the 2011 calendar year. Associations between underweight and each outcome were calculated using logistic regression. Interactions between underweight and gender were assessed in the logistic regression models. The final results were adjusted for age, gender, comorbid health conditions, and single living status.Results: The final cohort included 21,019 patients, of whom 220 (1% were underweight. Underweight patients had a higher likelihood of hospitalization compared with patients with higher BMI (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–2.22. Underweight patients were also more likely to visit the emergency room (adjusted OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.28–2.25 or to die (adjusted OR 3.64; 95% CI 2.33–5.69. Men with a BMI < 18.5 compared with those having a BMI ≥ 18.5 had the highest odds of hospitalization (OR 3.45; 95% CI 1.59–7

  19. The use of Stunkard's figure rating scale to identify underweight and overweight in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of Stunkard's current body size (CBS) with self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in predicting weight status in Chinese adolescents, and to determine the CBS cutoffs for overweight/obesity and underweight. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 5,418 secondary school students (45.2% boys; mean age 14.7 years). Height and weight were measured by trained teachers or researchers. Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Subjects were asked to select the figure that best resembled their CBS on the Stunkard's figure rating scale. Self-reported height, weight, WC and WSR were also obtained. The performance of CBS, self-reported BMI, WC and WSR as a weight status indicator was analysed by sex-specific receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal CBS cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined based on the Youden Index. Apart from self-reported BMI, CBS had the greatest area under curve (AUC) for underweight in boys (0.82) and girls (0.81). For overweight/obesity, CBS also had a greater AUC (0.85) than self-reported WC and WSR in boys, and an AUC (0.81) comparable to self-reported WC and WSR in girls. In general, CBS values of 3 and 5 appeared to be the optimal cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity, respectively, in different sex-age subgroups. CBS is a potentially useful indicator to assess weight status of adolescents when measured and self-reported BMI are not available.

  20. Impact of Obesity and Underweight on Surgical Outcome of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between underweight and lumbar spine surgery is still unknown. Aim. To evaluate the effect of underweight versus obesity based on surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation. Material and Method. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 206 patients (112 male and 94 female with a mean age of 37.5±3.1 years old (ranged 20–72 who have been surgically treated due to the refractory simple primary L4-L5 disc herniation. We followed them up for a mean period of 42.4±7.2 months (ranged 24–57. We used Body Mass Index (BMI, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for categorization, disability, and pain assessment, respectively. We used Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests for statistics. Results. Surgical discectomy in all weight groups was associated with significant improvement in pain and disability, but intergroup comparison showed these improvements in both underweight and obese groups and they were significantly lower than in normal weight group. Excellent and good satisfaction rate was also somewhat lower in both these ends of weight spectrum, but statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Both obesity and underweight may have adverse prognostic influences on the surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation, although their impact on subjective satisfaction rate seems to be insignificant.

  1. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus......, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management...... towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were...

  2. Association between maternal periodontitis and preterm and/or low birth weight infants in normal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usin, María Matilde; Menso, Julieta; Rodríguez, Verónica Inés; González, Analía; Tabares, Sandra; Parodi, Ricardo; Sembaj, Adela

    2016-01-01

    To relate the periodontal condition with the presence of periodontal bacteria in pregnant that had babies with preterm delivery or/and low weight at birth (PTLBW). We recruited 134 pregnant women without systemic diseases attending at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Room, from Maternal Provincial Hospital, Córdoba, Argentine. Pregnant were grouped according to the International Classification for a System of Periodontal Disease. A sample from periodontal pocket was extracted to identify Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td), Tannerella forsythia (Tf) Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Agreggatibacter actinomycemcomitans (Aa). We identified 7 (5%) cases of children born underweight or preterm of mothers diagnosed with Gingivitis, 6 (4%) in Mild Periodontitis and 4 (3%) in Moderate Periodontitis. We estimated that when Pi and/or Aa were not detected in the periodontal pockets of mothers, the infants had more than 129% chance of having normal birth weights (OR 3.47 for Pi and OR and 2.29 for Aa). The average age of the mothers who has PTLBW was 21 ± 3.5. The age showed an association with PTLBW (p periodonto bacteria like Pi and Aa.

  3. Lower fertility associated with obesity and underweight: the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that body weight predicts the number of children that a person will have: obese and underweight persons are hypothesized to have fewer children than do their normal-weight counterparts. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between body weight in young adulthood and achieved fertility in later life. A representative national sample of 12 073 American young adults (aged 17-24 y in 1981) were followed through 2004 (19 survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth). Obese young women and men were less likely to have their first child by the age of 47 y than were their normal-weight counterparts [relative risk (RR) = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.78 in women; RR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.84 in men). Obesity also predicted a lower probability of having more than one child, particularly for women. These associations were partly explained by a lower probability that obese participants will marry. Underweight men were less likely to have the first, second, third, and fourth child than were normal-weight men (RRs = 0.75-0.88; 95% CIs: 0.61, 0.95). These associations were largely explained by the lower marriage probability of underweight men. Obese women and men and underweight men were less likely to have as many children in adulthood as they had desired as young adults. Obesity may be an important risk factor for lower fertility because of its social and possibly biological effect on reproductive behavior. Further data are needed to assess whether this association holds in more recent cohorts.

  4. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R; McCrae, Robert R; Deiana, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Costa, Paul T

    2009-07-01

    Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. More than half of the population from four towns in Sardinia, Italy (n = 5693; age = 14-94 years; mean +/- standard deviation = 43 +/- 17 years) were assessed on multiple anthropometric measures and 30 facets that comprehensively cover the five major dimensions of personality, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. High Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness were associated with being underweight and obese, respectively. High Impulsiveness (specifically eating-behavior items) and low Order were associated with body mass index categories of overweight and obese, and with measures of abdominal adiposity (waist and hip circumference). Those scoring in the top 10% of Impulsiveness were about 4 kg heavier than those in the bottom 10%, an effect independent and larger than the FTO genetic variant. Prospective analyses confirmed that Impulsiveness and Order were significant predictors of general and central measures of adiposity assessed 3 years later. Overweight and obese individuals have difficulty resisting cravings and lack methodical and organized behaviors that might influence diet and weight control. Although individuals' traits have limited impact on the current obesogenic epidemic, personality traits can improve clinical assessment, suggest points of intervention, and help tailor prevention and treatment approaches.

  5. GRAVIDARY HOMEOSTASIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH UNDERWEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Владимировна Рудаева

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable success has been achieved in reducing obstetric and perinatal complications in various pathological conditions during pregnancy and childbirth. However, many aspects of obstetrics, theoretical and practical, remain unresolved. A promising direction are the new methodological approaches to clinical research methods of physiological and complicated pregnancy. One of such directions is the study of the gravidary homeostasis. The study of the gravidary homeostasis in pregnant women with underweight opens up fundamentally new ways to reduce the obstetric and perinatal complications. The aim – was to study the gravidar homeostasis in pregnant women with a body weight deficit. Materials and methods. A survey of 50 pregnant women with a deficit of body weight and their fetuses (the main group. The comparison group consisted of 50 pregnant women with normal body weight and their fruits. Neurovegetative regulation of the heart rhythm of the mother and fetus was studied by the method of spectral and mathematical analysis of the variability of the heart rhythm. Results. When registering the initial profile of the heart rhythm, only 16 % of women with body weight deficit of the cardiothoracic wave SPM were within the conditional norm (92 %; p < 0,001. An increase in the SPM waves of cardiac rhythm (hyperadaptive state due to VLF and LF-components of the spectrum was recorded in 48 % of women (6 %; p < 0,001. In 36 % of pregnant SPM waves, cardiac rhythm was characterized by a general depression of the spectrum (2 %; p < 0,001. In carrying out the functional loading test (hyperventilation, hyperadaptive stress responses (10 %; p < 0,001 prevailed in 50 % of cases. During the recovery period, 60 % of pregnant women showed a decrease in the adaptive mechanisms of the mother's body (12 %; p < 0,001. The indices of the cardiac rhythm wave fetal wave in a mother with a body weight deficit in 60 % were characterized

  6. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  7. Frequency of underweight and stunting among children entering school in a small urban locality and their association with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Husain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Medhat, Naila; Farooq, Hadia; Ahmad, Danial; Nasir, Waqar

    2018-01-01

    To determine the frequency of underweight and stunting among the children entering first year of school and to assess its associated factors. This descriptive, analytical study was conducted at 5 schools of Rabwah, Pakistan, from August to September 2015, and comprised all students who got admission in the selected schools during the study period. Name, father's name, gender, weight, height, status of height, and weight on Z-score charts, and marks obtained in the test were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 478 participants, 212(44.4%) were boys and 266(55.6%) were girls. The overall mean age was 66.6±5.966 months (range: 41-129 months). Overall, 53(11.1%) were underweight, 22(4.6%) were severely underweight, 55(11.5%) had stunting and 12(2.5%) had severe stunting. Median marks (Interquartile Range [IQR]) in admission test for obese, overweight, normal, underweight and severely underweight children were 76.3%(37.2-84.7), 65.9%, 66.7%(56.4-72.3), 64.6%(47-71), and 67%(55.3-78), respectively. Median marks (IQR) in admission test for tall, normal height, stunted and severe stunted children were 24.1%, 67%(57.3-73), 57%(31.1-67.8), and 62.6%(49.7-68.3), respectively. Children with stunting scored significantly fewer marks compared to children of normal height (p<0.05). Stunting and underweight were common problems among children starting school. Stunting was found to be associated with lower marks in admission test.

  8. Economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Mannan, Munim; Long, Kurt Z; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    To assess the economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Systematic review of articles published until March 2015. Seventeen suitable articles were found, of which 13 assess the economic burden of overweight/obesity and estimate that it accounts for 1.5-9.9% of a country's total healthcare expenditure. Four articles on the economic burden of underweight estimate it at 2.5-3.8% of the country's total GDP. Using hospital data, and compared to normal weight individuals, four articles estimated extra healthcare costs for overweight individuals of 7-9.8% and more, and extra healthcare costs for obese individuals of 17-22.3% and higher. Despite methodological diversity across the studies, there is a consensus that both underweight and overweight impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Normal-weight obesity syndrome: diagnosis, prevalence, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lana P; Morais, Carla C; Cominetti, Cristiane

    2016-09-01

    The growing concern about the impact of overweight on health has led to studies that shed light on types of obesity other than the classic model based on body mass index. Normal-weight obesity syndrome is characterized by excess body fat in individuals with adequate body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). This condition increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and other conditions associated with chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The aims of this review are to define the diagnostic criteria for normal-weight obesity syndrome and to examine the risks associated with this condition in order to promote preventive measures and early treatment for affected individuals. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Normal, cohyponormal and normaloid weighted composition operators on the Hardy and weighted Bergman spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fatehi, Mahsa; Shaabani, Mahmood Haji

    2015-01-01

    If $\\psi$ is analytic on the open unit disk $\\mathbb{D}$ and $\\varphi$ is an analytic self-map of $\\mathbb{D}$, the weighted composition operator $C_{\\psi,\\varphi}$ is defined by $C_{\\psi,\\varphi}f(z)=\\psi(z)f (\\varphi (z))$, when $f$ is analytic on $\\mathbb{D}$. In this paper, we study normal, cohyponormal, hyponormal and normaloid weighted composition operators on the Hardy and weighted Bergman spaces. First, for some weighted Hardy spaces $H^{2}(\\beta)$, we prove that if $C_{\\psi,\\varphi}$...

  11. Signed Distance Computation using the Angle Weighted Pseudo-normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The normals of closed, smooth surfaces have long been used to determine whether a point is inside or outside such a surface. It is tempting also to use this method for polyhedra represented as triangle meshes. Unfortunately, this is not possible since at the vertices and edges of a triangle mesh...... that are inside and points that are outside a mesh, regardless of whether a mesh vertex, edge or face is the closest feature. This inside-outside information is usually represented as the sign in the signed distance to the mesh. In effect, our result shows that this sign can be computed as an integral part...... of the distance computation. Moreover, it provides an additional argument in favour of the angle weighted pseudo-normals being the natural extension of the face normals. Apart from the theoretical results, we also propose a simple and efficient algorithm for computing the signed distance to a closed \\$C\\^0\\$ mesh...

  12. Prevalence of overweight and underweight and its associated factors among male and female university students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle habits of Thai society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obese and underweight along with associated factors in a sample of Thai university students. Using a cross-sectional survey, we assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among university students selected by stratified random sampling. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand (27.3% males), with age ranging from 18 to 25 years (M=20.1, SD=1.3 years). Results indicated that the median BMI was 20.2, which was higher in men than in women. Overall, 21.5% were underweight (overweight (7.8% overweight [≥23 BMI] and 13% obese [≥25 BMI]). More men than women were overweight and obese, whereas more women than men were underweight. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that among men, older age, trying to eat fibre, and trying to lose weight were associated with overweight or obesity and among women trying to lose weight, depression symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with overweight or obesity. The risk of underweight was greater among men living off campus, having a high income background, and short sleep duration and among women with low physical activity and who were not trying to lose weight. Considering the large percentage of overweight and underweight found in this study and the associated possible negative health consequences, it is suggested to include information on the assessment of adequate weight in health promotion programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Unemployment, underweight, and obesity: Findings from Understanding Society (UKHLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena

    2017-04-01

    Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. The Impact of Weight Labels on Body Image, Internalized Weight Stigma, Affect, Perceived Health, and Intended Weight Loss Behaviors in Normal-Weight and Overweight College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essayli, Jamal H; Murakami, Jessica M; Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D

    2017-11-01

    To explore the psychological impact of weight labels. A double-blind experiment that randomly informed participants that they were "normal weight" or "overweight." Public university in Honolulu, Hawai'i. Normal-weight and overweight female undergraduates (N = 113). The Body Image States Scale, Stunkard Rating Scale, Weight Bias Internalization Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, General Health question from the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, modified version of the Weight Loss Methods Scale, and a manipulation check. A 2 × 2 between-subjects analysis of variance explored the main effects of the assigned weight label and actual weight and interactions between assigned weight label and actual weight. Significant main effects of the assigned weight label emerged on measures of body dissatisfaction, F(1, 109) = 12.40, p = .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.10, internalized weight stigma, F(1, 108) = 4.35, p = .039, [Formula: see text] = .04, and negative affect, F(1, 108) = 9.22, p = .003, [Formula: see text] = .08. Significant assigned weight label × actual weight interactions were found on measures of perceived body image, F(1, 109) = 6.29, p = .014, [Formula: see text] = .06, and perceived health, F(1, 109) = 4.18, p = .043, [Formula: see text] = .04. A weight label of "overweight" may have negative psychological consequences, particularly for overweight women.

  15. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  16. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use by Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Patients with Arthritis or Other Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizo, Justice; Okafor, Anthony; Sutton, Melanie A; Burkhart, Erica N; Stone, Leauna M

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 50 million Americans have been diagnosed with arthritis and other musculoskeletal diseases. The purpose of the current study was to (1) estimate the prevalence of overall complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and (2) examine the role of body mass index (BMI) on CAM use among normal weight, overweight, and obese persons with chronic lower back pain, chronic neck pain, chronic/rheumatoid arthritis, or musculoskeletal diseases, while controlling for other covariates. Cross-sectional design using secondary data for 9724 adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted and analyzed by using Stata 12 for Windows (Stata Corp., College Station, TX). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression statistics were computed. The participants were randomly surveyed from U.S. households. CAM use was measured as reported use of any modality within the five National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health domains. CAM use was statistically significantly associated with female sex; race/ethnicity; having chronic neck pain, lower back pain, or chronic/rheumatoid arthritis; having limitations due to chronic disease; and geographic region (p CAM use included age 50-64 years, income categorized as "other/missing," and having musculoskeletal diseases. Stratification by body mass index suggested increased odds of CAM use among normal/underweight persons with chronic neck pain but decreased odds for those with chronic musculoskeletal diseases. For overweight patients, increased odds of CAM use were significant for chronic lower back pain, musculoskeletal diseases, and chronic/rheumatoid arthritis. Musculoskeletal diseases and arthritis represent important public health problems with economic implications for the well-being of individuals and society. Identifying CAM use trends by patient weight can be used to improve strategies to increase awareness and access to CAM

  17. Underweight and malnutrition in home care: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Nils A; Tannen, Antje; Suhr, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to provide representative figures about the prevalence of underweight and malnutrition among home care clients, and to determine the associated risk factors and the provided nutritional nursing interventions. In 2012, a multicenter point prevalence study was conducted among 878 randomly selected clients from 100 randomly selected home care services across Germany. Following a standardized study protocol, demographics, nutritional assessments (Body Mass Index, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini nutritional Assessment - short form (MNA-sf), nurses' clinical judgment on nutritional status) and interventions were assessed. Common nutritional risk factors for underweight and malnutrition were analyzed in a logistic regression model. Malnutrition figures varied between 4.8% (MNA-sf) and 6.8% (MUST), underweight between 8.7% (BMI malnutrition assessments (MNA-sf 48.8%, MUST 39.1%) due to a lack of information on many clients' loss of weight within the past 3-6 months. Regular weighing was performed in 33.6-57.3% of all clients, depending on weight and nutritional status. Mental overload (OR 8.1/4.4), needs help with feeding (OR 5.0/2.8) and loss of appetite (OR 3.6/3.9) were highly associated with malnutrition/underweight. Malnutrition and underweight are important issues in home care clients. Regular weighing should be performed in all home care clients so that a potential weight loss can be detected in time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Normal plantar weight distribution pattern and its variations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early osteoarthritic changes at the knee result in altered plantar weight distribution pattern during stand, minisquat, squat and one leg stand positions. To study and quantify these plantar weight distribution variations with changes in static functional position, a cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 202 subjects, ...

  20. Determinants of obesity and perception of weight in hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... weight. Overweight and obese individuals perceived that they were a normal weight or underweight.2,8,10. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a prevalent condition that is estimated to have caused 17% of deaths in South. Africa in 2000.11 Weight loss can improve blood pressure (BP) ...

  1. The Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among normal weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These gave the prevalence of MS as 10.6%, 4.3% and 18.5% among all, male and female subjects respectively. MS was distributed evenly in the normal BMI range among the women while among the men more cases were found in the upper range of normal BMI. Prevalence increased with BMI. Conclusions. Individuals in ...

  2. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  3. Spirometry and health status worsen with weight gain in obese smokers but improve in normal-weight smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2014-02-01

    The literature on the effect of obesity and weight gain on respiratory outcomes in smokers is contradictory. To examine the cross-sectional effect of body mass index (BMI) and the longitudinal effect of change in BMI upon spirometry and health status among smokers at risk for and with milder chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants from the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort were followed for a median period of 6 years, 75% of whom were at risk and 25% of whom had COPD at baseline examination. BMI and gain in BMI were examined as continuous independent variables overall and after stratification into three categories (normal-weight, overweight, and obese) determined on the basis of baseline weight. Spirometry and health status (as assessed by St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total and subscale scores) were dependent variables. Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking status. Cross-sectional analysis used linear and logistic regression; longitudinal analysis used a mixed model approach. In cross-sectional analyses, higher BMI was associated with worse health status among obese smokers but with better health status among normal-weight smokers. In longitudinal analyses, weight gain was associated with a decrease in FEV1 and health status among obese smokers and with an increase in these outcomes among normal-weight smokers. Weight gain affects respiratory outcomes differently between obese and normal-weight smokers. Whereas FEV1 and health status decrease with weight gain among obese smokers, they improve among normal-weight smokers. The nonlinear relationship between weight gain and respiratory outcomes suggests that this effect of excess weight is unlikely to be mechanical alone.

  4. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jean L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would

  5. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  6. The least weighted squares II. Consistency and asymptotic normality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 16 (2002), s. 1-28 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Grant - others:GA UK(CR) 255/2000/A EK /FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : robust regression * consistency * asymptotic normality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and their related socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among adult women in Myanmar, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Lwin, Kyi Tun; Aung, La Seng

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. Material and methods In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18–49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (23.0–27.4 kg/m2), and obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2). Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and weight status. Results The prevalence of underweight was 14.1%, overweight 28.1% and obesity 13.1%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of underweight was the highest among 18 to 29 year-olds (20.2%), while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 49 years (around 50%). In multinomial logistic regression, being 30 to 49 years old, poorer and richer wealth status, living in all the other regions of Myanmar and ever contraceptive use were inversely and current tobacco use, not working and having less than two children ever born were positively associated with underweight relative to normal weight. Older age, having secondary education, urban residence, wealthier economic status, living with a partner, living in the Northern and Southern regions of Myanmar, having less than two children ever born and having ever used contraceptives were positively and current tobacco use was negatively associated with overweight or obesity relative to normal weight. Conclusions A dual burden of both underweight and overweight or obesity among female adults was found in Myanmar. Sociodemographic and health risk behaviour factors were identified for underweight and overweight or obesity that can guide public health interventions to

  8. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and quality of life in underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Chih; Huang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Kuo-Liang; Wu, Yao-Kuang

    2011-02-01

    An estimated 20-40% of COPD patients are underweight. We sought to confirm the physiological and psychosocial benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes (PRP) in underweight compared with non-underweight patients with COPD. Twenty-two underweight COPD patients with BMI patients, who were matched for FEV(1) and age, were studied. All patients had moderate-to-very severe COPD. All patients participated in 12-week, hospital-based outpatient PRP consisting of two sessions per week. Baseline and post-PRP status were evaluated by spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, ventilatory muscle strength and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). At baseline, the age distribution and airflow obstruction were similar in underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD. Baseline exercise capacity, inspiratory muscle strength and SGRQ total and symptoms scores were significantly lower in the underweight patients (all P patients (mean increase 0.8 kg, P = 0.01). There were also significant improvements in peak oxygen uptake, peak workload and the SGRQ total, symptoms, activity and impact scores in both underweight and non-underweight patients with COPD (all P patients with COPD have impaired exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Exercise training with supplemental oxygen may result in significant weight gains and improvements in exercise capacity and HRQL. Exercise training is indicated for underweight patients with COPD. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  10. Binge Eating Disorder psychopathology in normal weight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; van Furth, Eric F

    2012-01-01

    Although Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and unstable weight and the diagnosis was originally predicated with the obese in mind, obesity is not a criterion for BED. In fact, BED is not uncommon in nonobese individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the psychopathology of obese (BMI >30) and nonobese individuals (BMI Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to assess eating disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms. The nonobese BED group was significantly younger and was less likely to receive treatment. The obese group had more concerns about weight and reported more objective binge eating episodes. No differences were found on any other subscales of the EDE or BDI. Our main finding was that there are more similarities than differences between the nonobese and obese individuals with BED. The severity of the psychopathology does not seem to be related to BMI. More awareness of the existence of nonobese individuals with BED is needed. Early detection and treatment may prevent the development of overweight and it's consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey. ... Introduction: Overweight and obesity are significant causes of increased morbidity and premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, particularly in ...

  12. Physical activity in normal-weight and overweight youth: associations with weight teasing and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losekam, Stefanie; Goetzky, Benjamin; Kraeling, Svenja; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja

    2010-08-01

    To examine self-reported physical activity with regard to weight teasing and self-efficacy. Within a cross-sectional study, 321 overweight and normal-weight students, consisting of 51% girls (n = 161) and 49% boys (n = 160) at a mean age of 12.22 years (SD = 1.07), were sampled from German secondary schools. The Perception of Teasing Scale, the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Leipzig Lifestyle Questionnaire for Adolescents were used to assess experiences with weight-related teasing, self-efficacy, physical activity and social context variables. Self-efficacy, weight teasing and social context variables were related to physical activity within the full sample (R(2) = 0.433). More frequent weight teasing was associated with decreased physical activity in boys, but not in girls. Overweight participants reported more frequent weight teasing experiences and less self-efficacy than participants of normal weight (all p physical activity (p > 0.05).There were large correlations between self-efficacy and physical activity (r = 0.614, p physical activity (r = 0.298, p self-efficacy were negatively correlated (r = -0.190, p self-efficacy and an encouraging social context are beneficial to physical activity while weight teasing experiences are detrimental. Interventions against weight teasing in youth are needed. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight/Obesity and Their Related Lifestyle Factors in Indonesia, 2014–15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supa Pengpid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and its related factors (socio-demographic, health behavior, health status in a national adult population in Indonesia. Material and Methods: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in 2014–15 in Indonesia, 29509 adults (median age 41.0 years, Inter Quartile Range=22.0, age range of 18–103 years completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic, health behavior and health status factors and underweight and overweight or obesity. Results: Of total sample (n = 29509, 11.2% measured underweight (13.5% among men and 9.1% among women (<18.5 kg/m2, 39.8% normal weight (48.1% among men and 32.0% among women and 49.0% had overweight or obesity (≥23 kg/m2 (38.3% among men and 58.9% among women; 24.6% of the overall sample had class I obesity (25–29.9 kg/m2, and 8.5% had class II obesity (30 or more kg/m2. Among different age groups, underweight was the highest among 18–29 year-olds (20.0% and those 70 years and older (29.8%, while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 59 years (more than 53%. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, having less education, living in rural areas and not having chronic conditions were associated with underweight status. While better education, higher economic status, urban residency, dietary behavior (infrequent meals, frequent meat, fried snacks and fast food consumption, physical inactivity, not using tobacco, having chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterol, and better perceived health and happiness status were associated with overweight or obesity. Conclusions: A dual burden of both adult underweight and having overweight or obesity was found in Indonesia. Sociodemographic, health risk behavior and health status risk factors were identified, which can guide

  14. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Probability of an Obese Person Attaining Normal Body Weight: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, Alison; Charlton, Judith; Rudisill, Caroline; Littlejohns, Peter; Prevost, A Toby; Gulliford, Martin C

    2015-09-01

    We examined the probability of an obese person attaining normal body weight. We drew a sample of individuals aged 20 years and older from the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2014. We analyzed data for 76,704 obese men and 99,791 obese women. We excluded participants who received bariatric surgery. We estimated the probability of attaining normal weight or 5% reduction in body weight. During a maximum of 9 years' follow-up, 1283 men and 2245 women attained normal body weight. In simple obesity (body mass index = 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)), the annual probability of attaining normal weight was 1 in 210 for men and 1 in 124 for women, increasing to 1 in 1290 for men and 1 in 677 for women with morbid obesity (body mass index = 40.0-44.9 kg/m(2)). The annual probability of achieving a 5% weight reduction was 1 in 8 for men and 1 in 7 for women with morbid obesity. The probability of attaining normal weight or maintaining weight loss is low. Obesity treatment frameworks grounded in community-based weight management programs may be ineffective.

  16. Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Normal-Weight vs. Obese Individuals With Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ2 analyses. After con...

  17. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  18. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2016-01-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight...... between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ(2)(2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0.......024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight...

  19. Differences in dietary patterns between overweight and normal-weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the differences in the dietary patterns of Polish overweight and normal weight adolescents. The study was carried out on a group of 1906 pupils from gymnasium (lower secondary school) aged 13-15 years, of whom 953 were overweight and 953 had normal body mass. The sample was taken from a representative group of 8386 pupils. Their height and body weight were measured, and their BMI was calculated. Overweight was defined as BMI ł85 percentile for gender and age. Using the method of "selection in pairs", each overweight pupil was paired with a pupil with normal body weight. The research tool was a self-reported questionnaire, containing questions regarding how often selected food products were usually consumed during the week, how regularly basic meals (breakfast, lunch, supper) were eaten, and data on snacking. Overweight adolescents consumed unhealthy products such as sweets and crisps significantly less often than their peers with appropriate body mass. Overweight girls ate dark bread significantly more often, and consumed soft drinks less often than their peers with normal weight. Overweight adolescents had more irregular meals than those with normal weight: only 44% overweight adolescents had breakfast every day, significantly less than adolescents with normal weight. Nevertheless, overweight teenagers snacked significantly less often than young people with normal body mass. The overweight teenagers also less often chose snacks with high fat content, sugar and salt, and more often vegetables, fruits, as well as yoghurt and kefir. 1. Our study shows that compliance of low energy diet alone does not ensure the maintenance of normal body weight. Irregularity of meals and breakfast skipping play an important role in developing overweight and obesity in adolescents. 2. In future studies on dietary patterns in a larger sample of adolescents, emphasis should be placed on adding questions about portion size, food preparation and meal time. Eating

  20. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestima...

  1. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  2. Factors Related with Adiponectinemia in Obese and Normal-Weight Women and with Its Variation in Weight Loss Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silva-Nunes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess different factors influencing adiponectinemia in obese and normal-weight women; to identify factors associated with the variation (Δ in adiponectinemia in obese women following a 6-month weight loss program, according to surgical/non-surgical interventions. Methods: We studied 100 normal-weight women and 112 obese premenopausal women; none of them was on any medical treatment. Women were characterized for anthropometrics, daily macronutrient intake, smoking status, contraceptives use, adiponectin as well as IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations. Results: Adiponectinemia was lower in obese women (p 2 = 0.436. After weight loss interventions, a significant modification in macronutrient intake occurs followed by anthropometrics decrease (chiefly after bariatric procedures and adiponectinemia increase (similar after surgical and non-surgical interventions. After bariatric intervention, Δ adiponectinemia was inversely correlated to Δ waist circumference and Δ carbohydrate intake (r2 = 0.706. Conclusion: Anthropometrics, diet, smoking, and TNF-α levels all influence adiponectinemia in normal-weight women, although explaining less than 50% of it. In obese women, anthropometrics modestly explain adiponectinemia. Opposite to non-surgical interventions, after bariatric surgery adiponectinemia increase is largely explained by diet composition and anthropometric changes.

  3. Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The level of clinical care and facilities to support the often more viable full-term newborns with normal birth weight compared with preterm/low birth weight newborns that require special care at birth are likely to be attainable in many resource-poor settings. However, the nature of the required care is not evident ...

  4. Neural processing of healthy foods in normal-weight and overweight children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, Anne-Floor

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem almost everywhere in the world. The chance for an overweight child to become an overweight adult is much larger than for a normal-weight child, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. Weight gain, and thus overweight and obesity, is largely caused by

  5. Differences in left ventricular mass between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Huertas, Jose; Livingstone, Kristina; Banach, Alayna; Klentrou, Panagiota; O'Leary, Deborah

    2008-12-01

    This study examined cardiac and arterial differences between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children. Twenty children (10.2 +/- 0.4 years of age) classified as overweight, on the basis of age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, were compared with 43 normal-weight controls. Height, mass, and body surface area were measured. Relative body fat and lean body mass were estimated from skinfold thickness. Each child's weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent (PAME) was calculated using a standardized questionnaire, and his or her sexual maturation was self-assessed using the Tanner scale. Peak aerobic power was assessed using a cycle ergometer and normalized to lean body mass. Mean arterial pressure was calculated from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements taken with a Finapres. Cardiac dimensions were measured, using Mu-mode 2-dimensional echocardiography, and normalized to body surface area and height2.7. Left carotid artery pulse pressure (CaPP) was assessed with applanation tomometry. Overweight boys and girls had a higher left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVMHT2.7 than normal-weight boys and girls. CaPP was signficantly lower in the overweight than in the normal-weight groups, whereas PAME and relative peak aerobic power were significantly higher in the boys than the girls. Although overweight children had significantly higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than normal-weight children, ejection fraction was similar in the weight groups. Adjusted LVMHT2.7 was associated with cardiac volume measurements, BMI, and DBP in normal-weight children, whereas in the overweight children LVMHT2.7 did not significantly correlate with any variable. In conclusion, we found that cardiovascular adaptations can be seen in prepubescent overweight children as young as 10 years of age.

  6. A study on body-weight perception, future intention and weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2014-04-01

    We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India. A population-based follow-up survey of ever-married women, systematically selected from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples, who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Information on women's perception about their own weight, intention of weight management and actual weight-management behaviour were collected through personal interview. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current BMI. Three hundred and twenty-five ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India. Discrepancy between self-perceived body weight and women's actual body weight was reported. One-quarter of overweight women and one in ten obese women perceived themselves as normal weight. Although a majority of overweight and obese women wanted to reduce their weight, a significant proportion of overweight (one in four) and 4 % of obese women also wanted to maintain their weight as it is. Only one in three overweight and one in four obese women were performing any physical activity to reduce their weight. These findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass-media programmes to raise awareness of appropriate body weight to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.

  7. Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

    2011-07-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity.

  8. Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Normal-Weight vs. Obese Individuals With Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.

    2013-01-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ2 analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity. PMID:21331066

  9. Physical self-concept of normal-weight and overweight adolescents: Gender specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dušanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have described the relation between physical self-concept and body mass in adolescents, but those relationships have not been clearly specified by gender. The purpose of this study is to explore physical self-concepts of normal-weight and over-weight Serbian adolescents with respect to gender. The sample consisted of 417 primary school students (229 boys and 188 girls with the average age 13.6 (SD=0.73 years who were divided into normal-weight and overweight groups according to body mass index. To assess the multidimensional physical self-concept, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ was administered. Results showed that overweight adolescents had significantly lower scores than normal-weight on all PSDQ scales except Health and Strength. Differences were greater among girls than boys. Discriminant analysis showed that the scales Body Fat, Endurance and Sports Competence best differentiated normal-weight boys from other students. Also, discriminant analysis showed that, besides the scale Body Fat, scales Flexibility, Self-Esteem, and Coordination best differentiated normal-weight girls from other students. Results indicate that for better understanding of the relationship between adolescent’s physical self-concept and body mass one must take gender into account. Results are potentially valuable for preventing overweight through physical education.

  10. Association of insulin resistance with chronic kidney disease in non-diabetic subjects with normal weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanying Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To the best of our knowledge, the association of insulin resistance (IR with chronic kidney disease (CKD has not been well studied in normal-weight individuals. The aim of this study is to examine whether IR is associated with CKD in non-diabetic subjects with normal weight. We also examine whether the presence of obesity modifies the association of IR with CKD. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in China. Both estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio were used as markers of CKD. Logistic regression models and the quartiles of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were used to explore the associations of IR with CKD in entire cohort, normal-weight and overweight/obese subpopulations. RESULTS: In normal-weight subpopulation, the prevalence of IR and metabolic syndrome were 11.11% and 8.99%, respectively. In the entire cohort, the highest quartile HOMA-insulin resistance had a 70% increased risk for CKD (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07, 2.71, P=0.03, comparing the highest to the lowest quartile. However, when adding obesity to the model, the association was abolished. IR was associated with CKD in overweight/obese subpopulation but not in normal-weight subpopulation. CONCLUSION: IR and MetS in normal-weight individuals is common in the Chinese population. IR is associated with CKD in overweight/obese subpopulation but not in normal-weight subpopulation and the presence of obesity modifies the association of IR with CKD.

  11. South Africa's nutritional transition: Overweight, obesity, underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- ...

  12. Preschool-Age Chinese Children's Weight Status: WHO Classification, Parent Ratings, Child/Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang Heng; Tan, Tony Xing; Cheah, Charissa S L

    We aimed to compare preschool-age Chinese children's weight status based on the WHO guidelines with parental ratings on their children's body type, and child/family demographic characteristics. The sample included 171 preschool-age children (M=60.5months, SD=6.7; boys: 46.8%) randomly selected from 23 classrooms. Based on BMIs from their height and weight from physical examinations, the children were divided into three groups using the 2006 WHO guidelines: underweight (n=46), normal weight (n=65), and overweight (n=60). Data on the parental ratings of children's current body type, ideal body type and child/family demographic characteristics were collected with surveys. Parents' accurately classified 91.1% of the underweight children, 52.3% of the normal weight children, and 61.7% of the overweight children. In terms of ideal body shape for their children, parents typically wanted their children to have normal weight or to remain underweight. Most of the child and family demographic characteristics were not different across children who were underweight, had normal weight, and were overweight. Because parents tended to underestimate their children's weight status, it is important to increase Chinese parents' knowledge on what constitutes healthy weight, as well as the potential harm of overweight status for children's development. Training healthcare providers in kindergartens and pediatric clinics to work with parents to recognize unhealthy weight status in children is valuable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [FEATURES OF EATING BEHAVIOR IN PERSONS WITH NORMAL AND INCREASED BODY WEIGHT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yu; Vesnina, L; Kaydashev, I

    2015-01-01

    Using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-RI8), we defined the peculiarities of eating behavior and their impact on quality of life in young people aged 18-25 years. All participants were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI). The control group included 41 persons with normal body weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). The group of young adults with increased body weight (BMI over 25 kg/M2) consisted of 27 persons. We found eating behavior disorders in 85,19 % of overweight people and in 41,46 % of persons with normal weight. The restrictive eating behaviors as well as a significant percentage of violations by external type had predominated in overweight individuals by the structure of disorders. The external and restrictive types of eating behavior disorders were predominated in persons with normal weight. Investigation of quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed a significantly decline in the physical role functioning and pain. Index of general physical health component, being not high enough in both groups, was significantly lower in overweight people with 52.70 points against 56.11. We concluded that the eating behavior disorders in persons with normal weight and in overweight people required an individual approach to forming healthy lifestyle and fixing broken food stereotype. It will counteract the further increase of body weight and contribute to improving the quality of life.

  14. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  16. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M.; Schoeneman, Samantha E.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Kwon, Soyang; Josefson, Jami L.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  17. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  18. LEAN DIABETICS AND MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN COMPARISON WITH NORMAL WEIGHT AND OBESE TYPE 2 DIABETICS

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    Ramakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder showing an alarming increase in developing countries, particularly in India. In contrast to developed countries, we find that the clinical profile of diabetes mellitus is different in India. Most of the patients are not obese. Hence it is worth comparing the clinical profile of lean diabetics with normal and obese type 2 diabetic patients. OBJECTIVE: To screen the occurrence and pattern of micro vascular complications in lean type 2 diabetic patients compared to normal weight and obese diabetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS : An observational study of 1070 patients was conducted in our hospital between June 2011 to July 2013. We have selected patient ’ s aged 30 years and older diabetics from outpatient and inpatient medicine department of our hospital and compared the urine protein creatinine ratio (PCR, monofilament testing and ophthalmoscopy findings in three groups (Lean, Normal weight and obese diabetics. RESULTS : Among the micro vascular complications, nephropathy was observed in 52.2% of lean diabetics compared to 44.5% and 39.2% of normal weight and obese diab etics respectively (p value - 0.035. Neuropathy was observed in 46% of lean diabetics compared to 29.8% and 34.1% in normal weight and obese diabetics respectively (p value - 0.003. Retinopathy was observed in 45.1% of lean diabetics compared to 32.3 % and 30.8% of normal weight and obese diabetics respectively . (p value - 0.014. CONCLUSION: Among diabetic patients who were screened for micro vascular complications in outpatient and inpatient medicine departments, lean diabetics were more prone for micro vascular complications when compared with normal weight and obese diabetics.

  19. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing J. Akombi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0–59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0–59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight. The prevalence of wasting was 18% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 17.1, 19.7 and severe wasting 9% (95% CI: 7.9, 9.8. The prevalence of underweight was 29% (95% CI: 27.1, 30.5 and severe underweight 12% (95% CI: 10.6, 12.9. Multivariable analysis revealed that the most consistent factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight are: geopolitical zone (North East, North West and North Central, perceived birth size (small and average, sex of child (male, place/mode of delivery (home delivery and non-caesarean and a contraction of fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. In order to meet the WHO’s global nutrition target for 2025, interventions aimed at improving maternal health and access to health care services for children especially in the northern geopolitical zones of Nigeria are urgently needed.

  20. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akombi, Blessing J; Agho, Kingsley E; Merom, Dafna; Hall, John J; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-01-08

    Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0-59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0-59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight. The prevalence of wasting was 18% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 17.1, 19.7) and severe wasting 9% (95% CI: 7.9, 9.8). The prevalence of underweight was 29% (95% CI: 27.1, 30.5) and severe underweight 12% (95% CI: 10.6, 12.9). Multivariable analysis revealed that the most consistent factors associated with wasting/severe wasting and underweight/severe underweight are: geopolitical zone (North East, North West and North Central), perceived birth size (small and average), sex of child (male), place/mode of delivery (home delivery and non-caesarean) and a contraction of fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. In order to meet the WHO's global nutrition target for 2025, interventions aimed at improving maternal health and access to health care services for children especially in the northern geopolitical zones of Nigeria are urgently needed.

  1. Shear-wave ultrasound elastography of the liver in normal-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Smita Sane; Youssfi, Mostafa; Patel, Mittun; Hu, Houchun H; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Towbin, Richard B

    2017-12-01

    Background The identification and subsequent management of liver diseases in children is challenging due to the lack of non-invasive imaging biomarkers. Ultrasound shear-wave elastography (US-SWE) is an emerging imaging technique which can quantitatively assess liver stiffness and may be useful as a tool in the management of liver disease in overweight and obese children. Purpose To evaluate US-SWE velocities of the liver in normal-weight and obese children, to correlate US-SWE findings with age and body-mass-index (BMI), and to compare US-SWE values with qualitative assessment (i.e. normal versus abnormal echogenicity) of the liver by conventional US. Material and Methods A cohort of 300 children (mean age, 9.9 ± 5.3 years; age range, 0.06-18.9 years) were studied, comprising 176 normal-weight and 124 obese participants. In each patient, both US-SWE and conventional US of the liver were obtained. Three pediatric radiologists individually and in consensus determined whether liver parenchyma was of normal or abnormal echogenicity. Results US-SWE velocities differed between normal-weight and obese children (1.08 ± 0.14 versus 1.44 ± 0.39 m/s; P normal-weight children ( P normal-appearing livers (1.53 ± 0.38 vs. 1.17 ± 0.27). The difference was not significant in the normal-weight group. Conclusion US-SWE provides a useful quantitative imaging biomarker for evaluating liver stiffness in children.

  2. COMPARISON OF OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS AND OXYGEN DEFICIT IN SEVERELY OVERWEIGHT AND NORMAL WEIGHT ADOLESCENT FEMALES

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    Mark Loftin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in oxygen uptake kinetics and oxygen deficit existed between normal weight and severely overweight adolescent girls. Subjects included 10 normal weight and 8 severely overweight girls. The participants performed a leg cycling VO2 peak test and a constant load leg cycling test at 80% of the ventilatory threshold (T-vent. In the constant workload test O2 kinetics as indicated by Phase I (VO2 L at 20 sec and Phase II time constants (t were determined. Also, the O2 deficit (VO2 L was measured. As expected significant differences were noted in body composition and VO2 peak relative to mass with normal weight body mass averaging 55.3 ± 7.0 kg, severely overweight 90.5 ± 18.0 kg, % fat normal weight 27.3 ± 3.9%, severely overweight 49.7 ± 4.9% and VO2 peak (ml·kg-1·min-1 normal weight 32.0 ± 2.7 and severely overweight 22.0 ± 5.3. VO2 peak (l·min-1 and T-vent (%VO2 max were similar between groups. Results revealed similar O2 kinetic responses between groups; phase I kinetics normal weight 0.72 ± 0.15 L; severely overweight 0.75 ± 0.13L, phase II (t normal weight 41.5 ± 21.3 sec; severely overweight 33.9 ± 22.7 sec. However, the O2 deficit was significantly higher in the severely overweight (0.75 ± 0.15L when compared to the normal weight group (0.34 ± 0.13L. Correlations ranged from r = -0.15 to 0.51 between VO2 peak (L·min-1 or fat weight and phase I, t and O2 deficit. These data generally support previous research concerning the independence of O2 uptake response and body size

  3. Maternal underweight and obesity and risk of orofacial clefts in a large international consortium of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutbi, Hebah; Wehby, George L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Romitti, Paul A; Carmichael, Suzan; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; DeRoo, Lisa; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T; Munger, Ronald G

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent. Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates. Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (≥ 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI. In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  4. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  5. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael; Møller, Per; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight with a mean age of 11.6 years (range 6-18 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 2.71 (range 1.29-4.60). The 37 normal weight children had a mean age of 13.0 years (range 6-19 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 0.16 (range -1.71 to 1.24). All children completed a half-hour long meal test consisting of alternation between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ 2 (2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0.024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight children in terms of sensory-specific satiety, hunger, or satiety. However, overweight children had lower intake paces and appeared to differ from normal weight children regarding foods with a fatty taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI...

  7. Underweight in ski jumping: The solution of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W; Gröschl, W; Müller, R; Sudi, K

    2006-11-01

    Underweight is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sports. Among world class ski jumpers, the body mass index BMI has decreased by 4 units since 1970. The BMI ignores different body properties of individuals. Particular care should be taken in groups with unusual leg length to avoid classifying them inappropriately as thin or overweight (WHO). The improved measure MI (mass index) for relative body weight overcomes this shortcoming. Anthropometric data of ski jumpers was collected during the Olympic Games in Salt Lake City (2002; participation 81 %, n = 57), during the Summer Grand Prix in Hinterzarten (2000; participation 100 %, n = 92), and during the World Cup in Planica (2000; n = 56). The BMI and the MI were determined. The MI considers the individual leg length: A person with longer legs than average has an MI > BMI, and vice versa: MI = 0.28 m/s2 (m: mass in kg, s: sitting height in meters). BMI classes of ski jumpers in the season 2004/2005 were calculated from their official individual ski length limitation which is a function of their BMI. BMI means were 19.84 in Planica, 19.58 in Hinterzarten, and 19.43 kg m(-2) in SLC. Lowest BMI was 16.4 kg m(-2). The percentage of underweight ski jumpers (BMI ski jumping regulations. The ratio s/h = C (s = sitting height, h = height, C = cormic index) ranged from 0.49 to 0.57. Accordingly, the MI values (which are leg length corrected BMI values according to MI = BMI (C /C) (k) with k = 2 and C = 0.53) deviated remarkably from BMI values. For the 49 cases with BMI or MI or both below 18.5 kg m(-2), the classification to be underweight or not changed in 69 % when the MI was used instead of the BMI. Underweight or overweight is not only a question of cut-off points; the measure used determines the classification accuracy. A substantial improvement of weight analyses in sports medicine, public health, and general medicine as well can be obtained by using the MI instead of the BMI.

  8. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  9. Executive Functions of Six-Year-Old Boys with Normal Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions. PMID:22558470

  10. Genetic approach identifies distinct asthma pathways in overweight vs normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsch Kovacic, M; Martin, L J; Biagini Myers, J M; He, H; Lindsey, M; Mersha, T B; Khurana Hershey, G K

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma in the context of excess body weight may be distinct from asthma that develops in normal weight children. The study's objective was to explore the biology of asthma in the context of obesity and normal weight status using genetic methodologies. Associations between asthma and SNPs in 49 genes were assessed, as well as, interactions between SNPs and overweight status in child participants of the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. Asthma was significantly associated with weight (OR = 1.38; P = 0.037). The number of genes and the magnitude of their associations with asthma were notably greater when considering overweight children alone vs normal weight and overweight children together. When considering weight, distinct sets of asthma-associated genes were observed, many times with opposing effects. We demonstrated that the underlying heterogeneity of asthma is likely due in part to distinct pathogenetic pathways that depend on preceding/comorbid overweight and/or allergy. It is therefore important to consider both obesity and asthma when conducting studies of asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: The key role of body image inflexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, C.; Trindade, Inês A.; Martinho, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ferreira, C., Trindade, I.A., & Martinho, A. (2016). Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 21(1), 49–56. doi: 10.1007/s40519-015-0188-x. Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in Western societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one’s body and unfavora...

  12. Eating frequency is higher in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals than in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica L; Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Raynor, Hollie A

    2011-11-01

    Eating frequency has been negatively related to body mass index (BMI). The relationship between eating frequency and weight loss maintenance is unknown. This secondary analysis examined eating frequency (self-reported meals and snacks consumed per day) in weight loss maintainers (WLM) who had reduced from overweight/obese to normal weight, normal weight (NW) individuals, and overweight (OW) individuals. Data collected July 2006 to March 2007 in Providence, RI, included three 24-hour dietary recalls (2 weekdays, 1 weekend day) analyzed using Nutrient Data System for Research software from 257 adults (WLM n=96, 83.3% women aged 50.0±11.8 years with BMI 22.1±1.7; NW n=80, 95.0% women aged 46.1±11.5 years with BMI 21.1±1.4; OW n=81, 53.1% women aged 51.4±9.0 years with BMI 34.2±4.1) with plausible intakes. Participant-defined meals and snacks were ≥50 kcal and separated by more than 1 hour. Self-reported physical activity was highest in WLM followed by NW, and then OW (3,097±2,572 kcal/week, 2,062±1,286 kcal/week, and 785±901 kcal/week, respectively; Pmeals consumed (2.7±0.4 meals/day). Eating frequency, particularly in regard to a pattern of three meals and two snacks per day, may be important in weight loss maintenance. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Body image perception, dietary practices and physical activity of overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2004-09-01

    Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (χ2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (χ2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices.

  14. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  15. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  16. Oscillometric blood pressure percentiles for Polish normal-weight school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Grajda, Aneta; Kułaga, Katarzyna; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Pan, Huiqi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to construct blood pressure (BP) references with the use of a validated oscillometric device for normal-weight, school-aged children and adolescents and to study BP predictors. BP was measured in 14 266 randomly selected, normal-weight Polish children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who were free of chronic disease, using a validated oscillometric device (Datascope Accutor Plus). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. BP percentiles were constructed for age and height simultaneously with the use of a polynomial regression model. The normative values of BP were compared with the US normal-weight reference, German oscillometric reference, and Polish auscultatory reference. Reference BP percentiles by sex, age and height are presented. At median height, the age-specific differences in the 90th BP percentiles compared with German oscillometric reference ranged in the case of boys from -3 to 2  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively, and in the case of girls from 0 to 3  mmHg and from -5 to -1  mmHg, SBP and DBP, respectively. As compared to weight, waist circumference was stronger SBP predictor in low birth weight boys. The study provides BP references for oscillmetric device, based on a current, nationally representative sample of normal-weight Polish children and adolescents. The normative values of BP were compared taking into consideration the height and BMI differences, the pubertal spurt, the methods of BP measurement and percentile construction.

  17. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  18. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  19. Normal Stresses in a Granular Material Under Falling Weight Deflectometer loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Askegaar, Vagn; Sjølin, Finn Ole

    1996-01-01

    The vertical normal stress under a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was measured in a sand. The material had more than 90 percent falling within the sand fraction from 60 micrometer to 2 mm. The stress was measured with three different transducers. All transducers were installed at a depth of 2...

  20. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital in ...

  1. Sensory-specific satiety in obese and normal-weight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, H.M.; Huntjens, L.; Gemert, L.J. van; Graaf, C. de; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity. Objective: We hypothesized that obese and normal-weight people have different sensitivities to sensory-specific satiety for high-fat

  2. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery with the Iteratively Re-weighted MAD Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton John; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed method for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery based on the invariance property of the Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) transformation and orthogonal linear regression is extended by using an iterative re-weighting scheme involving no...

  3. Attitudes of Overweight and Normal Weight Adults Regarding Exercise at a Health Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C.; Miller, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare attitudes of overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) adults regarding health club exercise. Design: A 46-item survey (23 pairs of attitude/value statements) measured attitudes toward exercising at a health club 30 minutes, twice a week, for a month. Setting: Survey posted on surveymonkey.com. Respondents (men = 730, women =…

  4. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children...

  5. Recovery of Normal Body Weight in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: The Nurses’ Perspective on Effective Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie van Elburg; prof Berno van Meijel; Esther Meerwijk; Laura Beukers; Joyce van Ommen; René Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about effective nursing interventions for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this study was to discover which aspects of nursing care are most effective, according to nurses, in recovery of normal body weight in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: A qualitative

  6. The Weight of Euro Coins: Its Distribution Might Not Be as Normal as You Would Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedy, Ziv; Aerts, Marc; Callaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Classical regression models, ANOVA models and linear mixed models are just three examples (out of many) in which the normal distribution of the response is an essential assumption of the model. In this paper we use a dataset of 2000 euro coins containing information (up to the milligram) about the weight of each coin, to illustrate that the…

  7. Weight, the Normal Force and Newton's Third Law: Dislodging a Deeply Embedded Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David; Wilson, Kate

    2017-01-01

    On entry to university, high-achieving physics students from all across Australia struggle to identify Newton's third law force pairs. In particular, less than one in ten can correctly identify the Newton's third law reaction pair to the weight of (gravitational force acting on) an object. Most students incorrectly identify the normal force on the…

  8. The effect of serum from obese and normal weight men on glucose metabolism in leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myking, O.; Kjoesen, B.; Bassoee, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pooled serum from either obese or normal weight males on glucose metabolism in human leucocytes has been studied. Leucocytes from normal weight males were incubated with 10-90% pooled serum and either [U- 14 C], or [1- 14 C]glucose. Compared to serum from the normal weight males, serum from the obese group had a more stimulating effect on the 14 CO 2 and [ 14 C]lactate production from [U- 14 C]glucose and on the 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]glucose. The two serum pools had the same stimulating effect on the Embden-Meyerhof pathway as indicated by the formation of [ 14 C]lactate from [l- 14 C]glucose. Calculations revealed that the activity in the pentose phosphate pathway was stimulated more by serum from obese, than from normal weight males. It is a possibility that increased stimulation of the pentose phosphate pathway may contribute to the development of overweight. (author)

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Differences between Normal-Weight, Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian; Johnson, Romaine F; Mitchell Md, Ron B

    2016-05-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children determines perioperative management and is an indication for postoperative polysomnography. The relationship between increasing weight and sleep apnea severity in children remains unclear. To compare demographic, clinical, and polysomnography parameters in normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children, as well as identify demographic factors that predict sleep apnea severity. Case series with chart review. Academic children's hospital. A retrospective chart review of 290 children aged 2 to 18 years who underwent polysomnography at an academic children's hospital was performed. Demographics, clinical findings, and polysomnographic parameters were recorded. Children were categorized as normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Differences were assessed using linear and logistical regression models. Significance was set at P preterm), or tonsil size between normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children. Sleep efficiency and percentage of time in rapid eye movement were decreased in morbidly obese compared with other children (P apnea-hypopnea index was positively correlated with increasing body mass index z score only as a function of increasing age (P apnea severity is correlated with a combination of increasing age and weight but not with either variable independently. This study suggests that obese and morbidly obese older children are most likely to have severe obstructive sleep apnea. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  10. Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always normal weight individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary strategies and use of fat and sugar-modified foods and beverages in a weight loss maintainer group (WLM) and an always normal weight group (NW). Subjects WLM (N = 172) had maintained ≥ 10% weight loss for 11.5 yr, and had a BMI of 22.0 kg/m2. NW (N=131) had a BMI of 21.3 kg/m2 and no history of overweight. Three, 24-h recalls on random, non-consecutive days were used to assess dietary intake. Results WLM reported consuming a diet that was lower in fat (28.7% vs. 32.6%, p artificially sweetened soft drinks (0.91 vs. 0.37; p = .003), significantly fewer daily servings of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (0.07 vs. 0.16; p =.03), and more daily servings of water (4.72 vs 3.48; p=.002) than NW. Conclusions These findings suggests that WLM use more dietary strategies to accomplish their weight loss maintenance, including greater restriction of fat intake, use of fat- and sugar-modified foods, reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Ways to promote the use of fat-modified foods and artificial sweeteners merits further research in both prevention and treatment controlled trials. PMID:19636318

  11. TWNFI--a transductive neuro-fuzzy inference system with weighted data normalization for personalized modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qun; Kasabov, Nikola

    2006-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel transductive neuro-fuzzy inference model with weighted data normalization (TWNFI). In transductive systems a local model is developed for every new input vector, based on a certain number of data that are selected from the training data set and the closest to this vector. The weighted data normalization method (WDN) optimizes the data normalization ranges of the input variables for the model. A steepest descent algorithm is used for training the TWNFI models. The TWNFI is compared with some other widely used connectionist systems on two case study problems: Mackey-Glass time series prediction and a real medical decision support problem of estimating the level of renal function of a patient. The TWNFI method not only results in a "personalized" model with a better accuracy of prediction for a single new sample, but also depicts the most significant input variables (features) for the model that may be used for a personalized medicine.

  12. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  13. Androgens in Women with Anorexia Nervosa and Normal-Weight Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. K.; Lawson, E. A.; Mathur, V.; Wexler, T. L.; Meenaghan, E.; Misra, M.; Herzog, D. B.; Klibanski, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context Anorexia nervosa and normal-weight hypothalamic amenorrhea are characterized by hypogonadism and hypercortisolemia. However, it is not known whether these endocrine abnormalities result in reductions in adrenal and/or ovarian androgens or androgen precursors in such women, nor is it known whether relative androgen deficiency contributes to abnormalities in bone density and body composition in this population. Objective Our objective was to determine whether endogenous androgen and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels: 1) are reduced in women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight hypothalamic amenorrhea, 2) are reduced further by oral contraceptives in women with anorexia nervosa, and 3) are predictors of weight, body composition, or bone density in such women. Design and Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study at a general clinical research center. Study Participants A total of 217 women were studied: 137 women with anorexia nervosa not receiving oral contraceptives, 32 women with anorexia nervosa receiving oral contraceptives, 21 normal-weight women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 27 healthy eumenorrheic controls. Main Outcome Measures Testosterone, free testosterone, DHEAS, bone density, fat-free mass, and fat mass were assessed. Results Endogenous total and free testosterone, but not DHEAS, were lower in women with anorexia nervosa than in controls. More marked reductions in both free testosterone and DHEAS were observed in women with anorexia nervosa receiving oral contraceptives. In contrast, normal-weight women with hypothalamic amenorrhea had normal androgen and DHEAS levels. Lower free testosterone, total testosterone, and DHEAS levels predicted lower bone density at most skeletal sites measured, and free testosterone was positively associated with fat-free mass. Conclusions Androgen levels are low, appear to be even further reduced by oral contraceptive use, and are predictors of bone density and fat-free mass in women with

  14. Body composition differences in normal weight, obese-overweight and anorexic adolescents: role of adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Kristin S; Hackney, Anthony C

    2010-01-01

    Adipocytokines are signaling molecules released by adipose tissue with numerous functions, including regulation of metabolism, inflammatory process, and body mass. They are particularly interesting in youth, considering the rising prevalence of overweight/obesity and the linkage of this condition to inflammation. This chapter examines the relationship between body composition and select adipocytokines: leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α, and resistin, in overweight, normal weight and anorexic youth. Leptin, which stimulates energy expenditure and promotes satiety, is highest in overweight youth, followed by normal weight and lastly anorexic youth. Adiponectin has similar functions to leptin but is negatively correlated with measures of body composition. Anorexic youth have the highest adiponectin per kg fat mass, followed by normal weight and overweight. Conversely, IL-6 is positively associated with body composition; however, research in anorexic youth is inconclusive. It has some pro-inflammatory effects and promotes glucose and fat use, therefore beneficial for maintenance of normal weight status. TNF-α is also a pro-inflammatory adipocytokine thought to be somewhat protective against cancer. TNF-α is highest in overweight, followed by normal weight and anorexic youth, similar to leptin. Finally, resistin is also involved in the pro-inflammatory response and the development of insulin resistance. However, far less research exists on this adipocytokine and its relation to body composition in overweight or anorexic youth is equivocal. In conclusion, several consistent relationships exist regarding adipocytokines and body composition; however, there is a need for additional research on these relationships in youth especially at extremes of adiposity such as overweight and anorexics. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Brain changes in overweight/obese and normal-weight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sujung; Cho, Hanbyul; Kim, Jungyoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Geon Ha; Hong, Young Sun; Moon, Sohyeon; Park, Shinwon; Lee, Sunho; Lee, Suji; Bae, Sujin; Simonson, Donald C; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity may significantly worsen glycaemic and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the effects of overweight and obesity on the brains of people with type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigate whether the presence of overweight or obesity influences the brain and cognitive functions during early stage type 2 diabetes. This study attempted to uncouple the effects of overweight/obesity from those of type 2 diabetes on brain structures and cognition. Overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes had more severe and progressive abnormalities in their brain structures and cognition during early stage type 2 diabetes compared with participants with normal weight. Relationships between each of these measures and disease duration were also examined. Global mean cortical thickness was lower in the overweight/obese type 2 diabetes group than in the normal-weight type 2 diabetes group (z = -2.96, p for group effect = 0.003). A negative correlation was observed between disease duration and global mean white matter integrity (z = 2.42, p for interaction = 0.02) in the overweight/obese type 2 diabetes group, but not in the normal-weight type 2 diabetes group. Overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes showed a decrease in psychomotor speed performance related to disease duration (z = -2.12, p for interaction = 0.03), while normal-weight participants did not. The current study attempted to uncouple the effects of overweight/obesity from those of type 2 diabetes on brain structures and cognition. Overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes had more severe and progressive abnormalities in brain structures and cognition during early stage type 2 diabetes compared with normal-weight participants.

  16. Perceptual weighting strategies of children with cochlear implants and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2014-01-01

    This study compared perceptual weighting strategies of children with cochlear implants (CIs) and children with normal hearing (NH), and asked if strategies are explained solely by degraded spectral representations, or if diminished language experience accounts for some of the effect. Relationships between weighting strategies and other language skills were examined. One hundred 8-year-olds (49 with NH and 51 with CIs) were tested on four measures: (1) labeling of cop-cob and sa-sha stimuli; (2) discrimination of the acoustic cues to the cop-cob decision; (3) phonemic awareness; and (4) word recognition. No differences in weighting of cues to the cop-cob decision were observed between children with CIs and NH, suggesting that language experience was sufficient for the children with CIs. Differences in weighting of cues to the sa-sha decision were found, but were not entirely explained by auditory sensitivity. Weighting strategies were related to phonemic awareness and word recognition. More salient cues facilitate stronger weighting of those cues. Nonetheless, individuals differ in how salient cues need to be to capture perceptual attention. Familiarity with stimuli also affects how reliably children attend to acoustic cues. Training should help children with CIs learn to categorize speech sounds with less-salient cues. After reading this article, the learner should be able to: (1) recognize methods and motivations for studying perceptual weighting strategies in speech perception; (2) explain how signal quality and language experience affect the development of weighting strategies for children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing; and (3) summarize the importance of perceptual weighting strategies for other aspects of language functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight information labels on media models reduce body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2012-06-01

    To examine how weight information labels on variously sized media models affect (pre)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg underweight vs. 3-kg underweight vs. normal weight) experimental design in three age-groups (9-10 years, 12-13 years, and 15-16 years; n = 184). The girls completed questionnaires after exposure to media models. Weight information labels affected girls' body dissatisfaction, social comparison with media figures, and objectified body consciousness. Respondents exposed to an extremely thin body shape labeled to be of "normal weight" were most dissatisfied with their own bodies and showed highest levels of objectified body consciousness and comparison with media figures. An extremely thin body shape combined with a corresponding label (i.e., 6-kg underweight), however, induced less body dissatisfaction and less comparison with the media model. Age differences were also found to affect body perceptions: adolescent girls showed more negative body perceptions than preadolescents. Weight information labels may counteract the generally media-induced thin-body ideal. That is, when the weight labels appropriately informed the respondents about the actual thinness of the media model's body shape, girls were less affected. Weight information labels also instigated a normalization effect when a "normal-weight" label was attached to underweight-sized media models. Presenting underweight as a normal body shape, clearly increased body dissatisfaction in girls. Results also suggest age between preadolescence and adolescence as a critical criterion in responding to media models' body shape. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preserved C-peptide levels in overweight or obese compared with underweight children upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeoh Won Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe hypothesized that overweight or obese children might develop type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM early despite residual beta-cell function. Factors independently associated with preservation of C-peptide level were analyzed.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical data of 135 children aged 2.1-16.5 years with autoimmune T1DM. Body mass index (BMI, pubertal stage, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and C-peptide levels were evaluated. Patients were assigned to underweight (22.2%, normal weight (63.7%, and overweight or obese (14.1% groups according to their BMI.ResultsPreservation of serum C-peptide levels (≥0.6 ng/mL was found in 43.0% of subjects. With increasing BMI, the proportions of children with preserved C-peptide levels increased from 33.3% to 41.9% to 63.2%, with marginal significance (P=0.051. Interaction analysis indicated no effect of BMI score on age at onset associated with serum C-peptide levels. The lower the C-peptide level, the younger the age of onset (P<0.001, after adjustment for BMI z-score and HbA1c level. However, no significant relationship between BMI z-score or category and onset age was evident. Upon multivariate-adjusted modeling, the odds that the C-peptide level was preserved increased by 1.2 fold (P=0.001 per year of life, by 3.1 folds (P=0.015 in children presenting without (compared to with ketoacidosis, and by 5.0 folds (P=0.042 in overweight or obese (compared to underweight children.ConclusionOverweight or obese children had slightly more residual beta-cell function than did underweight children. However, we found no evidence that obesity temporally accelerates T1DM presentation.

  19. Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Wasting and Underweight among Children Under-Five Years in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing J. Akombi; Kingsley E. Agho; Dafna Merom; John J. Hall; Andre M. Renzaho

    2017-01-01

    Wasting and underweight reflect poor nutrition, which in children leads to retarded growth. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with wasting and underweight among children aged 0?59 months in Nigeria. A sample of 24,529 children aged 0?59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Multilevel logistic regression analysis that adjusted for cluster and survey weights was used to identify significant factors associated with wasting/severe ...

  20. Prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight, and obesity among school children in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2016-10-03

    The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.

  1. Taste assessment in normal weight and overweight individuals with co-occurring Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Jean M; Smutzer, Gregory S; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-06-01

    Taste perception influences food choice, and may contribute to both weight status and disordered eating. Relatively little work has attempted to disentangle contributions of weight status and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) to human taste perception. We predicted weight status and BED would interact, showing difference in taste perception from non-eating disorder matched groups. The four study groups included: normal weight BED (NW BED), normal weight healthy controls (NW HC), overweight BED (OW BED), and overweight healthy controls (OW HC) (N = 60). Groups were matched for age (±5 years), ethnicity, and weight status. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, the Eating Disorder Examination Version 16.0, and the NIH Toolbox Gustatory Assessment with additional taste solutions and taste stimulus delivered with edible taste strips. Interactions were found between weight status and diagnosis on measures of regional taste intensity for quinine hydrochloride (CI 95% [44.61, 56.31], p = 0.018), sucrose (CI 95% [46.79, 56.45], p = 0.003), and 6-n-propylthiouracil (CI 95% [25.557, 39.269], p = 0.015). OW BED participants perceived these taste stimuli significantly less intensely than OW HC and NW BED. Whole mouth taste intensity tests at suprathreshold amounts did not reveal group differences. All four groups reported similar hedonic response to taste stimuli. Edible taste strips had medium to large significant correlations with NIH Gustatory Assessment taste stimuli. There were significant differences in the taste perception of OW BED relative to the other three groups. These findings may provide partial explanation as to why previous studies correlating taste and weight status have mixed results. Replication in larger samples assessed longitudinally is needed to extend this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese. INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high...

  3. Comparison of neostigmine induced reversal of vecuronium in normal weight, overweight and obese female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Bhimasen Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Obese patients are more vulnerable to residual neuromuscular block (NMB and its associated complications in the post-operative period. This study was carried out to compare neostigmine induced reversal of vecuronium in normal weight, overweight and obese female patients, objectively using neuromuscular (NM monitoring. Methods: Twenty female patients each belonging to normal weight, overweight and obese, based on body mass index, requiring general anaesthesia were recruited for this prospective cross sectional study. NMB was induced with vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg dose based on patient′s real body weight (RBW and monitored using acceleromyographic train of four (TOF. All patients received neostigmine 40 μg/kg and glycopyrrolate 10 μg/kg at 25% of spontaneous recovery of first twitch height (T1 of TOF (DUR 25% and were allowed to recover to TOF ratio of 0.9. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test. Results: Recovery of TOF ratio to 0.5 was comparable in all three groups. Recovery of TOF ratio to 0.7 was delayed in obese (9.82 ± 3.21 min compared with normal weight group (7.50 ± 2.52 min. Recovery of TOF to 0.9 was significantly delayed in both overweight (12.18 ± 4.29 min and obese patients (13.78 ± 4.30 min. DUR 25% was significantly longer in overweight (mean, standard deviation [range]; 30.10 [19-40 min] and obese (28.8 [12-45 min] compared with normal weight patients (22.75 [16-30 min]. Conclusion: In overweight and obese patients, when vecuronium induction dose is based on RBW, neostigmine induced recovery of NMB is delayed in late phases (TOF 0.7-0.9, which may result in vulnerability for associated complications of incomplete recovery. Ensuring safe recovery thus requires objective NM monitoring.

  4. Normal weight obesity among young adults in Trinidad and Tobago: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, Cherrita; Maharaj, Rohan G

    2017-04-01

    Patients with normal weight obesity (NWO) have a normal body mass index (BMI) but elevated body fat percentage (BF%), thereby increasing their risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of NWO and its associated factors in a sample of young adults in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). A cross sectional study involving a convenience non-voluntary sample of participants with a normal BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 was conducted. The following information was collected: history, basic anthropometric measurements, including BF% via the Tanita Ironman Body Composition Analyzer (BC554), physical examination and basic blood investigations. Participants were divided into two groups; normal BF% (young adult population was found to have NWO. Long-term studies are recommended to study the full implications of these findings.

  5. The effects of eccentric exercise on muscle function and proprioception of individuals being overweight and underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Deli, Chariklia K; Raso, Vagner; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of being overweight or underweight on proprioception at rest and after muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Twelve lean, 12 overweight, and 8 underweight female participants performed an eccentric exercise session using the knee extensor muscles of the dominant leg. Muscle damage indices and proprioception were assessed up to 3 days postexercise. The results indicated that proprioception at baseline of the lean individuals was superior to that of the other 2 groups. The overweight individuals exhibited a smaller knee joint reaction angle to release than did the lean group, whereas the underweight individuals exhibited a larger reaction angle to release than did the lean group. After eccentric exercise, proprioception was affected more in the overweight and the underweight groups than in the lean group. The greater exercise-induced muscle damage appeared in the overweight group, and the deficient muscle mass of the underweight participants could explain in part the greater disturbances that appeared in proprioception in these 2 groups than for the lean counterparts. In conclusion, deviating from the normal body mass is associated with significant disturbances in the proprioception of the legs at rest and after participation in activities involving eccentric actions.

  6. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.

  7. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Log-Normal Distribution in a Growing System with Weighted and Multiplicatively Interacting Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya

    2018-03-01

    A growing system with weighted and multiplicatively interacting particles is investigated. Each particle has a quantity that changes multiplicatively after a binary interaction, with its growth rate controlled by a weight parameter in a homogeneous symmetric kernel. We consider the system using moment inequalities and analytically derive the log-normal-type tail in the probability distribution function of quantities when the parameter is negative, which is different from the result for single-body multiplicative processes. We also find that the system approaches a winner-take-all state when the parameter is positive.

  9. Growth Tracking in Severely Obese or Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Melissa; Tanamas, Stephanie K; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Kapadia, Chirag R; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-12-01

    To illustrate the difficulties in optimal growth monitoring of children with severe obesity or underweight by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 age- and sex-specific BMI percentile growth charts. We also aimed to examine the utility of a new modified CDC BMI z score chart to monitor growth in children with normal and extreme BMI percentiles by using real-life clinical scenarios. Modified BMI z score charts were created by using the 2000 CDC algorithm. Three cases of children with extreme BMI values and abnormal growth patterns were plotted by using the standard CDC 2000 clinical growth chart, the modified BMI z score chart, and the CDC BMI percentile chart, modified to include the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ) curves. Children with severe obesity could not be plotted on the standard CDC BMI percentile chart because their BMI points lay above the chart cutoff. Children with a low BMI (chart. The addition of the %BMI p95 scale to the standard BMI percentile chart allowed tracking of severely obese children; however, it did not address severely underweight children and required a change of units within the chart when transitioning from normal to obese BMIs. The modified BMI z score chart allowed uniform tracking. The modified CDC z score chart is suitable for growth tracking of children with normal and extreme growth patterns; the measures correlate well with the %BMI p95, and the chart can be incorporated easily into existing electronic health record systems for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Risk Factors of Underweight in Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneke Tosheno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undernutrition in early childhood has irreversible and long-lasting implications. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing risk factors of child undernutrition. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 households with mothers to children pairs aged 6–59 months selected by a multistage systematic random sampling method. Child anthropometric measurements on weight were recorded using standardized and calibrated weighing scales. Weight-for-age was compared to the 2007 WHO growth reference by WHO Anthro software. Data were entered using Epi-Info and analyzed using SPSS. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between underweight children and their predictors; both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were reported. Results. One-fourth (25% of the children were underweight. Child age (AOR: 2.36, gender (AOR: 1.82, illness (AOR: 0.09, maternal decision making power (AOR: 0.07, maternal education (AOR: 0.19, employment/occupation (AOR: 5.29, and household income (AOR: 4.16 were found to be independent and significant predictors of underweight children. Conclusion. Significant proportion of the children were underweight. Maternal decision-making power persists as a strong predictor of children’s weight. Therefore, intervention programs focusing on improving mothers’ decision-making power on child nutrition would contribute to the efforts towards alleviating the problem.

  11. Gut microbiota, microinflammation, metabolic profile, and zonulin concentration in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kocełak, Piotr; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Zientara, Maria; Juszczyk, Lukasz; Martirosian, Gayane; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P zonulin (r = 0.26, P zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  12. Evidence of genetic predisposition for metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically obese normal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Loos, Ruth JF; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2018-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease. However, many obese individuals, often called metabolically healthy obese (MHO), seem to be protected from these cardiometabolic complications. Conversely, there is a group of individuals who suffer from cardiometabolic complications despite being of normal weight; a condition termed...... metabolically obese normal weight (MONW). Recent large-scale genomic studies have provided evidence that a number of genetic variants show an association with increased adiposity but a favorable cardiometabolic profile, an indicator for the genetic basis of the MHO and MONW phenotypes. Many of these loci...... are located in or near genes that implicate pathways involved in adipogenesis, fat distribution, insulin signaling, and insulin resistance. It has been suggested that a threshold for subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability may be at play in the manifestation of MHO and MONW, where expiry of adipose tissue...

  13. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-06-01

    Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level-dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. The least weighted squares I. The asymptotic linearity of normal equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 15 (2002), s. 31-58 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 255/2002/A EK /FSV Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : the least weighted squares * robust regression * asymptotic normality and representation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Underweight, overweight, and pediatric bone fragility: impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialo, Shara R; Gordon, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal health is modulated by a variety of factors, including genetic makeup, hormonal axes, and environment. Across all ages, extremes of body weight may exert a deleterious effect on bone accretion and increase fracture risk. The incidence of both anorexia nervosa and obesity, each involving extreme alterations in body composition, is rising among youth, and secondary osteoporosis is increasingly being diagnosed among affected children and adolescents. Compared with the elderly, the definition of osteoporosis that stems from any underlying condition differs for the pediatric population and special precautions are required with regard to treatment of young patients. Early recognition and management of both underweight and overweight youth and the accompanying consequences on bone and mineral metabolism are essential for preservation of skeletal health, although prevention of bone loss and optimization of bone mineral accrual remain the most important protective measures.

  16. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  17. Only severe COPD is associated with being underweight: results from a population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berne Eriksson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Low body mass index (BMI and malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are associated with a poor prognosis. The prevalence of underweight, as well as overweight, in severity grades of COPD is sparsely investigated in studies of the general population and the associated patterns of risk factors are not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between severity grades of airflow limitation in COPD, and both underweight and obesity when corrected for possible confounding factors. The study is based on pooled data from the OLIN (Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies. Complete records with lung function, BMI and structured interview data were available from 3942 subjects (50.7% women and 49.3% men. COPD and severity grading were defined using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. In sensitivity analyses, the lower limit of normal was used. The prevalence of underweight was 7.3% in severe COPD (grades 3 and 4 versus 2.0% in those with normal spirometry. The prevalence of obesity increased from 9.7% in grade 1, to 16.3% in grade 2 and 20.0% in severe COPD, versus 17.7% in those with normal spirometry. In adjusted analysis, of the COPD severity grades, only severe COPD was associated with underweight (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.0004–10.5, while the COPD severity grades tended to be inversely associated with overweight.

  18. Health Behavior and Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Normal Weight Obesity in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To explore health behaviors and metabolic risk factors in normal weight obese (NWO adolescents compared with normal weight lean (NWL peers.A cross-sectional study of 18-year-old students (n = 182, 47% female in the capital area of Iceland, with body mass index within normal range (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max during treadmill test, dietary intake through 24-hour recall, questionnaires explained health behavior and fasting blood samples were taken. NWO was defined as normal BMI and body fat >17.6% in males and >31.6% in females.Among normal weight adolescents, 42% (n = 76 were defined as NWO, thereof 61% (n = 46 male participants. Fewer participants with NWO were physically active, ate breakfast on a regular basis, and consumed vegetables frequently compared with NWL. No difference was detected between the two groups in energy- and nutrient intake. The mean difference in aerobic fitness was 5.1 ml/kg/min between the groups in favor of the NWL group (p<0.001. NWO was positively associated with having one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Odds Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.2, 3.9 when adjusted for sex. High waist circumference was more prevalent among NWO than NWL, but only among girls (13% vs 4%, p = 0.019.High prevalence of NWO was observed in the study group. Promoting healthy lifestyle with regard to nutrition and physical activity in early life should be emphasized regardless of BMI.

  19. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor problems than overweight and obese

  20. Relation between Protein Intrinsic Normal Mode Weights and Pre-Existing Conformer Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Beytullah; Ozdemir, E Sila; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2017-04-20

    Intrinsic fluctuations of a protein enable it to sample a large repertoire of conformers including the open and closed forms. These distinct forms of the protein called conformational substates pre-exist together in equilibrium as an ensemble independent from its ligands. The role of ligand might be simply to alter the equilibrium toward the most appropriate form for binding. Normal mode analysis is proved to be useful in identifying the directions of conformational changes between substates. In this study, we demonstrate that the ratios of normalized weights of a few normal modes driving the protein between its substates can give insights about the ratios of kinetic conversion rates of the substates, although a direct relation between the eigenvalues and kinetic conversion rates or populations of each substate could not be observed. The correlation between the normalized mode weight ratios and the kinetic rate ratios is around 83% on a set of 11 non-enzyme proteins and around 59% on a set of 17 enzymes. The results are suggestive that mode motions carry intrinsic relations with thermodynamics and kinetics of the proteins.

  1. What factors are related to recurrent preterm birth among underweight women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsen, Anna I; Mayo, Jonathan A; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Gould, Jeffrey B; Carmichael, Suzan L; Stevenson, David K; Lyell, Deirdre J; Shaw, Gary M

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with recurrent preterm birth among underweight women. Maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of deliveries in California between 2007 and 2010 were used. Consecutive singleton pregnancies of women with underweight body mass index (BMI preterm; preterm-term and preterm-preterm. We analyzed 4971 women with underweight BMI in the first pregnancy. Of these, 670 had at least one preterm birth. Among these 670, 86 (21.8%) women experienced a recurrent preterm birth. Odds for first term - second preterm birth were decreased for increases in maternal age (aOR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.95-0.99) whereas inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth (aOR:1.66, 95%CI: 1.21-2.28) and first preterm birth - second term birth (aOR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.04-1.96). Factors associated with recurrent preterm birth were: negative or no change in pre-pregnancy weight between pregnancies (aOR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.07-2.60), inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth among underweight women was associated with younger age, short inter-pregnancy interval, and negative or no weight change between pregnancies.

  2. Brain structural correlates of reward sensitivity and impulsivity in adolescents with normal and excess weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroscience evidence suggests that adolescent obesity is linked to brain dysfunctions associated with enhanced reward and somatosensory processing and reduced impulse control during food processing. Comparatively less is known about the role of more stable brain structural measures and their link to personality traits and neuropsychological factors on the presentation of adolescent obesity. Here we aimed to investigate regional brain anatomy in adolescents with excess weight vs. lean controls. We also aimed to contrast the associations between brain structure and personality and cognitive measures in both groups. METHODS: Fifty-two adolescents (16 with normal weight and 36 with excess weight were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging and completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, the UPPS-P scale, and the Stroop task. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to assess possible between-group differences in regional gray matter (GM and to measure the putative differences in the way reward and punishment sensitivity, impulsivity and inhibitory control relate to regional GM volumes, which were analyzed using both region of interest (ROI and whole brain analyses. The ROIs included areas involved in reward/somatosensory processing (striatum, somatosensory cortices and motivation/impulse control (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex. RESULTS: Excess weight adolescents showed increased GM volume in the right hippocampus. Voxel-wise volumes of the second somatosensory cortex (SII were correlated with reward sensitivity and positive urgency in lean controls, but this association was missed in excess weight adolescents. Moreover, Stroop performance correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes in controls but not in excess weight adolescents. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with excess weight have structural abnormalities in brain regions associated with somatosensory processing and motivation.

  3. Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3 per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25 per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Increased hepatic inflammation in a normal-weight mouse after long-term high-fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toita, Riki; Kawano, Takahito; Fujita, Satoshi; Murata, Masaharu; Kang, Jeong-Hun

    2018-01-01

    Among five C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, one mouse showed a body weight (BW) similar to normal diet (ND)-fed mice. We compared obesity-related parameters of three groups (ND-fed mice, one HFD-fed normal-weight mouse, and HFD-fed overweight mice), including visceral fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), glucose, and aminotransferases (AST and ALT), adipocyte size, percentage of crown-like structures, severity of hepatic steatosis, and number of inflammatory foci. Compared to ND-fed mice, the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse exhibited a similar visceral fat weight, similar serum levels of glucose and aminotransferases, and a similar percentage of crown-like structures. On the other hand, the serum TC level, adipocyte size, and hepatic steatosis severity of the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse were intermediate between those of ND-fed mice and HFD-fed overweight mice. Interestingly, the number of hepatic inflammatory foci in the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse was remarkably increased compared with those in HFD-fed overweight mice. These results suggest that having BW or serum ALT levels within normal ranges may not guarantee absence of hepatic inflammation and that the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse can be used as an animal model for the study of liver inflammation, particularly in patients with normal BWs and/or serum ALT values.

  5. Evaluating Coincident Relationships Between Obesity Incidence and Normal Weight Incidence From Birth Through Kindergarten for US Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaton, William H; Shah, Megha K; Moss, Brian G

    2018-01-01

    We examine the concurrent relationship between obesity incidence and normal weight status incidence and prevalence in children between 9 months and kindergarten. Multistage, probability sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort. United States. Representative sample of US preschool children (n = 9950) followed from birth through kindergarten. From direct, anthropometric measures, we reported prevalence and incidence rates across 4 follow-up periods. In addition to prevalence and incidence rates, we reported risk ratios based on multiple definitions and estimated predicted probabilities of obesity and normal weight status using clinically meaningful body mass index (BMI)-for-age percentiles. Obesity prevalence (13%-20%) was much smaller than normal weight status prevalence (66%-70%). Lower socioeconomic status, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black children had greater risk of obesity. During 9 months to kindergarten, obesity incidence decreased two-thirds (15.6%), while normal weight status incidence decreased almost one-half (44.6%). Coincidently, normal weight status incidence (ranged from 23% to 45%) was consistently and substantially higher than obesity incidence (ranged from 5% to 15%). During 4 years to kindergarten, the obesity risk for overweight children was 13 times higher than that for normal weight status children. Overall rates of obese and normal weight incidence were substantial at 9 months, trended lower, but remained high through kindergarten. At 4 years to kindergarten, children with relatively high initial BMI were very likely to become obese but far less likely to achieve normal weight status.

  6. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  7. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Lightweight and Normal Weight Concretes Reinforced with Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to conventional concrete, lightweight concrete is more brittle in nature however, in many situations its application is advantageous due to its lower weight. The associated brittleness issue can be, to some extent, addressed by incorporation of discrete fibers. It is now established that fibers modify some fresh and hardened concrete properties. However, evaluation of those properties for lightweight fiber-reinforced concrete (LWFC against conventional/normal weight concrete of similar strength class has not been done before. Current study not only discusses the change in these properties for lightweight concrete after the addition of steel fibers, but also presents a comparison of these properties with conventional concrete with and without fibers. Both the lightweight and conventional concrete were reinforced with similar types and quantity of fibers. Hooked end steel fibers were added in the quantities of 0, 20, 40 and 60kg/m3. For similar compressive strength class, results indicate that compared to normal weight fiber-reinforced concrete (NWFC, lightweight fiber-reinforced concrete (LWFC has better fresh concrete properties, but performs poorly when tested for hardened concrete properties.

  8. The value of MR perfusion weighted imaging in normal and abnormal kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hao; Ding Hongyu; Duan Ruiping; Sun Yongping; Xing Yiyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and the clinical application of MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the normal kidneys and the renal diseases. Methods: Thirty-one subjects including 9 cases without urinary diseases, 14 cases with renal carcinoma, 6 cases with renal cyst and 2 cases with renal tuberculosis who had been examined with T 1 WI, T 2 WI and PWI were analyzed retrospectively. All the data were processed by a workstation to obtain time-signal intensity curves, color perfusion maps and relative perfusion value. The relative renal blood volume (RBV), relative renal blood flow (RBF), mean transition time (MTY) and the time to peak (TTP) in the normal renal cortex and medulla and the renal lesions were calculated. Comparisons between the right and the left normal kidneys, and between the cortex and the medulla of the normal kidneys were performed using t test, and comparisons between the normal and the abnormal kidneys were performed using q test. Results: Relative RBV and relative RBF of the cortex were 1.33±0.08 and 1.44±0.09 respectively, and for medulla were 0.58± 0.05 and 0.78±0.13 respectively (t=9.2241 and 5.0336, P 0.05). The values of relative RBF of the renal carcinoma (1.35±0.34) were significantly higher than that of the normal tissues (1.02±0.06) (q=3.0882, P< 0.01). Conclusion: PWI is able to demonstrate the hemodynamic change of the normal renal tissues and the renal lesions, and it maybe an ideal method for showing the functional changes of the kidney and for differentiating the renal diseases. (authors)

  9. Effect of Obesity and Underweight Status on Perioperative Outcomes of Congenital Heart Operations in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: An Analysis of Data From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Michael L; Kim, Sunghee; Hornik, Christoph P; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Matsouaka, Roland A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L; Jonas, Richard A

    2017-08-22

    Extreme body mass index (BMI; either very high or very low) has been associated with increased risk of adverse perioperative outcome in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. The effect of BMI on perioperative outcomes in congenital heart disease patients has not been evaluated. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed studying patients 10 to 35 years of age undergoing a congenital heart disease operation in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. The primary outcomes were operative mortality and a composite outcome (1 or more of operative mortality, major adverse event, prolonged hospital length of stay, and wound infection/dehiscence). The associations between age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles and these outcomes were assessed, with adjustment for patient-level risk factors, with multivariate logistic regression. Of 18 337 patients (118 centers), 16% were obese, 15% were overweight, 53% were normal weight, 7% were underweight, and 9% were severely underweight. Observed risks of operative mortality ( P =0.04) and composite outcome ( P obese subjects. Severely underweight BMI was associated with increased unplanned cardiac operation and reoperation for bleeding. Obesity was associated with increased risk of wound infection. In multivariable analysis, the association between BMI and operative mortality was no longer significant. Obese (odds ratio, 1.28; P =0.008), severely underweight (odds ratio, 1.29; P Obesity and underweight BMI were associated with increased risk of composite adverse outcome independently of other risk factors. Further research is necessary to determine whether BMI represents a modifiable risk factor for perioperative outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2012-12-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathologic abnormality, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human males. A prospective study of healthy men aged 18 to 35 years who died of sudden, traumatic deaths was undertaken. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, if prolonged medical treatment was performed, if there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, if body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ, which could have affected the weight. A total of 232 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had a mean age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm, with a mean length of 173 cm. The weight ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg, with a mean weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean weight of the brain was 1407 g (range, 1070-1767 g), that of the liver was 1561 g (range, 838-2584 g), that of the spleen was 139 g (range, 43-344 g), that of the right lung was 445 g (range, 185-967 g), that of the left lung was 395 g (range, 186-885 g), that of the right kidney was 129 g (range, 79-223 g), and that of the left kidney was 137 g (range, 74-235 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in men, much like those in use

  11. Differences in consumption of food items between obese and normal-weight people in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, A; Taylor, F C; Khurana, S; Tripathy, V; Khandpur, N; Bowen, L; Prabhakaran, D; Kinra, S; Reddy, K Srinath; Ebrahim, S

    2012-01-01

    There is a rising prevalence of obesity in India, and diet may be a major determinant of this. We aimed to assess differences in types and quantities of food items consumed by obese and normal-weight people in India. Cross-sectional data of 7067 factory workers and their families were used from the Indian Migration Study, conducted in four cities across northern, central and southern India. Food frequency questionnaire data were used to compare the quantities of consumption of 184 food items between 287 obese (body mass index>30 kg/m2) and 1871 normalweight (body mass index 18.50-22.99 kg/m2) individuals, using t tests and ANCOVAs. Individuals with diabetes,hypertension and cardio-vascular disease were excluded. SPSS 16.0 was used for analysis. After adjusting for age, sex, location and socioeconomic status, obese individuals were found to eat significantly larger quantities of 11 food items compared with normalweight individuals. These included phulkas, chapatis/parathas/naan, plain dosa, mutton/chicken pulao/biryani, chicken fried/grilled, rasam, mixed vegetable sagu, vegetable raitha, honey,beetroot and bottlegourd (p< 0.01). Consumption of plain milk was higher among normal-weight than among obese individuals (p< 0.05). Consumption of some of these food items was also found to increase by socioeconomic status, decrease by age, and be higher among men relative to women. Obese individuals were found to consume larger quantities of certain food items compared with normal weight individuals. Interventions should aim at limiting overall food consumption among obese individuals. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  12. Breast cancer subtype distribution is different in normal weight, overweight, and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, Victoria; Li, Yun R; Williams, Austin D; So, Alycia; Steel, Laura; Carrigan, Elena; Tchou, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with tumor promoting pathways related to insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation which have been linked to various disease states, including cancer. Many studies have focused on the relationship between obesity and increased estrogen production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. The link between obesity and other breast cancer subtypes, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and Her2/neu+ (Her2+) breast cancer, is less clear. We hypothesize that obesity may be associated with the pathogenesis of specific breast cancer subtypes resulting in a different subtype distribution than normal weight women. A single-institution, retrospective analysis of tumor characteristics of 848 patients diagnosed with primary operable breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 was performed to evaluate the association between BMI and clinical outcome. Patients were grouped based on their BMI at time of diagnosis stratified into three subgroups: normal weight (BMI = 18-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9), and obese (BMI > 30). The distribution of breast cancer subtypes across the three BMI subgroups was compared. Obese and overweight women were more likely to present with TNBC and normal weight women with Her2+ breast cancer (p = 0.008). We demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer subtype distribution varied significantly according to BMI status. Our results suggested that obesity might activate molecular pathways other than the well-known obesity/estrogen circuit in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Future studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive the variation in subtype distribution across BMI subgroups.

  13. Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  14. Hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil

    2017-07-17

    We study a hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale-type model with time delay in communication and information processing, in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. The model consists of a pressureless Euler system with time delayed non-local alignment forces. We resort to its Lagrangian formulation and prove the existence of its global in time classical solutions. Moreover, we derive a sufficient condition for the asymptotic flocking behavior of the solutions. Finally, we show the presence of a critical phenomenon for the Eulerian system posed in the spatially one-dimensional setting.

  15. Evidence of genetic predisposition for metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically obese normal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Loos, Ruth JF; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2018-01-01

    metabolically obese normal weight (MONW). Recent large-scale genomic studies have provided evidence that a number of genetic variants show an association with increased adiposity but a favorable cardiometabolic profile, an indicator for the genetic basis of the MHO and MONW phenotypes. Many of these loci...... storage capacity could lead to ectopic lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues such as liver, muscle, heart, and pancreatic beta cells. Understanding the genetic aspects of the mechanisms that underpin MHO and MONW is crucial to define appropriate public health action points and to develop effective...

  16. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were considerably more underweight adolescent boys than adolescent girls (17.3% boys to 9.9% girls), and double the frequency of overweight adolescent girls than adolescent boys (7.7% girls to 3.5% boys). The 14-year-old boys had the highest prevalence of underweight (55.2%), and the 17-year-old girls the ...

  17. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  18. Salivary composition in obese vs normal-weight subjects: towards a role in postprandial lipid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vors, C; Drai, J; Gabert, L; Pineau, G; Laville, M; Vidal, H; Guichard, E; Michalski, M-C; Feron, G

    2015-09-01

    In the pathophysiological context of obesity, oral exposure to dietary fat can modulate lipid digestion and absorption, but underlying in-mouth mechanisms have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components related to dietary fat sensitivity would differ according to body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipid metabolism in young men. Saliva was collected from nine normal-weight (BMI=22.3±0.5 kg m(-2)) and nine non-morbid obese (BMI=31.7±0.3 kg m(-2)) men before an 8-h postprandial metabolic exploration test involving the consumption of a 40-g fat meal, in which obese subjects revealed a delayed postprandial lipid metabolism. Nine salivary characteristics (flow, protein content, lipolysis, amylase, proteolysis, total antioxidant status, lysozyme, lipocalin 1 and carbonic anhydrase-VI) were investigated. We show that, under fasting conditions, salivary lipolysis was lower in obese vs normal-weight subjects, whereas proteolysis and carbonic anhydrase VI were higher. We reveal through multivariate and Mann-Whitney analysis that differences in fasting salivary lipolysis and proteolysis between both groups are related to differences in postprandial lipid metabolism including exogenous fatty-acid absorption and β-oxidation. These results suggest a potential role of salivary composition on postprandial lipid metabolism and bring novel causal hypotheses on the links between salivary composition, sensitivity to dietary fat oral income and postprandial lipid metabolism according to BMI.

  19. Being Normal Weight but Feeling Overweight in Adolescence May Affect Weight Development into Young Adulthood—An 11-Year Followup: The HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenraad Cuypers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13–19 yrs who were followed up as young adults (24–30 yrs in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations and regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between self-perceived overweight and change in BMI or waist circumference (WC adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and other relevant cofactors. Results. Adolescents, defined as being normal weight, but who perceived themselves as overweight had a larger weight gain into young adulthood than adolescents who perceived themselves as normal weight (difference in BMI: 0.66 units [CI95%: 0.1, 1.2] and in WC: 3.46 cm [CI95%: 1.8, 5.1]. Level of physical activity was not found to moderate this association. Conclusions. This study reveals that self-perceived overweight during adolescence may affect development of weight from adolescence into young adulthood. This highlights the importance of also focusing on body image in public health interventions against obesity, favouring a “healthy” body weight taking into account natural differences in body shapes.

  20. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Passos, Valéria M A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda F

    2003-01-01

    The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m ) and underweight (BMI Bambu , Minas Gerais State, using multinomial logistic regression. 1,451 (85.5%) of the town's elderly participated. Mean BMI was 25.0 (SD = 4.9kg/m ) and was higher for women and decreased with age. Prevalence of obesity was 12.5% and was positively associated with female gender, family income, hypertension, and diabetes and inversely related to physical activity. Underweight affected 14.8% of participants, increased with age, and was higher among men and low-income families. It was negatively associated with hypertension and diabetes and directly associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection and > or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.

  1. Quality of life in overweight (obese and normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panico A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Panico,1 Giovanni Messina,2,3 Gelsy Arianna Lupoli,1 Roberta Lupoli,1 Marianna Cacciapuoti,1 Fiorenzo Moscatelli,2 Teresa Esposito,3 Ines Villano,3 Anna Valenzano,2 Vincenzo Monda,3 Antonietta Messina,3 Francesco Precenzano,4 Giuseppe Cibelli,2 Marcellino Monda,3 Giovanni Lupoli1 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy; 3Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 4Department of Mental and Physical Health, and Preventive Medicine, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and has a wide variety of consequences. Approximately half of women with PCOS are overweight or obese, and their obesity may be a contributing factor to PCOS pathogenesis through different mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate if PCOS alone affects the patients’ quality of life and to what extent obesity contributes to worsen this disease. Design: To evaluate the impact of PCOS on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL, 100 Mediterranean women with PCOS (group A, 50 with a body mass index (BMI >25 kg/m2 (group A1 and 50 with BMI <25 kg/m2 (group A2, were recruited. They were evaluated with a specific combination of standardized psychometric questionnaires: the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire. The patients were compared with a normal-weight healthy control group of 40 subjects (group B. Another control group of 40 obese healthy women (group C was used to make a comparison with PCOS obese patients (A1. Results: Our results showed a considerable worsening of HRQoL in PCOS patients (A compared with controls (B. In addition, patients with PCOS and BMI >25 (A1 showed a

  2. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Perceived discrimination among men and women with normal weight and obesity. A population-based study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena M; Näslund, Erik; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether men and women with obesity reported different types of discrimination to a greater extent than those with normal weight, and explored whether these associations were modified by socioeconomic position. National representative sample of men and women, with normal weight (n = 2,000), moderate obesity (n = 2,461) and severe obesity (n = 557). Participants were identified in a yearly population-based survey (1996-2006) and data on perceived discrimination and potential confounding factors were measured in 2008. Logistic regression models tested whether obesity was associated with perceived lifetime, workplace, healthcare and interpersonal discrimination. The overall response rate was 56%. For men, moderate obesity was associated with workplace discrimination, while severely obese women were more likely to report this sort of discrimination than normal weight women. Severely obese individuals were twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination than normal weight individuals. Women, regardless of weight status group, were in turn twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination as men. Women with severe obesity were significantly more likely to report interpersonal discrimination compared with normal weight women. Socioeconomic position modified the association between weight status and healthcare discrimination. Highly educated individuals with moderate and severe obesity were more likely to report healthcare discrimination than their normal weight counterparts, whereas low educated individuals with normal weight, moderate and severe obesity were equally likely to report discrimination. In this large, population-based study, discrimination was more likely to be reported by obese individuals compared with those of normal weight. The associations, however, varied according to gender and socioeconomic position.

  4. The relationship between preterm birth and underweight in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2015-08-15

    Although vast improvements have been made in the survival of preterm infants, the toll of preterm birth (PTB) is particularly severe in Asia, with the Indian subcontinent leading the preterm birth rate. Despite the obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence in developing countries. An association between maternal underweight and preterm birth has been reported in developed countries. A review of epidemiological studies in Asian women in whom association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of PTB was measured, indicated no significant association between low maternal BMI and preterm birth. A hindrance in comparison of these studies is the use of different cut-off point for BMI in defining maternal underweight. As a commentary on published studies it is proposed that that country-specific BMI cut points should be applied for defining underweight for Asian women for the purpose of evaluating the association between maternal underweight and preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraecken, Johan; Van de Heyning, Paul; De Backer, Wilfried; Van Gaal, Luc

    2006-04-01

    Values for body surface area (BSA) are commonly used in medicine, particularly to calculate doses of chemotherapeutic agents and index cardiac output. Various BSA formulas have been developed over the years. The DuBois and DuBois (Arch Intern Med 1916;17:863-71) BSA equation is the most widely used, although derived from only 9 subjects. More recently, Mosteller (N Engl J Med 1987;317:1098) produced a simple formula, [weight (kg) x height (cm)/3600](1/2), which could be easily remembered and evaluated on a pocket calculator, but validation data in adults are rare. The purpose of the present study was to examine the BSA based on Mosteller's formula in normal-weight (body mass index [BMI], 20-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI, >/=30 kg/m(2)) adults (>18 years old) in comparison with other empirically derived formulas (DuBois and DuBois, Boyd [The growth of the surface area of the human body. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1935], Gehan and George [Cancer Chemother Rep 1970;54:225-35], US Environmental Protection Agency [Development of statistical distributions or ranges of standard factors used in exposure assessments Washington, EPA/600/8-85-010. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment; 1985), Haycock et al [J Pediatr 1978;93:62-6], Mattar [Crit Care Med 1989;17:846-7], Livingston and Scott [Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;281:E586-91]) and with the new 3-dimensional-derived formula of Yu et al (Appl Ergon. 2003;34:273-8). One thousand eight hundred sixty-eight patients were evaluated (397 normal weight [BMI, 23 +/- 1 kg/m(2); age, 50 +/- 14 years; M/F, 289/108], 714 overweight [BMI, 27 +/- 1 kg/m(2); age, 52 +/- 11 years; M/F, 594/120], and 757 obese [BMI, 36 +/- 6 kg/m(2); age, 53 +/- 11 years; M/F, 543/215]). The overall BSA was 2.04 +/- 0.24 m(2): 1.81 +/- 0.19 m(2) in normal-weight, 1.99 +/- 0.16 m(2) in overweight, and 2.21 +/- 0.22 m(2) in obese subjects. These values were significantly higher in overweight

  6. Reference ranges of HOMA-IR in normal-weight and obese young Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashaj, Blegina; Luciano, Rosa; Contoli, Benedetta; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Spreghini, Maria Rita; Rustico, Carmela; Sforza, Rita Wietrzycowska; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Manco, Melania

    2016-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) may develop very early in life being associated with occurrence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs). Aim of the present study was to identify in young Caucasians normative values of IR as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and cutoffs diagnostic of CMRFs. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were assessed in 2753 Caucasians (age 2-17.8 years; 1204 F). Reference ranges of HOMA-IR were defined for the whole population and for samples of normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to find cutoffs of HOMA-IR accurately identifying individuals with any CMRF among total cholesterol and/or triglycerides higher than the 95th percentile and/or HDL cholesterol lower than the 5th for age and sex, impaired glucose tolerance, and alanine aminotransferase levels ≥40 U/l. Overweight/obese individuals had higher HOMA-IR levels compared with normal-weight peers (p HOMA-IR index rose progressively with age, plateaued between age 13 and 15 years and started decreasing afterward. HOMA-IR peaked at age 13 years in girls and at 15 years in boys. The 75th percentile of HOMA-IR in the whole population (3.02; AUROC = 0.73, 95 % CI = 0.70-0.75), in normal-weight (1.68; AUROC = 0.76, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.79), and obese (3.42; AUROC = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.69-0.72) individuals identified the cutoffs best classifying individuals with any CMRF. Percentiles of HOMA-IR varied significantly in young Caucasians depending on sex, age, and BMI category. The 75th percentile may represent an accurate cutoff point to suspect the occurrence of one or more CMRFs among high total cholesterol and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and ALT ≥ 40 UI/l.

  7. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity.

  8. Is the economic crisis affecting birth outcome in Spain? Evaluation of temporal trend in underweight at birth (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Carlos; Terán, José Manuel; Bernis, Cristina; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the impact of the current European economic crisis on health. In Spain, since 2008, there have been increasing levels of impoverishment and inequality, and important cuts in social services. The objective is to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on underweight at birth in Spain. Trends in underweight at birth were examined between 2003 and 2012. Underweight at birth is defined as a singleton, term neonatal weight lesser than -2 SD from the median weight at birth for each sex estimated by the WHO Standard Growth Reference. Using data from the Statistical Bulletin of Childbirth, 2 933 485 live births born to Spanish mothers have been analysed. Descriptive analysis, seasonal decomposition analysis and crude and adjusted logistic regression including individual maternal and foetal variables as well as exogenous economic indicators have been performed. Results demonstrate a significant increase in the prevalence of underweight at birth from 2008. All maternal-foetal categories were affected, including those showing the lowest prevalence before the crisis. In the full adjusted logistic regression, year-on-year GDP per capita remains predictive on underweight at birth risk. Previous trends in maternal socio-demographic profiles and a direct impact of the crisis are discussed to explain the trends described.

  9. Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil

    2017-03-06

    We study a Cucker-Smale-type system with time delay in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. We construct a Lyapunov functional for the system and provide sufficient conditions for asymptotic flocking, i.e., convergence to a common velocity vector. We also carry out a rigorous limit passage to the mean-field limit of the particle system as the number of particles tends to infinity. For the resulting Vlasov-type equation we prove the existence, stability and large-time behavior of measure-valued solutions. This is, to our best knowledge, the first such result for a Vlasov-type equation with time delay. We also present numerical simulations of the discrete system with few particles that provide further insights into the flocking and oscillatory behaviors of the particle velocities depending on the size of the time delay.

  10. Learning weighted sparse representation of encoded facial normal information for expression-robust 3D face recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for 3D face recognition by learning weighted sparse representation of encoded facial normal information. To comprehensively describe 3D facial surface, three components, in X, Y, and Z-plane respectively, of normal vector are encoded locally to their corresponding normal pattern histograms. They are finally fed to a sparse representation classifier enhanced by learning based spatial weights. Experimental results achieved on the FRGC v2.0 database prove that the proposed encoded normal information is much more discriminative than original normal information. Moreover, the patch based weights learned using the FRGC v1.0 and Bosphorus datasets also demonstrate the importance of each facial physical component for 3D face recognition. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in non-obese Taiwanese: new definition of metabolically obese, normal-weight individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-huang

    2009-11-05

    Not only the obese, but also the non-obese adults have the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the upper normal weight. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in non-obese adult Taiwanese (body mass index (BMI) metabolic syndrome, defined by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2005), were analyzed in the BMI category according to 2.0 unit increments, in individuals seeking a health examination. The higher the BMI categories, the more prevalent the metabolic syndrome was in women and in men (P metabolic syndrome in women were 1.3 (95%CI: 0.5 - 3.2) with BMI 21.0 - 22.9 kg/m(2), 3.0 (1.3 - 7.1) with BMI 23.0 - 24.9 kg/m(2), and 8.6 (3.6 - 20.8) for women with BMI 25.0 - 26.9 kg/m(2), after controlling for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, betel nut chewing, blood routine, biochemical data, hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus. The corresponding odds ratios in men were 1.6 (0.6 - 4.2), 3.7 (1.6 - 8.8), and 9.9 (4.2 - 23.2). Individuals in the upper normal weight and slightly overweight BMI range have relatively high prevalence and increased risk of having metabolic syndrome. Therefore, physicians should screen metabolic syndrome in not only obese but also non-obese individuals for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r=0.43, P<0.001, body mass (r=0.30, P<0.01, BMI (r=0.33, P<0.01, fat mass and fat percentage (r=0.31, P<0.01 and r=0.23, P<0.05, resp.. Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r=0.33, P<0.01 and plasma zonulin (r=0.26, P<0.05 but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r=0.27, P<0.05 and serum glucose concentration (r=0.18, P<0.05 and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r=-0.23, P<0.05. Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  14. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Tasnim Tasnim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. Methods This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3. Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor. The statistical analysis used Cox regression. Results A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; p<0.001, a lack of latrine availability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001, and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02 significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively. Conclusions Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children’s nutritional status. Children’s health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  15. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Tasnim; Dasvarma, Gouranga; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3). Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor). The statistical analysis used Cox regression. A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; pavailability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001), and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02) significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively). Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children's nutritional status. Children's health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  16. Health Related Quality of Life and Weight Self-Efficacy of Life Style among Normal-Weight, Overweight and Obese Iranian Adolescents: A Case Control Study

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    Seyedeh Fatemeh Miri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying and investigating the factors influencing self-efficacy and eventually health related quality of life (HRQoL can be an important step toward the prevention and treatment of the obesity. The aim of the study was to compare weight self-efficacy and HRQoL among normal-weight, overweight and obese Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, 118 obese and overweight adolescents (case group and 118 adolescents with normal weight (control group were recruited. Adolescent's anthropometric characteristics were measured. The Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL, pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0 and self-reported physical activity were completed by the adolescents. Results: Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for various confounders indicated that overweight and obese adolescents were less likely to be physically active (adjusted odds ratio, AOR= 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.911, had lower ability to cope with social pressure (AOR= 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.93, involved in less positive activities (AOR= 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.75, and felt more negative emotions (AOR= 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.36 than their normal-weight counterparts. Moreover, obese and overweight adolescents were more likely to report deteriorated quality of life in all PedsQL subscales than those with normal weight P

  17. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  18. Quality of life in overweight (obese) and normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Annalisa; Messina, Giovanni; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Lupoli, Roberta; Cacciapuoti, Marianna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Villano, Ines; Valenzano, Anna; Monda, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta; Precenzano, Francesco; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Lupoli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and has a wide variety of consequences. Approximately half of women with PCOS are overweight or obese, and their obesity may be a contributing factor to PCOS pathogenesis through different mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate if PCOS alone affects the patients' quality of life and to what extent obesity contributes to worsen this disease. To evaluate the impact of PCOS on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), 100 Mediterranean women with PCOS (group A), 50 with a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m 2 (group A 1 ) and 50 with BMI 25 (A 1 ) showed a significant and more marked reduction in scores, suggesting a lower quality of life, compared with controls (B) and with normal-weight PCOS patients (A 2 ). PCOS is a complex disease that alone determines a deterioration of HRQoL. The innovative use of these psychometric questionnaires in this study, in particular the PCOS questionnaire, has highlighted that obesity has a negative effect on HRQoL. It follows that a weight decrease is associated to phenotypic spectrum improvement and relative decrement in psychological distress.

  19. Overweight and obese children have lower cortisol levels than normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjölhede, E Allansson; Gustafsson, P E; Gustafsson, P A; Nelson, N

    2014-03-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is vital to survival, and a disturbed circadian rhythm can be deleterious to health. However, little is known about cortisol levels in healthy children. The aim of this study was to examine cortisol levels in relation to body mass index (BMI), age and sex. Salivary samples were collected in early morning, late morning and evening, on four consecutive days, from 342 children aged 6-12 years using Salivette(®) tubes. Samples were analysed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). School nurses measured the children's height and weight, and these measurements were used to calculate their BMI. The children displayed a circadian rhythm in cortisol secretion, with morning zeniths and evening nadirs. Average cortisol levels in early morning, late morning and evening were significantly lower in overweight and obese children than in their normal weight counterparts. Cortisol levels did not vary significantly with age or sex. Our findings may suggest cortisol suppression in overweight and obese children. We found no evidence that sex or age influences cortisol levels. These findings highlight the need for further research on the relationship between stress and obesity in children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. BMI and breast cancer prognosis benefit: mammography screening reveals differences between normal weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Anna; Grimaldi, Maria; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Amore, Alfonso; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giudice, Aldo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Montella, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Few studies are available on the potential impact of body weight on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected patients. Moreover, it is not known whether body mass index (BMI) could have a different prognostic impact in screen-detected versus symptomatic breast cancer patients. To investigate these unsolved issues, we carried out a retrospective study evaluating the effect of BMI on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer patients. We conducted a follow-up study on 448 women diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Patients were categorized according to their BMI as normal weight, overweight and obese. Disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and BMI curves were compared according to mode of cancer detection. Among screen-detected patients, higher BMI was associated with a significant lower DFS, whereas no significant difference was observed among symptomatic patients. OS showed similar results. In the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, tumor size, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and menopausal status, the risk for high level of BMI among screen-detected patients did not reach the statistical significance for either recurrence or survival. Our study highlights the potential impact of high bodyweight in breast cancer prognosis, the findings confirm that obesity plays a role in women breast cancer prognosis independently from diagnosis mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of five equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in Chinese young, normal weight healthy adults

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    Rao Zhi-yong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most resting energy expenditure (REE predictive equations for adults were derived from research conducted in western populations; whether they can also be used in Chinese young people is still unclear. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the best REE predictive equation in Chinese normal weight young adults. Methods Forty-three (21 male, 22 female healthy college students between the age of 18 and 25 years were recruited. REE was measured by the indirect calorimetry (IC method. Harris-Benedict, World Health Organization (WHO, Owen, Mifflin and Liu’s equations were used to predictREE (REEe. REEe that was within 10% of measured REE (REEm was defined as accurate. Student’s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, McNemar Test and the Bland-Altman method were used for data analysis. Results REEm was significantly lower (P P P  Conclusions Liu’s, Owen, and Mifflin equations are appropriate for the prediction of REE in young Chinese adults. However, the use of ideal body weight did not increase the accuracy of REEe.

  2. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, L. M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R. E.; van der Staay, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher need

  3. Dietary pattern and leisure time activity of overweight and normal weight children in Germany: sex-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Ina B; Ozel, Yelda; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2013-01-15

    Several studies indicate that dietary pattern and leisure time activities of adults not only differ between sexes but also between overweight and normal weight individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine if sex-specific differences in dietary pattern and leisure time activity already exist and are associated with weight status in young childhood. Nutritional intake, anthropometric parameters, leisure time activities and socio- demographical factors were assessed in 100 overweight and 51 normal weight children (81 girls and 70 boys), aged 5-8 years. In general, independent of body weight, boys ate more cheese while girls consumed more vegetables and spent more time with sedentary activities. Moreover, regardless of sex, total energy and macronutrient intake did not differ between normal weight and overweight children. Also, time spent with sportive activities did not differ between groups; however, overweight boys spent significantly more leisure time with sedentary activities than normal weight boys. Furthermore, BMI of mothers and time spent with sedentary activities were identified as independent risk factors for the development of overweight when performing multiple regression analyses. Taken together, results of our study suggest that already at young age sex influences dietary pattern independent of body weight. Furthermore, an increased time spent with sedentary activities and an elevated maternal BMI were found to be associated with an elevated body weight in children. ( NCT01306396).

  4. Dietary pattern and leisure time activity of overweight and normal weight children in Germany: sex-specific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Ina B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies indicate that dietary pattern and leisure time activities of adults not only differ between sexes but also between overweight and normal weight individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine if sex-specific differences in dietary pattern and leisure time activity already exist and are associated with weight status in young childhood. Methods Nutritional intake, anthropometric parameters, leisure time activities and socio- demographical factors were assessed in 100 overweight and 51 normal weight children (81 girls and 70 boys, aged 5–8 years. Results In general, independent of body weight, boys ate more cheese while girls consumed more vegetables and spent more time with sedentary activities. Moreover, regardless of sex, total energy and macronutrient intake did not differ between normal weight and overweight children. Also, time spent with sportive activities did not differ between groups; however, overweight boys spent significantly more leisure time with sedentary activities than normal weight boys. Furthermore, BMI of mothers and time spent with sedentary activities were identified as independent risk factors for the development of overweight when performing multiple regression analyses. Conclusions Taken together, results of our study suggest that already at young age sex influences dietary pattern independent of body weight. Furthermore, an increased time spent with sedentary activities and an elevated maternal BMI were found to be associated with an elevated body weight in children. (Trial registration: NCT01306396

  5. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van L.M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher

  6. Overweight but unseen: a review of the underestimation of weight status and a visual normalization theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E

    2017-10-01

    Although overweight and obesity are widespread across most of the developed world, a considerable body of research has now accumulated, which suggests that adiposity often goes undetected. A substantial proportion of individuals with overweight or obesity do not identify they are overweight, and large numbers of parents of children with overweight or obesity fail to identify their child as being overweight. Lay people and medical practitioners are also now poor at identifying overweight and obesity in others. A visual normalization theory of the under-detection of overweight and obesity is proposed. This theory is based on the notion that weight status is judged relative to visual body size norms. Because larger body sizes are now common, this has caused a recalibration to the range of body sizes that are perceived as being 'normal' and increased the visual threshold for what constitutes 'overweight'. Evidence is reviewed that indicates this process has played a significant role in the under-detection of overweight and obesity. The public health relevance of the under-detection of overweight and obesity is also discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  7. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Ravn, Pernille; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Fedorcsak, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-11-01

    Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649/876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P PCOS phenotype did not predict 2-h glucose levels during OGTT after adjustment for BMI and age. The present study included cross-sectional data and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. These results may not apply to populations of other ethnic origin. Routine OGTT may not be indicated in normal-weight women with PCOS. None. N/A.

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance in healthy men with low body weight

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    Schmoller André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.

  9. Glucoregulation in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated by first generation antipsychotics

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    Marić Nađa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schizophrenia patients are at greater risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular disorders. The metabolic complications in patients are associated with several risk factors: family history of DM, lifestyle, smoking, dietary habits, physical inactivity, but also with antipsychotic medication. In literature, most publications have been focused on the effects of the second generation antipsychotics (SGA on glucose metabolism. However, less attention has been paid to abnormality in glucoregulation, patients with schizophrenia treated with the first generation antipsychotics (FGA. Objective The present study evaluated glucose metabolism in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated with FGA. METHOD The cross-sectional study included 18 patients (FGA treated and 20 healthy controls with neither group differences in sex distribution, age, nor in BMI. Inclusion criteria were normal BMI (20-25 kg/m2. The glucose levels, insulin levels and growth hormone levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. Results Fasting glucose and insulin levels did not differ significantly between groups. Groups differed in OGTT glucose and insulin peak and area under curve (AUC, level of significance p<0.05 (patients vs. controls: glucose peak 8.3±0.4 vs.6.9±0.5 mmol/l, glucose AUC 758±28 vs. 640±36 mU/l/120 min; insulin peak in patients 92.7±15.6 mU/l; insulin AUC 6060±1016 mU/l/120 min, insulin peak in controls 47.9±6.5 mU/l; insulin AUC 2597±256 mU/l/120 min. Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia, although with normal body mass index, are at high risk of abnormal glucose regulation. Not only SGA increase the risk of impaired glucoregulation and metabolic syndrome, but this may also be due to FGA or schizophrenia per se. .

  10. Trends in Child Obesity and Underweight in Spain by Birth Year and Age, 1983 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Sánchez-Cruz, José Juan; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-08-01

    The prevalences of child obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and are a significant public health issue, particularly in terms of long-term cardiovascular risk profiles, which continue into adulthood unless obesity is reversed. Accurately identifying trends and at-risk subgroups is crucial to correctly target public health initiatives. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalences of child obesity and underweight in Spain from 1983 to 2011 taking into consideration both age and birth year. A series of cross-sectional studies representative of the pediatric population in Spain between 1987 and 2011 was used to calculate the prevalence and trends of excess weight and underweight in girls and boys aged 2 to 14 years per survey year and per birth year. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity remained relatively stable. The prevalence of overweight in boys aged 10 to 14 years increased from 13.9% to 22.2%. The prevalence of obesity in girls aged 2 to 5 years decreased from 30% to 19.8%, whereas the prevalence of underweight in this group increased from 13.7% to 22.6%. Child obesity trends in Spain over the last 2 decades appear to be stable with some fluctuations, but the trends differ depending on age and sex, and have stabilized at too high a level. The prevalence of underweight also appears to have increased and should be considered alongside excess weight when designing and implementing child health and weight measures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Who wants a slimmer body? The relationship between body weight status, education level and body shape dissatisfaction among young adults in Hong Kong

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    Cheung Yee Tak Derek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level.

  12. Association Between Gestational Weight Gain According to Body Mass Index and Postpartum Weight in a Large Cohort of Danish Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PWR) in pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese women, with emphasis on the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We performed secondary analyses...... weight, 60% of overweight and 50% of obese women gained more than recommended during pregnancy. For normal weight and overweight women with GWG above recommendations the OR of gaining = 5 kg (11 lbs) 1-year postpartum was 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.2, respectively) compared to women...... with GWG within recommendations. GWG above IOM recommendations significantly increases normal weight, overweight and obese women's risk of retaining weight 1 year after delivery. Health personnel face a challenge in prenatal counseling as 40-60% of these women gain more weight than recommended...

  13. Popcorn is more satiating than potato chips in normal-weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Von; Cooper, Lisa; Lowndes, Joshua; Melanson, Kathleen; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Rippe, James M; Reimers, Kristin

    2012-09-14

    Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women) ages 20-50 years (mean age 33 ± 11, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control), one cup (4 g, 15 kcal) popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal) popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal) potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining) was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P 0.05). Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

  14. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Popcorn is more satiating than potato chips in normal-weight adults

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    Nguyen Von

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. Methods This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women ages 20–50 years (mean age 33 ± 11, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m2 consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control, one cup (4 g, 15 kcal popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. Results Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P  0.05. Conclusion Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

  16. Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) antigen in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, S; Martins, C; Kulseng, B

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its cell wall components have been used as one of the alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in the feed industry. Antibodies to cell wall mannan of this yeast (ASCA) have been traditionally used in the study of Crohn's disease (CD). We applied ASCA in relation to obesity. This study aims (i) to determine the concentration of ASCA (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and immunoglobulin G [IgG]) in obese compared with normal weight individuals and (ii) to determine if there is a correlation between ASCA concentrations, obesity indices and C-reactive protein. Forty obese individuals (body mass index [BMI] > 35 kg m(-2) ) and 18 healthy (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ) volunteers participated in this case-control study. Binding activity of serum IgA and IgG to the cell wall mannan of S. cerevisiae was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than one-third of the obese individual (35%) showed elevated titres of ASCA compared with the control group (5%). This antibody was positively associated with weight (P = 0.01), BMI (P = 0.02) and waist circumference (P = 0.02), but not with C-reactive protein. It seems that ASCA are not only specific for CD but are also associated with obesity. S. cerevisiae or a related antigen may play a role in the matrix of this complex condition. © 2014 World Obesity.

  17. Intramyocellular Lipid and Impaired Myofiber Contraction in Normal Weight and Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung J; Files, D Clark; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria L; Gregory, Heather; Stone, John; Lyles, Mary F; Dhar, Sanjay; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2016-04-01

    Evidence implicates the amount and location of fat in aging-related loss of muscle function; however, whether intramyocellular lipids affect muscle contractile capacity is unknown. We compared both in vivo knee extensor muscle strength, power, and quality and in vitro mechanical properties of vastus lateralis single-muscle fibers between normal weight (NW) and obese older adults and determined the relationship between muscle lipid content (both intramuscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids) and in vivo and in vitro muscle function in NW and obese individuals. The obese group had a greater percentage of type-I fibers compared to the NW group. The cross-sectional area of type-I fibers was greater in obese compared to NW; however, maximal shortening velocity of type-I fibers in the obese was slower compared to NW. Type-I and type-IIa fibers from obese group produced lower specific force than that of type-I and type-IIa fibers from the NW group. Normalized power was also substantially lower (~50%) in type-I fibers from obese adults. The intramyocellular lipids data showed that total lipid droplet area, number of lipid droplets, and area fraction were about twofold greater in type-I fibers from the obese compared to the NW group. Interestingly, a significant inverse relationship between average number of lipid droplets and single-fiber unloaded shortening velocity, maximal velocity, and specific power was observed in obese participants. Additionally, muscle echointensity correlated with single-fiber specific force. These data indicate that greater intramyocellular lipids are associated with slower myofiber contraction, force, and power development in obese older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Are Lean and Normal Weight Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome at Risk of Preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Shahnaz Aali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined whether pregnant women with preeclampsia have an increased rateof pre-pregnancy polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This study also evaluated whether theassociation, if any, was a result of preeclampsia and its relationship to PCOS or dependent uponconcurrent obesity.Materials and Methods: In this study, 75 preeclampsia cases and 225 normotensive pregnantcontrols, matched for age and gravidity, were enrolled. A confirmation of pre-pregnancy PCOSwas ascertained by recording medical history, along with a physical examination directed for signsand symptoms of PCOS, an ultrasound report of polycystic ovaries and laboratory tests whichconfirmed hyperandrogenism prior to pregnancy. Body mass index (BMI was calculated for eachpatient. Participants were classified into two categories: lean/normal and obese according to a BMI<25 or greater than 25.1, respectively. Chi-square, Student t test, Fisher-exact and Mann-Whitneytests were used to assess the differences between the groups in addition to the relationship betweenpreeclampsia and PCOS. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.Results: Age, gravidity and parity were not significantly different between cases and controls.However, a significant difference was found in gestational age and BMI between the groups.Additionally, preeclamptic patients more frequently suffered from pre-pregnancy PCOS thancontrols and a significant relationship was found between preeclampsia and previous PCOS, evenamongst lean/normal weight patients.Conclusion: This study provides convincing evidence that a pre-pregnancy diagnosis of PCOScould predispose the patient to preeclampsia, regardless of a concomitant obesity risk factor.

  19. PARENTAL PERCEPTION OF BODY WEIGHT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND AN ANALYSIS OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SELECTED PARENT-RELATED FACTORS AND THE ASSESSMENT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S WEIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Kamila; Kołodziej, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The efforts parents make to maintain the correct body weight in children indicates parental awareness of overweight and obesity-related health risks. The objective of the analysis was to define the accuracy of the appraisal of weight-to-height proportions in preschool children, as assessed by their parents and to analyse the connection of selected parental factors with the assessment conducted. Data were collected from 230 children (121 males and 109 females aged 6.28 ± 0.56 years) attending preschools in the city of Wroclaw, Poland. Body height and weight were measured to calculate BMI; cut-offs referenced by the International Obesity Task Force were used to determine weight status (underweight, overweight, obese). The participants' parents completed a weight-height assessment of their child and provided information on how often the child's body weight was checked. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used as a statistical measure of inter-rater agreement between actual child weight and parental perception of child weight. Selected parental factors influencing the correctness of assessing child body weight was tested using the chi-square test. This study showed that 42.1% of underweight children and 60.9% overweight and obese children are perceived as having normal weight. In the group of children with normal weight-to-height proportions, 13.3% of the parents declared their normal-weight children to be underweight. No relationship was found in the study between the correct assessment of body weight and the parents' own body weight, their education, or such factors as sex and the frequency of checking the child's body weight. The incompatibility between actual and perceived weight status indicates the need for health education among parents in assessing and monitoring the child's body weight during the developmental period.

  20. Underweight, Stunting and Wasting among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania; a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgongo, Melina; Chotta, Nikolas A. S.; Hashim, Tamara H.; Uriyo, Jacqueline G.; Damian, Damian J.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia E.; Wandel, Margareta; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0–24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status. A total of 1870 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of children classified as underweight was 46.0%, stunting was 41.9%, and wasting was 24.7%. About 33% were both underweight and stunted, and 12% had all three conditions. In a multivariate logistic regression, child age, child being ill and birth weight were associated with all anthropometric indices. Child being breastfed was associated with being underweight and wasting. Mother’s education was associated with being underweight and stunting. Fathers aged 35+ years, and living in the Hai district was associated with stunting, and being female was associated with wasting. The prevalence of child undernutrition is high in this region. Strategies that target each risk factor for child undernutrition may help to reduce the problem in the region. PMID:28489043

  1. The Effects of Thin and Heavy Media Images on Overweight and Underweight Consumers: Social Comparison Processes and Behavioral Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); T. Mussweiler (Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines how advertisements containing thin or heavy models influence the self‐esteem of overweight, normal, and underweight consumers. Previous research has mainly examined the influences of variations of the comparison standard on self‐evaluative outcomes, whereas we examine

  2. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Normal-weight and Overweight Preadolescent Children in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoja Kumar; Bhatia, Vidyut; Sibal, Anupam; Gupta, Abha; Gopalan, Sarath; Sardana, Raman; Sahni, Reeti; Roy, Ankur; Arora, Narendra K

    2017-12-15

    To document the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic parameters among normal-weight and overweight schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Thirteen private schools in urban Faridabad, Haryana. 961 school children aged 5-10 years. Ultrasound testing was done, and 215 with fatty liver on ultrasound underwent further clinical, biochemical and virological testing. Prevalence of fatty liver on ultrasound, and NAFLD and its association with biochemical abnormalities and demographic risk factors. On ultrasound, 215 (22.4%) children had fatty liver; 18.9% in normal-weight and 45.6% in overweight category. Presence and severity of fatty liver disease increased with body mass index (BMI) and age. Among the children with NAFLD, elevated SGOT and SGPT was observed in 21.5% and 10.4% children, respectively. Liver enzyme derangement was significantly higher in overweight children (27% vs 19.4% in normal-weight) and severity of fatty liver (28% vs 20% in mild fatty liver cases). Eleven (8.1%) children with NAFLD had metabolic syndrome. Higher BMI (OR 35.9), severe fatty liver disease (OR 1.7) and female sex (OR 1.9) had strong association with metabolic syndrome. 22.4% of normal-weight and overweight children aged 5-10 years had fatty liver. A high proportion (18.9%) of normal-weight children with fatty liver on ultrasound indicates the silent burden in the population.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of alanine aminotransferase elevation among normal weight, overweight and obese youth in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maura; Flores, Yvonne N; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Salmeron, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among a sample of normal weight, overweight and obese youth from two urban populations in Central Mexico. Baseline data from 1262 youth aged 8-19 years who participated in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study from March 2004 to April 2006 were reviewed, including 680 girls and 582 boys, with a total of 83 participants with elevated ALT level (>40 U/L). Information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric results and clinical measurements. Associations of interest were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 3.8% of girls and 9.8% of boys had elevated ALT levels. Elevated ALT was observed in 28.9% of the obese and 14.2% of the overweight participants. Metabolic syndrome (MS) occurred in 6.1% of the study population and those with MS had a high percentage of elevated ALT (14.5% of girls and 40.0% of boys, respectively). Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were also associated with a greater risk of elevated ALT. Obesity and certain metabolic risk factors are important predictors for elevated ALT. Screening for ALT levels in obese youth could help to identify those at risk and reduce the possibility of future liver diseases. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  4. Cross-modal interactions for custard desserts differ in obese and normal weight Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Cristina; Laureati, Monica; Invitti, Cecilia; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2016-05-01

    The effects of variation in odors and thickening agents on sensory properties and acceptability of a model custard dessert were investigated in normal weight and obese women. Subjects rated their liking and the intensity of sensory properties (sweetness, vanilla and butter flavors, and creaminess) of 3 block samples (the first varied in vanilla aroma, the second varied in butter aroma and the third varied in xanthan gum). Significant differences were found in acceptability and intensity ratings in relation to body mass index. The addition of butter aroma in the custard was the most effective way to elicit odor-taste, odor-flavor and odor-texture interactions in obese women. In this group, butter aroma, signaling energy dense products, increased the perception of sweetness, vanilla flavor and creaminess, which are all desirable properties in a custard, while maintaining a high liking degree. Understanding cross-modal interactions in relation to nutritional status is interesting in order to develop new food products with reduced sugar and fat, that are still satisfying for the consumer. This could have important implications to reduce caloric intake and tackle the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of aggregate characteristics on the compressive strength of normal weight concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.A.; Aslam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the properties of concrete have been performed around the globe and their correlation is interpreted in relevant design codes. The structural behavior of cement concrete significantly relies on the material resources, properties of the aggregates constituting the concrete and the local construction practice. These factors vary from place to place. Therefore, the compressive strength of concrete prepared from the aggregates available in one locality may not be directly applicable to the other areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Influence of locally available coarse aggregates on the compressive strength of normal weight concrete (NWC) prepared under local environmental conditions of district Khairpur Mir's, Sindh, Pakistan. The coarse aggregates were collected from five different quarries in the vicinity of Khairpur Mir's, Pakistan. In total; 180 cubes were tested. 10 different batches were formed in order to arrange individual characterization of concrete. Each batch was contained of 18 cubes and each quarry contains 2 batches making a total of 36 cube with four different ratios for each quarry. Dry density and compressive strength of concrete was calculated and a comparison is provided as a guideline for the future construction work in the local community. (author)

  6. Optimization of b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Ivan; Merisaari, Harri; Aronen, Hannu J; Järvinen, Jukka; Saunavaara, Jani; Kauko, Tommi; Borra, Ronald; Pesola, Marko

    2014-05-01

    To determine the optimal b-value distribution for biexponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of normal prostate using both a computer modeling approach and in vivo measurements. Optimal b-value distributions for the fit of three parameters (fast diffusion Df, slow diffusion Ds, and fraction of fast diffusion f) were determined using Monte-Carlo simulations. The optimal b-value distribution was calculated using four individual optimization methods. Eight healthy volunteers underwent four repeated 3 Tesla prostate DWI scans using both 16 equally distributed b-values and an optimized b-value distribution obtained from the simulations. The b-value distributions were compared in terms of measurement reliability and repeatability using Shrout-Fleiss analysis. Using low noise levels, the optimal b-value distribution formed three separate clusters at low (0-400 s/mm2), mid-range (650-1200 s/mm2), and high b-values (1700-2000 s/mm2). Higher noise levels resulted into less pronounced clustering of b-values. The clustered optimized b-value distribution demonstrated better measurement reliability and repeatability in Shrout-Fleiss analysis compared with 16 equally distributed b-values. The optimal b-value distribution was found to be a clustered distribution with b-values concentrated in the low, mid, and high ranges and was shown to improve the estimation quality of biexponential DWI parameters of in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effect of acute maximal exercise on postexercise hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Fernhall, Bo; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Central arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension and negative cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals have higher central blood pressure (BP) and central arterial stiffness than their normal-weight counterparts, but it is unclear whether obesity also affects hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness after maximal exercise. We evaluated central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness during recovery from acute maximal aerobic exercise in obese and normal-weight individuals. Forty-six normal-weight and twenty-one obese individuals underwent measurements of central BP and central arterial stiffness at rest and 15 and 30 min following acute maximal exercise. Central BP and normalized augmentation index (AIx@75) were derived from radial artery applanation tonometry, and central arterial stiffness was obtained via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and corrected for central mean arterial pressure (cPWV/cMAP). Central arterial stiffness increased in obese individuals but decreased in normal-weight individuals following acute maximal exercise, after adjusting for fitness. Obese individuals also exhibited an overall higher central BP ( P  exercise effect. The increase in heart rate was greater in obese versus normal-weight individuals following exercise ( P  exercise effect for AIx@75 In conclusion, obese (but not normal-weight) individuals increased central arterial stiffness following acute maximal exercise. An assessment of arterial stiffness response to acute exercise may serve as a useful detection tool for subclinical vascular dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Optimal weight gain during twin pregnancy in Japanese women with favorable perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2018-01-01

    We examined the optimal weight gain in the healthy Japanese women with favorable perinatal outcomes of (dichorionic) twin pregnancy. We calculated the average weight gain in the women whose height was 150-164 cm with favorable perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy set for this study. The women were categorized to underweight, normal, overweight and obese based on the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cutoffs. The average GWG in the normal-weight women with the favorable perinatal outcomes was 13.9 ± 3.6 kg. It was significantly different from that in the underweight, overweight and obese women according to the both 2 BMI cutoffs by Student's t-test (p < 0.01). There are optimal ranges of weight gain during twin pregnancy based on the BMI classification.

  9. [Changes induced by parturition in serum cholesterol and triglycerides in obese and normal weight women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, W; Adoncecchi, L; Suraci, C; Pecora, P

    1983-07-30

    It is shown that total cholesterol levels in the blood before and immediately after delivery in obese and normal weighing women remain within normal values. Conversely blood triglycerides levels, higher than normal prior to delivery, are shown to drop back to normal values within three days (p 0.001). This is not thought to be attributable to labor stress.

  10. Towards an Explanation of Overeating Patterns Among Normal Weight College Women: Development and Validation of a Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Christine Runyan II

    1998-01-01

    Although research describing relationships between psychosocial factors and various eating patterns is growing, a model which explains the mechanisms through which these factors may operate is lacking. A model to explain overeating patterns among normal weight college females was developed and tested. The model contained the following variables: global adjustment, eating and weight cognitions, emotional eating, and self-efficacy. Three hundred ninety-o...

  11. Body Dissatisfaction in Individuals with Obesity Compared to Normal-Weight Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha-Alexandra Weinberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dissatisfaction has been identified as a psychological correlate of obesity that is related to disordered eating, poor self-esteem, and depression. However, not all individuals with obesity are equally vulnerable to these correlates, and ‘normative discontent' is present in individuals with normal weight, too. In this light, the complex relationship of body image and individual weight status seems like a worthwhile direction of research inquiry. As such, this review aims to systematically explore the degree of body dissatisfaction in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. All quantitative studies of adult samples reporting results regarding differences in body dissatisfaction between individuals with normal weight and obesity were included. Results: 17 articles were found. Across studies, individuals with obesity reported higher body dissatisfaction than normal-weight individuals (questionnaires: d = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.63-1.16, p Conclusion: The findings underline the severity of body dissatisfaction among individuals with obesity and especially among women. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  12. Body Dissatisfaction in Individuals with Obesity Compared to Normal-Weight Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Natascha-Alexandra; Kersting, Anette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luck-Sikorski, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction has been identified as a psychological correlate of obesity that is related to disordered eating, poor self-esteem, and depression. However, not all individuals with obesity are equally vulnerable to these correlates, and 'normative discontent' is present in individuals with normal weight, too. In this light, the complex relationship of body image and individual weight status seems like a worthwhile direction of research inquiry. As such, this review aims to systematically explore the degree of body dissatisfaction in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. A systematic literature search was conducted. All quantitative studies of adult samples reporting results regarding differences in body dissatisfaction between individuals with normal weight and obesity were included. 17 articles were found. Across studies, individuals with obesity reported higher body dissatisfaction than normal-weight individuals (questionnaires: d = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.63-1.16, p < 0.001; silhouette scales: d = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.57-2.25, p < 0.001). Meta-regression revealed a significant association of female gender and higher body dissatisfaction (b = 0.60, p = 0.007). The findings underline the severity of body dissatisfaction among individuals with obesity and especially among women. Future research recommendations are discussed. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, general and central obesity among 8-15-years old Bulgarian children and adolescents (Smolyan region, 2012-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of underweight, overweight, the general and central obesity in 8-15-year-old Bulgarian children and adolescents, through the use of the anthropometric indices BMI and WHtR. Subject of this study are 878 children and adolescents (437 boys and 441 girls) of Smolyan region, Bulgaria, at the age of 8 to 15 years. The study is cross-sectional and was conducted in the period 2012-2014. The body height, weight and waist circumference were measured. In addition, the body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut-off points of BMI, recommended of IOTF and developed by Cole et al. (2000; 2007). The central obesity was defined according to the discriminatory values of 0.500 of WHtR. The collected data were analysed by statistical software packages STATISTICA 10.0 and SPSS 16. Overweight occurs among 18.8% of the boys and 17.0% of the girls, and obesity occurs among 7.6% of boys and 3.7% of the girls. The underweight are 8.0% of the boys and 10.4% of the girls. Central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) occur among average 12.75% of all investigated children independently of their nutritional status (16.2% of boys and 9.3% of girls). With central obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are on average 2.7% of all boys and girls with normal weight (n = 96) and an average 46.82% of all participants with overweight and with obesity (n = 205). With increased health risk (WHtR ≥ 0.500) are total of 2.01% (n=16) of all surveyed children (n = 793) from categories normal weight. There has been an increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Bulgarian children and adolescents from Smolyan region during the over one last decade. The relatively high percentage of underweight children, especially among in group of the girls alter puberty. The central obesity, as well as its combination with overweight or general obesity is more frequent in boys than in girls

  14. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.F.; Hashmi, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  15. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  16. Effects of propolis and gamma-cyclodextrin on intestinal neoplasia in normal weight and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjin; Gutierrez, Linda; Bordonaro, Michael; Russo, Daniel; Anzelmi, Frank; Hooven, Jayde T; Cerra, Carmine; Lazarova, Darina L

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). This effect might be attributed to adipokine-supported signaling. We have established that propolis suppresses survival signaling in CRC cells in vitro; therefore, we ascertained the ability of a propolis supplement to modulate intestinal neoplastic development in C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+/J mice in the lean and obese state. To induce obesity, mice were fed with a Western diet containing 40% fat. Since the propolis supplement includes gamma-cyclodextrin, the interventions included diets supplemented with or without gamma-cyclodextrin. The animals were administered the following diets: (1) control diet, (2) control diet/gamma-cyclodextrin, (3) control diet/propolis, (4) Western diet, (5) Western diet/gamma-cyclodextrin, and (6) Western diet/propolis. Western diet, resulting in obesity, accelerated neoplastic progression, as evidenced by the larger size and higher grade dysplasia of the neoplasms. In the context of normal weight, gamma-cyclodextrin and propolis affected neoplastic progression, as determined by the size of the lesions and their grade of dysplasia. A statistically significant decrease in the number of adenomas was detected in mice fed a control diet with the propolis supplement (61.8 ± 10.6 vs. 35.3 ± 7.6, P = 0.008). Although there was no significant difference in the polyp numbers between the six groups, the mice with the lowest number and size of adenomas were those fed a Western diet with gamma-cyclodextrin. This unexpected outcome might be explained by the increased levels of apoptosis detected in the intestinal tissues of these obese mice. We posit that butyrate derived from the metabolism of gamma-cyclodextrin may contribute to the decreased neoplastic burden in the context of obesity; however, future studies are required to address this possibility. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kuebler

    Full Text Available Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve. Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest.

  18. Body composition analysis by air displacement plethysmography in normal weight to extremely obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C; Anthony, Steven J; Thornton, John C; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2014-04-01

    To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m(2) ), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Fat-free mass (FFM, kg), fat mass (FM, kg), and body fat (BF, %) were analyzed with both technologies. All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.95, P < 0.001 for FFM, FM, and BF), but Bland-Altman analyses revealed significant bias (P < 0.01 for all). ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.01 for all). BMI explained 27% of the variance in differences between FFM measurements (P < 0.001), and 37 and 33% of the variances in differences between FM and BF measurements, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). Within normal weight and overweight classifications, ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.001 for all), but the opposite occurred within the extremely obese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (P < 0.05 for all). Body composition analyses by the two technologies were strongly congruent, but systematically different and influenced by BMI. Caution should be taken when utilizing ADP to estimate body composition parameters over a wide range of BMI classifications that include extremely obese. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  19. Fasting leptin and glucose in normal weight, over weight and obese men and women diabetes patients with and without clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen; Sheikh, Shehnaz; Fawad, Asher; Haleem, Muhammad A

    2017-06-01

    A large number of diabetes patients suffer from major depression and are at high risk of mortality. In view of a role of leptin in diabetes, depression and energy homeostasis, the present study concerns circulating levels of leptin in different BMI groups of un-depressed and depressed diabetes patients. Six hundred thirty male and female patients with a primary diagnosis of diabetes were grouped according to BMI and with or without clinical symptoms of depression. Age matched healthy, normal weight male and female volunteers without clinical symptoms of depression or diabetes were taken as controls. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast of 12 h. Serum was stored for the determination of leptin and glucose. We found that there were more female than male diabetes patients with comorbid depression. Fasting leptin was higher in normal weight non-diabetes women than men; but comparable in normal weight men and women diabetes patients. Fasting glucose levels were higher in diabetes than non diabetes groups; values were comparable in men and women. Depression was associated with a decrease and increase in leptin respectively in normal-overweight and obese men and women diabetes patients. Glucose levels were also higher in obese depressed than un-depressed diabetes patients. The results suggested that the female gender is at greater risk to comorbid diabetes with depression. Adipo-insular axis plays an important role in diabetes, associated depression and in the greater risk of the female gender to comorbid diabetes with depression.

  20. Personal, social and environmental correlates of vegetable intake in normal weight and overweight 9 to 13-year old boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsdottir Inga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first aim of the present study was to investigate differences in correlates of vegetable intake between the normal weight and the overweight boys in the Pro Children Cross Sectional Study. The second aim was to explore whether the association between vegetable intake and potential correlates is different in overweight boys compared with normal weight boys. Methods Random samples of mainly 11-year old children were recruited in 9 European countries. The total sample size consisted of 3960 boys (16.5% overweight. A validated self-report questionnaire was used to measure vegetable intake, and personal, social and environmental factors related to vegetable intake in the classroom. Weight and height were reported by the parents of the children in parents' questionnaires. Results Regression analyses explained 23% to 28% of the variance in vegetable intake by potential correlates. Liking, self-efficacy and bringing vegetables to school were related to intake in both normal weight and overweight boys (β's>0.10. Active parental encouragement and availability at home was only related to intake in overweight boys (β's>0.10, whereas knowledge about recommendations was only related to vegetable consumption in normal weight boys (β>0.10 Conclusion Intervention strategies to increase vegetable intake should focus on increase in liking and preferences, increase in self-efficacy, and increase in bringing vegetables to school in both normal weight and overweight boys. Further research should investigate whether advising parents of overweight boys to encourage their child to eat vegetables every day, to insist as far as possible that their child eats vegetables regularly and to make vegetables easily available at home is effective in changing vegetable intake.

  1. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    The burden caused by the coexistence of obesity and underweight in Low and Middle Income Countries is a challenge to public health. While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in seven African countries were used for this study. The survey used a clustered design to obtain a representative sample (n = 23496) from randomly selected schools. 53.6% of the sample was male, and participants ranged in age from 11-17 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using age and sex adjusted self-reported heights and weights. Classification of weight status was based on the 2007 World Health Organization growth charts (BMI-for-age and sex). Multivariable Logistic Regression reporting Odds Ratios was used to assess potential risk factors on BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and country. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata with an alpha of 0.05 and reporting 95% confidence intervals. Unadjusted rates of being underweight varied from 12.6% (Egypt) to 31.9% (Djibouti), while being overweight ranged from 8.7% (Ghana) to 31.4% (Egypt). Obesity rates ranged from 0.6% (Benin) to 9.3% (Egypt). Females had a higher overweight prevalence for every age group in five of the countries, exceptions being Egypt and Malawi. Overall, being overweight was more prevalent among younger (≤12) adolescents and decreased with age. Males had a higher prevalence of being underweight than females for every country. There was a tendency for the prevalence of being underweight to increase starting in the early teens and decrease between ages 15 and 16. Most of the potential risk factors captured by the GSHS were not significantly associated with weight status. The prevalence of both overweight and underweight was relatively high, demonstrating the

  2. Do overweight workers profit by workplace health promotion, more than their normal-weight peers? Evaluation of a worksite intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Jensen, Sarah; Linnig, Stefan; Jahn, Reimo; Steudtner, Mirco; Ochsmann, Elke; Preuß, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Worksite health promotion programs have been identified as strongly effective in decreasing body weight and increasing awareness and change in health behavior. Aim of this study is to determine the effects of a multi-component intervention in workplace health promotion. In a controlled study trail, 1,573 workers of a logistics company had the chance to participate in a one year worksite health promotion program. Main elements of the multi-component intervention were physical activity training in combination with nutrition counseling. Employees completed a questionnaire at baseline and then again after twelve month. Main outcome variables were changes in body weight and health behaviors. Secondary outcomes were subjective health indicators. Our results showed preliminary improvements in physical activity and eating behavior among normal weight and overweight/obesity weight groups. No significant weight reduction could be found, only a minimal reduction of BMI. The reduction was larger in the overweight group. Workers considered overweight or obese showed significantly greater body weight loss and changes in eating behavior than workers with a normal weight status. Workers with obesity/overweight scored their general health status significantly lower than their colleagues with normal weight status. No significant improvements were found for overall perception of health status between baseline and follow-up in the BMI-groups. This 12-month intervention-control study suggests that a well-implemented multi-component workplace health promotion program may support substantial change in health behavior (e.g. nutrition and physical activity). It is indicated that overweight employees may especially profit from such worksite health promotion. An investigation of long-term effects of this multi-component intervention is strongly recommended.

  3. Birth weight correlates with size but not shape of the normal human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussner, E; Schmitz, C; von Koch, F; Frank, H-G

    2013-07-01

    Studies on developmental programming rely on various measures of size and form of the human placenta. Size and form are not independent of each other and covariation patterns were not determined systematically. Twenty-two morphologic parameters were determined on 418 placentas from uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. We determined (i) placenta weight and birth weight, (ii) form parameters such as diameters, thickness, roundness, and eccentricity of cord insertion, and (iii) shape variability by geometric morphometry. Geometric morphometry analyzes shape variability independent of size. We define the technical terms form and shape according to the language of geometric morphometry. Placenta weight correlated with birth weight. The form parameters correlated variably with placenta weight and shape. Shape variability did not correlate with birth weight and placenta weight. The correlation of placenta weight with birth weight stays a cornerstone of prenatal programming. Shape analysis shows that form parameters are hybrids of size and shape. Shape variability can be interpreted as an outcome of adaptation of a placenta to maternal factors and the associated uterine habitat. Correlation analysis of the whole data array provides a rigorous statistical frame to interpret published data and plan new studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight 6 to 14 year old Swiss children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Kaspar, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Principles and questions under study: The prevalence of overweight is increasing in Swiss children, and they are at increased risk for hypertension and insulin resistance. Better understanding of how food intakes and activity patterns differ between overweight and normal weight children is needed to

  5. Differences in brain functional connectivity at resting state in neonates born to healthy obese or normal-weight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Andres, A; Shankar, K; Pivik, R T; Glasier, C M; Ramakrishnaiah, R H; Zhang, Y; Badger, T M; Ou, X

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown associations between maternal obesity at pre- or early pregnancy and long-term neurodevelopment in children, suggesting in utero effects of maternal obesity on offspring brain development. In this study, we examined whether brain functional connectivity to the prefrontal lobe network is different in newborns from normal-weight or obese mothers. Thirty-four full-term healthy infants from uncomplicated pregnancies were included, with 18 born to normal-weight and 16 born to obese mothers. Two weeks after delivery, the infants underwent an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination during natural sleep, which included structural imaging and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scans. Independent component analysis was used to identify the prefrontal lobe network, and dual regression was used to compare functional connectivity between groups. Infants born to normal-weight mothers had higher recruiting (Pmaternal intelligence quotient, gestational weight gain and infant postmenstrual age, gender, birth weight/length, head circumference and neonatal diet. The functional connectivity strength in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex negatively correlated (Pmaternal fat mass percentage measured at early pregnancy. This preliminary study indicates that exposure to maternal obesity in utero may be associated with changes in resting-state functional connectivity in the newborn offspring's brain.

  6. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in individuals with normal weight: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2015-05-30

    The results of several papers have confirmed the existence of correlations between an unhealthy diet and the presence of metabolic syndrome. However, relationships between eating habits and metabolic obesity with normal weight have not yet been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study is to determine which dietary patterns are present in individuals with a normal BMI and to find out whether those patterns were connected with the risk of metabolic syndrome and its features. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 2479 subjects with a normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), aged between 37-66. The study included the evaluation of eating habits, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests and the analysis of the collected fasting-blood samples, on the basis of which cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were determined. Dietary patterns were determined by means of factor analysis. In the group of individuals with a normal BMI, four dietary patterns were distinguished: "healthy", "fat, meat and alcohol", "prudent" and "coca cola, hard cheese and French fries". After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest tertile of prudent dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the metabolic obesity normal weight) (odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53-0.89; p cholesterol (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.59-0.99; p cholesterol concentration and increased glucose concentration.

  7. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and

  8. Normal gray and white matter volume after weight restoration in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Andrés, Susana; Calvo, Anna; Cullell, Clàudia; Moreno, Elena; Plana, M Teresa; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treated, weight-stabilized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) present brain volume differences in comparison with healthy controls. Thirty-five adolescents with weight-recovered AN and 17 healthy controls were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and magnetic resonance imaging. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). There were no significant differences between controls and weight-stabilized AN patients with regard to global volumes of either gray or white brain matter, or in the regional VBM study. Differences were not significant between patients with psychopharmacological treatment and without, between those with amenorrhea and without, as well as between patients with restrictive versus purgative AN. The present findings reveal no global or regional gray or white matter abnormalities in this sample of adolescents following weight restoration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  10. An exploration of salivation patterns in normal weight and obese children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen, Vandana A.; Stein, Richard I.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether children's changes in salivary habituation to food vary based on weight status and/or allocating attention to a task. Children (31 non-overweight and 26 obese, ages 9–12 year) were presented with nine trials of a food stimulus and either listened to an audiobook (attention-demanding) or white noise (no-attention control). The salivary pattern differed significantly by weight status but not by condition or a condition by weight status interaction. This is the first study of salivary habituation in obese children; findings dovetail with an emerging set of evidence that obese individuals display distinctive biological responses to food. PMID:22172456

  11. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy......Background: Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating...... Start” intervention study which included 271 children aged 2–6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured...

  12. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  13. Long-Term Normal Renal Function after Drastic Weight Reduction in Patients with Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpta Serra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: No long-term studies of renal function evolution in morbidly obese (MO patients after weight loss are available. The aim of our work was to ascertain the long-term influence of drastic weight reduction on renal function in MO patients with obesity-related glomerular lesions. Methods: 92 MO patients with normal renal function and biopsy evidence of mild obesity-related glomerulopathy underwent bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent drastic weight loss. A long-term prospective follow-up (mean duration: 76 ± 42 months was carried out. Basal renal biopsies and basal and long-term metabolic and renal function studies were performed in all cases. Linear mixed models were applied. Results: Blood pressure dropped early after BS and remained stable thereafter. Creatinine clearance and BMI fell in the first 2 years, rose slightly after 5 years and then remained stable. Serum creatinine and albuminuria decreased throughout the follow-up period. Renal function and albuminuria evolution showed non-significant differences in relation to the number of glomerular lesions. Conclusions: Drastic weight loss in BS-treated MO patients with pre-surgical normal renal function and mild obesity-related glomerular lesions is associated with short- and long-term maintenance of normal renal function and improvement in both arterial hypertension and albuminuria.

  14. Comparative evidence of the consumption from fast-food restaurants between normal-weight and obese Saudi schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturki, Hmidan A; Brookes, Denise Sk; Davies, Peter Sw

    2018-04-06

    To provide an in-depth analysis of the relationship between obesity and fast-food consumption by comparing urban obese and normal-weight Saudi Arabian children. A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016. Participants were divided into two groups (normal weight and obese) and further stratified by sex. Groups were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. A self-paced questionnaire was used to collect data relating to food consumption. Weight height and waist circumference were measured and bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed in all children. Capital of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Children aged 9·00-11·99 years (n 1023). Compared with normal-weight groups, intake frequency of fast food/week was higher among the obese groups (Pfast-food consumption outside (Pfast-food meals together was a protective factor against obesity (OR; 95 % CI: 2·67; 1·44, 4·96, Pfast foods (P=0·021), child-friendly menu (P=0·020) and meal cost (Pfast-food restaurants; these data were replicated for parents with obese boys, but not girls. Development of effective interventions to reduce fast-food consumption in Saudi Arabian schoolchildren requires greater research-based evidence of fast-food consumption habits and practices associated with increased childhood obesity.

  15. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy...... by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. Results: No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P...

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Underweight among black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and underweight according to body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat, among Black South African children in rural areas from the North-West Province. The sample ...

  18. Overweight, obesity and underweight in nurses in Vhembe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In South Africa, anecdotal evidence concerning the prevalence of overweight and obesity in nurses is alarming, but no scientific studies have confirmed this notion. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in black nurses practising in South Africa. Method: A ...

  19. Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults Nigerian living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At action level II, there was no obese male. Conclusion: This study revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity exist in young adults, but overweight and obesity are more prevalent. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to control this in young adults for their present well-being and to possibly avoid the risk of ...

  20. The double burden of underweight and overweight in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to national statistics, 8.5% of youth aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus in 2013.13 Food insecurity may also play a role in underweight.14 The study results confirm the high prevalence of combined overweight and obesity in adolescent girls reported in the SANHANES.5 South.

  1. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  2. An exploration of salivation patterns in normal weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen, Vandana A; Stein, Richard I; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-04-01

    We examined whether children's changes in salivary habituation to food vary based on weight status and/or allocating attention to a task. Children (31 non-overweight and 26 obese, ages 9-12 year) were presented with nine trials of a food stimulus and either listened to an audiobook (attention-demanding) or white noise (no-attention control). The salivary pattern differed significantly by weight status but not by condition or a condition by weight status interaction. This is the first study of salivary habituation in obese children; findings dovetail with an emerging set of evidence that obese individuals display distinctive biological responses to food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight older adults: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Felici, Elisa; Gagliardi, Cristina; Marcellini, Fiorella; Boscaro, Marco; De Robertis, Marco; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo

    2014-01-15

    Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease, which also has an impact on quality of life. The aim of this paper is to identify the correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight Italians older adults. 205 subjects at the age ≥ 60 yrs. were recruited into the Division of Endocrinology of the Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona (Italy). A protocol of questionnaires was constructed for data collection, and included domains such as physical activity, quality of life, socio-psychological aspects. The association of the latter variables with SF-36 Health Survey physical component (PCS-36) were evaluated in the whole sample. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the effect of independent variables on PCS-36 and the physical subscales of SF-36. PCS-36 showed a lower score in the obese and overweight subjects than the normal weight group (post-hoc test, p obesity in the elderly.

  4. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William JA; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl LH; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Objective: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Design: Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Results: Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level–dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Conclusions: Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02041039. PMID:24695888

  5. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to investigate BMI

  7. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschütz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children’s food intake is influenced by a peer’s intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the

  8. Assessing Differences in Risk Perceptions About Obesity Among "Normal-Weight" and "Overweight" Adolescents--A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, SubbaRao M; Rao, K Mallikarjuna; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Avula, Laxmaiah

    2015-01-01

    To assess the differences in risk perceptions of overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents about obesity and associated risk factors. Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs). Five randomly selected schools from the South Indian city of Hyderabad. Seventy-nine adolescents (ages 11-14 years) participated in 10 FGDs (5 each with overweight/obese and normal-weight groups). Whether obesity-related risk perceptions differ with actual weight status or not. FGDs were recorded, transcribed, and manually coded for thematic analysis. Results were presented according to 6 themes. At each stage of coding and analysis, reports were read independently by 2-3 researchers and the inter-coder reliability was high (ratio of number of agreements against the sum of agreements plus disagreements was over 90%). Adolescents across the groups had limited understanding of nutrition during adolescence as well as causes and consequences of obesity. The optimistic bias that they were less vulnerable compared to others to the risks of obesity was evident from perceptions of overweight groups. While overweight adolescents argued that obesity was hereditary, the normal-weight participants perceived "faulty food habits" and laziness as the reasons. Adolescents across the groups considered fruits and vegetables as healthy foods. There were clear differences in perceptions of adolescents of different weight status. Employing the risk perception analysis framework, this study identified the following adolescent traits: responsive, avoidance, and indifference, which may be useful for developing nutrition communication programs. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of subgingival red complex bacteria in obese and normal weight subjects with and without chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Snophia; Mahendra, Jaideep; Kumar, Angabakkam Rajasekaran Pradeep; Singh, Gurdeep; Jayaraman, Selvaraj; Paul, Roshini

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the systemic conditions which influence the onset and progression of periodontal disease and it is stated that the metabolic changes associated with obesity may contribute to alteration in subgingival microbial flora. Our study was aimed to quantify and compare the red complex microorganisms in obese or overweight and normal weight participants with and without chronic periodontitis to identify obesity as a risk for the presence of red complex bacteria. The study group consisted of 120 participants of age between 20 and 45 years of both the sexes. According to periodontal status, the participants were categorized into four groups as follows: thirty overweight or obese individuals with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group I), thirty normal weight individuals with chronic periodontitis (Group II), thirty overweight or obese individuals with healthy periodontium (Group III), and thirty normal weight individuals with healthy periodontium (Group IV). After the assessment of periodontal parameters, subgingival plaque sample collection was carried out to quantify the red complex bacteria by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Increase in red complex bacterial count was seen in group I compared to other groups. A positive correlation of red complex bacteria with body mass index and waist circumference was seen in Group I and III. In our study, obese individuals with periodontal disease harbored increased red complex bacteria. This states that the obesity could be a risk for the colonization of red complex microorganisms, which in turn may further lead to periodontal inflammation.

  10. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children’s...... Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre...... and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity....

  11. Insulin and leptin levels in overweight and normal-weight Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we aim to compare insulin and leptin levels in adolescents with or without excess weight and in those with or without abdominal obesity. Materials and Methods : This case-control study was conducted among 486 samples. We randomly selected 243 overweight and an equal number of normal-weight adolescents from among participants of the third survey of a national surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non-communicable diseases study." Serum insulin and leptin were compared between two groups and their correlation was determined with other variables. Results: The mean age and body mass index (BMI of participants were 14.10 ± 2.82 years and 22.12 ± 6.49 kg/m 2 , respectively. Leptin and insulin levels were higher in overweight than in normal-weight adolescents (P < 0.05. Leptin level was higher in children with abdominal obesity than in their other counterparts (P < 0.001. Leptin level was correlated with age, fasting blood glucose, BMI, and insulin level. Conclusion: Insulin and leptin levels were higher among overweight and obese children, which may reflect insulin and leptin-resistance. Given the complications of excess weight from early life, prevention and controlling childhood obesity should be considered as a health priority.

  12. Dietary restraint in normal weight and overweight children. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, C; Wydhooge, K

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the degree to which actual fatness and negative self-esteem might be linked to dietary restraint in childhood. Subjects were 426 boys and 319 girls, aged 10.6 y (+/- 1 y). Forty-nine children were overweight (> 30%) and 149 subjects were in the category 'moderately overweight' (10-30% overweight). Measures of self-esteem and dietary restraint were used in the analyses. Dietary restraint was observable in all weight groups and significantly more in girls. Boys and girls with an existing fatness problem showed more dietary restraint. Weight status, not self-esteem, turned out to be the best predictor of dietary restraint. Because there were good reasons to expect side-effects of the observed dietary restraint in obese children in the long term, valuable alternatives like changes in the life-style and interventions that enhance body image and self-esteem were recommended.

  13. Association between actual weight status, perceived weight and depressive, anxious symptoms in Chinese adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Huiping

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud The purpose of this study was to describe actual measured weight and perceived weight and to explore associations with depressive, anxiety symptoms in school adolescents in China. Methods A sample of 1144 Chinese adolescents was randomly selected from four schools in Wuhan, China, including 665 boys and 479 girls with ages ranging between 10 and 17 years. Actual measured weight and height and perceived weight status were compared to anxiety and depressive symptoms measured using the revised Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Children's Depression Inventory. A general linear model was used to compare differences in psychological symptoms among the teenagers with different measured and perceived weights. Results When compared with standardized weight tables (WHO age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI cutoffs (2007 reference, girls were more likely to misperceive themselves as overweight, whereas more boys misclassified their weight status as underweight. The adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight were more likely to experience depressive and anxiety symptoms (except girls than those who perceived themselves as normal and/or underweight. However, no significant association was found between depressive and anxiety symptoms actual measured weight status. Conclusions Perceived weight status, but not the actual weight status, was associated with psychological symptoms.

  14. Do burdens of underweight and overweight coexist among lower socioeconomic groups in India?1234

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, SV; Perkins, Jessica M; Khan, Kashif T

    2009-01-01

    Background: The coexistence of underweight and overweight in rapidly developing economies is well recognized. However, less is known about the socioeconomic patterning of underweight and overweight as economies move through the epidemiologic transition.

  15. Hunger modulates behavioral disinhibition and attention allocation to food-associated cues in normal-weight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Grosshans, Martin; Herpertz, Stephan; Kiefer, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-12-01

    Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution and weight gain might be modulated by other factors. Thus, hunger might cause food-associated cues to be perceived as more salient and rewarding and might be associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, at present, little is known how hunger interacts with these processes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether hunger modulates response inhibition and attention allocation towards food-associated stimuli in normal-weight controls. A go-/nogo task with food-associated and control words and a visual dot-probe task with food-associated and control pictures were administered to 48 normal-weight participants (mean age 24.5 years, range 19-40; mean BMI 21.6, range 18.5-25.4). Hunger was assessed twofold using a self-reported measure of hunger and a measurement of the blood glucose level. Our results indicated that self-reported hunger affected behavioral response inhibition in the go-/nogo task. Thus, hungry participants committed significantly more commission errors when food-associated stimuli served as distractors compared to when control stimuli were the distractors. This effect was not observed in sated participants. In addition, we found that self-reported hunger was associated with a lower number of omission errors in response to food-associated stimuli indicating a higher salience of these stimuli. Low blood glucose level was not associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, our results indicated that the blood glucose level was associated with an attentional bias towards food-associated cues in the visual dot probe task

  16. Association of meat and dairy consumption with normal weight metabolic obesity in men: the Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Sima; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdieh; Ziaee, Amir

    2016-09-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is not limited to obese individuals. Normal weight individuals may also be insulin resistant. The aim of this study was to determine the association of lifestyle and diet patterns with IR in normal weight Iranian men. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 men with a body mass index lower than 25 kg/m(2) (aged 20-72 years old) between September 2010 and April 2011 in Qazvin, Iran. Metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) was defined as IR using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The optimal cut point to diagnose IR was the 80th percentile of HOMA-IR values in normal subjects. The HOMA-IR cut point was 2.48. Dietary pattern was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression and ANCOVA. Fat and meat consumption and energy intake in subjects with MONW were more than subjects without MONW. Each serving of meat consumption was associated with three times increased risk of MONW (OR: 3.06), while each serving of dairy consumption was associated with 56 % lower risk of MONW with borderline significance (OR: 0.64). Adjusted mean of HOMA-IR in the first tertile of dairy consumption was significantly higher than other tertiles. Adjusted HOMA-IR value in the third tertile of meat consumption was significantly higher than the second tertile. Higher meat consumption was associated with MONW in men. Higher meat consumption and lower dairy consumption were associated with higher means of HOMA-IR.

  17. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Il; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Healt...

  18. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Young Men With Low Versus Normal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein which is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether RBP4 represents a mechanism underlying the associations between low birth weight (LBW), high-fat diet, and insulin resistance. Forty-six young, lean men with low (n...... with peripheral glucose disposal rate or hepatic insulin resistance index. RBP4 levels were not influenced by overfeeding or related to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance provoked by the dietary intervention. In conclusion, plasma RBP4 in young men associates with components of the metabolic syndrome...

  19. Normal diffusion-weighted imaging in cerebral air embolism complicating angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayama, T.; Inamura, T.; Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Mitani, M.; Yagi, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Yagi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of cerebral air embolism resulting from accidental air infection during cerebral angiography. A 60-year-old man was accidentally injected with air via the left subclavian artery. Angiography demonstrated air within the basilar artery. The patient showed signs of posterior circulation ischaemia (confusion, blindness, gaze palsy and hemiparesis). However, MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging, showed no abnormality 4 h later. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen within 5 h of the embolism. All symptoms and signs resolved completely within a week. (orig.)

  20. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  1. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups.

  2. The geographical distribution of underweight children in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Nubé, Maarten; Sonneveld, Benjamin G. J. S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study geographical patterns of underweight children in Africa by combining information on prevalence with headcounts at a subnational level. METHODS: We used large-scale, nationally representative nutrition surveys, in particular the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, which have been designed, analysed and presented according to largely similar protocols, and which report at the national and subnational levels. FINDINGS: We found distinct ...

  3. Underweight and overweight among children and adolescents in Tuscany (Italy). Prevalence and short-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Rossi, S; Pammolli, A; Pilato, V; Pozzi, T; Giacchi, M V

    2008-03-01

    The recent increase in both childhood obesity and adolescent anorexia nervosa in developed countries has underlined the important consequences that these trends may have on public health, as there is an increased risk that these conditions may become chronic diseases in adulthood. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor prevalence rates and trends in thinness and overweight (including obesity) among children and adolescents at different levels: international, national and sub-national. Since 2001/2002, a nutritional surveillance system has been implemented in the Tuscany Region to estimate the nutritional status and lifestyles of children and adolescents. The main objectives were to assess the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Tuscan children and adolescents and to provide baseline information on the prevalence of thinness, for the first time calculated according to the new international definitions, for geographical comparisons and descriptions of time trends. Independent cross-sectional sample surveys were conducted in 2002, 2004 and 2006 in Tuscany, North-Central Italy. Data were collected from stratified two-stage cluster samples of children aged 9 years (n = 3,048 in 2002 and n = 1,430 in 2006) and of adolescents aged 11-13-15 years (n = 1,066, n = 1185 and n = 1,160 in 2004 and n = 1,189, n = 1,211 and n = 1,178 in 2006, respectively). Weights and heights of primary school children were measured by means of standardized methods, while those of adolescents were self-reported. Decimal age was calculated from the date of birth to the date of measurement. Body Mass Index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Instead of the term underweight in children, we used the term thinness, which the World Health Organization uses to mean low Body Mass Index for age in adults and adolescents. According to Cole's recently published cut-offs for thinness, we divided our Body Mass Index values below 18.5 into three

  4. Underweight, overweight and obesity among a Piedmont (Northern Italy children sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Micheletti Cremasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M. [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in chilhood, is an emergent social problem that can produce adverse health effects in adulthood. It could be prevented encouraging correct eating behaviors and active lifestyle among children.

  5. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jiin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  7. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Choi, Jiin

    2015-01-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  8. Body Composition in Healthy Obese/Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects Compared to Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Yosaee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous studies, patient with metabolic syndrome (MetS are different in terms of body composition from healthy subjects. The purpose of the present study was to determine the body composition of healthy obese/overweight patients and compared them with those having MetS. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on both men and women aged 20 to 55 years, who were selected using sequential sampling method, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, from those referred to an endocrinology and the diabetes clinic affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and forty seven subjects were enrolled in the study and divided into three groups, including 49 with MetS, 49 obese/overweight subjects without MetS, and 49 were normal weight subjects. Body composition was measured for all subjects using bioelectrical impedance analysis. NCEP ATP III was the criterion for definition of Mets. Results: No significant differences were found between the study groups in terms of demographic variables. The mean of the waist circumference (WC was higher in MetS patients (P < 0.05 as compared with the control groups. Obese/overweight group had higher percentage of body fat and lower fat free mass than normal weight group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Obese/overweight patients with and without MetS had significantly higher fat mass and WC than normal weight controls, while only WC was higher in MetS group as compared with obese/overweight patients without MetS. Therefore, reduction in body fat and WC should be emphasized in patients with MetS.

  9. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight, or obese as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The normalized weighting factor method: A novel technique for accelerating the convergence of high-resolution convective schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, M.D.; Moukalled, F. [American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    This article deals with the development of a new method for accelerating the solution of flow problems discretized using high-resolution convective schemes. The technique is based on the normalized variable and space formulation (NVSF) methodology and is denoted here by the normalized weighting-factor (NWF) method. In contrast with the well-known deferred-correction (DC) procedure, the NWF method is fully implicit and is derived by directly replacing the control-volume face values by their functional relationships in the discretized equation. The direct substitution is performed by the introduction of a variable, NWF, that accounts for the multiplicity of interpolation profiles in HR schemes. The new method is compared with the widely used DC procedure and is shown to be, on average, four times faster.

  11. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A

    2003-01-01

    /kg body wth) for 4.5 h. SUBJECTS: A total of 18 healthy, normal weight young subjects participated; eight women and 10 men. MEASUREMENTS: During the infusion, subjects recorded their appetite sensations every 30 min using visual analogue scales, and blood was sampled frequently. After 2 h of infusion...... meals, or energy intake were different on the two occasions. Glucose, GLP-1, insulin, and GIP responses were also unaffected by the infusion, whereas glucagon levels were higher during the GLP-2 treatment (P

  12. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  13. Comparative study of rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue on magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Zimei; Wang Xizhen; Wang Bin; Liu Feng; Li Haiqing; Sun Yequan; Dong Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in evaluating the blood perfusion of tumor by analyzing the features and indexes of PWI on rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits with VX2 carcinoma were established under direct surgical vision embedding tumor tissue. MR examination was performed at 21 days after the tumor implantation. The signal intensity -time curve of hepatic tumor and normal liver tissue were obtained. Mean time to enhance (MTE), negative enhancement integral (NEI), time to minimum (TM), maximum slope of decrease (MSD) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were measured. Results: MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the normal liver tissue were 208.341±2.226 ms, 78.334±8.152, 24.059±1.927 ms, 38.221±2.443, and 15.389±2.526, respectively. MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the tumor tissue were 175.437±4.182 ms, 123.203±19.455, 17.061±1.834 ms, 125.740±4.842, and 67.832±2.882, respectively. The MTE and TM of tumor were shorter than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). NEI, MSD, and MSI of tumor were higher than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). Conclusion: PWI can distinguish the normal liver tissue from the tumor tissue, which is helpful in evaluating blood perfusion of different hepatic tissues. (authors)

  14. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  15. Underweight/overweight and the risk of long-term care: follow-up study using data of the Japanese long-term care insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Akiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Seki, Nao; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Both being underweight and overweight can lead to reduced activity of daily living, which subsequently can require long-term care. The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between underweight/overweight and the subsequent risk of long-term care introduction. We tracked the data of long-term care insurance for 1580 men and women aged ≥65 years who had participated in the official population-based health check-up program in 2001 in Tsunan town and Sekikawa village, Japan. The health check-up data and medical expenditure data for the fiscal year 2001 were used as baseline data. Participants were classified into underweight (body mass index (BMI) overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ); the normal range was used as a reference category in Cox proportional hazards models. During the average 5.8 years of follow up, 156 participants were identified to start using long-term care services. Among the young-old elderly (65-74 years-of-age), underweight was significantly associated with the risk of long-term care introduction (multivariable-adjusted HR 4.26, 95% CI 1.69-10.72), whereas overweight was not (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.69-3.06). Neither underweight nor overweight were significantly associated with long-term care introduction among the old-old elderly (≥75 years-of-age). Underweight could be a good predictor of long-term care introduction in the young-old elderly. We should pay attention to underweight in the elderly, as it might be a manifestation of some physical or mental problems related to future long-term care introduction. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  17. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016:a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 milli...

  18. Weight status and associated factors among HIV infected people on antiretroviral therapy in rural Dikgale, Limpopo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felistas Mashinya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Underweight in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy (ART complicates the management of HIV infection and contributes to mortality, whereas overweight increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Aim: The study determined weight status and associated factors in people with HIV infection receiving ART.Setting: Rural primary health care clinics in Dikgale, Limpopo province, South Africa.Methods: A cross-sectional study in which data were collected using the World Health Organization (WHO stepwise approach to surveillance (STEPS questionnaire and calculated using WHO analysis programmes guide. Weight and height were measured using standard WHO procedures, and body mass index was calculated as weight (kg/height (m2. Data on ART duration were extracted from patients’ files. CD4 lymphocyte counts and viral load were determined using standard laboratory techniques.Results: Of the 214 participants, 8.9%, 54.7% and 36.4% were underweight, normal weight and overweight, respectively. Physical activity (OR: 0.99, p = 0.001 and male gender (OR: 0.29, p = 0.04 were negatively associated with overweight. Men who used tobacco were more likely to be underweight than non-tobacco users (OR: 10.87, p = 0.02. Neither ART duration nor viral load or CD4 count was independently associated with underweight or overweight in multivariate analysis.Conclusion: A high proportion of people on ART were overweight and a smaller proportion underweight. There is a need to simultaneously address the two extreme weight problems in this vulnerable population through educating them on benefits of avoiding tobacco, engaging in physical activity and raising awareness of CVD risk.

  19. Distorted weight perception correlates with disordered eating attitudes in Kuwaiti college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkazemi, Dalal; Zafar, Tasleem A; Ebrahim, Mariam; Kubow, Stan

    2018-02-28

    We investigated the presence of disordered eating attitudes and weight perception among young women at body mass index (BMI) values that correspond to underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese weight status. Data were collected from 1,147 female undergraduate students (89% Kuwaiti nationals) recruited from Kuwait University through employment of the eating attitude test (EAT-26) together with an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire to determine the prevalence of symptomatology indicative of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The mean EAT-26 scores differed significantly between the weight categories. More students with overweight and obesity scored above the established EAT-26 cut off value indicating at risk of disordered eating compared to students who were at a normal weight or underweight (52.1% vs. 38.8%, respectively, X 2 (1) =16.1, p anorexia nervosa. Distorted weight perception was found in all weight categories. The high proportion of disordered eating attitudes among Kuwaiti college women could not be attributed to obesity alone as the type of disordered eating behavior varied more by weight perception than by weight status. The high levels of eating disorder related symptoms could be due to a combination of the social influences, diet, and lifestyle of college students. Such factors need to be considered by healthcare professionals as early as possible with more focused programs towards promotion of healthy weight for college students. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Greater Corticolimbic Activation to High-Calorie Food Cues after Eating in Obese vs. Normal-Weight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

  1. Accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance and eight-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis in normal weight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Marja; Karlsson, Therese; Holmäng, Agneta; Ellegård, Lars

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) has previously been shown to both overestimate and underestimate average fat mass (FM) in humans. Eight-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has previously been found biased as well as successfully validated. We report cross-sectional accuracy of QMR and eight-electrode BIA evaluated with air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as reference method. Fat mass and fat free mass (FFM) by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were evaluated against ADP as reference in 38 normal weight and 30 obese women. Total body water estimates by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were compared. Fat mass was overestimated by QMR (1 ± 2 kg, p obese women. Fat free mass biases were of similar magnitude but in opposite direction to FM biases. Total body water estimates were larger by eight-electrode BIA compared to QMR (1-10 kg). Fat mass and FFM by QMR were both biased but in opposite directions in both normal weight and obese women. Eight-electrode BIA FM and FFM estimates were imprecise and biased in obese women. Thus, QMR is more precise and more accurate than eight-electrode BIA for estimating body composition in women, but is not accurate enough to be used for individual single assessment of body composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of smoking cessation on incidence of diabetes mellitus among overweight or normal-weight Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Ohno, Yuko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Nishigaki, Yoshio; Maejima, Fumio; Mizuno, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2012-06-01

    To assess the impact of smoking cessation on incidence of diabetes among overweight or normal-weight Japanese men. This 9.2-year cohort study included 2070 men aged 40-69 years without diabetes. We classified them according to smoking status as non-smokers, past smokers (>9, 6-9, 3-5 and diabetes developed or the end of 2006. The incidence of diabetes was determined from fasting and random plasma glucose levels, HbA(1c) levels or being under medical treatment for diabetes. During 18,963 person-years of follow-up, 246 of the participants developed diabetes. The risk for diabetes peaked within 3 years of quitting (HR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.38-6.27) and persisted at 5 years after quitting smoking (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.18-5.26) among overweight individuals. Moreover, this study identified a high risk for diabetes among past smokers who had quit >9 years in both normal weight and overweight. Cigarette smoking predicts incidence of diabetes, but smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk in overweight and long-term risk in both. Preventing smoking is superior to smoking cessation, and is very important for avoiding diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-esteem, body shame and eating disorder risk in obese and normal weight adolescents: A mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Mara; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Cella, Stefania; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To investigate dysfunctional eating behaviors and psychological variables typically associated to eating disturbances such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, shame, perceived parental care and protectiveness in obese and normal weight adolescents and to examine how the main powerful eating disorder risk factors interact with each other which explains eating psychopathology vulnerability. 111 high school students (68 males; age range 13-19years) classified as obese and 111 age-, sex- and social status-homogeneous normal weight controls were included in the current study. All participants were asked to fill out self-report measures of parental behavior as perceived by the offspring, eating disturbance attitudes and behaviors, self-esteem, perfectionism and shame. Significant differences between the two groups in relation to dysfunctional eating behaviors emerged. Body shame had the strongest relationship to eating problems vulnerability and acted as a mediator in the relationship between low self-esteem and eating disorder risk among both obese and non-obese youngsters. These findings further our understanding of a potential underlying mechanism for eating pathology development in youngsters in general and in obese adolescents in particular, which is of great importance in terms of prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Germeroth, Lisa J; Roemmich, James N

    2011-02-01

    There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or obese youth. This study examines the effects of a brief episode of ostracism on the motivation to eat and food intake of overweight and normal-weight young adolescents (M age=13.6 years). A computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball) was used to induce ostracism or inclusion. Following the inclusion/ostracism manipulation, all participants completed an operant computer task to earn points exchangeable for portions of food or for time socializing with an unfamiliar peer. Participants' responses for food and their subsequent energy intake were recorded. As hypothesized, ostracized overweight participants responded more for food and had a greater energy intake than overweight participants in the inclusion/control condition; whereas this was not the case for normal-weight participants. These results are important as studies indicate that overweight and obese youth may be at risk of social isolation and peer difficulties. Social adversity, if left unchanged, may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes in overweight youths' health behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Case report of a young stroke patient showing interim normalization of the MRI diffusion-weighted imaging lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Usnich, Tatiana; Nolte, Christian H.; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2015-01-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) shows hyperintensities and is considered to indicate irreversibly damaged tissue. We present the case of a young stroke patient with unusual variability in the development of signal intensities within the same vessel territory. A 35-year-old patient presented with symptoms of global aphasia and hypesthesia of the left hand. MRI demonstrated a scattered lesion in the MCA territory. After rtPA therapy the patient received further MRI examination, three times on day 1, and once on day 2, 3, 5 and 43. The posterior part of the lesion showed the usual pattern with increasing DWI hyperintensity and decreased ADC, as well as delayed FLAIR positivity. However, the anterior part of the lesion, which was clearly visible in the first examination completely normalized on the first day and only reappeared on day 2. This was accompanied by a normalization of the ADC as well as an even further delayed FLAIR positivity. We showed that interim normalization of DWI and ADC in the acute phase can not only be found in rodent models of stroke, but also in humans. We propose that DWI lesion development might be more variable during the first 24 h after stroke than previously assumed

  7. What is the impact of underweight on self-reported health trajectories and mortality rates: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorem, Geir Fagerjord; Schirmer, Henrik; Emaus, Nina

    2017-10-02

    Utilizing a cohort study design combining a survey approach with repeated physical examinations, we examined the independent effects of BMI on mortality and self-reported health (SRH) and whether these independent effects change as people grow older. The Tromsø Study consists of six surveys conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, with large representative samples of a general population. In total, 31,985 subjects participated in at least one of the four surveys administered between 1986 and 2008. Outcomes of interest were SRH and all-cause mortality. Overweight and underweight subjects reported significantly lower levels of SRH, but age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. The SRH trajectory of underweight subjects at age 25 was slightly above the other categories (0.08), but it fell to -.30 below the reference category at age 90. For obese subjects, the difference was -0.15 below the reference category at age 25 and -0.18 below at age 90. This implies that even though a low BMI was slightly beneficial at a young age, it represented an increasing risk with age that crossed the reference curve at age 38 and even crossed the obese trajectory at age 67 in the full fitted model. The proportional hazard ratio for those who were underweight was 1.69 (95% CI: 1.38-2.06) for all-cause death as compared to 1.12 (95% CI: 1.02-1.23) for obese subjects. BMI affected SRH and all-cause mortality independently from comorbidity, mental health, health-related behaviors and other biological risk factors. Being underweight was associated with excess mortality as compared to all others, and age affected the thinnest subjects more than all others. Weight increase was beneficial for mortality but not for SRH among the underweight. The rapid decline of SRH with increasing age suggests that particular attention should be paid to underweight after 38 years of age.

  8. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  9. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Robert Dilworth

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8% in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056. Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  10. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  11. A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, E; Deforche, B; Gentier, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Vaeyens, R; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2013-01-01

    The relationship of childhood overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) with motor skill and coordination is gaining due attention; however, longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. The dual purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the short-term evolution in the level of gross motor coordination according to children's weight status, and (2) to identify those factors predicting their gross motor coordination performance over a 2-year interval. Participants were 50 children with OW, including 8 with OB (aged 6-10 years at baseline, with 52% boys), and 50 with normal-weight (NW) matched for gender and age. Anthropometrics (body height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), %body fat) and level of gross motor coordination (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder, KTK) were assessed in 2007 (baseline) and 2 years later in 2009 (follow-up). At baseline, participants completed a survey based on the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire (FPAQ) to obtain socio-demographic information and to determine physical activity levels in diverse domains. The evolution in the level of gross motor coordination over time was strongly related to children's weight status. Participants in the NW group showed more progress than their OW/OB peers, who demonstrated significantly poorer performances. Accordingly, between-group differences in KTK outcomes (that is, raw item scores and total motor quotient) became more evident over time. Multiple linear regression analysis further indicated that, in addition to BMI per se (negative predictor), participation in organized sports within a sports club (positive predictor) determines gross motor coordination performance(s) 2 years later. Our results provide conclusive evidence for an increasingly widening gap of OW/OB children's gross motor coordination relative to NW peers across developmental time in the absence of targeted initiatives. Special attention is thus needed for OW/OB children, especially for those not practicing sports in a club

  12. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. Normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in young adults from a middle-income country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene B Madeira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based birth cohort study examined whether normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic disorders in young adults in a middle-income country undergoing rapid nutrition transition. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample involved 1,222 males and females from the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, Brazil, aged 23-25 years. NWO was defined as body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2 and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds above the sex-specific 90th percentiles of the study sample. It was also defined as normal BMI and % BF (body fat >23% in men and >30% in women. Insulin resistance (IR, insulin sensitivity and secretion were based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA model. RESULTS: In logistic models, after adjusting for age, sex and skin colour, NWO was significantly associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS according to the Joint Interim Statement (JIS definition (Odds Ratio OR = 6.83; 95% Confidence Interval CI 2.84-16.47. NWO was also associated with HOMA2-IR (OR = 3.81; 95%CI 1.57-9.28, low insulin sensitivity (OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.39-6.33, and high insulin secretion (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.24-3.80. Significant associations between NWO and some components of the MS were also detected: high waist circumference (OR = 8.46; 95%CI 5.09-14.04, low High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.11-2.47 and high triglyceride levels (OR = 1.93; 95%CI 1.02-3.64. Most estimates changed little after further adjustment for early and adult life variables. CONCLUSIONS: NWO was associated with MS and IR, suggesting that clinical assessment of excess body fat in normal-BMI individuals should begin early in life even in middle-income countries.

  14. Eating-related environmental factors in underweight eating disorders and obesity: are there common vulnerabilities during childhood and early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, I; Villarejo, C; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Perpiñá, C; Vilarrasa, N; Granero, R; Cebolla, A; Botella, C; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabe, M; Penelo, E; Casella, S; Islam, M A; Orekhova, E; Casanueva, F F; Karwautz, A; Menchón, J M; Treasure, J; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between individual, social and family influences and dysfunctional eating patterns early in life and the likelihood of developing a subsequent underweight eating disorder (ED) or obesity. The total sample comprised 152 individuals (underweight ED, n = 45; obese patients, n = 65; healthy controls; n = 42) from Barcelona, Spain. The Cross-Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ) was used to assess early eating influences as well as individual and family eating patterns and attitudes towards food. Even though a few shared eating influences emerged for both groups, unique factors were also observed. Whereas relationship with friends, teasing about eating habits by family members and the mass media were of specific relevance to the underweight ED group, the patient's own physical appearance, body dissatisfaction, teasing about eating habits by friends, teasing about body shape by family members and dysfunctional eating patterns were unique to obesity. Overlapping environmental risk factors provide evidence for integral prevention and intervention approaches that simultaneously tackle a range of weight-related problems. The unique factors might be important for targeting high-risk individuals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects-A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2017-01-19

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  16. Impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic profile in Danish children and adolescents with normal weight, overweight, or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloppenborg, Julie T; Fonvig, Cilius E; Nielsen, Tenna R H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Whether the definitions of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) differentially impact estimates of the metabolic profile and IFG-related comorbidities in Danish children and adolescents is unknown. METHODS......, and fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipids were measured. RESULTS: About 14.1% of participants with overweight or obesity exhibited IFG according to the ADA and 3.5% according to the WHO definition. Among individuals with normal weight, the corresponding....... Furthermore, IFG was associated with a higher risk for hypertension (OR = 1.66 [95%CI: 1.21; 2.28], P = .002) and dyslipidemia (OR = 1.90 [95%CI: 1.38; 2.56], P 

  17. A non-parametric conditional bivariate reference region with an application to height/weight measurements on normal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2009-01-01

    A conceptually simple two-dimensional conditional reference curve is described. The curve gives a decision basis for determining whether a bivariate response from an individual is "normal" or "abnormal" when taking into account that a third (conditioning) variable may influence the bivariate...... response. The reference curve is not only characterized analytically but also by geometric properties that are easily communicated to medical doctors - the users of such curves. The reference curve estimator is completely non-parametric, so no distributional assumptions are needed about the two......-dimensional response. An example that will serve to motivate and illustrate the reference is the study of the height/weight distribution of 7-8-year-old Danish school girls born in 1930, 1950, or 1970....

  18. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nordenson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anita Nordenson2, Anne Marie Grönberg1,2, Lena Hulthén1, Sven Larsson2, Frode Slinde11Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: Malnutrition is a serious condition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Successful dietary intervention calls for calculations of resting metabolic rate (RMR. One disease-specific prediction equation for RMR exists based on mainly male patients. To construct a disease-specific equation for RMR based on measurements in underweight or weight-losing women and men with COPD, RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry in 30 women and 11 men with a diagnosis of COPD and body mass index <21 kg/m2. The following variables, possibly influencing RMR were measured: length, weight, middle upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance, lung function, and markers of inflammation. Relations between RMR and measured variables were studied using univariate analysis according to Pearson. Gender and variables that were associated with RMR with a P value <0.15 were included in a forward multiple regression analysis. The best-fit multiple regression equation included only fat-free mass (FFM: RMR (kJ/day = 1856 + 76.0 FFM (kg. To conclude, FFM is the dominating factor influencing RMR. The developed equation can be used for prediction of RMR in underweight COPD patients.Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, basal metabolic rate, malnutrition, body composition

  19. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  20. Expanded Normal Weight Obesity and Insulin Resistance in US Adults of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilah E. Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to expand the evaluation of normal weight obesity (NWO and its association with insulin resistance using an NHANES (1999–2006 sample of US adults. A cross-sectional study including 5983 men and women (50.8% was conducted. Body fat percentage (BF% was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Expanded normal weight obesity (eNWO categories, pairings of BMI and body fat percentage classifications, were created using standard cut-points for BMI and sex-specific median for BF%. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR levels were used to index insulin resistance. Mean ± SE values were BMI: 27.9 ± 0.2 (women and 27.8 ± 0.1 (men; body fat percentage: 40.5 ± 0.2 (women and 27.8 ± 0.2 (men; and HOMA-IR: 2.04 ± 0.05 (women and 2.47 ± 0.09 (men. HOMA-IR differed systematically and in a dose-response fashion across all levels of the eNWO categories (F=291.3, P<0.0001. As BMI levels increased, HOMA-IR increased significantly, and within each BMI category, higher levels of body fat were associated with higher levels of HOMA-IR. Both high BMI and high BF% were strongly related to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance appears to increase incrementally according to BMI levels primarily and body fat levels secondarily. Including a precise measure of body fat with BMI adds little to the utility of BMI in the prediction of insulin resistance.

  1. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Olivia Santos; de Camargo, Vinicius Tadeu Nunes; Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  2. The levels of adipokines in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, normal-weight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wyskida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this study was to assess the plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. Methods: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2–4, days 12–14 and days 24–26 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Plasma adiponectin, omentin-1, resistin and visfatin/NAMPT, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 concentrations were stable during the menstrual cycle, while leptin and vaspin levels were significantly higher in both the midcycle and the luteal phases than those in the follicular phase. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that changes in leptin and vaspin levels between the follicular and the luteal phase are strongly related to changes in total testosterone levels. Conclusions: Our results revealed stable levels of adipokines during the phases of the physiological menstrual cycle, except for leptin and vaspin, which showed increased levels in both the midcycle and the luteal phases. This effect was significantly associated with changes in the secretion of testosterone, 17-OH progesterone and insulin in the luteal phase.

  3. Increased urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in very-low-birth-weight infants with oliguria and normal serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So Young; Ha, Ji Yong; Lee, Sang Lak; Lee, Won Mok; Park, Jae Hyun

    2017-06-01

    In infants, oliguria is defined as a urine output of serum cystatin C (CysC) levels in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) with a normal serum creatinine (Cr) level. Fifty-seven VLBWIs were enrolled in the study. Urinary NGAL, serum CysC and Cr levels and urinary NGAL/Cr ratios were measured. Infants with Apgar scores of >5 at 5 min and/or a serum Cr level of >1.5 mg/dL or those treated for patent ductus arteriosus were excluded. In case of antibiotic treatment, blood and urine samples were collected at ≥48 h after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. There was a significant difference in gestational age between infants with oliguric episodes during hospitalization and those without, but not in birth weight, perinatal or postnatal factors. Gestational age was negatively correlated with urinary NGAL and serum CysC levels and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio (p serum Cr level and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio (p serum CysC or serum Cr levels. The urinary NGAL level [area under the curve (AUC) 0.886, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.814-0.937] and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio (AUC 0.853, 95% CI 0.775-0.911) showed significantly greater discrimination for oliguria than serum CysC (AUC 0.610, 95% CI: 0.515-0.699) or serum Cr (AUC 0.747, 95%CI 0.659-0.823) levels. Urinary NGAL level and urinary NGAL/Cr ratio were more sensitive markers for the presence of oliguria in VLBWIs with normal serum Cr levels than serum CysC level.

  4. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Santos Gondim

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,, Overweight Group (OVG and Obese Group (OBG. We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength, cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  5. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  6. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoling; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Study sample came from 1996 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, consisting of 6739 community-dwelling adults born between 1931 and 1941 who were free from cognitive impairment in 1996. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Cognitive impairment was defined by a composite score of 11 or lower on the immediate and delayed word recall, serial 7's, and backwards counting tests. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards model were performed to examine the association between base-year body weight status and future onset of cognitive impairment. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for cognitive impairment incidence was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.38-3.00), 1.15 (1.02-1.29), 1.28 (1.14-1.43), and 1.59 (1.33-1.92) among underweight (BMIweight status and cognitive impairment were attenuated but remained statistically significant for underweight participants. Underweight is a robust risk factor for onset of cognitive impairment in later life. Weight management programs targeting middle-aged and older adults should focus on achieving and maintaining optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Lind, Erik; Vazou, Spiridoula

    2010-01-01

    At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy and social physique anxiety. The women participated in a graded treadmill protocol to volitional exhaustion while providing ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation each minute. The Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) was also completed before and after exercise. The affective responses of NW and OW women did not differ. However OB women gave lower pleasure ratings during the incremental protocol and reported lower Energy scores immediately after the protocol. Social physique anxiety, but not self-efficacy, was inversely related to pleasure and energy. The lower levels of pleasure and energy experienced by OB than nonobese women could account in part for their dramatically low levels of PA participation. Modifying the cognitive antecedents of social physique anxiety might be a useful intervention strategy.

  9. GOCO05c: A New Combined Gravity Field Model Based on Full Normal Equations and Regionally Varying Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, T.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.

    2017-05-01

    GOCO05c is a gravity field model computed as a combined solution of a satellite-only model and a global data set of gravity anomalies. It is resolved up to degree and order 720. It is the first model applying regionally varying weighting. Since this causes strong correlations among all gravity field parameters, the resulting full normal equation system with a size of 2 TB had to be solved rigorously by applying high-performance computing. GOCO05c is the first combined gravity field model independent of EGM2008 that contains GOCE data of the whole mission period. The performance of GOCO05c is externally validated by GNSS-levelling comparisons, orbit tests, and computation of the mean dynamic topography, achieving at least the quality of existing high-resolution models. Results show that the additional GOCE information is highly beneficial in insufficiently observed areas, and that due to the weighting scheme of individual data the spectral and spatial consistency of the model is significantly improved. Due to usage of fill-in data in specific regions, the model cannot be used for physical interpretations in these regions.

  10. Cognitive performance of low- and normal-birth-weight piglets in a spatial hole-board discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Elise T; Park, Soon Y; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz J

    2012-01-01

    Learning impairments are often seen in children born with low birth weight (LBW). A model with translational value for long-term effects of LBW in humans is needed to further our understanding of how LBW and cognition are related. The similarities between development stages in human infants and piglets, and the high prevalence of LBW piglets make them a naturally occurring potential model in which to study cognitive impairment associated with LBW in humans. Although both groups learned the configurations and rapidly reduced the number of incorrect visits, the LBW piglets showed a transiently retarded acquisition of the first reversal. The results of the experiment support the hypothesis that LBW is related to (mild) subsequent cognitive impairments. In the future, piglets may be suitable models for testing the effects of putative therapeutics. To examine this potential model, we tested pairs of LBW and NBW (normal-birth-weight) piglets in a spatial hole-board (a matrix with 4 × 4 holes in the floor) task during one acquisition and two reversal phases in their own individual configurations of rewarded holes.

  11. An EMG-based feature extraction method using a normalized weight vertical visibility algorithm for myopathy and neuropathy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artameeyanant, Patcharin; Sultornsanee, Sivarit; Chamnongthai, Kosin

    2016-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from healthy, myopathic, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) subjects are nonlinear, non-stationary, and similar in the time domain and the frequency domain. Therefore, it is difficult to classify these various statuses. This study proposes an EMG-based feature extraction method based on a normalized weight vertical visibility algorithm (NWVVA) for myopathy and ALS detection. In this method, sampling points or nodes based on sampling theory are extracted, and features are derived based on relations among the vertical visibility nodes with their amplitude differences as weights. The features are calculated via selective statistical mechanics and measurements, and the obtained features are assembled into a feature matrix as classifier input. Finally, powerful classifiers, such as k -nearest neighbor, multilayer perceptron neural network, and support vector machine classifiers, are utilized to differentiate signals of healthy, myopathy, and ALS cases. Performance evaluation experiments are carried out, and the results revealed 98.36% accuracy, which corresponds to approximately a 2% improvement compared with conventional methods. An EMG-based feature extraction method using a NWVVA is proposed and implemented to detect healthy, ALS, and myopathy statuses.

  12. Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Martens, Eveline A P; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-05-01

    Energy-restricted high-protein diets (HPDs) have shown favorable results for body weight (BW) management, yet studies differ in their outcomes depending on the dietary protein content. Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary protein content on BW loss-related variables during a 6-mo energy restriction with the use of diets containing protein at the level of requirement [normal-protein diet (NPD), 0.8 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)] and above (HPD, 1.2 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)). In overweight and obese participants (24 men and 48 women), BW, body composition, and metabolic responses were assessed before and after subsequent energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% of the original individual daily energy requirements. Protein intake was consistent in the NPD (0.8 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) and HPD (1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) groups throughout the study (P body fat mass similarly decreased in the NPD and HPD groups (P initial sparing effect of FFM and lowering of DBP.

  13. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition...

  14. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  15. Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Moore

    2010-01-01

    Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8% and obesity (9.3% most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.

  16. Overweight and underweight coexist within households in Brazil, China and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, C M; Adair, L S; Monteiro, C; Popkin, B M

    2000-12-01

    The possibility that underweight and overweight coexist within households and understanding such an occurrence have not been studied sufficiently. In fact, underweight and overweight are thought of as resulting from very different environmental, behavioral and individual risk factors. This study identified households in which overweight and underweight coexist and explored household-level associations such as urban residence and income. Using three large national surveys from Brazil, China and Russia, the prevalence of such households ranged from 8% in China and Russia to 11% in Brazil. Even more important from the public health perspective is the finding that these under/over households accounted for a high proportion of all households with an underweight member in China (23%), Brazil (45%), and Russia (58%). The prevalence of the underweight/overweight household was highest in the urban environment in all three countries. There was no clear pattern in the prevalence of the underweight/overweight household type by income. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the significance of the association of household type with urban residence and income while controlling for household size and household demographics by gender. Further analysis was done to consider the age relationships within the underweight/overweight pair. The underweight child coexisting with an overweight nonelderly adult was the predominant pair combination in all three countries. These findings illustrate the need for public health programs that are able to address underweight and overweight simultaneously.

  17. The effect of palm oil, lard, and puff-pastry margarine on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J; Bysted, A; Dawids, S; Hermansen, K; Hølmer, G

    1999-12-01

    Only a few studies have been published on the postprandial effects of different fatty acids in obese subjects. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of three test meals containing palm oil (PO), lard (LD), or puff-pastry margarine (PPM), all normal dietary ingredients, on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in normal-weight and obese young women. The study was performed as a randomized, crossover design. The fats differed in the content of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and trans monounsaturated fatty acids allowing a dietary comparison of different 'solid' fatty acids. The obese women had significantly higher fasting concentrations and postprandial responses of plasma total triacylglycerol (TAG), chylomicron-TAG, and insulin compared with the normal-weight women but there was no significant difference in the postprandial responses between the three test meals. The obese women had fasting concentrations of leptin four times greater than the normal-weight women. There were no postprandial changes in the concentrations of leptin. The fasting concentrations of HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the obese women than in the normal-weight women, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups in the concentrations of total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol. These results provide evidence that obese women have exaggerated lipid and hormone responses compared with normal-weight women but the different contents of saturated and trans monounsaturated fatty acids provided by PO, LD, and PPM have no effect in either group.

  18. Potential Benefits and Harms of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Amongst Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Subjects—A Narrative Review of Human and Animal Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Harvie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent energy restriction (IER has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation. Six small short term (<6 month studies amongst overweight or obese individuals indicate that intermittent energy restriction is equal to continuous restriction for weight loss, with one study reporting greater reductions in body fat, and two studies reporting greater reductions in HOMA insulin resistance in response to IER, with no obvious evidence of harm. Studies amongst normal weight subjects and different animal models highlight the potential beneficial and adverse effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on ectopic and visceral fat stores, adipocyte size, insulin resistance, and metabolic flexibility. The longer term benefits or harms of IER amongst people who are overweight or obese, and particularly amongst normal weight subjects, is not known and is a priority for further investigation.

  19. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  20. Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Echocardiographic Findings in Overweight Patients Compared to Normal-Weight Patients

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    Mohammad Salehi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight is currently considered as the main risk factor for various chronic disorders, especially cardiovascular diseases. Unexpected hypertension is the first reaction of heart to overburden imposed by obesity or overweight. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI and echocardiographic findings in overweight patients compared with normal-weight population. methods: This historical cohort study was conducted on 60 patients divided into two group of 30 based on their measured weights, group 1 with BMI of 20-25 kg/m2 as control and group 2 with 25

  1. Postprandial Lipid Response to High-Saturated and High-Monounsaturated Fat Meals in Normal-Weight or Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lílian L; Rocha, Daniela Mayumi U P; Silva, Alessandra da; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M

    2018-02-09

    We evaluated postprandial response of the lipid metabolism markers after the intake of a high-saturated fat (HSM) or high-monounsaturated fat meal (HMM). A randomized, controlled and acute intervention study included 63 women (age 26.9 ± 6.1 years): 35 normal weight (NW) and 28 overweight (OW) (total body fat [TBF] 24.7 ± 3.9% and 36.6 ± 3.9%, respectively). After 12 hours of fasting, each subject was given one of the two test meals standardized, including 2 muffins and water (HSM, 42.1% of saturated fat acid, or HMM, 34.5% of monounsaturated fat acid). Plasma fatty acid profile and concentrations of apolipoproteins A1 and B100, complement C3, and triacylglycerols were analyzed during fasting and at 2, 3, and 5 postprandial hours. Among the markers studied, the triacylglycerol (TAG) and complement C3 were significantly higher in the OW group, compared to NW. The increment in the C3 concentration was higher after HSM intake, compared with HMM (iAUC = 4365.5 ± 5477.4 vs. 1215.2 ± 882.4; p = 0.006), with no differences between groups. After 5 hours postprandial, plasma oleic acid values remained high compared with the fasting value in the NW group, but not in the OW group (26.0 ± 4.2 vs 23.7 ± 3.9%; p postprandial increment of C3 concentration, suggesting another mechanism for saturated fat metabolism. The postprandial response to HSM appears to be the mediated by baseline lipid profile of the individuals, while the response to HMM was correlated to the weight status.

  2. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%, while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%. Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although

  3. A weighted mean shift, normalized cuts initialized color gradient based geodesic active contour model: applications to histopathology image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Janowczyk, Andrew; Chandran, Sharat; Madabhushi, Anant

    2010-03-01

    While geodesic active contours (GAC) have become very popular tools for image segmentation, they are sensitive to model initialization. In order to get an accurate segmentation, the model typically needs to be initialized very close to the true object boundary. Apart from accuracy, automated initialization of the objects of interest is an important pre-requisite to being able to run the active contour model on very large images (such as those found in digitized histopathology). A second limitation of GAC model is that the edge detector function is based on gray scale gradients; color images typically being converted to gray scale prior to computing the gradient. For color images, however, the gray scale gradient results in broken edges and weak boundaries, since the other channels are not exploited for the gradient determination. In this paper we present a new geodesic active contour model that is driven by an accurate and rapid object initialization scheme-weighted mean shift normalized cuts (WNCut). WNCut draws its strength from the integration of two powerful segmentation strategies-mean shift clustering and normalized cuts. WNCut involves first defining a color swatch (typically a few pixels) from the object of interest. A multi-scale mean shift coupled normalized cuts algorithm then rapidly yields an initial accurate detection of all objects in the scene corresponding to the colors in the swatch. This detection result provides the initial boundary for GAC model. The edge-detector function of the GAC model employs a local structure tensor based color gradient, obtained by calculating the local min/max variations contributed from each color channel (e.g. R,G,B or H,S,V). Our color gradient based edge-detector function results in more prominent boundaries compared to classical gray scale gradient based function. We evaluate segmentation results of our new WNCut initialized color gradient based GAC (WNCut-CGAC) model against a popular region-based model (Chan

  4. Eating habits, lifestyle factors, and body weight status among Turkish private educational institution students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Unal; Erenoglu, Nazan; Son, Osman

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity and to evaluate the effects of eating habits, lifestyle, and sociodemographic characteristics on students' weight. This cross-sectional study was carried out from February to May 2008 in the city of Eskisehir, western Turkey. A total of 2258 students 15-20 y of age (1137 boys and 1121 girls) were examined. The questionnaires, including items related to eating habits, lifestyle, and sociodemographic characteristics, were completed by the students. The data were evaluated using chi-square test and percent ratios. In addition, Student's t test for means and reliability analysis was employed to test the reliability of the questionnaire scale. Differences were considered statistically significant at P students (69.9%) were of normal weight; more than one-fourth (25.7%) were underweight; and 4.4% were overweight/obese students, with just 0.6% being obese (n = 14). According to 21 of the 29 items in the questionnaire found to be positively significant, girls had more accurate habits than boys (13 versus 7 items, respectively). Compared with those underweight or of normal weight, the proportion of those overweight/obese was smaller for those having milk or juice at breakfast (P < 0.05), special meals prepared at least once daily at home (P < 0.05), and not selecting fast food such as hamburgers at meals (P < 0.01). The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is much lower than the prevalence of underweight in Turkish school-based adolescents, important data that merit consideration. Health professionals, teachers, and family environment may play a key role in the promotion of a healthy lifestyle. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  6. Relationship between abdominal obesity and alcohol drinking pattern in normal-weight, middle-aged adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2017-08-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with obesity-related health risks regardless of body weight. The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol drinking pattern is associated with abdominal obesity in normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional study using complex sampling design analyses. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted from 2008 to 2013. Normal-weight participants aged 40-69 years with BMI of 18·5-25·0 kg/m2 (n 11 289, 4491 men and 6798 women) were included. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men or ≥85 cm for women. Alcohol drinking pattern was assessed by self-report on questionnaires. Among 11 289 normal-weight participants, 7·9 % (n 379) of men and 7·6 % (n 609) of women had abdominal obesity. Both men and women who consumed a higher quantity of alcohol per drinking occasion had higher odds (OR; 95 % CI) for abdominal obesity compared with individuals who consumed fewer than 2 drinks (1·86; 1·04, 3·32 for ≥10 drinks/typical occasion in men; and 3·28; 1·13, 9·46 in women). Men who binge drink every day had higher odds for abdominal obesity (2·10; 1·21, 3·63). In both sexes, frequency of alcohol drinking was not associated with normal-weight abdominal obesity. Our study showed that the amount of alcohol drinking per occasion influenced abdominal obesity in normal-weight, middle-aged individuals that may have impacted obesity-related health risks. Healthy alcohol drinking habits need to be controlled for prevention of abdominal obesity even among persons with normal weight.

  7. Gut microbiota and body composition in anorexia nervosa inpatients in comparison to athletes, overweight, obese, and normal weight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörkl, Sabrina; Lackner, Sonja; Müller, Wolfram; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Kashofer, Karl; Oberascher, Andreas; Painold, Annamaria; Holl, Anna; Holzer, Peter; Meinitzer, Andreas; Mangge, Harald; Holasek, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a heterogeneous eating disorder associated with alterations of body structure and the gut microbiome. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition of a large female cohort including different BMI groups and activity levels along with body composition parameters. 106 female participants were included in this cross-sectional study: AN patients (n = 18), athletes (n = 20), normal weight (n = 26), overweight (n = 22), and obese women (n = 20). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subjected to 16S rRNA gene analysis. The software Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) was used to analyze data. Additionally, we performed anthropometric assessments, ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, bioimpedance analysis, administered depression inventories, and ascertained laboratory parameters and dietary intakes. Alpha diversity was particularly lower in AN patients and obese participants compared to other groups, while athletes showed highest alpha diversity. Several categories significantly associated with community structure were identified: body fat parameters, serum lipids, CRP, depression scales and smoking. Comparative analysis revealed Coriobacteriaceae as the only enriched phylotype in AN compared to other entities (LDA score >3.5). This study provides further evidence of intestinal dysbiosis in AN and sheds light on characteristics of the gut microbiome in different BMI and physical activity groups. These insights point to new modulation possibilities of the gut microbiota which could improve the standard therapy of AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S; Mendes, Roberto T; Marson, Fernando A L; Zambon, Mariana P; Antonio, Maria A R G M; Paschoal, Ilma A; Toro, Adyléia A D C; Severino, Silvana D; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Ribeiro, José D

    To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p11 years (p<0.05). Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV 1 /FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Normal-weight adults consume more fiber and fruit than their age- and height-matched overweight/obese counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Hodges, Valerie A; Gillham, M Beth

    2006-06-01

    To assess differences in dietary intake of overweight/obese subjects and sex-, age-, and height-matched controls and to identify dietary components associated with increased deposition of body fat. A convenience sample of 52 overweight/obese and 52 normal-weight adults matched for sex, age (+/-1 year), and height (+/-1 inch) were recruited from the local area. Dietary intake was assessed with the Block 60-item food frequency questionnaire, physical activity was measured by the Yale Physical Activity Survey, and percent body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t tests compared between-group consumption of dietary components. The ability of dietary components to predict percent body fat before and after controlling for age-, sex-, and physical activity-related energy expenditure and other macronutrients was assessed with multiple regression analyses. Spearman correlation coefficients examined relationships among nutrients, Food Guide Pyramid servings, and percent body fat. Overweight/obese subjects consumed more total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol and less carbohydrate, complex carbohydrate, and dietary fiber than control subjects. Reported intake of dietary fiber was inversely related to percent body fat without (R(2)=0.052, P=0.02) and with (R(2)=0.045, P=0.013) control for potential confounding factors. Servings of fruit per day were negatively related to percent body fat (r=-0.40, Pfiber and fruit intake, plays a role in the etiology of obesity.

  10. Disparity in neural and subjective responses to food images in women with obesity and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Larson, Michael J; Romney, Lora; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Christensen, William F; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports tend to differ from objective measurements of food intake, particularly in adults with obesity; however, no studies have examined how neural responses to food (an objective measure) and subjective ratings of food differ by BMI status. This study tested normal-weight women (NWW) and women with obesity (OBW) for group differences in neural indices of attention towards food pictures, subjective ratings of these pictures, and the disparity between objective and subjective measurements. Twenty-two NWW (21.8 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 22 OBW (37.0 ± 5.7 kg/m 2 ) viewed food and flower pictures while late positive potential amplitude, an event-related potential, was recorded. Participants rated pictures for arousal and valence. Late positive potential amplitude was larger toward food than flower pictures. OBW self-reported flower pictures as more pleasant than food; NWW showed no difference for pleasantness. There were no significant main effects or interactions for arousal. Standardized scores showed that only on subjective, but not objective, measures did OBW compared with NWW disproportionately indicate food pictures as less pleasant than flowers. Compared with NWW, OBW showed larger discrepancies between neural and subjective reports of attention towards food. Inaccurate self-reports of attention towards food may reduce the efficiency of health interventions. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. Chubby but cheerful? Investigating the compensatory judgments of high, medium, and low status weight groups in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Owuamalam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined two strategies that people use in their social judgements – indifference and compensation. Given the average position of members of intermediate status groups, we reasoned that an indifference strategy would characterise perceivers’ competence vs. warmth judgements of these people because they do not possess features that deviate from normality. In contrast, high and low status groups deviate from normality, and we reasoned that attention to the negative aspects of their competence vs. warmness should enlist a complementary desire to compensate such groups on the opposite dimension, in line with societal norms of politeness. We tested these ideas in relation to people who were underweight (intermediate status group, overweight (low status group, and ideal weight (high status group. Results from Study 1 showed that compensation was used for underweight faces and ideal weight faces, while an indifference strategy was used in the judgements of overweight faces, which we reasoned may be tied to cultural and individual differences. When these noise variables were removed in Studies 2a and 2b, we showed that, consistent with our assumptions, the indifference strategy was used in the evaluations of underweight people, and compensation was used for the ideal- and over-weight categories. Finally, Study 2b showed that norms of politeness predicted the use of compensation, but only for the overweight category.

  12. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. © 2014 APJPH.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of rural Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Khandelwal, Ritika; Khenduja, Preetika; Sareen, Neha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2018-03-15

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of India. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and anthropometric parameters. Weight and height measurements were utilized for calculation of BMI. Nutrient intake data were collected using 24 h dietary recall. High-altitude region of Nainital District, Uttarakhand State, North India. Community-dwelling geriatric subjects (n 981) aged 60 years or above. We found that 26·6 % of the elderly subjects were underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI 25·0-29·9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30·0 kg/m2) was seen among 18·0 % and 4·6 %, respectively. After controlling for potential cofounders, risk factors such as low level of education and income, chewing problems and lower number of daily meals were found to be associated with underweight. On the other hand, risk factors for overweight/obesity were lower age, high income and unskilled work. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to prevent underweight, overweight and obesity among the geriatric population of India.

  14. Expression-robust 3D face recognition via weighted sparse representation of multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    In the theory of differential geometry, surface normal, as a first order surface differential quantity, determines the orientation of a surface at each point and contains informative local surface shape information. To fully exploit this kind of information for 3D face recognition (FR), this paper proposes a novel highly discriminative facial shape descriptor, namely multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns (MSMC-LNP). Given a normalized facial range image, three components of normal vectors are first estimated, leading to three normal component images. Then, each normal component image is encoded locally to local normal patterns (LNP) on different scales. To utilize spatial information of facial shape, each normal component image is divided into several patches, and their LNP histograms are computed and concatenated according to the facial configuration. Finally, each original facial surface is represented by a set of LNP histograms including both global and local cues. Moreover, to make the proposed solution robust to the variations of facial expressions, we propose to learn the weight of each local patch on a given encoding scale and normal component image. Based on the learned weights and the weighted LNP histograms, we formulate a weighted sparse representation-based classifier (W-SRC). In contrast to the overwhelming majority of 3D FR approaches which were only benchmarked on the FRGC v2.0 database, we carried out extensive experiments on the FRGC v2.0, Bosphorus, BU-3DFE and 3D-TEC databases, thus including 3D face data captured in different scenarios through various sensors and depicting in particular different challenges with respect to facial expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed approach consistently achieves competitive rank-one recognition rates on these databases despite their heterogeneous nature, and thereby demonstrates its effectiveness and its generalizability. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis

    2017-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre...... of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start......Background: There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective...

  16. Comparison of malnutrition inflammation score, anthropometry and biochemical parameters in assessing the difference in protein-energy wasting between normal weight and obese patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipoor, Elham; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Yaseri, Mehdi; Zahed, Narges S

    2017-07-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is prevalent in haemodialysis. Obesity is an independent risk factor of kidney insufficiency, but it is proposed to have beneficial roles in better outcomes in the final stage of disease. Better nutritional status and body reserves are among probable mechanisms, but direct examinations are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether obese patients have preferable nutritional status compared to normal weight patients based on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and other PEW parameters in haemodialysis. This case-control study investigated 52 normal weight (18.5 < body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m 2 ) and 48 obese (BMI≥30 kg/m 2 ) patients on regular haemodialysis. PEW was assessed based on anthropometric and biochemical factors, recent weight changes, appetite, anorexia, dietary intake and MIS. Obese patients had better MIS compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.001), although varying degrees of wasting were prevalent among this group too (75% mild and 25% moderate wasting). The obese group had less significant weight loss (4.2 vs 8%) and anorexia and better appetite. However, a considerable percentage of patients in both groups showed muscle (94.6% of normal weight and 19.5% of obese) and peripheral fat tissue (89.2% of normal weight and 31.7% of obese) losses compared to the 50th percentile. Biochemical parameters were not significantly different between groups except for triglyceride (P = 0.001), transferrin and total iron-binding capacity (P = 0.028). MIS was significantly better in obese patients; however, both groups showed degrees of wasting based on MIS and other PEW parameters. Nutritional status of obese haemodialysis patients should be monitored regularly because of high risk of PEW like other BMI categories. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  17. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  18. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Karppanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53 to normal weight children (n = 65, and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C. Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run. Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results: Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72 were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004; no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741. Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001, but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864. Conclusion: This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and

  19. Energy and Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Protein and Amino Acid Kinetics or Pregnancy Outcomes in Underweight Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Hsu, Jean W; Tang, Grace J; Anand, Pauline; Thomas, Tinku; Thomas, Annamma; Sheela, C N; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-02-01

    In India, the prevalence of low birth weight is high in women with a low body mass index (BMI), suggesting that underweight women are not capable of providing adequate energy and protein for fetal growth. Furthermore, as pregnancy progresses, there is increased need to provide methyl groups for methylation reactions associated with the synthesis of new proteins and, unlike normal-BMI American women, low-BMI Indian women are unable to increase methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates as pregnancy progresses from trimester 1 to 3. This also negatively influences birth weight. The aim was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with energy and protein from 12 ± 1 wk of gestation to time of delivery compared with no supplement on pregnancy outcomes, protein kinetics, and the fluxes of the methyl group donors serine and glycine. Protein kinetics and serine and glycine fluxes were measured by using standard stable isotope tracer methods in the fasting and postprandial states in 24 pregnant women aged 22.9 ± 0.7 y with low BMIs [BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≤18.5] at 12 ± 1 wk (trimester 1) and 30 ± 1 wk (trimester 3) of gestation. After the first measurement, subjects were randomly assigned to either receive the supplement (300 kcal/d, 15 g protein/d) or no supplement. Supplementation had no significant effect on any variable of pregnancy outcome, and except for fasting state decreases in leucine flux (125 ± 7.14 compared with 113 ± 5.06 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.04) and nonoxidative disposal (110 ± 6.97 compared with 101 ± 3.69 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1); P = 0.02) from trimesters 1 to 3, it had no effect on any other leucine kinetic variable or urea, glycine, and serine fluxes. We conclude that in Indian women with a low BMI, supplementation with energy and protein from week 12 of pregnancy to time of delivery does not improve pregnancy outcome, whole-body protein kinetics, or serine and glycine fluxes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Age-related deposition of brain iron in normal adults: an in vivo susceptibility weighted imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Minming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the iron concentration of the human brain. Methods: The brain iron level was evaluated in vivo in 78 healthy adult volunteers using a noninvasive magnetic resonance method termed susceptibility weighted imaging. The subjects were divided intothree groups due to different ages: young (22-35 years old, n=27), middle- aged (36-55 years old, n=35), and aged (56-78 years old, n=16). The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter. The phase values of those regions measured from the subjects over than 30 years old were correlated with published values of brain iron concentration in normal adults to check the validity of the data. Then, the phase values of the three groups were tested for significant age-related differences using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc testing using least significant difference (LSD) procedure. Regression analysis was used to further examine age-related effects revealed by group comparisons, and to estimate the rates of age-related changes. Results: A strong negative correlation was found between the phase values and the published values of the brain iron concentration (r=-0.796, P= 0.032), which indicated that the higher the iron deposition level, the greater the negative phase values. In the putamen (F=20.115, P<0.01) and frontal white matter (F=3.536, P=0.034), significant differences were detected in the phase values of the three age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that phase values of the putamen, frontal white matter, and red nucleus decreased with age (The regression coefficients were -0.001, -0.001, and < -0.001 respectively, and the P value were all < 0.05), which indicated that the iron concentration of those brain structures increased with age. No significant age- related changes of the iron concentration were found in the

  1. Eating in the absence of hunger is related to loss-of-control eating, hedonic hunger, and short-term weight gain in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Emily H; Piers, Amani D; Kral, Tanja V E; Lowe, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    Eating beyond physiological need contributes to obesity onset. Measuring this behavior could help identify those at risk for weight gain. This study measured eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and its relationship with weight change and self-report measures related to appetite and eating behavior. EAH was assessed in 46 lean young women (69% pre-selected for weight gain proneness) after lunch and defined as the number of calories subsequently consumed from snacks. Participants also completed questionnaires, and their body weights were measured regularly over the next year. Participants consumed a mean 188 calories (±140) during the EAH test. Caloric intake during the EAH test was associated with hedonic hunger (p emotional eating, disinhibition, and longer-term weight change. Amount of the test meal eaten in a hungry state was unrelated to these variables. While EAH has mainly been examined in children, these results expand its utility to adults. EAH seems to reflect naturalistic eating behavior, as shown by its relationship with short-term weight gain, drive to overconsume foods, and loss of control over eating. EAH may be a useful test to identify young adults at risk for weight gain and/or disordered eating, and may be a target for intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Eyitayo Omolara; Ter Goon, Daniel; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent

    2017-12-28

    Central obesity (CO) confers a significant threat on the cardio-metabolic health of individuals, independently of overall obesity. Disparities in the measures of fat distribution lead to misclassification of individuals who are at risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. This study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of central obesity and normal-weight central obesity among adults attending selected healthcare facilities in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa, assess their health risk and examine the association between central obesity and cardio-metabolic diseases among adults with normal weight, measured by body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional survey of 998 adults was carried out at the three largest outpatient clinics in BCMM. Overall and central obesity were assessed using BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR). The WHO STEPwise questionnaire was used for data collection. Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured. Normal-weight central obesity was defined as CO among individuals with normal weight, as assessed by BMI. Health risk levels were assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) BMI-WC composite index. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the prevalence of CO, normal-weight central obesity and the predictors of CO. The mean age of participants was 42.6 (± 16.5) years. The prevalence of CO was 67.0, 58.0 and 71.0% by WC, WHR and WHTR, respectively. The prevalence of normal-weight central obesity was 26.9, 36.9 and 29.5% by WC, WHR and WHTR, respectively. About 41% of the participants had a very high health risk, 13% had increased risk or high risk and 33% had no health risk. Central obesity was significantly associated with hypertension but not associated with diabetes among those with normal weight (by BMI). Female sex, age over 30 years, marriage, secondary or tertiary level of education, non

  3. Development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up in non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Marttunen, Mauri; Komulainen, Erkki; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Aalberg, Veikko; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese youths is high. The present study aimed to investigate the development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up among non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight. Furthermore, we separately analyzed the data for girls and boys. Altogether 86 8(th) grades (41 girls and 45 boys) with a relative weight of 26% or more above the median and 91 controls (43 girls and 48 boys) with normal weight participated the follow-up. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, Revised (OSIQ-R) was used to assess self-image at baseline and on follow-up. In the OSIQ-R, a low total raw score implies positive adjustment, while a high raw score implies poor adjustment and a negative self-image. The study design was doubly correlated (pairs and time), and a linear mixed model was used in the statistical analysis. In OSIQ-R total scores, a comparative improvement was observed in girls with normal weight. Among these girls, significant change scores compared to zero were seen in impulse control, social functioning, vocational attitudes, self-confidence, self-reliance, body image, sexuality, and ethical values. In girls with excess weight, none of the change scores compared to zero were statistically significant. When the girls with normal and excess weight were compared, the difference in change scores was largest in sexuality and vocational attitudes. Change scores compared to zero were significant in sexuality and idealism for boys with excess weight, and in impulse control, mental health, self-reliance, and sexuality for normal weight boys. When the boys with excess and normal weight were compared, no statistically significant differences emerged in change scores. In mid-adolescent girls, the influence of overweight and obesity on the development of self-image is substantial. Weight management programs directed at overweight adolescent girls should include psychological interventions aiming to diminish self-image distress

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in normal body weight and obese (classes I, II, and III) healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Julie Ann; Mayer, Stockton M; Pai, Manjunath P; Soriano, Melinda M; Danziger, Larry H; Novak, Richard M; Rodvold, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of ceftaroline has not been well characterized in obese adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in 32 healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 50 years in the normal, overweight, and obese body size ranges. Subjects were evenly assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and total body weight (TBW) (ranges, 22.1 to 63.5 kg/m(2) and 50.1 to 179.5 kg, respectively). Subjects in the lower-TBW groups were matched by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and serum creatinine to the upper-BMI groups. Serial plasma and urine samples were collected over 12 h after the start of the infusion, and the concentrations of ceftaroline fosamil (prodrug), ceftaroline, and ceftaroline M-1 (inactive metabolite) were assayed. Noncompartmental and population pharmacokinetic analyses were used to evaluate the data. The mean plasma ceftaroline maximum concentration and area under the curve were ca. 30% lower in subjects with a BMI of ≥40 kg/m(2) compared to those ceftaroline. Estimated creatinine clearance (eCLCR) and TBW best explained ceftaroline clearance and volume of distribution, respectively. Although lower ceftaroline plasma concentrations were observed in obese subjects, Monte Carlo simulations suggest the probability of target attainment is ≥90% when the MIC is ≤1 μg/ml irrespective of TBW or eCLCR. No dosage adjustment for ceftaroline appears to be necessary based on TBW alone in adults with comparable eCLCR. Confirmation of these findings in infected obese patients is necessary to validate these findings in healthy volunteers. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01648127.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS). Twenty adult normal-weight women (mean age 24.2±0.8years; mean BMI 22.7±0.4kg/m 2 ) participated in the study which used a single-blind completely randomised block design, where each subject consumed each of the three preload meals. Energy intake at the ad libitum test meal and total energy intakes (preload+test meal) did not differ between the three preload meals (p>0.05). There were no significant differences observed for the VAS scores and net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) during the 120min following consumption of the three preload meals for subjective ratings of appetite (p>0.05). The findings show that the satiating effect of whey protein was similar to that of BL or AL individually and suggest that the major whey protein components BL and AL do not mediate the satiating effect of whey protein. The present human trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000344594. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of flow adjustment dialysate (Qd hemodialysis on effectiveness of underweight patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ducuara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available KDOQI guidelines in 2006 using standard dialysis adequacy Kt/V, where V is volume of distributionof urea, underweight patients have lower total body water, lower V, which couldreduce the requirement without affecting Qd the efficiency of dialysis. Objective: to evaluatethe effect on the adequacy of dialysis Qd reduction occurs in patients weighing less than orequal to 60 kg who are on hemodialysis. Methodology: patients with chronic kidney diseaseon hemodialysis regularly with weight less than or equal to 60 kg of a renal clinic to evaluatetwo periods I and II, were continued therapy parameters with decrease of Qd for the secondperiod. The variables were collected directly by the researchers of the history. The values thusobtained would be compared using t test or paired variables, and statistical significance of thetest below 0,05. Results: we included 61 patients, 60.7% female, mean age 57,3 years (SD 14,8.Average age of men 60.1 (SD 13,9 and women was 55,9 (SD 15,4. There were no statisticallysignificant differences for the variables Kt/V, Hemoglobin and there was a significant reductionin the phosphorus levels. Conclusions: this study demonstrates that adequate therapy is achievedwith less than Qd traditional standards, with 400 ml/min in patients with low weight as long asyou keep the other parameters of renal substitution.

  7. No evidence for involvement of polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in anorexia nervosa, underweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, A; Schneider, J; Ziegler, A; Lehmkuhl, G; Poustka, F; Schmidt, M H; Mayer, H; Siegfried, W; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

    1999-12-15

    Family and twin studies suggest a genetic contribution to the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Genes involved in weight regulation can be considered as candidate genes for AN. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in weight regulation; previous results had suggested a possible involvement of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4). We screened for alleles of two different polymorphisms (13-bp deletion, 48-bp repeat) in the DRD4. For association tests, allele frequencies were compared between 109 inpatients with AN, 82 underweight students, and 327 extremely obese children and adolescents. For application of transmission disequlibrium tests (TDT) we additionally genotyped 57 and 137 trios comprising a patient with AN or an extremely obese child or adolescent, respectively, and both parents. All genotyping was performed with polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism analyses. None of the association tests or TDT rendered nominal P values below 0.1. An influence of alleles of the DRD4 on the development of AN, underweight, or extreme early onset obesity was not detected. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 88:594-597, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects...... subjects. Blood samples were drawn frequently throughout the 24-h period. An insulin tolerance test was also used to determine whether weight loss altered the ability of insulin to modify plasma concentrations of tryptophan and of the other large neutral amino acids. RESULTS: Plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects were low at all times; these effects persisted after weight reduction. Plasma concentrations of all the large neutral amino acids decreased during insulin infusion in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low 24-h plasma tryptophan ratios in obese and formerly obese...

  9. Perception of weight and psychological variables in a sample of Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Santiago-Fernández, María José; Garrido-Casals, Olivia; Sánchez, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and weight perception, self-esteem, positive body image, food beliefs, and mental health status, along with any gender differences in weight perception, in a sample of adolescents in Spain. The sample comprised 85 students (53 females and 32 males, mean age 17.4 ± 5.5 years) with no psychiatric history who were recruited from a high school in Écija, Seville. Weight and height were recorded for all participants, who were then classified according to whether they perceived themselves as slightly overweight, very overweight, very underweight, slightly underweight, or about the right weight, using the question "How do you think of yourself in terms of weight?". Finally, a series of questionnaires were administered, including the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Self Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Overall, 23.5% of participants misperceived their weight. Taking into account only those with a normal BMI (percentile 5-85), there was a significant gender difference with respect to those who perceived themselves as overweight (slightly overweight and very overweight); 13.9% of females and 7.9% of males perceived themselves as overweight (χ(2) = 3.957, P difference for age, with participants who perceived their weight adequately being of mean age 16.34 ± 3.17 years and those who misperceived their weight being of mean age 18.50 ± 4.02 years (F = 3.112, P < 0.05). Misperception of overweight seems to be more frequent in female adolescents, and mainly among older ones. Misperception of being overweight is associated with a less positive body image, and the perception of being very underweight is associated with higher scores for general psychopathology.

  10. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. [Adiponectin levels in breast milk of overweight/obese and normal weight mothers in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Gómez, Abelardo; Flores Scheufler, Pamela; Quevedo Escobar, Yamile; González Magaña, Regina; Rodríguez De Ita, Julieta

    Given the current epidemic of childhood obesity, it has become increasingly important to understand the risks and protective factors associated with this disease. Breastfeeding has been identified as a protective factor; however, the mechanism responsible has not been elucidated. One of the current theories analyzes the role of hormones in breast milk, with special emphasis on adiponectin. This study aims to compare adiponectin levels in breast milk of mothers with normal weight with those in breast milk of overweight/obese mothers as well as to correlate these levels with the infant's weight gain. Forty samples of breast milk were analyzed for adiponectin levels using ELISA, 20 from mothers with normal weight and 20 from overweight/obese mothers. Adiponectin levels were lower in breast milk obtained from overweight/obese mothers than in breast milk from mothers with normal weight (p <0.05). When comparing infant weight gain, those fed with breast milk containing higher concentrations of adiponectin had a lower weight gain than those fed with breast milk containing low levels of the hormone (p <0.05). There is a strong negative correlation between mothers' BMI and adiponectin levels in breast milk. Mothers with a higher BMI had lower adiponectin levels in their breast milk. There is also a negative relationship between adiponectin levels in breast milk and weight gain of breastfed infants. Infants breast fed with adiponectin-rich breast milk had a lower weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SOSIAL EKONOMI DAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT KAITANNYA DENGAN MASALAH GIZI UNDERWEIGHT, STUNTED, DAN WASTED DI INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN EKOLOGI GIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Hani Ulfani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Malnutrition is an ecological problem in the sense influenced by various aspects, as explained in the framework of UNICEF (1988. Indonesia as developing country at present still faced such a problem. Eco-nutrition is important to understand related factors affecting malnutrition in Indonesia to find out more effective programs. Eco-nutrition have three key areas : public health (access to quality water, sanitation and health services, socio economic (livelihood assets and malnutrition. The purpose of this research was to study the linkages between socioeconomic and public health factors with the problem of underweight, stunted, and wasted in Indonesia.This research was conducted using cross-sectional study design, analyzed the 424 districts/cities in Indonesia. Data prevalence of underweight, stunted, wasted, level of education and public health factors (access to quality water, hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu, complete immunization coverage, incidence of diarrhea, and the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI obtained from Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007. Socio-economic data (level of poverty and GDP/capita obtained from the Central Statistic Agency (BPS. Statistical test of Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression method were implemented to understand factors affecting underweight, stunted, wasted and correlation among variables. The study shows that factors affecting underweight were educational level, poverty level, hygiene behavior and use of Posyandu. While factors affecting stunted were GDP/capita, education level, poverty level, hygiene behavior, and utilization of Posyandu. Factors affecting wasted were hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu and complete immunization. Key words: underweight,   stunted,   wasted,   socioeconomic   factors,   public   health,                   eco-nutrition

  14. Effect of periodontal treatment on serum C-reactive protein level in obese and normal-weight women affected with chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Zahrani, M.S.; Alghamdi, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of conventional periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and periodontal status in obese and normal-weight chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS: This is a controlled clinical trial conducted at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of

  15. The Efficiency and Safety of Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT) Abbrevo Procedure Versus TVT Exact in the Normal Weight and Overweight Patients Affected by Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Luo, Deyi; Yang, Lu; Wei, Xin; Tang, Cai; Chen, Mei; Shen, Hong; Wei, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    To compare the efficacy between 2 different slings in normal weight and overweight women. Of 426 women, 220 (119 normal weight and 101 overweight) accepted the tension-free vaginal tape Abbrevo (TVT-A) and 206 (114 normal weight and 92 overweight) accepted the TVT Exact (TVT-E) procedure. Data collected contained the subjective efficiency, objective efficiency International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (PFIQ-7), Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form (UDI-6), and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-Short Form (PISQ)-12 at 36 months after surgery. In the normal weight patients, the subjectively and objectively cured rates were all high in both TVT-A and TVE-E (94.12% and 95.61% in objective result; 92.44% and 94.74% in subjective result). In addition, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 have significantly changed (P TVT-E than TVT-A. Moreover, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 of overweight women have significantly changed only in the TVT-E (P TVT-A and TVT-E, respectively). The TVT-E might be a better choice for the overweight patient than TVT-A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal-weight Mexican school-age children and its association with metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Contreras, B E; Morán-Ramos, S; Villarruel-Vázquez, R; Macías-Kauffer, L; Villamil-Ramírez, H; León-Mimila, P; Vega-Badillo, J; Sánchez-Muñoz, F; Llanos-Moreno, L E; Canizalez-Román, A; Del Río-Navarro, B; Ibarra-González, I; Vela-Amieva, M; Villarreal-Molina, T; Ochoa-Leyva, A; Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Canizales-Quinteros, S

    2017-12-05

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem in Mexico. Adult gut microbiota composition has been linked to obesity, but few studies have addressed the role of gut microbiota in childhood obesity. The aim of this study is to compare gut microbiota composition in obese and normal-weight children and to associate gut microbiota profiles with amino acid serum levels and obesity-related metabolic traits. Microbial taxa relative abundance was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing in 67 normal-weight and 71 obese children aged 6-12 years. Serum amino acid levels were measured by mass spectrometry. Associations between microbiota composition, metabolic parameters and amino acid serum levels were tested. No significant differences in phyla abundances or Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios were observed between normal-weight and obese children. However, Bacteroides eggerthii abundance was significantly higher in obese children and correlated positively with body fat percentage and negatively with insoluble fibre intake. Additionally, Bacteroides plebeius and unclassified Christensenellaceae abundances were significantly higher in normal-weight children. Abundance of both these species correlated negatively with phenylalanine serum levels, a metabolite also found to be associated with obesity in Mexican children. The study identified bacterial species associated with obesity, metabolic complications and amino acid serum levels in Mexican children. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content. Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. Materials and Methods: The study...

  18. External validation of equations to estimate resting energy expenditure in 14952 adults with overweight and obesity and 1948 adults with normal weight from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Bertoli, Simona; Leone, Alessandro; De Amicis, Ramona; Lucchetti, Elisa; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marazzi, Nicoletta; Battezzati, Alberto; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2017-11-24

    We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE. The highest CCF was 79%, 80%, 72%, 64%, and 63% in subjects with normal weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity, respectively. The Henry weight and height and Mifflin equations performed equally well with CCFs of 77% vs. 77% for subjects with normal weight, 80% vs. 80% for those with overweight, 72% vs. 72% for those with class 1 obesity, 64% vs. 63% for those with class 2 obesity, and 61% vs. 60% for those with class 3 obesity. The Sabounchi meta-regression equations offered an improvement over the above equations only for class 3 obesity (63%). The accuracy of REE equations decreases with increasing values of body mass index. The Henry weight & height and Mifflin equations are similarly accurate and the Sabounchi equations offer an improvement only in subjects with class 3 obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and safety of the trans-obturator TVT-Abbrevo device in normal weight compared to overweight patients affected by stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Napolitano, Valerio; Di Carlo, Costantino; Formisano, Carmen; Fabozzi, Annamaria; Nappi, Carmine

    2016-02-01

    To investigate if TVT-Abbrevo has similar outcomes in normal weight and overweight patients. Retrospective evaluation of 205 (105 normal weight women and 100 overweight women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) undergone TVT-Abbrevo positioning with 12 month follow-up. Primary outcomes were objective cure rate (defined as no leakage during CST) and subjective cure rate ("very much improved"/"much improved" at PGI-I), secondary outcomes were intra-operative and post-operative complications. Objective cure rates in the normal and overweight groups were 96.2% and 94%, respectively (p=.47). Subjective cure rates in the normal and overweight groups were 90.5% and 88%, respectively (p=.57). ICIQ-SF, I-QoL and PGI-S scores significantly improved in both groups with no differences between the two groups. No serious intra- or post-operative complications were observed. No differences were observed in pain VAS scores and number of analgesic vials administered. TVT-Abbrevo seems to have similar efficacy and safety in normal weight and overweight women. More studies are needed to assess the efficacy of this device in frankly obese women and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-11-01

    In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m - 2 ) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m - 2 ), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (Pincreased after food intake (Pobese than in normal-weight females. This difference was independent of food intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans.

  1. Comparison of energy expenditure, economy, and pedometer counts between normal weight and overweight or obese women during a walking and jogging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Heden, Timothy; Smith, John; Covington, N Kay

    2009-07-01

    This study compared energy expenditure (EE), economy of movement, and pedometer counts between normal weight and overweight or obese women during a treadmill walking and jogging activity. Participants were 13 normal weight (BMI 22.2 +/- 2.0 kg m(-2)) and 13 overweight or obese (BMI 27.2 +/- 2.1 kg m(-2)) women and all were non-smokers, not regularly active, and able to run 1.609 km continuously at 2.23 m s(-1). Each participant reported to the laboratory on three separate days within a 1-week period. During the first visit, tests for resting metabolic rate via indirect calorimetry, anthropometric measures, and VO(2)max were completed. On the subsequent two visits, participants were randomized to perform either a 1.609-km walk at 1.34 m s(-1) or a 1.609-km jog at 2.23 m s(-1). During each physical activity trial, all participants wore a pedometer to assess steps taken. EE during the 1.609-km walk was 280 +/- 29 kJ for the normal weight and 356 +/- 42 kJ for the overweight/obese women and during the 1.609-km jog was 393 +/- 46 kJ for the normal weight and 490 +/- 59 kJ for the overweight/obese women. In both trials, EE was statistically greater in the overweight/obese women. Economy of movement was not statistically different between the normal weight and overweight/obese women during the walk or jog. In both groups, pedometer counts were lower during the jog than the walk (P jogging activity.

  2. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight (N = 18) or obese (N = 16) based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated. A detailed food-diary was used to record their dietary intake in 9 days. Average dietary fiber intake in the normal-weight group was 2.73 +/− 0.65 g/MJ, while it was 2.15 +/− 0.64 g/MJ for the women in the obese group. In both groups, the overall food intake was underreported. In spite of a significantly lower dietary fiber intake in the obese group, the present population of women working within health care all showed an overall low dietary fiber intake and a general underreporting of food intake. These results indicate a clear need for dietary advice especially on fiber intake to increase general health and decrease weight. PMID:29259826

  3. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hadrévi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight (N=18 or obese (N=16 based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated. A detailed food-diary was used to record their dietary intake in 9 days. Average dietary fiber intake in the normal-weight group was 2.73 +/− 0.65 g/MJ, while it was 2.15 +/− 0.64 g/MJ for the women in the obese group. In both groups, the overall food intake was underreported. In spite of a significantly lower dietary fiber intake in the obese group, the present population of women working within health care all showed an overall low dietary fiber intake and a general underreporting of food intake. These results indicate a clear need for dietary advice especially on fiber intake to increase general health and decrease weight.

  4. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrévi, Jenny; Søgaard, Karen; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight ( N = 18) or obese ( N = 16) based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated. A detailed food-diary was used to record their dietary intake in 9 days. Average dietary fiber intake in the normal-weight group was 2.73 +/- 0.65 g/MJ, while it was 2.15 +/- 0.64 g/MJ for the women in the obese group. In both groups, the overall food intake was underreported. In spite of a significantly lower dietary fiber intake in the obese group, the present population of women working within health care all showed an overall low dietary fiber intake and a general underreporting of food intake. These results indicate a clear need for dietary advice especially on fiber intake to increase general health and decrease weight.

  5. Decomposing race and gender differences in underweight and obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive Function in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Older Adults: An Analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Jones, Richard N.; Milberg, William P.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Talbot, Laura; Morris, John N.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how elevated body mass index (BMI) affects cognitive function in elderly people. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial. PARTICIPANTS The analytic sample included 2,684 normal-weight, overweight, or obese subjects aged 65 to 94. MEASUREMENTS Evaluation of cognitive abilities was performed in several domains: global cognition, memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Cross-sectional association between body weight status and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS Overweight subjects had better performance on a reasoning task (β = 0.23, standard error (SE) = 0.11, P = .04) and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) measure (β = −39.46, SE = 12.95, P = .002), a test of visuospatial speed of processing, after controlling for age, sex, race, years of education, intervention group, study site, and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects with class I (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2) and class II (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) obesity had better UFOV measure scores (β = −38.98, SE = 14.77, P = .008; β = −35.75, SE = 17.65, and P = .04, respectively) in the multivariate model than normal-weight subjects. The relationships between BMI and individual cognitive domains were nonlinear. CONCLUSION Overweight participants had better cognitive performance in terms of reasoning and visuospatial speed of processing than normal-weight participants. Obesity was associated with better performance in visuospatial speed of processing than normal weight. The relationship between BMI and cognitive function should be studied prospectively. PMID:16420204

  7. Prévalence de la population de poids normal, métaboliquement obèse, chez l'adolescent [Prevalence of metabolically obese normal weight population in adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina GHEDADA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies have shown that a subgroup of individuals with normal weight have metabolic characteristics usually associated with obesity and would be also at increased risk of cardiovascular complications, as well as the obese individual. This syndrome is described as metabolically normal-weight obese (MONW syndrome. Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of MONW topics in a young population aged 16- 19 years. Population and Methods. Nine hundred adolescents (565 girls/335 boys, aged 16-19 years without history of diabetes or high blood pressure, enrolled in two schools of Bir Khadem city, were detected after informed parental consent. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC, and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels were determined. Criteria and Ruderman score were used to define MONW topics. Results. 37 patients (30 girls and 7 boys were MONW with a score ≥ 7. In these subjects, diabetes history seemed to be the predominant criteria for boys, and high waistline predominated in girls. Conclusion. MONW syndrome differs from the metabolic syndrome by the BMI criteria which is normal here. Concerning the pathophysiology and associated complications, they remain the same in the both cases.

  8. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive

  9. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.

  10. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    ) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained......is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......). The only association involving blood glucose was the multivariate IPD analysis showing an inverse association between blood glucose and El in ALL (P=0 center dot 032). Our results suggest that insulin, but not glucose, is associated with short-term appetite regulation in healthy participants...

  11. Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrévi, Jenny; Søgaard, Karen; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-f...

  12. Effects of endurance and high intensity training on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and arterial pressure in obese and normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Lam, Eddie T C; Shariat, Ardalan; Asle Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Afrasiabi, Saleh; Shaw, Ina; Shaw, Brandon S

    2016-09-01

    Obesity prevalence has increased in Iranian adolescents in recent years. However, few studies have examined the impact of intervention programs on this health issue. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8-week endurance training (ET) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) on intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) levels among obese and normal-weight male adolescents. Thirty obese and 30 normal-weight subjects were assigned to the ET, HIIT, or control group for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, body weight, BMI, VO2max, and blood pressures were measured. SPSS (Version 21) was used for data analysis, and the significance level was set at p HIIT (from 517 ± 72 ng/ml to 374 ± 50 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p HIIT (from 1689 ± 119 ng/ml to 1282 ± 63 ng/ml). Similarly, normal weight participants significantly (p HIIT (from 289 ± 22 ng/ml to 202 ± 12 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p HIIT (from 895 ± 50 ng/ml to 673 ± 142 ng/ml). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressures of all the participants were significantly (p HIIT. While both the ET and HIIT were useful in lowering the SBP and DBP of the participants, HIIT was more effective than ET in reducing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 content in normal and obese adolescents.

  13. Diffusional anisotropy of the human brain assessed with diffusion-weighted MR: Relation with normal brain development and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kan; Tagami, Tomoyasu; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi (Mie Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    To analyze diffusional anisotropy in frontal and occipital white matter of human brain quantitatively as a function of age by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Ten neonates (<1 month), 13 infants (1-10 months), 9 children (1-11 years), and 16 adults (20-79 years) were examined. After taking axial spin-echo images of the brain, diffusion-sensitive gradients were added parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nerve fibers. The apparent diffusion coefficient parallel to the nerve fibers (0) and that perpendicular to the fibers (90) were computed. The anisotropic ratio (90/0) was calculated as a function of age. Anisotropic ratios of frontal white matter were significantly larger in neonates as compared with infants, children, or adults. The ratios showed rapid decrease until 6 months and thereafter were identical in all subjects. In the occipital lobe, the ratios were also greater in neonates, but the differences from other age groups were not so prominent as in the frontal lobe. Comparing anisotropic ratios between frontal and occipital lobes, a significant difference was observed only in neonates. Diffusion-weighted images demonstrated that the myelination process starts earlier in the occipital lobe than in the frontal lobe. The changes of diffusional anisotropy in white matter are completed within 6 months after birth. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides earlier detection of brain myelination compared with the conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Chronic Allopurinol Treatment during the Last Trimester of Pregnancy in Sows: Effects on Low and Normal Birth Weight Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, E.T.; Antonides, A.; Fink-Gremmels, J.; Haar, ter K.; Kuller, W.I.; Meijer, E.; Nordquist, R.E.; Stouten, J.M.; Zeinstra, E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are born with several risk factors for disease, morbidity and neonatal mortality, even if carried to term. Placental insufficiency leading to hypoxemia and reduced nutritional supply is the main cause for LBW. Brain damage and poor neurological outcome can be the

  15. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Poggi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA. In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298. Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059, but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg, even though not significantly different (p = 0.18. No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling. From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity. Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI): 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02), although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  17. Comparative measurement of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, EGF and IGF-1 in breast milk of mothers with overweight/obese and normal-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Rooki, H; Vakili, R; Hashemy, S-I; Mirhafez, S R; Shakeri, M-T; Kashanifar, R; Pourbafarani, R; Mirzaei, H; Dahri, M; Mazidi, M; Ferns, G; Safarian, M

    2015-05-01

    Obese infants are more susceptible to develop adulthood obesity and its related comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the presence of hormones and growth factors in maternal breast milk that may influence infant adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of three hormones and two growth factors in the breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants. In this cross-sectional study, 40 mothers with overweight or obese infants (weight for length percentile >97) and 40 age-matched mothers with normal-weight infant (-10 milk concentrations of ghrelin and adiponectin, leptin, epithelial growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The mean breast milk concentration of ghrelin was higher in mothers with normal-weight infants, 137.50 pg/ml, than in mothers with obese infants, 132.00 pg/ml (P=0.001). This was also true regarding the concentration of EGF in mothers with (0/04 ng/ml) and without (0/038 ng/ml) normal-weight infants (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 between two groups (P > 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between EGF and ghrelin in both groups. This study revealed that there was a correlation between ghrelin and EGF level in breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of these two hormones on weight in infants.

  18. Relationship between elevated triglyceride levels with the increase of HOMA-IR and HOMA-β in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodriguez-Morán, Martha; Aradillas-García, Celia; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with the increase of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, we conducted a cross-sectional population study. Based on fasting triglyceride levels, participants were allocated into groups with and without triglyceride levels ≥1.2 mmol/L. Normal weight was defined by body mass index between the 15th and 85th percentiles, for age and gender. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices. A total of 1660 children and adolescents were enrolled, of them 327 (19.7%) with mildly elevated triglycerides. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that mildly elevated triglyceride levels in children were associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.214, p HOMA-β (β = 0.139, p = 0.001), systolic (β = 0.094, p = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.102, p = 0.007), whereas in adolescents, HOMA-IR (β = 0.267, p HOMA-β (β = 0.154, p HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy can detect differences in vascular responsiveness to a hyperglycaemic challenge in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Alenezi, Zaid; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether the near-infrared spectroscopy combined with vascular occlusion test technique could detect differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity. A total of 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index, 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index, 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) were submitted to five vascular occlusion tests (Pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose challenge). Vascular responsiveness was determined by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test. The Slope 2 StO 2 increased from 1.07 ± 0.16%/s (Pre) to 1.53 ± 0.21%/s at 90 min ( p obese it increased from 0.71 ± 0.09%/s (Pre) to 0.92 ± 0.14%/s at 60 min ( p obesity. Near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test technique was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity.

  20. Using Image Gradients to Improve Robustness of Digital Image Correlation to Non-uniform Illumination: Effects of Weighting and Normalization Choices

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jiangping

    2015-03-05

    Changes in the light condition affect the solution of intensity-based digital image correlation algorithms. One natural way to decrease the influence of illumination is to consider the gradients of the image rather than the image itself when building the objective function. In this work, a weighted normalized gradient-based algorithm, is proposed. This algorithm optimizes the sum-of-squared difference between the weighted normalized gradients of the reference and deformed images. Due to the lower sensitivity of the gradient to the illumination variation, this algorithm is more robust and accurate than the intensity-based algorithm in case of illumination variations. Yet, it comes with a higher sensitivity to noise that can be mitigated by designing the relevant weighting and normalization of the image gradient. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm gives better results in case of linear/non-linear space-based and non-linear gray value-based illumination variation. The proposed algorithm still performs better than the intensity-based algorithm in case of illumination variations and noisy data provided the images are pre-smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter in numerical and experimental examples.

  1. Young teenagers' perceptions of their own and others' bodies: a qualitative study of obese, overweight and 'normal' weight young people in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Gregory, Susan; Lawton, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The rise in numbers of overweight/obese children in the UK is causing widespread concern. Biomedical constructions of body acceptability and 'good health' mean that overweight/obese young people are frequently seen as deviant. The socio-cultural contexts within which young teenagers become fat, and lay conceptualisations of fatness, have largely been ignored. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with teenagers aged 13-14 years (n = 36), drawn from families living in areas classified as socio-economically disadvantaged. Half of the sample had a Body Mass Index (BMI) classifying them as overweight or obese, whilst the remainder were classified as being 'normal' weight. Participants' embodied perceptions of fatness were complex and sometimes contradictory. We discuss what young teenagers perceive the influences on fatness and body size to be; the professed consequences of being fat; participants' experiences of attempting to lose weight; and, their reported interactions with friends and family relating to fatness and dieting. Participants rarely mentioned any health-related consequences of their own and others' fatness, although wearing 'nice' clothes and being slowed down were raised as considerations by girls and boys, respectively. 'Normal' weight teenagers who disliked their bodies or who wanted to lose weight often claimed to be anxious about this. Being very obese also led to anxiety and reported attempts at 'crash dieting'. Acceptance of body size/shape was, however, common amongst the overweight and obese teenagers, although some had attempted weight loss. The teenagers in this study were rarely supportive of friends or family who attempted to lose weight and frequently disagreed with others' perceptions of fatness. These findings are important as they contradict the common perception that being overweight/obese is related to body dissatisfaction and that young people have a fear of fatness.

  2. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of Anthropometric Measures with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Normal-Weight Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Qorbani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This nationwide study was conducted to determine the association of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Iranian normal-weight children and adolescents. Methods: We analyzed the data of 3,565 children and adolescents (50.3% boys, aged 10-18 years, with a normal BMI (5th-84th percentile obtained from the third survey of ‘Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Disease' (CASPIAN III study. The diagnostic criteria for MetS were defined by the International Diabetes Federation consensus. Results: The prevalence of MetS for 10- to 13.9-year-old boys, 14- to 18-year-old boys, 10- to 13.9-year-old girls, and 14- to 18-year-old girls were 1.4, 2.8, 2.3, and 3.3%, respectively. After adjustment for age and sex, each unit increase in BMI (within normal range and waist circumference increased the odds of MetS from 6 to 72% and from 1 to 20%, respectively. The dominant pattern of dyslipidemia among the participants was high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: This study complements recent research about the high frequency of metabolic risk factors among normal-weight individuals in the pediatric age group.

  4. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    that the gastric emptying rate and blood glucose would be lower in IUGR piglets. We investigated gastric emptying rates in normal and IUGR piglets and blood glucose and rectal temperatures at birth and after 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. In addition, blood parameters relevant for metabolism were studied. Forty...... for poor immunization and glucose absorption in IUGR piglets. It is estimated that IUGR piglets consume less colostrum per kilogram BW than normal-weight piglets within the first 24 h, which could be due to a slower gastric emptying rate and a compromised energy metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized...... normal and IUGR piglets were similar, but gastric DM residuals tended to be greater in IUGR piglets. Differences were observed in blood values and rectal temperatures, with lower values in IUGR piglets. Therefore, it is likely that factors like hypothermia and possibly reduced metabolic function are more...

  5. Maternal perceptions of their child's weight status: the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Kondaki, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Vasilopoulou, Emilia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to quantify mothers' misclassification of pre-school children's weight status and to determine factors associated with the maternal misperception. A representative sample of 2287 children aged 2-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). Mothers' perceptions of their child's weight status and the children's and mothers' anthropometric and other characteristics (sociodemographic and lifestyle) were recorded. Almost 38 % of mothers underestimated their child's weight status. The frequency of underestimation was much higher among 'at risk of being overweight' and 'overweight' children (88.3 % and 54.5 %, respectively) compared with 'underweight/normal-weight' children (18.0 %, P mothers' underestimation of their child's weight status was significantly higher in boys, in children engaging in physical activity for less than 3 h/week and in children whose mothers had low education status, compared with their counterparts. Moreover, the higher the BMI-for-age Z-score, the greater the odds that the mother would underestimate her child's weight status. The current study demonstrated that more than one-third of mothers misclassify their children's weight status as being lower than the actual. Given that mother's weight perception might be an important determinant of child's body weight development, clinicians and health professionals should help mothers correctly classify their children's weight status, which could potentially help in the early prevention of overweight and obesity.

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Bezrati, Ikram; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11) and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23) in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82), VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41), FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52), SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70) and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64) significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16). Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96), LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77) and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08) significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normal-weight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  7. Is obesity becoming the new normal? Age, gender and racial/ethnic differences in parental misperception of obesity as being 'About the Right Weight'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarog, J P; Politis, M D; Woods, E L; Daniel, L M; Sonneville, K R

    2016-07-01

    Younger children, non-Hispanic Black and male children who are overweight (body mass index (BMI) ⩾85th percentile) are at greater risk for being misperceived by their parents as having a healthy or normal weight, but less is known about the risk for weight misperception in the subpopulation of children with obesity (BMI⩾95th percentile). We assessed the gender, age and racial/ethnic differences in parental misperception of healthy or normal weight status in children with obesity. We analyzed the data of 1445 children and adolescents aged 6-15 years with obesity obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2005 to 2012. Parental perception of the child's weight was obtained during an in-home interview. Anthropometric data on body weight were collected from the children during their physical and used to calculate gender and age-specific BMI percentiles. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios for parental misperception of their child's obesity as being 'about the right weight', using parents who perceived their children with obesity as being 'overweight' for reference. Boys aged 6-15 years with obesity were more likely to be misperceived as being 'about the right weight' by their parents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.40 (1.12-1.76) vs girls, P=0.0038). The subpopulations of children with obesity who were significantly less likely to be misperceived included girls aged 11-15 years (aOR: 0.46 (0.29-0.74) vs girls 6-10 years, P=0.0016) and Hispanic males (aOR: 0.58 (0.36-0.93) vs White males, P=0.02). Significant age differences in the odds for parental misclassification of obesity as 'about the right weight' were detected in female children, but not males. Hispanic males with obesity were significantly less likely to be misperceived as being 'about the right weight' when compared with their non-Hispanic White peers.

  8. Afkapwaarden van de 'body-mass index' (BMI) voor ondergewicht van Nederlandse kinderen [Body-mass index cut-off values for underweight in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the cut-off values for the body-mass index (BMI) for underweight and serious underweight in children up to 18 years of age based on the Dutch growth standards of 1980, and to determine the prevalence of underweight and serious underweight in the 1997 Dutch growth-study

  9. Variations in estimates of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity in children from Argentina comparing three growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Gisel; Seoane, Analía I; Salceda, Susana A

    2012-11-01

    To compare estimates of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity based on three growth charts. Cross-sectional study to estimate weight-for-age, length/height-for-age and weight-for-height comparing the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards ('the WHO standards'), the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) international growth reference ('the NCHS reference') and the 1987 Argentine Pediatric Society Committee of Growth and Development reference ('the APS reference'). Cut-off points were defined as mean values ±2 s d. Epi-Info software version 6·0 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was used for statistical evaluations (χ 2, P ≤ 0·05). Greater La Plata conurbation, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A total of 2644 healthy, full-term children from 0 to 5 years of age. Prevalence of underweight was higher with the WHO standards than with the other references up to the first 6 months. For the rest of the ages, prevalence was lower with the WHO standards. Stunting prevalence was higher with the WHO standards at all ages. Prevalence of wasting was higher with the WHO standards compared with the NCHS reference up to the first 6 months and lower at 2-5 years of age. Overweight and obesity prevalences were higher with the WHO standards at all ages. The new WHO standards appear to be a solid and reliable tool for diagnosis and treatment of nutritional diseases, also being the only one built with infants fed according to WHO recommendations. Therefore, our results support the decision of the National Ministry of Health about the utilization of the new WHO standards to monitor the nutritional status of Argentinean children aged less than 5 years.

  10. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle N; Howell, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. PMID:27422504

  12. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.

  13. The Substitutability of Cigarettes and Food: A Behavioral Economic Comparison in Normal Weight and Overweight or Obese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M.; Owens, Max M.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; MacKillop, James

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and cigarette smoking contribute to a multitude of preventable deaths in the US and eating and smoking behavior may influence each other. The field of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics and permits systematic examination of how commodities interrelate with one another. Using this framework, the current study evaluated the effects of rising food and cigarette prices on consumption to investigate their substitutability and their relationship to BMI and associated variables. Behavioral economics categorizes commodities as substitutable when the consumption of one increases as a function of a price increase in the other. Smokers (N = 86) completed a two-part hypothetical task in which money was allocated to purchase cigarettes and fast food-style reinforcers (e.g., hamburgers, ice cream) at various prices. Results indicated that food and cigarettes were not substitutes for one another (cross-price elasticity coefficients > .20). Food purchases were independent of cigarette price, whereas cigarette purchases decreased as food price rose. Cross-price elasticity coefficients were significantly associated with confidence in one’s ability to control weight without smoking (rs = −.23 and .29), but not BMI (rs = .04 and .04) or post-cessation weight concerns (rs = −.05 and .12). Perceived ability to manage weight without cigarettes may influence who substitutes food for cigarettes when quitting. In addition, given observed decreases in purchases of both commodities as food prices increased, these findings imply that greater taxation of fast food-style reinforcers could potentially reduce consumption of these foods and also cigarettes among smokers. PMID:27736143

  14. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS: Mean.......0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR-proANP concentrations...

  15. One-fourth of the prisoners are underweight in Northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Semaw Ferede; Adane, Kelemework

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site. The outcome of this study was underweight defined as body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5 kg/m 2 . Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of underweight at a p-value of less than 0.05. The prevalence of underweight was 25.2% (95% CI; 22.3%- 28.3%). Khat Chewing (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.70) and longer duration of incarceration (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14) were associated with a significantly increased risk of underweight. Additionally, previous incarceration (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.42) was a relevant determinant of underweight with a borderline significance. In contrast, family support (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.43, 0.85) and farmer occupation (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.98) compared to those who were unemployed were important protective determinants significantly associated with lower risk of underweight. In summary, the burden of underweight was higher among prisoners in Tigray region who had respiratory tract infections. The study has enhanced our understanding of the determinants of underweight in the prison population. We strongly recommend that nutritional support, such as therapeutic feeding programs for severely or moderately underweight prisoners, and environmental health interventions of the prison setups should be urgently implemented to correct the uncovered nutritional problem and its associated factors for improving the health status of prisoners.

  16. Weight-based discrimination: an ubiquitary phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, C; Spahlholz, J; Hartlev, M; Riedel-Heller, S G

    2016-02-01

    Despite strong indications of a high prevalence of weight-related stigmatization in individuals with obesity, limited attention has been given to the role of weight discrimination in examining the stigma obesity. Studies, up to date, rely on a limited basis of data sets and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings of previous studies. In particular, data for Europe are lacking, and are needed in light of a recent ruling of the European Court of Justice that addressed weight-based discrimination. The data were derived from a large representative telephone survey in Germany (n=3003). The dependent variable, weight-based discrimination, was assessed with a one-item question. The lifetime prevalence of weight discrimination across different sociodemographic variables was determined. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of independent and dependent variables. A sub-group analysis was conducted analyzing all participants with a body mass index ⩾25 kg m(-)(2). The overall prevalence of weight-based discrimination was 7.3%. Large differences, however, were observed regarding weight status. In normal weight and overweight participants the prevalence was 5.6%, but this number doubled in participants with obesity class I (10.2%), and quadrupled in participants with obesity class II (18.7%) and underweight (19.7%). In participants with obesity class III, every third participant reported accounts of weight-based discrimination (38%). In regression models, after adjustment, the associations of weight status and female gender (odds ratio: 2.59, PDiscrimination seems to be an ubiquitary phenomenon at least for some groups that are at special risk, such as heavier individuals and women. Our findings therefore emphasize the need for research and intervention on weight discrimination among adults with obesity, including anti-discrimination legislation.

  17. High prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia: a nationwide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Takuro; Suzuki, Yutaro; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Ozeki, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Minami, Yoshitake; Okamoto, Kurefu; Sagae, Toyoaki; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity, and laboratory data for nutritional status in Japanese outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A questionnaire conducted in inpatient and outpatient facilities in Japan. Participants The population of adult patients with schizophrenia in Japan (N=23 116). Main outcome measures The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia. Results We conducted a large-scale investigation of the prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association between January 2012 and July 2013. There were 7655 outpatients and 15 461 inpatients with schizophrenia. There was a significant difference in the distribution of three body mass index levels between outpatients and inpatients (punderweight inpatients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that among outpatients (punderweight individuals aged ≥40 years was higher in inpatients than in outpatients and in the general Japanese population. The proportion of individuals with hypocholesterolaemia was significantly higher in inpatients with schizophrenia than in outpatients (punderweight between outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia; the proportion of severe underweight in inpatients was twofold higher than in outpatients. Conclusions The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia was higher than in outpatients and the general population. Therefore, the physical risk of inpatients should be carefully considered in clinical practice. PMID:26656016

  18. Nonsuppressing normal thymus on chemical-shift MR imaging and anterior mediastinal lymphoma: differentiation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging by using the apparent diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Priola, Sandro Massimo; Gned, Dario; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Veltri, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    To prospectively evaluate usefulness of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating anterior mediastinal lymphoma from nonsuppressing normal thymus on chemical-shift MR, and to look at the relationship between patient age and ADC. Seventy-three young subjects (25 men, 48 women; age range, 9-29 years), who underwent chemical-shift MR and diffusion-weighted MR were divided into a normal thymus group (group A, 40 subjects), and a lymphoma group (group B, 33 patients). For group A, all subjects had normal thymus with no suppression on opposed-phase chemical-shift MR. Two readers measured the signal intensity index (SII) and ADC. Differences in SII and ADC between groups were tested using t-test. ADC was correlated with age using Pearson correlation coefficient. Mean SII±standard deviation was 2.7±1.8% for group A and 2.2±2.4% for group B, with no significant difference between groups (P=.270). Mean ADC was 2.48±0.38x10 -3 mm 2 /s for group A and 1.24±0.23x10 -3 mm 2 /s for group B. A significant difference between groups was found (Pnormal thymus at visual assessment • ADC is useful for distinguishing nonsuppressing normal thymus from mediastinal lymphoma • ADC is more accurate than transverse-diameter and surface-area in this discrimination • ADC of normal thymus is age dependent and increases with increasing age.

  19. APOE genotype associates with food consumption and body composition to predict dyslipidaemia in Brazilian adults with normal-weight obesity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lana Pacheco; Gonçalves Zardini Silveira, Amanda; Sobral de Assis Vasconcelos Lima, Rochelle; Horst, Maria Aderuza; Cominetti, Cristiane

    2017-07-11

    Normal-Weight Obesity Syndrome has been characterized by a normal body mass index and high percentage of body fat. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. This study aimed to evaluate whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and food consumption are related to the lipid profiles of adults with Normal-Weight Obesity Syndrome. Analytical cross-sectional study, including adults with Normal-Weight Obesity Syndrome. Socioeconomic, health and lifestyle questionnaires were administered. Anthropometric variables, body composition and blood pressure were evaluated. Dietary intake, lipid profile and genotyping of polymorphisms rs7412 and rs429358 in the APOE gene were evaluated. Only 6.0% of women and none of the men had increased waist circumference (≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men). No women and 6.2% of men had altered blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg). When the traditional lipid profile was assessed, 52.5% of individuals presented dyslipidaemia. When the levels of apolipoproteins A1 and B were included, the prevalence was 73.0%. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the presence of allele ε2 and apolipoprotein A1 levels (95% CI = 4.2 to 38.3; p = 0.015) and between the ε4 allele and apolipoprotein B (ε4 versus ε2: 95% CI = 0.08 to 29.5; p = 0.049 and ε4 versus ε3: 95% CI = 0.6 to 17.6; p = 0.036). Carriers of the ε2 allele had a 75.0% lower probability of presenting dyslipidaemia compared with ε3ε3 individuals (95% CI = 0.04 to 0.8; p = 0.027). Relationships between body fat, food consumption and lipid profile were observed and differed among genotypes. APOE genotype and food consumption were associated with lipid profile. This was the first study to evaluate the APOE genotype and to analyze relationships between genetic profile, food intake and lipid profile of subjects with Normal-Weight Obesity Syndrome

  20. Overweight, obesity and underweight in nurses in Vhembe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... Olukoga A, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, University of Venda, Thohoyandou. Lebese R, PhD, Senior Lecturer; ... Overweight and obesity are serious public health problem worldwide. Several studies that .... Zapka JM, Lemon SC, Magner RP, et al. Lifestyle behaviours and weight ...

  1. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... adults and children.1 Internationally, secular trends of body mass index (BMI) in children in developed ... For this reason, international trends in childhood weight should be closely monitored, and early ..... in adolescent boys) in our study is in keeping with many studies in other low- and middle-income ...

  2. Modified High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Abdominally Obese and Normal-Weight Rats Developed High Plasma Free Fatty Acid and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  3. Modified high-sucrose diet-induced abdominally obese and normal-weight rats developed high plasma free fatty acid and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  4. Función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen en sujetos normales Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. Monteiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de las cargas en el abdomen con el objeto de producir entrenamiento del diafragma, no han sido suficientemente evaluados. Estudiamos la función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen y con cambios en el patrón respiratorio. Se estudiaron 6 voluntarios normales. Se obtuvo flujo en la boca, presión gástrica (Pga, presión esofágica (Pes, movimiento torácico (TX y abdominal (AB, presión inspiratoria máxima (PImax y presión transdiafragmática media (Pdi y máxima (Pdimax. Se calculó la relación Pdi/Pdimax y el índice tensión-tiempo del diafragma (TTdi. Etapas: patrón normal (PN, patrón abdominal (PA y carga de 1, 2, 4 y 6 kg con PN y PA. El PA fue facilitado por las cargas sobre el abdomen. Solo con 6 kg (PN y PA la Pga a capacidad residual funcional aumentó significativamente (p 0.001. La Pdi siguió a las variaciones de la Pga y aumentó con todos los PA (p The effects of the abdominal weight with the intention of producing training of the diaphragm, have not been sufficiently evaluated. We studied the function of the diaphragm during the abdominal weight training and during associated changes in the respiratory pattern. Six normal volunteers were studied. Flow at the mouth at functional residual capacity (FRC was obtained as well as gastric pressure (Pga, esophageal pressure (Pes, thoracic and abdominal movements, maximal inspiratory pressure and mean and maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi and Pdi max. Pdi/Pdimax and the diaphragm tension-time index (TTdi were calculated. Studied steps: normal pattern (NP, abdominal pattern (AP and weight of 1, 2, 4 and 6 kg with NP and AP as well. We found 1 The AP was facilitated by the abdominal weight, 2 Only with 6 kg (NP and AP the Pga at FRC increased significantly (p 0.001, 3 the Pdi followed the variations of the Pga and increased with all the AP (p < 0.001, 4 The index TTdi load reached a value of 0.05 ± 0.02 (p < 0.001. The charges did not

  5. Activity and Weight Misperception among Overweight and Obese US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Rosenda; Ali, Sasha A; Carmack, Chakema; Doss, Darleesa

    2016-01-01

    Engaging in some exercise is associated with weight misperception (ie, overweight and obese participants self-reporting being normal weight or underweight) among adults. Less is known about associations between various types of activity with weight misperception. We examined associations between activity (moderate-vigorous leisure-time, work- and transportation-related physical activity, and sedentary activity) and weight misperception. We used cross-sectional data from 7992 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 participants aged 20+ years with a ≥ 25 body mass index. Logistic regression models were used to estimate activity-weight misperception associations. Individuals who performed some activity, versus none, were less likely to misperceive their weight (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.78; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.66, 0.93). Those who engaged in high levels of transportation activity were more likely to misperceive their weight (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.54). Individuals who engaged in medium and high levels of sedentary activity, versus low, were less likely to misperceive their weight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.75 and OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.61, respectively). Associations varied by sex. Variation in associations of various types of activity with weight misperception should be considered when developing health promotion programs.

  6. Moderate calorie restriction to achieve normal weight reverses β-cell dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice: involvement of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiuying; Yan, Dien; Zhao, Yinan; Tao, Hong; Zhou, Yingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Severe calorie restriction (CR) is shown to improve or even reverse β-cell dysfunction in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, whether mild to moderate CR can reverse β-cell dysfunction induced by obesity and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Autophagy plays an important role in maintaining mass, architecture and function of β-cells. While the impact of CR on β-cell autophagy is unknown. This study aims to investigate the effects of moderate CR on β-cell function and autophagy activity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DIO C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 3 weeks of switching to normal chow (HF → NC group) or normal chow with 40 % CR (HF → NC CR group). Then hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to observe β-cell morphology. β-cell function was evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in vivo and static GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion) in isolated islets. β-cell autophagy activity was determined by transmission electron microscope and western blot. In the HF → NC CR group, CR normalized body weights, completely restored glucose tolerance, early-phase and second-phase insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and islet size. CR also normalized insulin content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets in vitro. Furthermore, β-cell autophagy level was increased in the HF → NC CR group, but AMPK phosphorylation remained unchanged. Although HF → NC mice achieved moderate weight loss and normal glucose tolerance, their insulin secretion was not improved compared with obese control mice, and additionally, β-cell autophagy was not activated in these mice. Moderate (40 %) CR to achieve normal weight reversed β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance, and restored glucose homeostasis in DIO mice. Furthermore, the up-regulation of β-cell autophagy may play a role in this process, independent of AMPK activation.

  7. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  8. Body Image Perception and Attempts to Change Weight among Female Medical Students at Mangalore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D; Prasanna, K S; Sucharitha, S; Vaz, Nafisa C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people’s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17%) were undernourished while 111(75.5%) and 11(7.5%) were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8%) of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6%) felt they were normal and 17(11.6%) felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7%) of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 %) wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6%) of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight. PMID:20922115

  9. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW, normal weight (NW, and overweight or obese (OWOB children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2010 (n=1,125. Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  10. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in normal birth weight and intrauterine growth-retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weipeng; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Ying, Zhixiong; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d. Thereafter, a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design was used. Each treatment consisted of eight replications with one piglet per replication. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a decreased ( P supplementation increased ( P supplemented diet exhibited increases ( P supplementation may exert beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in NBW and IUGR weanling piglets.

  11. Muscle inflammatory signaling in response to 9 days of physical inactivity in young men with low compared to normal birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Mortensen, Brynjulf

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The molecular mechanisms linking physical inactivity and muscle insulin resistance in humans has been suggested to include increased muscle inflammation, possibly associated with impaired oxidative metabolism. We employed a human bed rest study including 20 young males with normal birth...... weight (NBW) and 20 with low birth weight (LBW) and increased risk of diabetes. METHODOLOGY: The subjects were studied before and after 9 days bed rest using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and muscle biopsy excision. Muscle inflammatory status was assessed as nuclear factor-¿B (NF-¿B) activity...... and LBW individuals. After bed rest, CD68 expression was increased in LBW (P=0.03) but not NBW individuals. Furthermore, expression levels of all OXPHOS genes were reduced after bed rest in LBW (P=0.05) but not in NBW subjects and were negatively correlated with CD68 expression in LBW subjects (P=0...

  12. Prevalence and association of female weight status and dietary habits with sociodemographic factors: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Atika; Westergren, Albert; Berggren, Vanja; Ekblom, Örjan; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2015-04-01

    Research about the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity in the Saudi Arabian female population is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the dietary habits and the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity and associated factors among female university students. A cross-sectional study. A university centre for female students in south-western Saudi Arabia. The study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who self-reported their physical activities, nutritional habits and socio-economic factors. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the students' BMI, dietary variables, underweight and overweight/obesity. The majority of the university females were normal weight (56.9%), but a high prevalence of underweight (19.2%) and overweight/obesity (23.8%) occurred. Social factors significantly associated with BMI were the presence of obese parents and siblings as well as physical activity levels, marital status, number of sisters, father's level of education and more frequent intake of French fries/potato chips (>3 times/week). Several variables were found to correlate with dietary habits, underweight and overweight/obesity. Of special interest is the association between the number of siblings and the participants' BMI and dietary intake in both negative and positive ways. The findings of this research have implications for health promotion and prevention of malnutrition among college-aged females. Health-care providers and policy makers need to involve the whole family when promoting females' physical activity. The study serves as an evidence-based background for planning and implementation of interventions targeting improvement of highly educated populations' nutritional habits.

  13. The association of dietary quality with colorectal cancer among normal weight, overweight and obese men and women: a prospective longitudinal study in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Waring, Molly E; Cutrona, Sarah L; Kiefe, Catarina I; Allison, Jeroan; Doubeni, Chyke A

    2017-07-05

    Lower body mass index (BMI) and higher dietary quality reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). A full understanding of how these associations vary by sex and weight is lacking. We used data from the National Institutes of Health - American Association of Retired Persons (NIH)-AARP) Diet and Health Study for 398 458 persons who were 50-71 years old in 1995-1996 and followed through 2006. Exposures were dietary quality as reflected by the Mediterranean Diet, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, stratified by BMI category. The outcome was CRC diagnosis from cancer registry data. Cox regression models were adjusted for disease risk factors. Over a mean duration of 123 months of follow-up, there were 6515 new diagnoses of CRC (1953 among the normal weight, 2924 among the overweight and 1638 among the obese; 4483 among men and 2032 among women). For normal weight and overweight men, we found a strong dose-response pattern for the association of increasing quintile of dietary quality with decreasing risk of CRC; this pattern was observed for obese men as well, but less consistently across the three measures of dietary quality. The findings were of smaller magnitude and less consistent for women but still suggesting associations of similar direction. We observed that increased dietary quality was associated with lower risk of incident CRC up to 10 years later for men regardless of baseline weight category. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Health Related Behaviours in Normal Weight and Overweight Preschoolers of a Large Pan-European Sample: The ToyBox-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greet Cardon

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of health related behaviours (HRB with Body Mass Index (BMI in preschoolers, and to study the likelihood of being overweight/obese in relation to compliance with recommended HRB. The sample consisted of 3301 normal weight and overweight/obese preschoolers (mean age: 4.7 years; 52% boys, 85% normal weight from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain. Height and weight were measured, total daily step counts were registered during six days, and HRB were assessed with validated parental surveys in 2012. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Only few HRB were significantly associated with BMI. In boys, higher water intake and higher soft drink and higher fruit consumption were significantly associated with higher BMI. Boys drinking less water than recommended were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60, while boys who consume soft drinks were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 1.52. In girls, higher water intake, higher vegetable consumption, and more TV time on weekend days were significantly associated with higher BMI. Girls eating less vegetables than recommended were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.62, and girls who engaged in quiet play for more than 90 minutes on weekend days were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 1.64. In general, the associations between HRB and BMI or being overweight/obese were limited and mainly related to dietary intake. Awareness campaigns for caregivers should stress that HRB of young children are important and independent of children's weight status.

  15. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schi?th, H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese...

  16. Apparent diffusion coefficient of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue in diffusion-weighted imaging: the effects of menstrual cycle and menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin You; Suh, Hie Bum; Kang, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jong Ki; Choo, Ki Seok; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seok Won; Jung, Young Lae; Bae, Young Tae

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospectively whether the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of both breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue vary with the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. Fifty-seven women (29 premenopausal, 28 postmenopausal) with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent diffusion-weighted imaging twice (interval 12-20 days) before surgery. Two radiologists independently measured ADC of breast cancer and normal contralateral breast tissue, and we quantified the differences according to the phases of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. With normal fibroglandular tissue, ADC was significantly lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P = 0.035). In premenopausal women, ADC did not differ significantly between proliferative and secretory phases in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.969 and P = 0.519, respectively). In postmenopausal women, no significant differences were found between ADCs measured at different time intervals in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.948 and P = 0.961, respectively). The within-subject variability of the ADC measurements was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and was small: the mean CVs of tumor ADC were 2.90 % (premenopausal) and 3.43 % (postmenopausal), and those of fibroglandular tissue ADC were 4.37 % (premenopausal) and 2.55 % (postmenopausal). Both intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for ADC measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients in the range of 0.834-0.974. In conclusion, the measured ADCs of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue were not affected significantly by menstrual cycle, and the measurements were highly reproducible both within and between observers.

  17. Relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha genotypes with various biochemical parameters of normal, over weight and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.; Chaudhary, B.; Shakoori, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes and elevated levels of this cytokine have been associated with obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism were associated with insulin resistance or obesity related traits in non-diabetic and diabetic patients visiting Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Fatima Hospital and Irfan Clinic in Sargodha. In non diabetic subjects the AA allele carriers, compared with homozygous G allele carriers had significantly lower (28%) triglyceride values and 15% higher HDL yal ues, whereas other parameters tested 81id not show any significant variation. In diabetic patients the AA allele carriers, compared with GG allele carriers, besides having 31 % higher FBS and 26% higher creatinine, had 20% higher cholesterol and 34% higher triglycerides. The HDL values were 14% less, compared to GG allele carriers. In normal subjects (BMI 22.85:1:0.25 kgim2), the AA allele carriers showed 132%, 125%, 65% and 112% higher triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL values compared with GG allele carriers. The HDL and creatinine did not show any significant change. In the overweight subjects (BMI: 27.17+-0.17 kgim/sup 2/) all these values were lower than in AA allele carriers compared with GG allele carriers. The AA allele carries had FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL 28%, 48%, 14% and 14% lower than in the GG allele' carriers, respectively. In obese subjects, (BMI: 36.73+-0.78kgm/sup 2/), however, the FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine values were 5%, 8%, 7% and 14% higher in AA allele carries compared to GG allele carriers, respectively. The LDL content was 8% lower in AA allele carrier as compared with the respective GG allele carriers, It is concluded that replacement of G at -308 with A leads to reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subject, whereas in diabetic patients this mutation-increases the risk of CVD. Using BMI as index of obesity, it was

  18. The association of breakfast skipping and television viewing at breakfast with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries; the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Vik, Frøydis N; Brug, Johannes; Manios, Yannis; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling

    2014-04-01

    The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries. A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing at breakfast by three frequency questions and parents were categorized into: (i) breakfast skippers; (ii) breakfast with TV (TV watchers at breakfast); and (iii) breakfast without TV (breakfast eaters who do not watch TV during breakfast). Self-reported weight and height were used to categorize weight status as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with weight status as the dependent variable and breakfast habits as predictors, adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education. The survey was conducted in 2010 in 199 primary schools across eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study. Parents (n 6512) of 10-12-year-olds responded to the questionnaire. In the total study sample, with breakfast without TV as the reference group and adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education, the OR of being respectively overweight or obese (compared with normal weight) was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0, 1.4) or 1.8 (95% CI 1.5, 2.3) for breakfast skippers. The OR of being respectively underweight or obese was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2, 0.9) or 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.8) for breakfast with TV. Breakfast skippers were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese, and those eating breakfast while watching TV were significantly more likely to be obese and less likely to be underweight.

  19. Total and carboxylated osteocalcin associate with insulin levels in young adults born with normal or very low birth weight.

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    Päivi M Paldánius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteocalcin (OC, a bone-derived protein, has been implicated in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism. Young adults born with very low birth weight (VLBW have altered glucose regulation and lower bone mineral density (BMD compared with those born at term. The aim of this study was to explore the association between bone and glucose metabolism in healthy young adults born prematurely or at term. METHODS: The cohort of this cross-sectional study comprised 332 non-diabetic young adults (age 18 to 27 years born either preterm with VLBW (n = 163 or at term (n = 169. OC, carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC and markers of glucose metabolism were measured at fasting and after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. RESULTS: VLBW adults were shorter, had lower BMD (p<0.001 and higher fasting OC (p = 0.027 and cOC (p = 0.005 than term-born subjects. They also had higher 2-hour insulin (p = 0.001 and glucose (p = 0.037 concentrations. OGTT induced a significant reduction in OC (p<0.001, similar in both groups. OC reduction was not associated with OGTT-induced increases in insulin (p = 0.54. However, fasting total OC and cOC correlated negatively with fasting insulin after adjustment for age, gender, BMD and VLBW status (r = -0.182, p = 0.009 and r = -0.283, p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adults born with VLBW have higher OC and cOC than their peers born at term. This may in part reflect the mechanisms that underlie their lower BMD and decreased insulin sensitivity. Serum OC appears to be negatively associated with long-term glucose regulation whereas acute changes during OGTT may be mediated via other mechanisms.

  20. KDT501, a derivative from hops, normalizes glucose metabolism and body weight in rodent models of diabetes.

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    Veera R Konda

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We developed KDT501, a novel substituted 1,3-cyclopentadione chemically derived from hop extracts, and evaluated it in various in vitro and in vivo models of diabetes and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: KDT501 was evaluated for anti-inflammatory effects in monocyte/macrophage cells; agonistic activity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR; lipogenesis and gene expression profile in human subcutaneous adipocytes. Body composition, glucose, insulin sensitivity, and lipids were assessed in diet-induced obesity (DIO mice and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats after oral administration. RESULTS: KDT501 mediated lipogenesis in 3T3L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes; however, the gene expression profile of KDT501 differed from that of the full PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that KDT501 has pleiotropic biological activities. In addition, KDT501 showed only modest, partial PPARγ agonist activity and exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in monocytes/macrophages that were not observed with rosiglitazone. In a DIO mouse model, oral administration of KDT501 significantly reduced fed blood glucose, glucose/insulin AUC following an oral glucose bolus, and body fat. In ZDF rats, oral administration of KDT501 significantly reduced fed glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glucose AUC after an oral glucose bolus. Significant, dose-dependent reductions of plasma hemoglobin A1c, weight gain, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were also observed in animals receiving KDT501. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that KDT501 produces a unique anti-diabetic profile that is distinct in its spectrum of pharmacological effects and biological mechanism from both metformin and pioglitazone. KDT501 may thus constitute a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and associated conditions.

  1. The global economic crisis, household income and pre-adolescent overweight and underweight: a nationwide birth cohort study in Japan.

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    Ueda, P; Kondo, N; Fujiwara, T

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that children from lower income households and in households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008 would be at increased risk of adverse weight status during the subsequent years of economic downturn. Data were obtained from a nationwide longitudinal survey comprising all children born during 2 weeks of 2001. For 16,403 boys and 15,206 girls, information about anthropometric measurements and household characteristics was collected from 2001 to 2011 on multiple occasions. Interactions between the crisis onset (September 2008) and household income group, as well as the crisis onset and a >30% negative income change in connection to the crisis, were assessed with respect to risk of childhood over- and underweight. Adjusted for household and parental characteristics, boys and girls in the lower household income quartiles had a larger increase in risk of overweight after the crisis onset relative to their peers in the highest income group. (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for interaction term in boys=1.23 (1.02-1.24); girls=1.35 (1.23-1.49) comparing the lowest with the highest income group.) Among girls, an interaction between the crisis onset and a >30% negative change in household income with respect to risk of overweight was observed (odds ratio for interaction term=1.23 (1.09-1.38)). Girls from the highest income group had an increased risk of underweight after the crisis onset compared with girls from the lowest income group. Boys and girls from lower household income groups and girls from households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008, may be at increased risk of overweight. Vulnerability to economic uncertainty could increase risk of overweight in preadolescence.

  2. Evaluation of First-Ray Mobility in Patients with Hallux Valgus Using Weight-Bearing CT and a 3-D Analysis System: A Comparison with Normal Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kubota, Makoto; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Marumo, Keishi

    2017-02-01

    Some physicians report that patients with hallux valgus have hypermobility at the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint of the first ray and 3-dimensional (3-D) deformity. With use of non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing computed tomography (CT), we evaluated the 3-D mobility of each joint of the first ray in feet with hallux valgus compared with normal feet. Ten feet of 10 patients with hallux valgus and 10 feet of 10 healthy volunteers with no foot disorders were examined. All participants were women. Weight-bearing (a load equivalent to body weight) and non-weight-bearing CT scans were made with use of a device that we developed. Orthogonal coordinate axes were set and a 3-D model was reconstructed. Each joint of the first ray was aligned with the respective proximal bone, and 3-D displacement of the distal bone relative to the proximal bone under loading was quantified. At the talonavicular joint, significantly greater dorsiflexion of the navicular relative to the talus was observed in the hallux valgus group compared with the control group. At the medial cuneonavicular joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater eversion and abduction of the medial cuneiform relative to the navicular. At the first TMT joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater dorsiflexion, inversion, and adduction of the first metatarsal relative to the medial cuneiform. At the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater eversion and abduction of the first proximal phalanx relative to the first metatarsal (all p hallux valgus.

  3. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the normal endometrium: temporal and spatial variations of the apparent diffusion coefficient

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    Fornasa, Francesca; Montemezzi, Stefania [Dept. of Radiology, San Bonifacio Hospital, Verona (Italy)], e-mail: francescafornasa@libero.it

    2012-06-15

    Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is increasingly used in the diagnosis of endometrial disease. No complete knowledge, however, exists yet of the influence of physiology on the endometrial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on which DWI is based. Purpose: To establish whether the ADC values measured with DWI in the endometrium of healthy reproductive-aged women significantly vary from the early proliferative to the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle and between the fundus and the isthmus of the uterus. Material and Methods: In 17 women the endometrial ADC values measured on the fifth menstrual day, both at the fundus and at the isthmus of the uterus, were compared to the values obtained on the 14th day before the subsequent cycle. In 81 women (menstrual day: fifth through 21st) the endometrial ADC values measured at the fundus were compared to the values obtained at the isthmus of the uterus. All examinations were performed with a 1.5 T magnet (b values: 0 and 800 mm/s{sup 2}). The results were analyzed by means of Student's t-test per paired data. Results: The endometrial ADC values measured on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle were lower than those obtained in the periovulatory phase both at the fundus (mean 0.923 vs. 1.256 x 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) and at the isthmus (mean 1.297 vs. 1.529 x 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) of the uterus. The endometrial ADC values measured at the fundus of the uterus were lower than those obtained at the isthmus (mean 1.132 vs. 1.420 x 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) through the menstrual cycle. All these differences were highly significant (P < 0.001) at statistical analysis. Conclusion: Physiological variations occurring in endometrial ADC values of healthy women should be considered by the radiologists when interpreting DWI examinations in patients with endometrial disease.

  4. Parental Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Risk of Macrosomia: a Population-Based Case-Control Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoping; Zhou, Aifen; Xiong, Chao; Yang, Rong; Bassig, Bryan A; Hu, Ronghua; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Lin; Qian, Zhengmin; Trevathan, Edwin; Flick, Louise; Xu, Shunqing; Wang, Youjie; Xia, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of macrosomia has risen markedly worldwide, including in China, during the past two decades. Few epidemiological studies, however, have investigated the risk factors for macrosomia in China. This study was designed to investigate the associations between parental anthropometric characteristics, gestational weight gain (GWG), and risk of macrosomia in China. This population-based, case-control study in Wuhan, China, included a total of 6341 subjects (870 cases and 5471 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mothers or fathers who were overweight or obese before pregnancy had an elevated risk of giving birth to a macrosomic infant compared with their normal weight counterparts. Women with GWG above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendation had an adjusted OR of 6.09 [95% CI 5.04, 7.35] for delivering a macrosomic infant compared with women who had GWG within the IOM recommendation. When stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), women who were underweight or normal weight before pregnancy were observed to have a higher risk of macrosomia birth associated with greater GWG. Parental pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG during pregnancy were highly associated with macrosomia. The association with GWG was most pronounced in mothers who had a normal or underweight pre-pregnancy BMI. Weight control efforts before pregnancy for mothers and fathers as well as control of maternal gain during pregnancy may reduce the risk of macrosomia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  6. Quasi-prospective, real-life monitoring of food craving post-bariatric surgery: comparison with overweight and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, H; Tetley, D; Hill, A J

    2014-06-01

    Food cravings are common post-bariatric surgery, suggested as predictors of relapse and weight regain, but relatively unstudied, especially in the longer term. The present study investigated the frequency and nature of food craving experiences after gastric surgery in comparison with non-surgical control participants. Participants were 21 women, 4-38 months post-surgery (mean age = 44 years, 9 following gastric banding, 12 after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), and two comparison samples of 39 overweight dieters and 33 normal weight non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a daily mood assessment and a food diary over a 7-day period. Over the 299 craving episodes, savoury foods were the most commonly craved (40% of craving events), followed by chocolate (31%). Post-bariatric patients reported more and stronger cravings than normal weight non-dieters but at a similar frequency and strength to overweight dieters. Neither hunger nor negative mood distinguished the food cravings of post-bariatric patients from those of comparison participants, nor did the proportion that led to eating (58%). Food cravings should be anticipated post-bariatric surgery but no more so at 12 months post-surgery than by other overweight or obese individuals. Food cravings are not the product of extreme hunger nor do they have the connection with negative mood seen in disordered eating. In addition, the ability to fulfil cravings by eating the craved food is reduced by the surgery itself, although the duration of surgical restraint is uncertain. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Common variants of HNF1A gene are associated with diabetic retinopathy and poor glycemic control in normal-weight Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kazunori; Saruwatari, Junji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Oniki, Kentaro; Kajiwara, Ayami; Miyazaki, Hiroko; Yoshida, Akira; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the associations between the common hepatocyte nuclear factor-1A (HNF1A) variants and the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in relation to the glycemic control and weight status. A retrospective longitudinal analysis was conducted among 354 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (mean follow-up duration: 5.8±2.5 years). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the cumulative incidence of DR was calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model. During the observation period, the longitudinal associations of the HNF1A diplotypes with the risk of DR and the clinical parameters were also analyzed using the generalized estimating equations approach. The combination of risk variants, i.e., rs1169288-C, rs1183910-A and rs2464196-A, was defined as the H1 haplotype. The incidence of DR was higher in the H1/H1 diplotype cases than in the others (HR 2.75 vs. non-H1/non-H1; p=0.02). Only in normal-weight subjects, the risks of DR and poor glycemic control were higher in the H1/H1 diplotype cases than in the others [odds ratio 4.08 vs. non-H1/non-H1, p=0.02; odds ratio 3.03, p=0.01; respectively]. This study demonstrated that the common HNF1A diplotype of three risk variants may be an independent risk factor for the development of DR resulting from poor glycemic control in normal-weight patients with T2DM. These results need to be replicated in larger and more varied study populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Circuit resistance training in women with normal weight obesity syndrome: body composition, cardiometabolic and echocardiographic parameters, and cardiovascular and skeletal muscle fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiano C; Bertucci, Danilo R; Barbosa, Marina R; Nunes, João E; Botero, João P; Rodrigues, Maria F; Shiguemoto, Gilberto E; Santoro, Valdir; Verzola, Ana C; Nonaka, Rodrigo O; Verzola, Roberto M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sérgio E

    2017-01-01

    Normal weight obesity (NWO) syndrome has been characterized in subjects with normal Body Mass Index (BMI) and high body fat mass percentage (BF%>30 for women) being a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality. This study evaluated whether circuit resistance training (CRT) improves body composition, heart size and function, cardiometabolic parameters, and cardiorespiratory, cardiovascular and skeletal muscle fitness in women with NWO. Data are means (95% Confidence Interval). Twenty-three women participated: 10 NWO-CRT (baseline: BMI=22.4 [21.4-23.3] kg/m2; BF%=44.5 [41.0-48.0]%) performed CRT; and 13 untrained NWO-control (baseline: BMI=21.7 [20.8-22.7] kg/m2; BF%=37.8 [34.6-41.1]%). At baseline and after 10 weeks were performed/measured dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, echocardiography, blood tests, arterial pressure, exercise testing, and total-overload-by-training-session (TOL). At baseline, the NWO-CRT exhibited larger BF (27.28 [23.9-30.6] kg) than NWO-control (22.41 [19.5-25.3] kg) (P=0.0227). After training, NWO-CRT: reduced 8 kg of BF (P=0.000002); became BF% lower than NWO-control (33.1 [30.1-36.0] body surface area ratio (84.29 [78.98-89.6] to 90.29 [81.45-99.12] g/m2, P=0.0215). CRT reduced BF% and generated cardiometabolic, cardiac, skeletal muscle and cardiovascular benefits, being a useful strategy to combat the normal weight obesity syndrome in women.

  9. Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM overall and by body mass index. Methods. Cross-sectional study of employed individuals. Daily alcohol intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire by 5,512 Maori, Pacific Island, and European workers (3,992 men, 1520 women aged 40 years and above. Results. There were 170 new cases of T2DM. Compared to the group with no alcohol consumption and adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, the group consuming alcohol had relative risks of T2DM of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.65 in normal weight individuals, 0.38 (0.18, 0.81 in overweight individuals, and 0.99 (0.59, 1.67 in obese individuals. After further adjusting for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking habit, physical activity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and hypertension, the relative risks of T2DM were 0.16 (0.05, 0.50 in normal weight individuals, 0.43 (0.19, 0.97 in overweight individuals, and 0.92 (0.52, 1.60 in overweight individuals. Across the categories of alcohol consumption, there was an approximate U-shaped relationship for new cases of T2DM. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and IGT. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption was protective against diagnosis of T2DM in normal and overweight individuals but not in the obese.

  10. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥ 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Larissa S; Gaya, Anelise R; Petersen, Ricardo D S; Gaya, Adroaldo

    2013-01-01

    To describe and analyze the trends of occurrence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren. This was a longitudinal study of trends conducted in a voluntary sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. The sample was grouped by year of collection (period I: 2005 and 2006; period II: 2007 and 2008, and period III: 2009-2011), age category (children: 7 to 10 years, and adolescents: 11 to 14 years), and stratified by gender. The body mass index was used to classify the nutritional profile. Trend analysis was verified using multinomial logistic regression (p<0.05). Mean occurrences were 2.11% for underweight, 22.27% for overweight, and 6.8% for obesity. There was a decrease of underweight in male adolescents from period I to II, as well as an increase in female children from period II to III. Regarding overweight, there was an increase followed by a decrease in male children. Regarding obesity, there was an increase from period I to II in all age groups and for both genders. The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Underweight, overweight and obesity among zaboli adolescents: A comparison between international and Iranians′ national criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Almost all definitions revealed coexistence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among Zaboli adolescents. Huge differences exist between different criteria. To understand the best appropriate criteria for Iranian adolescents, future studies should focus on the predictability of obesity-related co-morbidities by these criteria.

  13. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa S. Flores

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: : The prevalence of underweight was less than 5% in all categories of age and gender. However, the categories of overweight and obesity showed higher values, and together comprised almost 30% of the young Brazilian population; moreover, a trend toward increase in prevalence of obesity was observed up to the year 2008, followed by the maintenance of these high prevalence rates.

  14. Underweight, overweight and obesity in paediatric dialysis and renal transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Alonso Melgar, Ángel; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Mendes, Patricia; Molchanova, Elena A.; Paripović, Dušan; Peco-Antic, Amira; Printza, Nikoleta; Rees, Lesley; Rubik, Jacek; Stefanidis, Constantinos J.; Sinha, Manish D.; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Jager, Kitty J.; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight is rising worldwide, but in children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) a poor nutritional status is still the primary concern. We aimed to study the prevalence of, and factors associated with, underweight and overweight/obesity in the European paediatric RRT

  15. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mihui; Mo, Shuming; Lv, Yubao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients' constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P underweight (P underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity. PMID:29234426

  16. A Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Body Constitution Associated with Overweight, Obesity