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Sample records for underwater laser welding

  1. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  2. Summary of the guideline on underwater laser beam repair welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Hiroya; Yoda, Masaki; Motora, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    It is known that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) might occur at the weld of a reactor pressure vessel or core internals. Underwater laser beam clad welding for mitigation of SCC has been already established and the guideline 'Underwater laser beam clad welding' was published. Moreover, the guideline 'Seal welding' was also published as a repair method for SCC. In addition to these guidelines, the guideline 'Underwater laser beam repair welding' was newly published in November, 2012 for the repair welding after completely removing a SCC crack occurred in weld or base metal. This paper introduces the summary of this guideline. (author)

  3. Underwater laser cladding and seal welding for INCONEL 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masataka; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Yoda, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    Recently, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed at aged components of nuclear power plants under water environment and high exposure of radiation. Toshiba has been developing both an underwater laser welding directly onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. This paper reports underwater laser cladding and seal welding for INCONEL 52. (author)

  4. Application of YAG laser processing in underwater welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro; Kojima, Toshio; Sato, Shuichi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The high-power YAG laser is a new fabrication tool. The laser torch is easy to combine with complex with complex mechanics because of beam delivery through optical fiber. A direct underwater laser welding technology has been developed and applied to the preservation, maintenance and removal of nuclear power plants. For subdividing or removing operations for retirement of plants, the laser cutting properties were confirmed to allow a maximum cutting thickness of 80 mm. For repairing inner surface of stainless steel tanks, an underwater laser welding system using a remote-controlled robot was developed and the high quality of underwater laser welding was confirmed. (author)

  5. Development of underwater laser cladding and underwater laser seal welding techniques for reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takehisa; Tamura, Masataka; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Kouno, Wataru; Makino, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Shohei; Matsunaga, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been reported at the aged components in many nuclear power plants. Toshiba has been developing the underwater laser welding. This welding technique can be conducted without draining the water in the reactor vessel. It is beneficial for workers not to exposure the radiation. The welding speed can be attaining twice as fast as that of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The susceptibility of SCC can also be lower than the Alloy 600 base metal. (author)

  6. Underwater cladding with laser beam and plasma arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.A.; Fusaro, R.; Jones, M.G.; Solomon, H.D.; Milian-Rodriguez, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Two welding processes, plasma arc (transferred arc) (PTA) and laser beam, were investigated to apply cladding to austenitic stainless steels and Inconel 600. These processes have long been used to apply cladding layers , but the novel feature being reported here is that these cladding layers were applied underwater, with a water pressure equivalent to 24 m (80 ft). Being able to apply the cladding underwater is very important for many applications, including the construction of off-shore oil platforms and the repair of nuclear reactors. In the latter case, being able to weld underwater eliminates the need for draining the reactor and removing the fuel. Welding underwater in reactors presents numerous challenges, but the ability to weld without having to drain the reactor and remove the fuel provides a huge cost savings. Welding underwater in reactors must be done remotely, but because of the radioactive corrosion products and neutron activation of the steels, remote welding would also be required even if the reactor is drained and the fuel removed. In fact, without the shielding of the water, the remote welding required if the reactor is drained might be even more difficult than that required with underwater welds. Furthermore, as shall be shown, the underwater welds that the authors have made were of high quality and exhibit compressive rather than tensile residual stresses

  7. Development of underwater YAG laser repair welding robots for tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Syuichi; Ito, Kosuke; Kochi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Toshio; Ohwaki, Katsura; Morita, Ichiro

    1999-01-01

    A remote-controlled repair welding robot which uses YAG laser welding technology in underwater environment was developed. This is an underwater robot technology combined with a laser welding technology. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot, and the welding test results. The repair welding robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is welding unit. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the welding area. After that it starts YAG laser repair welding. The target of this technology is inner surface repair of some tanks made of austenitic stainless steel, for example RW (Radioactive Waste) tanks. A degradation by General Corrosion and so on might be occurred at inner surface of these tanks in BWR type nuclear power plants. If the damaged area is wide, repair welding works are done. Some workers go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage. In many cases it spends too much time for draining water and repair welding preparation. If the repair welding works can be done in underwater environment, the outage period will be reduced. This is a great advantage. (author)

  8. Underwater welding using remote controlled robots. Development of remote underwater welding technology with a high power YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Syuuichi; Kojima, Toshio; Owaki, Katsura; Hirose, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    As components in nuclear power plant have been periodically carried out their inspection and repair to keep their integrity, on radioactive liquid wastes storage facility, because of difficulty on their inspection by human beings, some are remained without inspection, and even when capable of inspection, conversion from human works to remote operations is desired from a viewpoint of their operation efficiency upgrading. For response to these needs, some developments on a technology capable of carrying out inspection of their inside at underwater environment and repairing welding with YAG laser by means of remote operation, have been performed. Remote underwater inspection and repair technology is a combination technology of already applied underwater mobile technique (underwater inspection robot) with underwater YAG laser welding technique which is recently at actual using level. Therefore, this technology is composed of an inspection robot and a repair welding robot. And, testing results using the underwater inspection robot and welding test results using the underwater repair welding robot, were enough preferable to obtain forecasting applicable to actual apparatuses. This technology is especially effective for inspection and repair of inside of nuclear fuel cycle apparatuses and relatively high dose apparatuses, and can be thought to be applicable also to large capacity tanks, tanks dealing with harmful matters, underwater structures, and so on, in general industries. (G.K.)

  9. Corrosion Resistant Cladding by YAG Laser Welding in Underwater Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutomi Kochi; Toshio Kojima; Suemi Hirata; Ichiro Morita; Katsura Ohwaki

    2002-01-01

    It is known that stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in nickel-base alloys used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Internals of nuclear power plants. A SCC sensitivity has been evaluated by IHI in each part of RPV and Internals. There are several water level instrumentation nozzles installed in domestic BWR RPV. In water level instrumentation nozzles, 182 type nickel-base alloys were used for the welding joint to RPV. It is estimated the SCC potential is high in this joint because of a higher residual stress than the yield strength (about 400 MPa). This report will describe a preventive maintenance method to these nozzles Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and welds by a corrosion resistant cladding (CRC) by YAG Laser in underwater environment (without draining a reactor water). There are many kinds of countermeasures for SCC, for example, Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI), Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP) and so on. A YAG laser CRC is one of them. In this technology a laser beam is used for heat source and irradiated through an optical fiber to a base metal and SCC resistant material is used for welding wires. After cladding the HAZ and welds are coated by the corrosion resistant materials so their surfaces are improved. A CRC by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in an air environment had been developed and already applied to a couple of operating plants (16 Nozzles). This method was of course good but it spent much time to perform because of an installation of some water-proof working boxes to make a TIG-weldability environment. CRC by YAG laser welding in underwater environment has superior features comparing to this conventional TIG method as follows. At the viewpoint of underwater environment, (1) an outage term reduction (no drainage water). (2) a radioactive exposure dose reduction for personnel. At that of YAG laser welding, (1) A narrower HAZ. (2) A smaller distortion. (3) A few cladding layers. A YAG laser CRC test in underwater

  10. Applicability evaluation of eddy current testing for underwater laser beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Noriyasu; Kasuya, Takashi; Ueno, Souichi; Ochiai, Makoto; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We clarified a defect detecting capability of eddy current testing (ECT) as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding. An underwater laser beam welding procedure includes groove caving as a preparation, laser beam welding in groove and welding surface grinding as a post treatment. Therefore groove and grinded welding surface inspections are required underwater. We curried out defect detection tests using three kinds of specimens simulated a groove, reactor vessel nozzle dissimilar metal welding materials and a laser beam welding material with a cross coil ECT probe. From experimental results, we confirmed that it is possible to detect 0.3 mm or more depth electro-discharge machining slits on machining surfaces in all specimens and an ECT has possibility as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding. (author)

  11. Defect detectability of eddy current testing for underwater laser beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Souichi; Kobayashi, Noriyasu; Ochiai, Makoto; Kasuya, Takashi; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We clarified defect detectability of eddy current testing (ECT) as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding works of dissimilar metal welding (DMW) of reactor vessel nozzle. The underwater laser beam welding procedure includes groove caving as a preparation, laser beam welding in the grooves and welded surface grinding as a post treatment. Therefore groove and welded surface inspections are required in the underwater condition. The ECT is a major candidate as this inspection technique because a penetrant testing is difficult to perform in the underwater condition. Several kinds of experiments were curried out using a cross coil an ECT probe and ECT data acquisition system in order to demonstrate the ECT defect detectability. We used specimens, simulating groove and DMW materials at an RV nozzle, with electro-discharge machining (EDM) slits over it. Additionally, we performed a detection test for artificial stress corrosion cracking (SCC) defects. From these experimental results, we confirmed that an ECT was possible to detect EDM slits 0.3 mm or more in depth and artificial SCC defects 0.02 mm to 0.48 mm in depth on machined surface. Furthermore, the underwater ECT defect detectability is equivalent to that in air. We clarified an ECT is sufficiently usable as a surface inspection technique for underwater laser beam welding works. (author)

  12. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  13. Underwater laser beam welding technology for reactor vessel nozzles of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Masaki; Tamura, Masataka; Tamura, Masataka

    2010-01-01

    Toshiba has developed an underwater laser beam welding technology for the maintenance of reactor vessel nozzles of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which eliminates the need for the drainage of water from the reactor vessel. The new welding system makes it possible to both reduce the work period and minimize the radiation exposure of workers compared with conventional technologies for welding in ambient air. We have confirmed the effectiveness of this technology through experiments in which stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was mitigated on the inner surfaces of nozzles. We are promoting its practical application in Japan and overseas in cooperation with Westinghouse Electric Company, a group company of Toshiba. (author)

  14. Underwater welding and repair technologies applied in PWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandella, Fabrice; Carpreau, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe several welding processes and technologies which have been used for underwater applications and which can be applied when repairing components of a PWR type reactor. They address, describe and discuss wet arc welding processes, the peculiarities of underwater welding, and the use of various processes such as 111, 114 and 135 processes, underwater welding with the hybrid plasma MIG-MAG process, underwater welding with the laser wire process, underwater welding with the FSW, FSP or UWFSW processes, underwater welding with variants of the friction welding process (friction surfacing, taper stitch welding, hydro-pillar processing

  15. Underwater Welding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Esam F. Alajmi; Ahmad A. Alqenaei

    2017-01-01

    Welding demand in offshore and marine applications is increased with the increasing in oil and gas activities as well as increasing in the marine transportation and industrial applications. Applications of underwater welding well be increased in Kuwait in the coming years due to the strategic directive of the country toward starting the offshore oil and gas exploration and production, and the increase in marine transportation projects. Therefore, there is a need to understand the concept of u...

  16. Mitigation of stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems using the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIPR) or underwater laser beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rick, Grendys; Marc, Piccolino; Cunthia, Pezze; Badlani, Manu

    2009-01-01

    A current issue facing pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of bi metallic welds. PWSCC in a PWR requires the presence of a susceptible material, an aggressive environment and a tensile stress of significant magnitude. Reducing the potential for SCC can be accomplished by eliminating any of these three elements. In the U.S., mitigation of susceptible material in the pressurizer nozzle locations has largely been completed via the structural weld overlay (SWOL) process or NuVision Engineering's Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP R) , depending on inspectability. The next most susceptible locations in Westinghouse designed power plants are the Reactor Vessel (RV) hot leg nozzle welds. However, a full SWOL Process for RV nozzles is time consuming and has a high likelihood of in process weld repairs. Therefore, Westinghouse provides two distinctive methods to mitigate susceptible material for the RV nozzle locations depending on nozzle access and utility preference. These methods are the MSIP and the Underwater Laser Beam Welding (ULBW) process. MSIP applies a load to the outside diameter of the pipe adjacent to the weld, imposing plastic strains during compression that are not reversed after unloading, thus eliminating the tensile stress component of SCC. Recently, Westinghouse and NuVision successfully applied MSIP on all eight RV nozzles at the Salem Unit 1 power plant. Another option to mitigate SCC in RV nozzles is to place a barrier between the susceptible material and the aggressive environment. The ULBW process applies a weld inlay onto the inside pipe diameter. The deposited weld metal (Alloy 52M) is resistant to PWSCC and acts as a barrier to prevent primary water from contacting the susceptible material. This paper provides information on the approval and acceptance bases for MSIP, its recent application on RV nozzles and an update on ULBW development

  17. Evaluating the SCC resistance of underwater welds in sodium tetrathionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.A.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    The susceptibility of welds to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is enhanced by the surface residual tensile stresses generated by the typical welding process. However, underwater plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding has been shown to produce compressive surface residual stresses, an encouraging result if repairs of cracked boiling water reactor (BWR) components are to be made without further endangering them to SCC. This program was designed to verify that underwater PTA welds are resistant to SCC and to determine if underwater PTA welding could mitigate SCC in potentially susceptible welds. This was achieved by exposing various welds on solution annealed (SA) and SA + thermally sensitized 304 stainless steel at 25 C in a solution of 1.5 gm/liter of sodium sulfide added to 0.05M sodium tetrathionate, titrated to a pH of 1.25 with H 2 SO 4 . The autogeneous welds were produced using gas tungsten arc (GTA) and plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding under atmospheric conditions, and PTA welding underwater. After 1 hour of sodium tetrathionate exposure, GTA and air PTA welds exhibited SCC while the underwater PTA weld heat affected zones were more resistant. Underwater PTA welds bisecting a GTA weld eliminated the cracking in the GTA weld heat affected zone under certain conditions. The lack of IG cracking in the region influenced by the underwater PTA weld is consistent with the measurement of compressive surface residual stresses inherent to the underwater welding process

  18. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  19. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  20. Study on laser beam welding technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Itaru; Shiihara, Katsunori; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kono, Wataru; Obata, Minoru; Morishima, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Laser beam welding is one of the jointing processes by irradiating laser beam on the material surface locally and widely used at various industrial fields. Toshiba has developed various laser-based maintenance and repair technologies and already applied them to several existing nuclear power plants. Laser cladding is a technique to weld the corrosion resistant metal onto a substrate surface by feeding filler wire to improve the corrosion resistance. Temper-bead welding is the heat input process to provide the desired microstructure properties of welded low alloy steels without post weld heat treatment, by inducing proper heat cycle during laser welding. Both laser welding technologies would be performed underwater by blowing the shielding gas for creating the local dry area. In this report, some evaluation results of material characteristics by temper-bead welding to target at Reactor Coolant System nozzle of PWR are presented. (author)

  1. Multispot fiber laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt Hansen, Klaus

    This dissertation presents work and results achieved in the field of multi beam fiber laser welding. The project has had a practical approach, in which simulations and modelling have been kept at a minimum. Different methods to produce spot patterns with high power single mode fiber lasers have...... been examined and evaluated. It is found that both diamond turned DOE’s in zinc sulphide and multilevel etched DOE’s (Diffractive Optical Elements) in fused silica have a good performance. Welding with multiple beams in a butt joint configuration has been tested. Results are presented, showing it has...... been possible to control the welding width in incremental steps by adding more beams in a row. The laser power was used to independently control the keyhole and consequently the depth of fusion. An example of inline repair of a laser weld in butt joint configuration was examined. Zinc powder was placed...

  2. Laser welding engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhieh, N. M.; El Eesawi, M. E.; Hashkel, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Laser welding was in its early life used mainly for unusual applications where no other welding process would be suitable that was twenty five years ago. Today, laser welding is a fully developed part of the metal working industry, routinely producing welds for common items such as cigarette lighters, which springs, motor/transformer lamination, hermetic seals, battery and pacemaker cans and hybrid circuit packages. Yet very few manufacturing engineering have seriously considers employing lasers in their own operations. Why? There are many reasons, but a main one must be not acquainted with the operation and capabilities of a laser system. Other reasons, such as a relatively high initial cost and a concern about using lasers in the manufacturing environment, also are frequently cited, and the complexity of the component and flexibility of the light delivery system. Laser welding could be used in place of many different standard processes, such as resistance (spot or seam), submerged arc, RF induction, high-frequency resistance, ultrasonic and electronic and electron-beam. while each of these techniques has established an independent function in the manufacturing world, the flexible laser welding approach will operate efficiently and economically in many different applications. Its flexibility will even permit the welding system to be used for other machining function, such as drilling, scribing, sealing and serializing. In this article, we will look at how laser welding works and what benefits it can offer to manufacturing engineers. Some industry observers state that there are already 2,000 laser machine tools being used for cutting, welding and drilling and that the number could reach 30,000 over the next 15 years as manufacturing engineers become more aware of the capabilities of lasers [1). While most laser applications are dedicated to one product or process that involves high-volume, long-run manufacturing, the flexibility of a laser to supply energy to hard

  3. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  4. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Laser welding of tailored blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecas, P.; Gouveia, H.; Quintino, L.; Olsen, F.O.

    1998-01-01

    Laser welding has an increasing role in the automotive industry, namely on the sub-assemblies manufacturing. Several sheet-shape parts are laser welded, on a dissimilar combination of thicknesses and materials, and are afterwards formed (stamped) being transformed in a vehicle body component. In this paper low carbon CO 2 laser welding, on the thicknesses of 1,25 and 0.75 mm, formability investigation is described. There will be a description of how the laser welded blanks behave in different forming tests, and the influence of misalignment and undercut on the formability. The quality is evaluated by measuring the limit strain and limit effective strain for the laser welded sheets and the base material, which will be presented in a forming limit diagram. (Author) 14 refs

  6. Study on laser beam welding technology for nuclear power plants title

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Itaru; Shiihara, Katsunori; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kono, Wataru; Obata, Minoru; Morishima, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Laser beam welding is one of the jointing processes by irradiating laser beam on the material surface locally and widely used at various industrial fields. Toshiba has developed various laser-based maintenance and repair technologies and already applied them to several existing nuclear power plants. Laser cladding is a technique to weld the corrosion resistant metal onto a substrate surface by feeding filler wire to improve the corrosion resistance. Temper-bead welding is the heat input process to provide the desired microstructure properties of welded low alloy steels without post weld heat treatment, by inducing proper heat cycle during laser welding. Both laser welding technologies would be performed underwater by blowing the shielding gas for creating the local dry area. In this report, some evaluation results of material characteristics by temper-bead welding to target at Reactor Coolant System nozzle of PWR are presented. (author)

  7. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  8. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  9. Development of automatic laser welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Katsura

    2002-01-01

    Laser are a new production tool for high speed and low distortion welding and applications to automatic welding lines are increasing. IHI has long experience of laser processing for the preservation of nuclear power plants, welding of airplane engines and so on. Moreover, YAG laser oscillators and various kinds of hardware have been developed for laser welding and automation. Combining these welding technologies and laser hardware technologies produce the automatic laser welding system. In this paper, the component technologies are described, including combined optics intended to improve welding stability, laser oscillators, monitoring system, seam tracking system and so on. (author)

  10. Integrated sensors for robotic laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Beyer, E.; Dausinger, F; Ostendorf, A; Otto, A.

    2005-01-01

    A welding head is under development with integrated sensory systems for robotic laser welding applications. Robotic laser welding requires sensory systems that are capable to accurately guide the welding head over a seam in three-dimensional space and provide information about the welding process as

  11. Sensor integration for robotic laser welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Ostendorf, A; Hoult, A.; Lu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The use of robotic laser welding is increasing among industrial applications, because of its ability to weld objects in three dimensions. Robotic laser welding involves three sub-processes: seam detection and tracking, welding process control, and weld seam inspection. Usually, for each sub-process,

  12. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  13. Metals welding by using laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qaisy, R.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work, same welding ''conduction limited type'' under atmospheric conditions was performed using pulsed Ng:YAG laser to weld; low carbon steel (LCS), stainless steel (304) (SUS304), stainless steel (303) (SUS303), and brass. Microstructure of welded zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and the laser energy on penetration depth and effective diameter were studied. Tensile test, micro-hardness, and surface roughness of welded and parent metals were also dealt with. Melting efficiency was worked out and an under vacuum seam welding of low carbon steel has been accomplished. Finally spot welding of aluminium tungsten, and platinium wires were employed using different layer energies. 34 tabs.; 82 figs.; 51 refs.; 1 app

  14. Study on Laser Welding Process Monitoring Method

    OpenAIRE

    Knag , Heeshin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a study of quality monitoring technology for the laser welding was conducted. The laser welding and the industrial robotic systems were used with robot-based laser welding systems. The laser system used in this study was 1.6 kW fiber laser, while the robot system was Industrial robot (pay-load : 130 kg). The robot-based laser welding system was equipped with a laser scanner system for remote laser welding. The welding joints of steel plate and steel plat...

  15. Study on Laser Welding Process Monitoring Method

    OpenAIRE

    Heeshin Knag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a study of quality monitoring technology for the laser welding was conducted. The laser welding and the industrial robotic systems were used with robot-based laser welding systems. The laser system used in this study was 1.6 kW fiber laser, while the robot system was Industrial robot (pay-load : 130 kg). The robot-based laser welding system was equipped with a laser scanner system for remote laser welding. The welding joints of steel plate and steel plate coated with zinc were ...

  16. METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR LASER WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to laser welding of at least two adjacent, abutting or overlapping work pieces in a welding direction using multiple laser beams guided to a welding region, wherein at least two of the multiple laser beams are coupled into the welding region so as to form a melt and at least...

  17. Development of maintenance technology with underwater TIG welding for spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, Takeshi; Hamada, Yasumitsu; Ooeda, Kaoru; Katou, Masahide; Ootsuka, Toshihiro; Toyoda, Seiichi; Hosogane, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    The core technology of underwater TIG welding process has been developed and welding equipment system has been manufactured, for application to the maintenance of the spent fuel storage pool of Rokkasho reprocessing plant. Basic experiments for understanding the conditions of dry area and the range of welding conditions was performed, and mock examination for simulation of real environment by using the developed welding equipment was also carried out to judge the applicability of the system. For the purpose that can be selected water removing method for different spatial conditions of the parts to be maintained in underwater, two kinds of welding equipment systems of Chamber type and Partition type were developed and manufactured. On the basis of fundamental experiments, the conditions of dry area formation and welding parameters range for high-reliability weld were discussed. Thus the proper condition in this process was able to be established. With the welding equipment systems of the Chamber type and Partition type, the practical use examination of underwater TIG welding process was executed by mock examination for simulating the real environment. As a result, it was confirmed that the underwater TIG welding could obtain the same reliability as a usual in-air TIG welding, and the operation and the control at remote distance were also possible. And the reliability of the patch-plate fillet weld could be evaluated by remote inspection with the expansion visual test. (author)

  18. Measurement and Analysis of the Diffusible Hydrogen in Underwater Wet Welding Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusible hydrogen in steel weldments is one of the main reasons that led to hydrogen assisted cracking. In this paper, the results of literatures survey and preliminary tests of the diffusible hydrogen in underwater wet welding joint were presented. A fluid-discharge method of for measuring the diffusible hydrogen in weldment was introduced in detail. Two kinds of underwater welding electrode diffusible hydrogen are 26.5 mL/100g and 35.5 mL/100g by fluid-discharge method, which are high levels. The diffusible hydrogen of underwater welding is higher than atmospheric welding, and the result is closely related to welding material. The best way to control the diffusible hydrogen is adjusting welding material and improving fluidity of slag.

  19. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  20. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  1. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma......, or metal inactive gas/metal active gas.This is followed by reports of how the many process parameters governing the hybrid welding process can be set and how the choice of secondary energy source, shielding gas, etc. can affect the overall welding process....

  2. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...... temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed)....

  3. Laser welding of tailored blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peças, P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has an incrising role in the automotive industry, namely on the sub-assemblies manufacturing. Several sheet-shape parts are laser welded, on a dissimilar combination of thicknesses and materials, and are afterwards formed (stamped being transformed in a vehicle body component. In this paper low carbon CO2 laser welding, on the thicknesses of 1,25 and 0,75 mm, formability investigation is described. There will be a description of how the laser welded blanks behave in different forming tests, and the influence of misalignment and undercut on the formibility. The quality is evaluated by measuring the limit strain and limit effective strain for the laser welded sheets and the base material, which will be presented in a forming limit diagram.

    A soldadura laser assume um papel cada vez mais importante na indústria automóvel, principalmente para a fabricação de sub-conjuntos constituídos por varias partes de chapa de diferentes espessuras (e diferentes materiais, que depois de estampados constituem um componente para integrar num veículo. Descreve-se neste artigo o trabalho de investigação de enformabilidade de chapa de ac.o de baixo carbono soldada por laser de CO2, nas espessuras de 1,25 e 0,75 mm. Apresenta-se uma descrição do comportamento das chapas soldadas por laser em diferentes testes de enformação, e a influência dos defeitos das soldaduras (desalinhamento e queda do banho-undercut no comportamento à enformação. A qualidade é avaliada pela medição da extensão limite e da extensão limite efectiva no material base e no material soldado, que serão representadas num diagrama de limite de enformabilidade.

  4. Investigation on dissimilar underwater friction stir lap welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy to pure copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingqing; Shen, Yifu; Yao, Xin; Xu, Haisheng; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 6061-T6 Al and pure Cu were successfully underwater friction stir lap welded. • The underwater weld was analyzed via comparing with the classical weld. • The oxidation of Cu was prevented via the external water. • The amount of Al–Cu intermetallic was decreased by the external water. • The thickness of Al–Cu diffusion interlayer was decreased by the external water. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (classical FSW) is considered to offer advantages over the traditional fusion welding techniques in terms of dissimilar welding. However, some challenges still exist in the dissimilar friction stir lap welding of the aluminum/copper (Al/Cu) metallic couple, among which the formation of the Al–Cu intermetallic compounds is the major problem. In the present research, due to the fact that the formation and growth of the intermetallic are significantly controlled by the thermal history, the underwater friction stir welding (underwater FSW) was employed for fabricating the weld, and the weld obtained by underwater FSW (underwater weld) was analyzed via comparing with the weld obtained under same parameters by classical FSW (classical weld). In order to investigate the effect of the external water on the thermal history, the K-type thermocouple was utilized to measure the weld temperature, and it is found that the water could decrease the peak temperature and shorten the thermal cycle time. The XRD results illustrate that the interface of the welds mainly consist of the Al–Cu intermetallic compounds such as CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 together with some amounts of Al and Cu, and it is also found that the amount of the intermetallic in the underwater weld is obvious less than in the classical weld. The SEM images and the EDS line scan results also illustrate that the Al–Cu diffusion interlayer at the Al–Cu interface of the underwater weld was obviously thinner than that of the classical weld

  5. Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Farson, Dave F [The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Hollis, Kendall; Milewski, John O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Volume of fluid (VOF) numerical simulation was used to investigate melt flow and volumetric oscillation of conduction-mode pulsed laser weld pools. The result is compared to high speed video stream of titanium laser spot welding experiment. The total simulation time is 10ms with the first 5 ms being heating and melting under constant laser irradiation and the remaining 5 ms corresponding to resolidification of the weld pool. During the melting process, the liquid pool did not exhibit periodic oscillation but was continually depressed by the evaporation recoil pressure. After the laser pulse, the weld pool was excited into volumetric oscillation by the release of pressure on its surface and oscillation of the weld pool surface was analyzed. The simulation model suggested adjusting thermal diffusivity to match cooling rate and puddle diameter during solidification which is distinguishable from previous weld pool simulation. The frequency continuously increased from several thousand cycles per second to tens of thousands of cycles per second as the weld pool solidified and its diameter decreased. The result is the first trial of investigation of small weld pool oscillation in laser welding although there have been several reports about arc welding.

  6. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reutzel, Edward W; Kern, Ludwig; Sullivan, Michael J; Tressler, Jay F; Avalos, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The combination of laser welding with conventional gas metal arc welding technology offers substantial increases in production rate of joining pipe through single-pass joining compared to multi-pass...

  7. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding.

  8. Laser welding closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser.......A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser....

  9. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Investigation of varying laser power. The welded pipe is shown, with close -ups of the rootside reinforcement and macro sections...68 Figure 44. Investigation of varying laser stand-off. The welded pipe is shown, along with close -ups of backside...conventional beveled joints. With appropriate joint configuration and preparation, deep keyhole penetration provided by the laser and additional filler

  10. Laser Welding Test Results with Gas Atmospheres in Welding Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun; Yang, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The weld beads of specimens welded under identical conditions in the helium and argon gas were cleaner, more regular, and steadier than those in a vacuum. The penetration depth of the FZ in the vacuum was much deeper than those in the helium and argon gas. To measure the irradiation properties of nuclear fuel in a test reactor, a nuclear fuel test rod instrumented with various sensors must be fabricated with assembly processes. A laser welding system to assemble the nuclear fuel test rod was designed and fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rods to joint between a cladding tube and end-caps. It is an air-cooling optical fiber type and its emission modes are a continuous (CW) mode of which the laser generates continuous emission, and pulse (QCW) mode in which the laser internally generates sequences of pulses. We considered the system welding a sample in a chamber that can weld a specimen in a vacuum and inert gas atmosphere, and the chamber was installed on the working plate of the laser welding system. In the chamber, the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a cladding tube and an end-cap.

  11. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...

  12. Development of remote laser welding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Sung; Kim, Woong-Ki; Lee, Jung-Won; Yang, Myung-Seung; Park, Hyun-Soo

    1999-01-01

    Various welding processes are now available for end cap closure of nuclear fuel element such as TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, magnetic resistance welding and laser welding. Even though the resistance and TIG welding process are widely used for manufacturing of the commercial fuel elements, it can not be recommended for the remote seal welding of fuel element at PIE facility due to its complexity of the electrode alignment, difficulty in the replacement of parts in the remote manner and its large heat input for thin sheath. Therefore, Nd:YAG laser system using the optical fiber transmission was selected for Zircaloy-4 end cap welding. Remote laser welding apparatus is developed using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 500 watt average power with optical fiber transmission. The laser weldability is satisfactory in respect of the microstructures and mechanical properties comparing with the TIG and resistance welding. The optimum operation processes of laser welding and the optical fiber transmission system for hot cell operation in remote manner have been developed. (author)

  13. Hybrid Laser Welding of Large Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farhang

    Manufacturing of large steel structures requires the processing of thick-section steels. Welding is one of the main processes during the manufacturing of such structures and includes a significant part of the production costs. One of the ways to reduce the production costs is to use the hybrid...... laser welding technology instead of the conventional arc welding methods. However, hybrid laser welding is a complicated process that involves several complex physical phenomena that are highly coupled. Understanding of the process is very important for obtaining quality welds in an efficient way....... This thesis investigates two different challenges related to the hybrid laser welding of thick-section steel plates. Employing empirical and analytical approaches, this thesis attempts to provide further knowledge towards obtaining quality welds in the manufacturing of large steel structures....

  14. Laser welding and collagen crosslinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, K.M.; Last, J.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Small, W. IV; Maitland, D.J.; Heredia, N.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-20

    Strength and stability of laser-welded tissue may be influenced, in part, by effects of laser exposure on collagen crosslinking. We therefore studied effects of diode laser exposure (805 nm, 1-8 watts, 30 seconds) + indocyanine green dye (ICG) on calf tail tendon collagen crosslinks. Effect of ICG dye alone on crosslink content prior to laser exposure was investigated; unexpectedly, we found that ICG-treated tissue had significantly increased DHLNL and OHP, but not HLNL. Laser exposure after ICG application reduced elevated DHLNL and OHP crosslink content down to their native levels. The monohydroxylated crosslink HLNL was inversely correlated with laser output (p<0.01 by linear regression analysis). DHLNL content was highly correlated with content of its maturational product, OHP, suggesting that precursor-product relations are maintained. We conclude that: (1)ICG alone induces DHLNL and OHP crosslink formation; (2)subsequent laser exposure reduces the ICG-induced crosslinks down to native levels; (3)excessive diode laser exposure destroys normally occurring HLNL crosslinks.

  15. Induction heat treatment of laser welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Sørensen, Joakim Ilsing

    2003-01-01

    of an induction coil. A number of systematic laboratory tests were then performed in order to study the effects of the coil on bead-on-plate laser welded samples. In these tests, important parameters such as coil current and distance between coil and sample were varied. Temperature measurements were made...... the laser beam as close as possible. After welding, the samples were quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and tested for hardness. The metallurgical phases are analysed and briefly described. A comparison between purely laser welded samples and induction heat-treated laser welded samples is made......In this paper, a new approach based on induction heat-treatment of flat laser welded sheets is presented. With this new concept, the ductility of high strength steels GA260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm and CMn with a thickness of 2.13 mm is believed to be improved by prolonging the cooling time from...

  16. Laser welding of balloon catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Aidan J.

    2003-03-01

    The balloon catheter is one of the principal instruments of non-invasive vascular surgery. It is used most commonly for angioplasty (and in recent years for delivering stents) at a multitude of different sites in the body from small arteries in the heart to the bilary duct. It is composed of a polymer balloon that is attached to a polymer shaft at two points called the distal and proximal bonds. The diverse utility of balloon catheters means a large range of component sizes and materials are used during production; this leads to a complexity of bonding methods and technology. The proximal and distal bonds have been conventionally made using cyanoacrylate or UV curing glue, however with performance requirements of bond strength, flexibility, profile, and manufacturing costs these bonds are increasingly being made by welding using laser, RF, and Hot Jaw methods. This paper describes laser welding of distal and proximal balloon bonds and details beam delivery, bonding mechanisms, bond shaping, laser types, and wavelength choice.

  17. Design Optimization and Fatigue Analysis of Laser Stake Welded Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    is ultimately envisioned that laser welding will be as common in the shipyard as other processes such -- as MIG, TIG and SMAW. Laser stake- welding of...input from conventional welding techniques can be detrimental to the polymer matrix composite material. In comparison, the laser welding process allows...more discrete frequencies. In the laser welding process , the photons are targeted on the work piece surface which needs to be welded . Highly

  18. Study of underwater laser propulsion using different target materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Han, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Hua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2014-07-14

    In order to investigate the influence of target materials, including aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), on underwater laser propulsion, the analytical formula of the target momentum IT is deduced from the enhanced coupling theory of laser propulsion in atmosphere with transparent overlay metal target. The high-speed photography method and numerical simulation are employed to verify the IT model. It is shown that the enhanced coupling theory, which was developed originally for laser propulsion in atmosphere, is also applicable to underwater laser propulsion with metal targets.

  19. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed as a hy...

  20. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  1. Microstructural characterizations and mechanical properties in underwater friction stir welding of aluminum and magnesium dissimilar alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yong; Lu, Zhengping; Yan, Keng; Huang, Linzhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum and magnesium alloys were joined by underwater friction stir welding. • Underwater FSW was conducted to improve properties of joint with lower heat input. • Microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar joint were investigated. • Intermetallic compounds developed in the fracture interface were analyzed. • Fracture features of the tensile samples were analyzed. - Abstract: Formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of dissimilar welds affects the mechanical properties of the joints significantly. In order to reduce heat input and control the amount and morphological characteristics of brittle intermetallic compounds underwater friction stir welding of 6013 Al alloy and AZ31 Mg alloy was carried out. Microstructures, mechanical properties, elements distribution, and the fracture surface of the joints were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, etc. The result shows that sound dissimilar joint with good mechanical properties can be obtained by underwater friction stir welding. Al and Mg alloys were stirred together and undergone the process of recrystallization, forming complex intercalated flow patterns in the stir zone. Tensile strength of the dissimilar joint was up to 152.3 MPa. Maximum hardness (142HV) appeared in the middle of the centerline of the specimen. Intermetallic compounds layer consisting of Al 3 Mg 2 and Mg 17 Al 12 formed in the Al/Mg interface and resulted in the fracture of the joint

  2. Laser-TIG Welding of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulsky, I.; Somonov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of investigation the technological opportunity of laser-TIG welding of titanium alloys. The experimental stand for implementation of process with the capability to feed a filler wire was made. The research of the nature of transfer the filler wire into the welding pool has been demonstrated. The influence of distance between the electrode and the surface of the welded plates on the stability of the arc was shown. The relationship between welding velocity, the position of focal plane of the laser beam and the stability of penetration of plates was determined.

  3. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied...... with all laser parameters fixed. The welds were quality assessed and hardness measured transversely to the welding direction in the top, middle and root of the seam. In the seams welded by laser alone, hardness values between 275 and 304 HV1 were measured, about the double of the base material, 150 HV1...

  4. Thermo-mechanic and Microstructural Analysis of an Underwater Welding Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hernández Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to present a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental thermal fields as well as a microstructural behaviour and residual stresses applying multiple weld beads in the joint of two API 5L X52 pipe sections. The thermal field, microstructural and residual stresses were numerically modelled through the finite element method (FEM and compared to experimentally. The simulation conditions used in the FEM analysis were similar considerations to the underwater welding conditions. The finite element analysis was carried out, first by a non-linear transient thermal analysis for obtaining the global temperature history generated during the underwater welding process. Subsequently, a microstructural behaviour was determined using the temperatures distribution obtained in the pipe material by calculating the structural transformations of the material during the welding process, and finally a stress analysis was developed using the temperatures obtained from the thermal analysis. It was found that this simulation method can be used efficiently to determinate with accuracy the optimum welding parameters of this kind of weld applications.

  5. Hybrid laser-TIG welding, laser beam welding and gas tungsten arc welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liming; Wang Jifeng; Song Gang

    2004-01-01

    Welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy was carried out using hybrid laser-TIG (LATIG) welding, laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc (TIG) welding. The weldability and microstructure of magnesium AZ31B alloy welded using LATIG, LBW and TIG were investigated by OM and EMPA. The experimental results showed that the welding speed of LATIG was higher than that of TIG, which was caught up with LBW. Besides, the penetration of LATIG doubles that of TIG, and was four times that of LBW. In addition, arc stability was improved in hybrid of laser-TIG welding compared with using the TIG welding alone, especially at high welding speed and under low TIG current. It was found that the heat affect zone of joint was only observed in TIG welding, and the size of grains in it was evidently coarse. In fusion zone, the equiaxed grains exist, whose size was the smallest welded by LBW, and was the largest by TIG welding. It was also found that Mg concentration of the fusion zone was lower than that of the base one by EPMA in three welding processes

  6. The effect of different rutile electrodes on mechanical properties of underwater wet welded AH-36 steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Purnama, Dewin; Churniawan, Iwan

    2018-04-01

    Underwater welding is an important role in the rescue of ships and underwater structures, in case of emergency. In this study, the marine steel plates used are AH-36 steel as parent material. This type of steel is included in the High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA). Electrodes used for welding AH-36 steel plates are commonly the E6013 and E 7024 which are the type of based rutile electrodes. Those electrodes are widely available on the market and they would be compared with the original electrode for underwater which is the type of E7014 with the trade name of Broco UW-CS-1. Welding method used is Shielding Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) with the variation of 5 m and 10 m underwater depth and also varied with the electric current of 120A, 140A and 250A. It was found that hardness value of increased in the area of weld metal and HAZ. HAZ also tends to have the highest hardness compared to both of weld metal and base metal. Non destructive test by radiographed test (RT) on welds showed that there are found welding defects in the form of incomplete penetration on all variations of welding parameters, but there is no porosity defect detected. The results of the hardness tests of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the hardness value of both rutile electrodes (E6013 and E 7024) is apparently similar hardness value compared with the existing commercial electrode (E7014 of Broco UW-CS- 1). The tensile test results of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the use of rutile electrode of E6013 gives a better tensile properties than other rutile electrodes.

  7. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  8. LASER WELDING WITH MICRO-JET COOLING FOR TRUCK FRAME WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jan PIWNIK; Bożena SZCZUCKA-LASOTA; Tomasz WĘGRZYN; Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the mechanical properties of the weld steel structure of car body truck frames after laser welding. The best welding conditions involve the use of proper materials and alloy elements in steel and filer materials, in addition to welding technology, state of stress and temperature of exploitation. We present for the first time the properties of steel track structures after laser welding with micro-jet cooling. Therefore, good selection of both welding paramet...

  9. An investigation on mechanical properties of steel fibre reinforced for underwater welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, K.; Zakaria, M. S.; Zairi, S.

    2017-09-01

    Underwater pipelines are always exposed to water and have a high tendency to have corrosion especially on the welded joint. This research is about using fiber glass as steel fiber to coat the welded joint to determine the effectiveness in corrosion prevention of the welded joint. Number of coating is varied to determine the better number coating to coat the pipeline. Few samples were left without immersion in salt water and few samples are immersed into salt water with same salinity as sea water. The material sample is prepared in dog bone shape to enable to be used in Universal Tensile Machine (UTM). The material prepared is left immersed for recommended time and tested in Universal Tensile Machine. Upon analyzing the result, the result is used to determine the breakage point whether broken on the welded joint or different place and also the suitable number of coating to be used.

  10. Method for laser spot welding monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Giorgio

    1994-09-01

    As more powerful solid state laser sources appear on the market, new applications become technically possible and important from the economical point of view. For every process a preliminary optimization phase is necessary. The main parameters, used for a welding application by a high power Nd-YAG laser, are: pulse energy, pulse width, repetition rate and process duration or speed. In this paper an experimental methodology, for the development of an electrooptical laser spot welding monitoring system, is presented. The electromagnetic emission from the molten pool was observed and measured with appropriate sensors. The statistical method `Parameter Design' was used to obtain an accurate analysis of the process parameter that influence process results. A laser station with a solid state laser coupled to an optical fiber (1 mm in diameter) was utilized for the welding tests. The main material used for the experimental plan was zinc coated steel sheet 0.8 mm thick. This material and the related spot welding technique are extensively used in the automotive industry, therefore, the introduction of laser technology in production line will improve the quality of the final product. A correlation, between sensor signals and `through or not through' welds, was assessed. The investigation has furthermore shown the necessity, for the modern laser production systems, to use multisensor heads for process monitoring or control with more advanced signal elaboration procedures.

  11. Laser welding, cutting and surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crafer, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen articles cover a wide range of laser applications in welding, cutting and surface treatment. Future trends are covered as well as specific applications in shipbuilding, the manufacture of heart pacemakers, in the electronics industry, in automobile production and in the aeroengine industry. Safety with industrial lasers and the measurement of laser beam parameters are also included. One article on 'Lasers in the Nuclear Industry' is indexed separately. (U.K.)

  12. Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

    2000-03-01

    Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing.

  13. Development of laser weld monitoring system for PWR space grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    1998-06-01

    The laser welding monitoring system was developed to inspect PWR space grid welding for KNFC. The demands for this optical monitoring system were applied to Q.C. and process control in space grid welding. The thermal radiation signal from weld pool can be get the variation of weld pool size. The weld pool size and depth are verified by analyzed wavelength signals from weld pool. Applied this monitoring system in space grid weld, improved the weld productivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  14. Welding of Thin Steel Plates by Hybrid Welding Process Combined TIG Arc with YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Suga, Yasuo; Koike, Takashi

    TIG arc welding and laser welding are used widely in the world. However, these welding processes have some advantages and problems respectively. In order to improve problems and make use of advantages of the arc welding and the laser welding processes, hybrid welding process combined the TIG arc with the YAG laser was studied. Especially, the suitable welding conditions for thin steel plate welding were investigated to obtain sound weld with beautiful surface and back beads but without weld defects. As a result, it was confirmed that the shot position of the laser beam is very important to obtain sound welds in hybrid welding. Therefore, a new intelligent system to monitor the welding area using vision sensor is constructed. Furthermore, control system to shot the laser beam to a selected position in molten pool, which is formed by TIG arc, is constructed. As a result of welding experiments using these systems, it is confirmed that the hybrid welding process and the control system are effective on the stable welding of thin stainless steel plates.

  15. Feasibility of underwater welding of highly irradiated in-vessel components of boiling-water reactors: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, A.L.

    1997-11-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), initiated a literature review to assess the state of underwater welding technology. In particular, the objective of this literature review was to evaluate the viability of underwater welding in-vessel components of boiling water reactor (BWR) in-vessel components, especially those components fabricated from stainless steels that are subjected to high neutron fluences. This assessment was requested because of the recent increased level of activity in the commercial nuclear industry to address generic issues concerning the reactor vessel and internals, especially those issues related to repair options. This literature review revealed a preponderance of general information about underwater welding technology, as a result of the active research in this field sponsored by the U.S. Navy and offshore oil and gas industry concerns. However, the literature search yielded only a limited amount of information about underwater welding of components in low-fluence areas of BWR in-vessel environments, and no information at all concerning underwater welding experiences in high-fluence environments. Research reported by the staff of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site and researchers from the DOE fusion reactor program proved more fruitful. This research documented relevant experience concerning welding of stainless steel materials in air environments exposed to high neutron fluences. It also addressed problems with welding highly irradiated materials, and primarily attributed those problems to helium-induced cracking in the material. (Helium is produced from the neutron irradiation of boron, an impurity, and nickel.) The researchers found that the amount of helium-induced cracking could be controlled, or even eliminated, by reducing the heat input into the weld and applying a compressive stress perpendicular to the weld path

  16. Forming Tests for Laser Welded Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Rasmussen, Mads

    1998-01-01

    Ratio test (LDR)Tensile testBulge testMarziniak testPractical examples obtained for laser welded blanks are shown. In combination, tensile tests and the Bulge test can form the so-called Forming Limiting Curves and examples of curves obtained from laser welded blanks are shown.......In this paper different means for testing the formability of new material combinations used as tailored blanks in the automotive industry are presented. The following forming techniques will be described and their benefits and drawbacks presented :Limiting Dome Height test (LDH)Limiting Drawing...

  17. Numerical Simulation Of The Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Siwek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The model takes into consideration thermophysical and metallurgical properties of theremelting steel, laser beam parameters and boundary conditions of the process. As a resultof heating the material, in the area of laser beam operation a weld pool is being created,whose shape and size depends on convection caused by the Marangoni force. The directionof the liquid stream depends on the temperature gradient on the surface and on the chemicalcomposition as well. The model created allows to predict the weld pool shape depending onmaterial properties, beam parameters, and boundary conditions of the sample.

  18. The Nature of Metallurgical Reactions in Underwater Welding,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Christensen continuous cooling transformation ( CCT ) diagram , as et. al. (7-10r)have introduced basic concepts for an instructional procedure to understand...experienced a 0.3 wt. pct. the final shape and position of nucleation curves on decrease from the surface composition at 30 bars the CCT diagram . Olson and...desired weld metal composition to form acicular ferrite and side plate ferrite S-XH20 P (eq. 7) resulted. Figure 7 is a schematic CCT diagram H20

  19. Laser heat treatment of welds for various stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.; Predescu, C.

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the post - weld heat treatment of a duplex stainless steel. Welded joint samples were surface - treated using the same laser source adopted during welding in order to counterbalance the excess of ferrite formed in the welding process.

  20. Laser tissue welding in ophthalmic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    Laser welding of ocular tissues is an alternative technique or adjunct to conventional suturing in ophthalmic surgery. It is based on the photothermal interaction of laser light with the main components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues. The advantages of the welding procedure with respect to standard suturing and stapling are reduced operation times, lesser inflammation, faster healing and increased ability to induce tissue regeneration. The procedure we set up is based on the use of an infrared diode laser in association with the topical application of the chromophore Indocyanine Green. Laser light may be delivered either continuously or in pulses, thus identifying two different techniques that have been applied clinically in various types of transplants of the cornea.

  1. Micro and nanohardness testing of laser welds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestová, H.; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Chmelíčková, H.; Tomáštík, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2014), s. 247-253 ISSN 1454-9069 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Vickers microhardness * depth sensing indentation * laser welding Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2014

  2. Short-Range Sensor for Underwater Robot Navigation using Line-lasers and Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Nicholas; Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Christensen, David Johan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a minimalistic laser-based range sensor, used for underwater inspection by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This range detection system system comprise two lasers projecting vertical lines, parallel to a camera’s viewing axis, into the environment. Using both lasers...

  3. Latest MIG, TIG arc-YAG laser hybrid welding systems for various welding products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishide, Takashi; Tsubota, Shuho; Watanabe, Masao

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding is capable of high-efficiency low-strain welding, and so its applications are started to various products. We have also put the high-power YAG laser of up to 10 kW to practical welding use for various products. On the other hand the weakest point of this laser welding is considered to be strict in the welding gap aiming allowance. In order to solve this problem, we have developed hybrid welding of TIG, MIG arc and YAG laser, taking the most advantages of both the laser and arc welding. Since the electrode is coaxial to the optical axis of the YAG laser in this process, it can be applied to welding of various objects. In the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding, in order to make irradiation positions of the YAG laser beams having been guided in a wire or an electrode focused to the same position, the beam transmitted in fibers is separated to form a space between the separated beams, in which the laser is guided. With this method the beam-irradiating area can be brought near or to the arc-generating point. This enables welding of all directions even for the member of a three-dimensional shape. This time we carried out welding for various materials and have made their welding of up to 1 mm or more in welding groove gap possible. We have realized high-speed 1-pass butt welding of 4m/min in welding speed with the laser power of 3 kW for an aluminum alloy plate of approximately 4 mm thick. For a mild steel plate also we have realized butt welding of 1m/min with 5 kW for 6 mm thick. Further, in welding of stainless steel we have shown its welding possibility, by stabilizing the arc with the YAG laser in the welding atmosphere of pure argon, and shown that this welding is effective in high-efficiency welding of various materials. Here we will report the fundamental welding performances and applications to various objects for the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding we have developed.

  4. Using Taguchi method to optimize welding pool of dissimilar laser welded components

    OpenAIRE

    Anawa, E.; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani

    2008-01-01

    In the present work CO2 continuous laser welding process was successfully applied and optimized for joining a dissimilar AISI 316 stainless steel and AISI 1009 low carbon steel plates. Laser power, welding speed, and defocusing distance combinations were carefully selected with the objective of producing welded joint with complete penetration, minimum fusion zone size and acceptable welding profile. Fusion zone area and shape of dissimilar austenitic stainless steel with ferritic low carbon s...

  5. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Pilot, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Fredrick, P.; Ramaswami, V.S.; Muys, P. [Radius Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO{sub 2} and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO{sub 2} laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  6. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO 2 and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO 2 laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  7. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool

  8. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  9. Assisting Gas Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1996-01-01

    High quality laser welding is achieved under the condition of optimizing all process parameters. Assisting gas plays an important role for sound welds. In the conventional welding process assisting gas is used as a shielding gas to prevent that the weld seam oxidates. In the laser welding process...... assisting gas is also needed to control the laser induced plasma.Assisting gas is one of the most important parameters in the laser welding process. It is responsible for obtaining a quality weld which is characterized by deep penetration, no interior imperfections, i.e. porosity, no crack, homogeneous seam...... surface, etc. In this work a specially designed flexible off-axis nozzle capable of adjusting the angle of the nozzle, the diameter of the nozzle, and the distance between the nozzle end and the welding zone is tested. In addition to the nozzle parameters three gases, Nitrogen, Argon, and Helium...

  10. The filler powders laser welding of ODS ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shenyong, E-mail: s_y_liang@126.com; Lei, Yucheng; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-15

    Laser welding was performed on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the self-designed filler powders. The filler powders were added to weld metal to produce nano-particles (Y–M–O and TiC), submicron particles (Y–M–O) and dislocation rings. The generated particles were evenly distributed in the weld metal and their forming mechanism and behavior were analyzed. The results of the tests showed that the nano-particles, submicron particles and dislocation rings were able to improve the micro-hardness and tensile strength of welded joint, and the filler powders laser welding was an effective welding method of ODS ferritic steel.

  11. Numerical modeling of keyhole dynamics in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hai; Zhou, Jun; Tsai, Hai-Lung

    2003-03-01

    Mathematical models and the associated numerical techniques have been developed to study the following cases: (1) the formation and collapse of a keyhole, (2) the formation of porosity and its control strategies, (3) laser welding with filler metals, and (4) the escape of zinc vapor in laser welding of galvanized steel. The simulation results show that the formation of porosity in the weld is caused by two competing mechanisms: one is the solidification rate of the molten metal and the other is the speed that molten metal backfills the keyhole after laser energy is terminated. The models have demonstrated that porosity can be reduced or eliminated by adding filler metals, controlling laser tailing power, or applying an electromagnetic force during keyhole collapse process. It is found that a uniform composition of weld pool is difficult to achieve by filler metals due to very rapid solidification of the weld pool in laser welding, as compared to that in gas metal arc welding.

  12. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser......Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  13. Laser penetration spike welding : A microlaser welding technique enabling novel product designs and constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, D.K; Hoving, W.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    A novel method for laser penetration microspot welding of sheet metal is presented. With this so called "laser spike-welding," large gap tolerances are allowed. Depending on the ratio of laser spot radius to top plate thickness, gaps of 100% of the top layer thickness and more can be bridged. With

  14. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  15. Laser penetration spike welding: a welding tool enabling novel process and design opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijken, Durandus K.; Hoving, Willem; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2002-06-01

    A novel method for laser welding for sheet metal. is presented. This laser spike welding method is capable of bridging large gaps between sheet metal plates. Novel constructions can be designed and manufactured. Examples are light weight metal epoxy multi-layers and constructions having additional strength with respect to rigidity and impact resistance. Its capability to bridge large gaps allows higher dimensional tolerances in production. The required laser systems are commercially available and are easily implemented in existing production lines. The lasers are highly reliable, the resulting spike welds are quickly realized and the cost price per weld is very low.

  16. Thermal analysis of laser welding for ITER correction coil case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, C., E-mail: fangchao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 200031 (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta (Finland); Song, Y.T.; Wu, W.Y.; Wei, J.; Xin, J.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 200031 (China); Wu, H.P.; Salminen, A. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Morphology of simulated heat source is found to be close to the welded joint sample. • The FEA temperature distribution shows good agreement with experimental measurements. • Laser welding process used on ITER correction coil case will not harm the winding pack. - Abstract: This paper presents the simulation results of 3D finite element analysis (FEA) of laser welding processes for the ITER correction coil case welding; predicts the temperature distribution and compares it with the experimental result to evaluate the impact to the properties of winding pack during the welding process. A specimen of coil case was modeled and simulated by using specialized welding simulation software SYSWELD, Modeling used austenitic stainless steel 316LN as the specimen material and a 3D Conical Gaussian was used as a heat source model. A plate sample was welded before the FE modeling in order to obtain the laser welding parameters and the Gaussian parameters of molten pool. To verify the simulation results, a coil case sample was welded using laser welding with welding parameters that matched the model, and the corresponding temperature values were measured using thermocouples. Compared with the FEA results, it was found that the FEA temperature distribution shows good agreement with the experimental measurements and the laser welding process will not harm the winding pack.

  17. Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintino, L.; Costa, A.; Miranda, R.; Yapp, D.; Kumar, V.; Kong, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The new generation of high power fiber lasers presents several benefits for industrial purposes, namely high power with low beam divergence, flexible beam delivery, low maintenance costs, high efficiency and compact size. This paper presents a brief review of the development of high power lasers, and presents initial data on welding of API 5L: X100 pipeline steel with an 8 kW fiber laser. Weld bead geometry was evaluated and transition between conduction and deep penetration welding modes was investigated

  18. Fiber laser welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Damian M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the application of single mode high power fiber laser (HPFL) for the welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625. Butt joints of Inconel 625 sheets 0,8 mm thick were laser welded without an additional material. The influence of laser welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by means of tensile and bending tests, and micro hardness tests, and also metallographic examinations. The results showed that a proper selection of laser welding parameters provides non-porous, fully-penetrated welds with the aspect ratio up to 2.0. The minimum heat input required to achieve full penetration butt welded joints with no defect was found to be 6 J/mm. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the joints are essentially equivalent to that for the base material.

  19. Laser Welding of Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao Pedro de Sousa

    Joining of shape memory alloys is of great importance for both functional and structural applications as it can provide an increased design flexibility. In this work similar NiTi/NiTi, CuAlMn/CuAlMn and dissimilar NiTi/Ti6Al4V joints were produced by Nd:YAG laser. For the NiTi/NiTi joints the effect of process parameters (namely the heat input) on the superelastic and shape memory effects of the joints was assessed and correlated to its microstructure. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, which allowed for fine probing of the welded material. It was noticed the presence of martensite in the thermally affected regions, while the base material remained fully austenitic. The mechanisms for the formation of martensite, at room temperature, due to the welding procedure are presented and the influence of this phase on the functional properties of the joints is discussed. Additionally, the residual stresses were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. For the dissimilar NiTi/Ti6Al4V joints, a Niobium interlayer was used to prevent the formation undesired brittle intermetallic compounds. Additionally, it was observed that positioning of the laser beam was of significant importance to obtain a sound joint. The mechanisms responsible for the joint formation are discussed based on observations with advanced characterization techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy. At the NiTi/Nb interface, an eutectic reaction promotes joining of the two materials, while at the Ti6Al4V/Nb interface fusion and, subsequent solidification of the Ti6Al4V was responsible for joining. Short distance diffusion of Nb to the fusion zone of Ti6Al4V was observed. Although fracture of the dissimilar welded joints occurred at a stress lower than the minimum required for the stress induced transformation, an improvement on the microstructure and mechanical properties, relatively to existing literature, was obtained. Finally

  20. Vision-based weld pool boundary extraction and width measurement during keyhole fiber laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Masiyang; Shin, Yung C.

    2015-01-01

    In keyhole fiber laser welding processes, the weld pool behavior is essential to determining welding quality. To better observe and control the welding process, the accurate extraction of the weld pool boundary as well as the width is required. This work presents a weld pool edge detection technique based on an off axial green illumination laser and a coaxial image capturing system that consists of a CMOS camera and optic filters. According to the difference of image quality, a complete developed edge detection algorithm is proposed based on the local maximum gradient of greyness searching approach and linear interpolation. The extracted weld pool geometry and the width are validated by the actual welding width measurement and predictions by a numerical multi-phase model.

  1. LASER WELDING WITH MICRO-JET COOLING FOR TRUCK FRAME WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIWNIK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the mechanical properties of the weld steel structure of car body truck frames after laser welding. The best welding conditions involve the use of proper materials and alloy elements in steel and filer materials, in addition to welding technology, state of stress and temperature of exploitation. We present for the first time the properties of steel track structures after laser welding with micro-jet cooling. Therefore, good selection of both welding parameters and micro-jet cooling parameters is very important to achieve a proper steel structure. In this study, the metallographic structure, tensile results and impact toughness of welded joints have been analysed in terms of welding parameters.

  2. Effects of alloying element on weld characterization of laser-arc hybrid welding of pure copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kangda; Gong, Mengcheng; Xie, Yong; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Effects of alloying elements of Si and Sn on weld characterizations of laser-arc hybrid welded pure copper (Cu) with thickness of 2 mm was studied in detail by using different wires. The weld microstructure was analyzed, and the mechanical properties (micro-hardness and tensile property), conductivity and corrosion resistance were tested. The results showed that the alloying elements benefit the growth of column grains within weld fusion zone (FZ), increase the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the FZ and weld corrosion resistance, and decrease weld conductivity. The mechanisms were discussed according to the results.

  3. Measurement of Laser Weld Temperatures for 3D Model Input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagel, Daryl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grossetete, Grant [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maccallum, Danny O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding is a key joining process used extensively in the manufacture and assembly of critical components for several weapons systems. Sandia National Laboratories advances the understanding of the laser welding process through coupled experimentation and modeling. This report summarizes the experimental portion of the research program, which focused on measuring temperatures and thermal history of laser welds on steel plates. To increase confidence in measurement accuracy, researchers utilized multiple complementary techniques to acquire temperatures during laser welding. This data serves as input to and validation of 3D laser welding models aimed at predicting microstructure and the formation of defects and their impact on weld-joint reliability, a crucial step in rapid prototyping of weapons components.

  4. Laser welding of maraging steel rocket motor casing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This presentation looks at the experimental procedure and results of laser welding of maraging steel rocker motor casing. It concludes that a fracture occurred in weld metal of autogenous welding and that a fracture occurred in base material when...

  5. Some studies on weld bead geometries for laser spot welding process using finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Shanmugam, N.; Buvanashekaran, G.; Sankaranarayanasamy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study, a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser welding system is used to conduct laser spot welding trials. → The size and shape of the laser spot weld is predicted using finite element simulation. → The heat input is assumed to be a three-dimensional conical Gaussian heat source. → The result highlights the effect of beam incident angle on laser spot welds. → The achieved results of numerical simulation are almost identical with a real weldment. -- Abstract: Nd:YAG laser beam welding is a high power density welding process which has the capability to focus the beam to a very small spot diameter of about 0.4 mm. It has favorable characteristics namely, low heat input, narrow heat affected zone and lower distortions, as compared to conventional welding processes. In this study, finite element method (FEM) is applied for predicting the weld bead geometry i.e. bead length (BL), bead width (BW) and depth of penetration (DP) in laser spot welding of AISI 304 stainless steel sheet of thickness 2.5 mm. The input parameters of laser spot welding such as beam power, incident angle of the beam and beam exposure time are varied for conducting experimental trials and numerical simulations. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of AISI 304 stainless steel, the effect of latent heat of fusion, and the convective and radiative aspects of boundary conditions are considered while developing the finite element model. The heat input to the developed model is assumed to be a three-dimensional conical Gaussian heat source. Finite-element simulations of laser spot welding were carried out by using Ansys Parametric Design Language (APDL) available in finite-element code, ANSYS. The results of the numerical analysis provide the shape of the weld beads for different ranges of laser input parameters that are subsequently compared with the results obtained through experimentation and it is found that they are in good agreement.

  6. Laser welding of Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Akio; Araki, Takao; Uchihara, Masato; Honda, Keizoh; Kondoh, Mitsuaki.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to apply the laser welding to the joining of a shape memory alloy. Butt welding of a Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy was performed using 10 kW CO 2 laser. The laser welded specimens showed successfully the shape memory effect and super elasticity. These properties were approximately identical with those of the base metal. The change in super elasticity of the welded specimen during tension cycling was investigated. Significant changes in stress-strain curves and residual strain were not observed in the laser welded specimen after the 50-time cyclic test. The weld metal exhibited the celler dendrite. It was revealed by electron diffraction analysis that the phase of the weld metal was the TiNi phase of B2 structure which is the same as the parent phase of base metal and oxide inclusions crystallized at the dendrite boundary. However, oxygen contamination in the weld metal by laser welding did not occur because there was almost no difference in oxygen content between the base metal and the weld metal. The transformation temperatures of the weld metal were almost the same as those of the base metal. From these results, laser welding is applicable to the joining of the Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy. As the application of laser welding to new shape memory devices, the multiplex shape memory device of welded Ti-50.5 at % Ni and Ti-51.0 at % Ni was produced. The device showed two-stage shape memory effects due to the difference in transformation temperature between the two shape memory alloys. (author)

  7. Fatigue properties of dissimilar metal laser welded lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsley, Christopher Paul

    This work involves laser welding austenitic and duplex stainless steel to zinc-coated mild steel, more specifically 1.2mm V1437, which is a Volvo Truck Coiporation rephosphorised mild steel. The work investigates both tensile and lap shear properties of similar and dissimilar metal laser welded butt and lap joints, with the majority of the investigation concentrating on the fatigue properties of dissimilar metal laser welded lap joints. The problems encountered when laser welding zinc-coated steel are addressed and overcome with regard to dissimilar metal lap joints with stainless steel. The result being the production of a set of guidelines for laser welding stainless steel to zinc-coated mild steel. The stages of laser welded lap joint fatigue life are defined and the factors affecting dissimilar metal laser welded lap joint fatigue properties are analysed and determined; the findings suggesting that dissimilar metal lap joint fatigue properties are primarily controlled by the local stress at the internal lap face and the early crack growth rate of the material at the internal lap face. The lap joint rotation, in turn, is controlled by sheet thickness, weld width and interfacial gap. Laser welded lap joint fatigue properties are found to be independent of base material properties, allowing dissimilar metal lap joints to be produced without fatigue failure occurring preferentially in the weaker parent material, irrespective of large base material property differences. The effects of Marangoni flow on the compositions of the laser weld beads are experimentally characterised. The results providing definite proof of the stirring mechanism within the weld pool through the use of speeds maps for chromium and nickel. Keywords: Laser welding, dissimilar metal, Zinc-coated mild steel, Austenitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel, Fatigue, Lap joint rotation, Automotive.

  8. Closing the weld gap with laser/mig hybrid welding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Wiwe, Bjarne David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, laboratory tests are demonstrated that systematically accesses the critical gap distance when welding CMn 2.13 mm steel with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser, combined with a MIG energy source. In the work, the welding speed is varied at gap distances from 0 to 0.8 mm such that the limits...... for obtaining sound welds are identified. The welds are quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and EN25817, transversal hardness measurements are made and the heat input to the workpiece is calculated. The results show that the critical gap is 0.1 mm for a laser weld alone. With hybrid welding, this can...... be increased to 0.6 mm, even at a welding speed of 3.5 m/min. The maximum welding speed with the hybrid process is comparable to laser welding alone, 4.5 m/min. The measured hardness is comparable to MIG welding, and this corresponds to a 33 percent reduction compared to laser welding alone. The heat input...

  9. Welded joints integrity analysis and optimization for fiber laser welding of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dissimilar materials welded joints provide many advantages in power, automotive, chemical, and spacecraft industries. The weld bead integrity which is determined by process parameters plays a significant role in the welding quality during the fiber laser welding (FLW) of dissimilar materials. In this paper, an optimization method by taking the integrity of the weld bead and weld area into consideration is proposed for FLW of dissimilar materials, the low carbon steel and stainless steel. The relationships between the weld bead integrity and process parameters are developed by the genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is taken for optimizing the predicted outputs from GA-BPNN for the objective. Through the optimization process, the desired weld bead with good integrity and minimum weld area are obtained and the corresponding microstructure and microhardness are excellent. The mechanical properties of the optimized joints are greatly improved compared with that of the un-optimized welded joints. Moreover, the effects of significant factors are analyzed based on the statistical approach and the laser power (LP) is identified as the most significant factor on the weld bead integrity and weld area. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for improving the reliability and stability of welded joints in the practical production.

  10. Weld pool and keyhole dynamic analysis based on visual system and neural network during laser keyhole welding

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Masiyang

    2014-01-01

    In keyhole fiber laser welding processes, the weld pool behavior and keyhole dynamics are essential to determining welding quality. To observe and control the welding process, the accurate extraction of the weld pool boundary as well as the width is required. In addition, because of the cause-and-effect relationship between the welding defects and stability of the keyhole, which is primarily determined by keyhole geometry during the welding process, the stability of keyhole needs to be consid...

  11. Laser welded steel sandwich panel bridge deck development : finite element analysis and stake weld strength tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis of laser welded steel sandwich panels for use in bridge structures and : static testing of laser stake welded lap shear coupons. Steel sandwich panels consist of two face sheets : connected by a relatively low-dens...

  12. Pre-Industry-Optimisation of the Laser Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui

    This dissertation documents the investigations into on-line monitoring the CO2 laser welding process and optimising the process parameters for achieving high quality welds. The requirements for realisation of an on-line control system are, first of all, a clear understanding of the dynamic...... phenomena of the laser welding process including the behaviour of the keyhole and plume, and the correlation between the adjustable process parameters: laser power, welding speed, focal point position, gas parameters etc. and the characteristics describing the quality of the weld: seam depth and width......, porosity etc. Secondly, a reliable monitoring system for sensing the laser-induced plasma and plume emission and detecting weld defects and process parameter deviations from the optimum conditions. Finally, an efficient control system with a fast signal processor and a precise feed-back controller...

  13. Laser welding of polymers, compatibility and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik; Strange, Marianne; Kristensen, Jens Klæstrup

    2013-01-01

    for research and development. This paper presents some research results related to laser welding of various polymer materials, including weld compatibility investigations related to the joining of different polymers. Theory for bonding mechanisms, strength development, mechanical properties testing and other......Laser welding of polymers is today a commonly used industrial technology. It has shown obvious advantages compared to e.g. adhesive bonding in terms of higher productivity, better quality and easiness for automation. The ongoing development of lasers tailored for polymer welding in coordination...

  14. Effect of Rotation Rate on Microstructure and Properties of Underwater Friction Stir Welded 7A04-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Underwater friction stir welding (FSW on 7A04-T6 aluminum alloy plates was carried out, and the effect of rotation rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of joints was investigated. The results show that the minimum hardness of underwater FSW joints is located in the thermo-mechanically affected zone. The hardness of welded joints at the high rotation rate of 950r/min exhibits W-shaped distribution, and the average hardness value in the nugget zone is higher than that of welded joints at the low rotation rate of 475, 600, 750r/min. When the rotation rate increases from 475r/min to 750r/min with a constant welding speed of 235mm/min, the precipitated phases in the nugget zone gradually become coarse, and the ultimate tensile strength coefficient of the joint decreases from 89.71% to 82.33%; when rotation rate increases to 950r/min, the precipitated phases dissolve into aluminum matrix during welding, and age after welding. This produces the fine and homogeneous dispersed phases, which results in an increase of the strength coefficient to 89.04% and a certain enhancement of strain hardening capacity and elongation for the joints. All the tensile fracture surfaces exhibit the mixed characteristics of microporous polymerization and cleavage fracture.

  15. Finite element simulation of laser transmission welding of dissimilar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    materials between polyvinylidene fluoride and titanium ... finite element (FE) thermal model is developed to simulate the laser ... Keywords: Laser transmission welding, Temperature field, Weld dimension, Finite element analysis, Thermal modeling. 1. .... 4) The heating phenomena due to the phase changes are neglected.

  16. Keyhole behaviour during laser welding of zinc-coated steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Y.; Richardson, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The production of consistent, high-quality laser welds on zinc-coated steels for the automotive industry remains a challenge. A simple overlap joint geometry is desirable in these applications but has been shown to be extremely detrimental to laser welding because the zinc vapour formed at the

  17. Laser power coupling efficiency in conduction and keyhole welding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    tomacrograph showing grain orientation ... steep columnar grains of the fusion .... viz. pre-oxidation of metal surface by laser heating in air, chemical ... 4.1b Sheets of 0.5 mm thickness: Laser welds of 0.5-mm thick sheets exhibited steep angles ... boundaries of solidifying weld metal which leads to intergranular cracking ...

  18. A study on laser welding deformation of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Akikazu; Maehara, Kenji; Takeda, Shinnosuke; Matsunawa, Akira

    2002-01-01

    In heavy industries, 304 austenitic stainless steel is the most popular material which is used for nuclear equipment, chemical vessels, vacuum vessels and so on. On the fabrication, not only a joint quality but also severe dimensional accuracy is required. To keep dimensional accuracy, considerable cost and efforts are requested, because the welding deformation of austenitic stainless steel is deeply depended on the physical properties of material itself. To decrease welding deformation, big jigs or water cooling method are commonly used which lead to the high cost. In general, the fusion welding by high energy density heat source results in less distortion. Today, laser welding technology has grown up to the stage that enables to weld thick plate with small deformation. The researches of welding deformation have been conducted intensively, but they are mainly concerned for arc welding, and studies for laser welding are very few. In this report, the authors will show the test results of deformation behavior in laser welding of 304 stainless steel. Also, they will discuss the deformation behavior comparing to that in arc welding. The main results of this study are as follows. 1. The angular distortion of laser welding can be unified by heat input parameter (Hp) which is used for arc welding deformation. 2. The angular distortion are same under the condition of Hp 3 in spite of different welding method, however under the condition of Hp>6-9 J/mm 3 the angular distortion is quite different depending on the power density of welding method. 3. Pure angular distortion seemed to complete just after welding, but following longitudinal distortion took place for long period. 4. The critical value of longitudinal distortion can be estimated from heat input parameter. The transverse deformation can be also estimated by heat input parameter. (author)

  19. Laser beam-plasma plume interaction during laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacek; Moscicki, Tomasz; Szymanski, Zygmunt

    2003-10-01

    Laser welding process is unstable because the keyhole wall performs oscillations which results in the oscillations of plasma plume over the keyhole mouth. The characteristic frequencies are equal to 0.5-4 kHz. Since plasma plume absorbs and refracts laser radiation, plasma oscillations modulate the laser beam before it reaches the workpiece. In this work temporary electron densities and temperatures are determined in the peaks of plasma bursts during welding with a continuous wave CO2 laser. It has been found that during strong bursts the plasma plume over the keyhole consists of metal vapour only, being not diluted by the shielding gas. As expected the values of electron density are about two times higher in peaks than their time-averaged values. Since the plasma absorption coefficient scales as ~N2e/T3/2 (for CO2 laser radiation) the results show that the power of the laser beam reaching the metal surface is modulated by the plasma plume oscillations. The attenuation factor equals 4-6% of the laser power but it is expected that it is doubled by the refraction effect. The results, together with the analysis of the colour pictures from streak camera, allow also interpretation of the dynamics of the plasma plume.

  20. The laser beam welding test of ODS fuel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2004-06-01

    As a alternative method of pressurized resistance welding being currently developed, integrity evaluations for a laser beam welding joint between a ODS cladding tube and a FMS end plug were conducted for the purpose of studying the applicability of the laser beam welding technique to the welding with the lower end plug. The laser beam welding causes blowholes in the welding zone, whose effect on the high cycle fatigue strength of the joint is essential because of the flow-induced vibration during irradiation. The rotary bending tests using specimens with laser beam welding between ODS cladding tubes and FMS end plugs were carried out to evaluate the fatigue strength of the welding joint containing blowholes. The fatigue limit of stress amplitude about 200 MPa from 10 6 -10 7 cycles suggested that the laser beam welding joint had enough strength against the flow-induced vibration. Sizing of blowholes in the welding zone by using a micro X ray CT technique estimated the rate of defect areas due to blowholes at 1-2%. It is likely that the fatigue strength remained nearly unaffected by blowholes because of the no correlation between the breach of the rotary bending test specimen and the rate of defect area. Based on results of tensile test, internal burst test, Charpy impact test and fatigue test of welded zone, including study of allowable criteria of blowholes in the inspection, it is concluded that the laser beam welding can be probably applied to the welding between the ODS cladding tube and the FMS lower end plug. (author)

  1. Laser-welded ureteral anastomoses: experimental studies with three techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürpinar, T; Gürer, S; Kattan, M W; Wang, L; Griffith, D P

    1996-01-01

    Tissue welding with laser energy is a new technique for reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of laser welding are (a) lack of foreign body reaction, (b) decreased operative time, (c) less tissue manipulation, and (d) effective union of tissues equivalent to sutured anastomoses. We have performed ureteral anastomoses in adult mongrel dogs using a KTP 532 nm laser at an intensity of 1.4 W. Multiple "spot welds" of 1-s duration were utilized in a single layer anastomosis. Laser-welded anastomoses were performed with and without protein solder (33% and 50% human albumin) and were compared to sutured anastomoses. The laser-welded anastomoses required less operative time and provided bursting pressure levels similar to those of traditional sutured anastomoses. There was no advantage or disadvantage to the addition of human albumin as a solder in these experimental studies.

  2. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1999-12-09

    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  3. Evaluating mechanical properties of hybrid laser arc girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pussegoda, L. N.; Begg, D.; Holdstock, R.; Jodoin, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd Techonology, Kanata, ON, (Canada); Ligh, K.; Rondeau, D. [Appliead Thermal Sciences Inc., Sanford, ME, (United States); Hansen, E. [ESAB, Florence, SC, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) is a promising new process for making girth welds on steel pipelines. This study investigated the mechanical properties of overmatched X80 and X100 pipeline steel girth welds made using the HLAW process. The testing of this process was conducted on NPS36 pipes of 10.4 mm and 14.3 mm thickness, respectively. Various weld positions were produced on X80 and X100 pipes. Laser inspection data were collected during the whole welding process. Also standard tests for girth welds, Charpy V-notch impact tests, CTOD tests, all weld metal (AWM) tension tests, were carried out. The results showed that the fracture transition temperature is higher at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions than at the 9 and 12 o'clock positions. The effect of clock position on fracture toughness is currently being explored; a modified CTOD has been developed to reduce the possibility of crack deviation.

  4. Laser beam welding and friction stir welding of 6013-T6 aluminium alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dalle Donne, C.; Staniek, G.

    2000-01-01

    Butt welds of 1.6 mm thick 6013-T6 sheet were produced using laser beam welding and friction stir welding processes. Employing the former joining technique, filler powders of the alloys Al-5%Mg and Al-12%Si were used. Microstructure, hardness profiles, tensile properties and the corrosion behaviour of the welds in the as-welded condition were investigated. The hardness in the weld zone was lower compared to that of the base material in the peak-aged temper. Hardness minima were measured in the fusion zone and in the thermomechanically affected zone for laser beam welded and friction stir welded joints, respectively. Metallographic and fractographic examinations revealed pores in the fusion zone of the laser beam welds. Porosity was higher in welds made using the filler alloy Al-5%Mg than using the filler metal Al-12%Si. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the β '' (Mg 2 Si) hardening precipitates were dissolved in the weld zone due to the heat input of the joining processes. Joint efficiencies achieved for laser beam welds depended upon the filler powders, being about 60 and 80% using the alloys Al-5%Mg and Al-12%Si, respectively. Strength of the friction stir weld approached over 80% of the ultimate tensile strength of the 6013-T6 base material. Fracture occurred in the region of hardness minima unless defects in the weld zone led to premature failure. The heat input during welding did not cause a degradation of the corrosion behaviour of the welds, as found in continuous immersion tests in an aqueous chloride-peroxide solution. In contrast to the 6013-T6 parent material, the weld zone was not sensitive to intergranular corrosion. Alternate immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution indicated high stress corrosion cracking resistance of the joints. For laser beam welded sheet, the weld zone of alternately immersed specimens suffered severe degradation by pitting and intergranular corrosion, which may be associated with galvanic coupling of filler metal and

  5. Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material affected by the weld. Bead-on-plate and butt welds were previously performed to depths of about 4 mm with a 6-kW CO 2 laser on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-5%Cr-5%Ti alloys. These welds were made at a speed of 0.042 m/s using argon purging at a flow rate of 2.8 m 3 /s. The purge was distributed with a diffuser nozzle aimed just behind the laser beam during the welding operation. The fusion zones of welds made under these conditions consisted of very fine, needle-shaped grains and were also harder than the bulk metal (230-270 dph, compared to ∼180 dph for the bulk metal). A limited number of impact tests showed that the as-welded ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT) was above room temperature, but heat treatment at 1000 degrees C for 1 h in vacuum reduced the DBTT to <-25 degrees C. Activities during this reporting period focused on improvements in the purging system and determination of the effect of welding speed on welds. A 2-kW continuous YAG laser at Lumonics Corp. in Livonia, MI, was used to make 34 test welds for this study

  6. Laser Welding of Sub-assemblies before Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads; Olsen, Flemmming Ove; Pecas, Paulo

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes some experimental investigations of the formability of CO2-laser-welded 0.75 mm and 1.25 mm low carbon steel. There will be a description of how the laser welded blanks behave in different forming tests, and the influene of misalignment and undercut on the formability....... The quality is evalutated by measuring the imit strain and the limit effective strain for the laser welded sheets and the base material. These strains will be presented in a forming limit diagram (FLD). Finally the formability of the laser sheets is compared to that of the base materials....

  7. Hybrid laser arc welding: State-of-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acherjee, Bappa

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid laser arc welding simultaneously utilizes the arc welding and the laser welding, in a common interaction zone. The synergic effects of laser beam and eclectic arc in the same weld pool results in an increase of welding speed and penetration depth along with the enhancement of gap bridging capability and process stability. This paper presents the current status of this hybrid technique in terms of research, developments and applications. Effort is made to present a comprehensive technical know-how about this process through a systematic review of research articles, industrial catalogues, technical notes, etc. In the introductory part of the review, an overview of the hybrid laser arc welding is presented, including operation principle, process requirements, historical developments, benefits and drawbacks of the process. This is followed by a detailed discussion on control parameters those govern the performance of hybrid laser arc welding process. Thereafter, a report of improvements of performance and weld qualities achieved by using hybrid welding process is presented based on review of several research papers. The succeeding sections furnish the examples of industrial applications and the concluding remarks.

  8. Development of laser beam welding for the lip seal configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ashish; Joshi, Jaydeep; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Natu, Harshad; Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser welding parameter optimization for required weld penetration. • Parametric study of actual scenarios like air gap, plate & beam misalignment. • Destructive and non-destructive examination of the welds and He-leak testing. - Abstract: A vacuum seal using the lip sealing technique is emerging as the most likely choice for fusion devices, to comply with the requirement of maintainability. The welding technology considered for lip sealing is laser welding, due to the attributes of small spot diameter, low concentrated heat input, high precision and penetration. To establish the process, an experiment has been conducted on a sample size of 150 mm × 50 mm having thickness of 2 mm, material AISI304L to assess the dependence of beam parameters like, laser power, speed and focusing distance on penetration and quality of weld joint. Further, the assessment of the effect of welding set-up variables like air-gap between plates, plate misalignment, and laser beam misalignment on the weld quality is also required. This paper presents the results of this experimental study and also the plan for developing a large (∼10 m) size laser welded seal, that simulates, appropriately, the configuration required in large dimension fusion devices.

  9. Dye-enhanced laser welding for skin closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoste, S D; Farinelli, W; Flotte, T; Anderson, R R

    1992-01-01

    The use of a laser to weld tissue in combination with a topical photosensitizing dye permits selective delivery of energy to the target tissue. A combination of indocyanine green (IG), absorption peak 780 nm, and the near-infrared (IR) alexandrite laser was studied with albino guinea pig skin. IG was shown to bind to the outer 25 microns of guinea pig dermis and appeared to be bound to collagen. The optical transmittance of full-thickness guinea pig skin in the near IR was 40% indicating that the alexandrite laser should provide adequate tissue penetration. Laser "welding" of skin in vivo was achieved at various concentrations of IG from 0.03 to 3 mg/cc using the alexandrite at 780 nm, 250-microseconds pulse duration, 8 Hz, and a 4-mm spot size. A spectrum of welds was obtained from 1- to 20-W/cm2 average irradiance. Weak welds occurred with no thermal damage obtained at lower irradiances: stronger welds with thermal damage confined to the weld site occurred at higher irradiances. At still higher irradiances, local vaporization occurred with failure to "weld." Thus, there was an optimal range of irradiances for "welding," which varied inversely with dye concentration. Histology confirmed the thermal damage results that were evident clinically. IG dye-enhanced laser welding is possible in skin and with further optimization may have practical application.

  10. Development of laser beam welding for the lip seal configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ashish, E-mail: ashish.yadav@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Natu, Harshad [Magod Laser Machining Pvt. Ltd., KIADB Ind. Area, Jigani, Anekal Taluk, Bengaluru 560105 (India); Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Laser welding parameter optimization for required weld penetration. • Parametric study of actual scenarios like air gap, plate & beam misalignment. • Destructive and non-destructive examination of the welds and He-leak testing. - Abstract: A vacuum seal using the lip sealing technique is emerging as the most likely choice for fusion devices, to comply with the requirement of maintainability. The welding technology considered for lip sealing is laser welding, due to the attributes of small spot diameter, low concentrated heat input, high precision and penetration. To establish the process, an experiment has been conducted on a sample size of 150 mm × 50 mm having thickness of 2 mm, material AISI304L to assess the dependence of beam parameters like, laser power, speed and focusing distance on penetration and quality of weld joint. Further, the assessment of the effect of welding set-up variables like air-gap between plates, plate misalignment, and laser beam misalignment on the weld quality is also required. This paper presents the results of this experimental study and also the plan for developing a large (∼10 m) size laser welded seal, that simulates, appropriately, the configuration required in large dimension fusion devices.

  11. Present and future of laser welding machine; Laser yosetsuki no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniu, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes recent trends of laser welding machine. For CO2 laser welding machine, seam weld of large diameter weld pipes using a 25 kW-class machine, and plate weld of steel plate using a 45 kW-class machine are reported. For YAG laser welding machine, high-output 5.5 kW-class machines are commercialized. Machines with slab structure of plate-like YAG chrystal have been developed which show high-oscillation efficiency and can be applied to cutting. Machines have been developed in which YAG laser output with slab structure is transmitted through GI fiber. High-speed welding of aluminum alloys can be realized by improving the converging performance. Efficiency of YAG laser can be enhanced through the time-divided utilization by switching the beam transmission path using fiber change-over switch. In the automobile industry, CO2 laser is mainly used, and a system combining CO laser with articulate robot is realized. TIG and MIG welding is often used for welding of aluminum for railway vehicles. It is required to reduce the welding strain. In the iron and steel industry, the productivity has been improved by the laser welding. YAG laser is put into practice for nuclear reactors. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Hybrid laser arc welding of a used fuel container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, C., E-mail: cboyle@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada); Martel, P. [Novika Solutions, La Pocatiere, QC (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has designed a novel Used Fuel Container (UFC) optimized for CANDU used nuclear fuel. The Mark II container is constructed of nuclear grade pipe for the body and capped with hemi-spherical heads. The head-to-shell joint fit-up features an integral backing designed for external pressure, eliminating the need for a full penetration closure weld. The NWMO and Novika Solutions have developed a partial penetration, single pass Hybrid Laser Arc Weld (HLAW) closure welding process requiring no post-weld heat treatment. This paper will discuss the joint design, HLAW process, associated welding equipment, and prototype container fabrication. (author)

  13. Hybrid laser arc welding of a used fuel container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, C. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Martel, P. [Novika Solutions, La Pocatiere, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has designed a novel Used Fuel Container (UFC) optimized for CANDU used nuclear fuel. The Mark II container is constructed of nuclear grade pipe for the body and capped with hemi-spherical heads. The head-to-shell joint fit-up features an integral backing designed for external pressure, eliminating the need for a full penetration closure weld. The NWMO and Novika Solutions have developed a partial penetration, single pass Hybrid Laser Axe Weld (HLAW) closure welding process requiring no post-weld heat treatment. This paper will discuss the joint design, HLAW process, associated welding equipment, and prototype container fabrication. (author)

  14. Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Laboratory (Ret.), private communication. 33. S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. DOI: 10.1002/0471434027. 34. J. K...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--15-9665 Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds ...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple

  15. Laser spot welding of cobalt-based amorphous metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchev, Dobre; Dorn, Lutc; Jaferi, Seifolah; Purbst, Detler

    1997-01-01

    The results concerning weldability of amorphous alloy (VAC 6025F) in shape of foils and the quality of laser-spot welded joints are presented in this paper. The aim of the research was the production of a high quality welding joint, by preserving the amorphous structure. The quality of the joint was tested by shear strength analysis and microhardness measuring. The metallographic studies were made by using optical microscope and SEM. The results show that (1) overlapped Co based amorphous metals foils can be welded with high-quality by a pulsed Nd: YAG-Laser, but only within a very narrow laser parameter window; (2) the laser welded spots show comparably high strength as the basic material; (3) the structure of the welded spot remains amorphous, so that the same characteristics as the base material can be achieved. (author)

  16. Method for laser welding a fin and a tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Phillip W.; Mahoney, A. Roderick; Milewski, John O

    2001-01-01

    A method of laser welding a planar metal surface to a cylindrical metal surface is provided, first placing a planar metal surface into approximate contact with a cylindrical metal surface to form a juncture area to be welded, the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface thereby forming an acute angle of contact. A laser beam, produced, for example, by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, is focused through the acute angle of contact at the juncture area to be welded, with the laser beam heating the juncture area to a welding temperature to cause welding to occur between the planar metal surface and the cylindrical metal surface. Both the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface are made from a reflective metal, including copper, copper alloys, stainless steel alloys, aluminum, and aluminum alloys.

  17. Investigation of Thermal Stress Distribution in Laser Spot Welding Process

    OpenAIRE

    Osamah F. Abdulateef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the laser spot welding process of low carbon steel sheet. The investigations were based on analytical and finite element analyses. The analytical analysis was focused on a consistent set of equations representing interaction of the laser beam with materials. The numerical analysis based on 3-D finite element analysis of heat flow during laser spot welding taken into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties and latent heat of transf...

  18. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Dry and Local Dry Cavity Welded Joints of 690 MPa Grade High Strength Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonghua; Sun, Kun; Cui, Shuwan; Zeng, Min; Yi, Jianglong; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yi, Yaoyong

    2018-01-22

    Q690E high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plays an important role in offshore structures. In addition, underwater local cavity welding (ULCW) technique was widely used to repair important offshore constructions. However, the high cooling rate of ULCW joints results in bad welding quality compared with underwater dry welding (UDW) joints. Q690E high strength low alloy steels were welded by multi-pass UDW and ULCW techniques, to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of underwater welded joints. The microstructure and fracture morphology of welded joints were observed by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. The elemental distribution in the microstructure was determined with an Electron Probe Microanalyzer. The results indicated that the microstructure of both two welded joints was similar. However, martensite and martensite-austenite components were significantly different with different underwater welding methods such that the micro-hardness of the HAZ and FZ in the ULCW specimen was higher than that of the corresponding regions in UDW joint. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the ULCW specimen are 109 MPa lower and 77 MPa lower, respectively, than those of the UDW joint. The impact toughness of the UDW joint was superior to those of the ULCW joint.

  19. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Underwater Dry and Local Dry Cavity Welded Joints of 690 MPa Grade High Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kun; Cui, Shuwan; Zeng, Min; Yi, Jianglong; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yi, Yaoyong

    2018-01-01

    Q690E high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plays an important role in offshore structures. In addition, underwater local cavity welding (ULCW) technique was widely used to repair important offshore constructions. However, the high cooling rate of ULCW joints results in bad welding quality compared with underwater dry welding (UDW) joints. Q690E high strength low alloy steels were welded by multi-pass UDW and ULCW techniques, to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of underwater welded joints. The microstructure and fracture morphology of welded joints were observed by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. The elemental distribution in the microstructure was determined with an Electron Probe Microanalyzer. The results indicated that the microstructure of both two welded joints was similar. However, martensite and martensite-austenite components were significantly different with different underwater welding methods such that the micro-hardness of the HAZ and FZ in the ULCW specimen was higher than that of the corresponding regions in UDW joint. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the ULCW specimen are 109 MPa lower and 77 MPa lower, respectively, than those of the UDW joint. The impact toughness of the UDW joint was superior to those of the ULCW joint. PMID:29361743

  20. Process Studies on Laser Welding of Copper with Brilliant Green and Infrared Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Sebastian; Ramsayer, Reiner; Poprawe, Reinhart

    Copper materials are classified as difficult to weld with state-of-the-art lasers. High thermal conductivity in combination with low absorption at room temperature require high intensities for reaching a deep penetration welding process. The low absorption also causes high sensitivity to variations in surface conditions. Green laser radiation shows a considerable higher absorption at room temperature. This reduces the threshold intensity for deep penetration welding significantly. The influence of the green wavelength on energy coupling during heat conduction welding and deep penetration welding as well as the influence on the weld shape has been investigated.

  1. Interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Chen, Minghua

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on the interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding on magnesium alloy AZ31B using the spectral diagnose technique. By comparably analyzing the variation in plasma information (the shape, the electron temperature and density) of single tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding with the laser-arc hybrid welding, it is found that the laser affects the arc plasma through the keyhole forming on the workpiece. Depending on the welding parameters there are three kinds of interactions taking place between laser and arc plasma.

  2. 375-nm ultraviolet-laser based non-line-of-sight underwater optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin; Cai, Wenqi; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ooi, Ee-Ning; He, Hongsen; Chaaban, Anas; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    For circumventing the alignment requirement of line-of-sight (LOS) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), we demonstrated a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UWOC link adequately enhanced using ultraviolet (UV) 375-nm laser. Path loss was chosen

  3. Evolution of microstructure in laser welding of SS304L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kushwaha, R.P.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Laser welding is an important joining process and its application in industries is growing rapidly. One can produce laser welds over a wide range of process parameters and this offers very good opportunity for producing microstructure of different morphology and scales in the weldment. Weld beads have been produced on 5 mm thick plates of SS304L using CW Nd-YAG laser. Laser power was varied in 200 W to 1000 W range and welding speed was varied in 100 mm/mm to 1000 mm/mm. This resulted in weld beads of different morphology. Microstructure of the weld beads was examined on the cross-section as well as in the axial direction using optical microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to study evolution of the microstructure in the weldment. Microstructure was cellular and cellular-dendritic with grains growing from the fusion line towards the centerline. In the central region, cellular growth along the welding direction was observed. The cell size was found to increase with increasing laser power and decreasing welding speed. The findings are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Tailoring weld geometry during keyhole mode laser welding using a genetic algorithm and a heat transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, R; DebRoy, T

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring of weld attributes based on scientific principles remains an important goal in welding research. The current generation of unidirectional laser keyhole models cannot determine sets of welding variables that can lead to a particular weld attribute such as specific weld geometry. Here we show how a computational heat transfer model of keyhole mode laser welding can be restructured for systematic tailoring of weld attributes based on scientific principles. Furthermore, the model presented here can calculate multiple sets of laser welding variables, i.e. laser power, welding speed and beam defocus, with each set leading to the same weld pool geometry. Many sets of welding variables were obtained via a global search using a real number-based genetic algorithm, which was combined with a numerical heat transfer model of keyhole laser welding. The reliability of the numerical heat transfer calculations was significantly improved by optimizing values of the uncertain input parameters from a limited volume of experimental data. The computational procedure was applied to the keyhole mode laser welding of the 5182 Al-Mg alloy to calculate various sets of welding variables to achieve a specified weld geometry. The calculated welding parameter sets showed wide variations of the values of welding parameters, but each set resulted in a similar fusion zone geometry. The effectiveness of the computational procedure was examined by comparing the computed weld geometry for each set of welding parameters with the corresponding experimental geometry. The results provide hope that systematic tailoring of weld attributes via multiple pathways, each representing alternative welding parameter sets, is attainable based on scientific principles

  5. Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Sabina Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Casavola, Caterina; Moramarco, Vincenzo

    2013-12-18

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e. , no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the weld. In this work FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 6 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in butt joint configuration. LAFSW is studied firstly to demonstrate the weldability of aluminum alloy using that technique. Secondly, process parameters, such as laser power and temperature gradient are investigated in order to evaluate changes in microstructure, micro-hardness, residual stress, and tensile properties. Once the possibility to achieve sound weld using LAFSW is demonstrated, it will be possible to explore the benefits for tool wear, higher welding speeds, and lower clamping force.

  6. Laser repair welding of molds with various pulse shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pleterski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair welding of cold-work tool steels with conventional methods is very difficult due to cracking during remelting or cladding and is generally performed with preheating. As an alternative, repair welding with laser technology has recently been used. This paper presents the influence of different pulse shapes on welding of such tools with the pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Repair welding tests were carried out on AISI D2 tool steel, quenched and tempered to hardness of 56 HRc, followed by microstructural analysis and investigation of defects with scanning electron microscopy. Test results suggest that it is possible to obtain sound welds without preheating, with the right selection of welding parameters and appropriate pulse shape.

  7. Real weld geometry determining mechanical properties of high power laser welded medium plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sang; Mi, Gaoyang; Yan, Fei; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen

    2018-06-01

    Weld width is commonly used as one of main factors to assess joint performances in laser welding. However, it changes significantly through the thickness direction in conditions of medium or thick plates. In this study, high-power autogenous laser welding was conducted on 7 mm thickness 201 stainless steel to elucidate the factor of whole weld transverse shape critically affecting the mechanical properties with the aim of predicting the performance visually through the weld appearance. The results show that single variation of welding parameters could result in great changes of weld pool figures and subsequently weld transverse shapes. All the obtained welds are composed of austenite containing small amount of cellular dendritic δ-Ferrite. The 0.2% proof stresses of Nail- and Peanut-shaped joint reach 458 MPa and 454 MPa, 88.2% and 87.5% of the base material respectively, while that of Wedge-shaped joint only comes to 371 MPa, 71.5% of the base material. The deterioration effect is believed to be caused by the axial grain zone in the weld center. The fatigue strength of joint P is a bit lower than N, but much better than W. Significant deformation incompatibility through the whole thickness and microstructure resistance to crack initiation should be responsible for the poor performance of W-shaped joints.

  8. A novel weld seam detection method for space weld seam of narrow butt joint in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wen Jun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Structured light measurement is widely used for weld seam detection owing to its high measurement precision and robust. However, there is nearly no geometrical deformation of the stripe projected onto weld face, whose seam width is less than 0.1 mm and without misalignment. So, it's very difficult to ensure an exact retrieval of the seam feature. This issue is raised as laser welding for butt joint of thin metal plate is widely applied. Moreover, measurement for the seam width, seam center and the normal vector of the weld face at the same time during welding process is of great importance to the welding quality but rarely reported. Consequently, a seam measurement method based on vision sensor for space weld seam of narrow butt joint is proposed in this article. Three laser stripes with different wave length are project on the weldment, in which two red laser stripes are designed and used to measure the three dimensional profile of the weld face by the principle of optical triangulation, and the third green laser stripe is used as light source to measure the edge and the centerline of the seam by the principle of passive vision sensor. The corresponding image process algorithm is proposed to extract the centerline of the red laser stripes as well as the seam feature. All these three laser stripes are captured and processed in a single image so that the three dimensional position of the space weld seam can be obtained simultaneously. Finally, the result of experiment reveals that the proposed method can meet the precision demand of space narrow butt joint.

  9. Thermal and molecular investigation of laser tissue welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, W., IV

    1998-06-01

    Despite the growing number of successful animal and human trials, the exact mechanisms of laser tissue welding remain unknown. Furthermore, the effects of laser heating on tissue on the molecular scale are not fully understood. To address these issues, a multi-front attack oil both extrinsic (solder/patch mediated) and intrinsic (laser only) tissue welding was launched using two-color infrared thermometry, computer modeling, weld strength assessment, biochemical assays, and vibrational spectroscopy. The coupling of experimentally measured surface temperatures with the predictive numerical simulations provided insight into the sub-surface dynamics of the laser tissue welding process. Quantification of the acute strength of the welds following the welding procedure enabled comparison among trials during an experiment, with previous experiments, and with other studies in the literature. The acute weld integrity also provided an indication of tile probability of long-term success. Molecular effects induced In the tissue by laser irradiation were investigated by measuring tile concentrations of specific collagen covalent crosslinks and characterizing the Fourier-Transform infrared (FTIR) spectra before and after the laser exposure.

  10. Diffractive beam shaping for enhanced laser polymer welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, J.; Vogler, D.; Raab, C.; Gubler, U.

    2015-03-01

    Laser welding of polymers increasingly finds application in a large number of industries such as medical technology, automotive, consumer electronics, textiles or packaging. More and more, it replaces other welding technologies for polymers, e. g. hot-plate, vibration or ultrasonic welding. At the same rate, demands on the quality of the weld, the flexibility of the production system and on processing speed have increased. Traditionally, diode lasers were employed for plastic welding with flat-top beam profiles. With the advent of fiber lasers with excellent beam quality, the possibility to modify and optimize the beam profile by beam-shaping elements has opened. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) can play a crucial role in optimizing the laser intensity profile towards the optimal M-shape beam for enhanced weld seam quality. We present results on significantly improved weld seam width constancy and enlarged process windows compared to Gaussian or flat-top beam profiles. Configurations in which the laser beam diameter and shape can be adapted and optimized without changing or aligning the laser, fiber-optic cable or optical head are shown.

  11. Modeling and design of energy concentrating laser weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sklar, E. [OptiCad Corp., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The application of lasers for welding and joining has increased steadily over the past decade with the advent of high powered industrial laser systems. Attributes such as high energy density and precise focusing allow high speed processing of precision assemblies. Other characteristics of the process such as poor coupling of energy due to highly reflective materials and instabilities associated with deep penetration keyhole mode welding remain as process limitations and challenges to be overcome. Reflective loss of laser energy impinging on metal surfaces can in some cases exceed ninety five percent, thus making the process extremely inefficient. Enhanced coupling of the laser beam can occur when high energy densities approach the vaporization point of the materials and form a keyhole feature which can trap laser energy and enhance melting and process efficiency. The extreme temperature, pressure and fluid flow dynamics of the keyhole make control of the process difficult in this melting regime. The authors design and model weld joints which through reflective propagation and concentration of the laser beam energy significantly enhance the melting process and weld morphology. A three dimensional computer based geometric optical model is used to describe the key laser parameters and joint geometry. Ray tracing is used to compute the location and intensity of energy absorption within the weld joint. Comparison with experimentation shows good correlation of energy concentration within the model to actual weld profiles. The effect of energy concentration within various joint geometry is described. This method for extending the design of the laser system to include the weld joint allows the evaluation and selection of laser parameters such as lens and focal position for process optimization. The design of narrow gap joints which function as energy concentrators is described. The enhanced laser welding of aluminum without keyhole formation has been demonstrated.

  12. GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely related......In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser...... to the welding speed, (2) the larger laser power leads to the bigger maximum allowable gap width and (3) the focal point position has very little influence on the maximum gap width....

  13. Laser tissue welding mediated with a protein solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ward, IV; Heredia, Nicholas J.; Celliers, Peter M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Eder, David C.; Glinsky, Michael E.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Soltz, Barbara A.

    1996-05-01

    A study of laser tissue welding mediated with an indocyanine green dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly obtained sections of porcine artery were used for the experiments. Sample arterial wall thickness ranged from two to three millimeters. Incisions approximately four millimeters in length were treated using an 805 nanometer continuous- wave diode laser coupled to a one millimeter diameter fiber. Controlled parameters included the power delivered by the laser, the duration of the welding process, and the concentration of dye in the solder. A two-color infrared detection system was constructed to monitor the surface temperatures achieved at the weld site. Burst pressure measurements were made to quantify the strengths of the welds immediately following completion of the welding procedure.

  14. Laser welding to expand the allowable gap in bore welding for ITER blanket hydraulic connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hisashi, E-mail: tanigawa.hisashi@jaea.go.jp; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    For application to bore welding of hydraulic connection in the ITER blanket module, laser welding presents the following benefits: low weld heat input is preferred for re-welding of the irradiated material. Its contactless process can intrinsically avoid a failure mode of the tool sticking on the weld. The exact requirements for pipe alignment were assessed in comparison with the assembly tolerance. The groove geometry was modified to expand the allowable initial gap. The groove was machined to be partially thick to obviate the filler wire. First, plates with partially thick grooves were welded to elucidate the preferred groove geometry and welding conditions. With the modified groove, the plates were welded for the initial gap of 1.0 mm. Then the groove geometry and welding conditions were adjusted based on results of pipe welding tests. By application of the additional 0.5-mm-thick and 2.5-mm-wide metal in the groove, pipes with an initial gap of 0.7 mm were welded successfully.

  15. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-30

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  16. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  17. Material Properties of Laser-Welded Thin Silicon Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Hessmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended monocrystalline silicon base foil offers a great opportunity to combine low-cost production with high efficiency silicon solar cells on a large scale. By overcoming the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafer production, costs could be decreased to thin film solar cell range. The extended monocrystalline silicon base foil consists of several individual thin silicon wafers which are welded together. A comparison of three different approaches to weld 50 μm thin silicon foils is investigated here: (1 laser spot welding with low constant feed speed, (2 laser line welding, and (3 keyhole welding. Cross-sections are prepared and analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD to reveal changes in the crystal structure at the welding side after laser irradiation. The treatment leads to the appearance of new grains and boundaries. The induced internal stress, using the three different laser welding processes, was investigated by micro-Raman analysis. We conclude that the keyhole welding process is the most favorable to produce thin silicon foils.

  18. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weld pool has been evaluated in case of high power CO2 laser beam welding. The ... The experiments based on twin or triple spot interaction geometry have also ... while the other one is between the liquid and the solid states of the metal.

  19. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  20. The effects of laser welding parameters on the microstructure of ferritic and duplex stainless steels welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, J.; Kujanpää, V.

    This study is focused to determine empirically, which microstructural changes occur in ferritic and duplex stainless steels when heat input is controlled by welding parameters. Test welds were done autogenously bead-on-plate without shielding gas using 5 kW fiber laser. For comparison, some gas tungsten arc welds were made. Used test material were 1.4016 (AISI 430) and 1.4003 (low-carbon ferritic) type steels in ferritic steels group and 1.4162 (low-alloyed duplex, LDX2101) and 1.4462 (AISI 2205) type steels in duplex steels group. Microstructural changes in welds were identified and examined using optical metallographic methods.

  1. Sensor development and integration for robotized laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.

    2009-01-01

    Laser welding requires fast and accurate positioning of the laser beam over the seam trajectory. The task of accurate positioning of the laser tools is performed by robotic systems. It is therefore necessary to teach the robot the path it has to follow. Seam teaching is implemented in several ways:

  2. Energy losses estimation during pulsed-laser seam welding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestová, Hana; Havelková, M.; Chmelíčková, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2014), s. 1116-1121 ISSN 1073-5615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser welding * pulsed-laser * Nd:YAG laser Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2014

  3. Investigation on fracture toughness of laser beam welded steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekehr, S.; Cam, G.; Santos, J.F. dos; Kocak, M.; Klein, R.M.; Fischer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Laser beam welding is currently used in the welding of a variety of structural materials including hot and cold rolled steels, high strength low alloy and stainless steels, aluminium and titanium alloys, refractory and high temperature alloys and dissimilar materials. This high power density welding process has unique advantages of cost effectiveness, low distortion, high welding speed, easy automation, deep penetration, narrow bead width, and narrow HAZ compared to the conventional fusion welding processes. However, there is a need to understand the deformation and fracture properties of laser beam weld joints in order to use this cost effective process for fabrication of structural components fully. In the present study, an austenitic stainless steel, X5CrNi18 10 (1.4301) and a ferritic structural steel, RSt37-2 (1.0038), with a thickness of 4 mm were welded by 5 kW CO 2 laser process. Microhardness measurements were conducted to determine the hardness profiles of the joints. Flat micro-tensile specimens were extracted from the base metal, fusion zone, and heat affected zone of ferritic joint to determine the mechanical property variation across the joint and the strength mismatch ratio between the base metal and the fusion zone. Moreover, fracture mechanics specimens were extracted from the joints and tested at room temperature to determine fracture toughness, Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD), of the laser beam welded specimens. The effect of the weld region strength mis-matching on the fracture toughness of the joints have been evaluated. Crack initiation, crack growth and crack deviation processes have also been examined. These results were used to explain the influence of mechanical heterogeneity of the weld region on fracture behaviour. This work is a part of the ongoing Brite-Euram project Assessment of Quality of Power Beam Weld Joints (ASPOW). (orig.)

  4. Design Optimization and Fatigue Analysis of Laser Stake Welded Connections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Anshuman; Vel, Senthil S; Caccese, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    This report summanzes research on the design and fatigue analysis of laser-stake welded connections performed at the University of Maine from January 2006 to December 2007 for the Structural Response...

  5. Development of Weld Metal Microstructures in Pulsed Laser Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, F.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Torkamany, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The microstructure of the weld metal of a duplex stainless steel made with Nd:YAG pulsed laser is investigated at different travel speeds and pulse frequencies. In terms of the solidification pattern, the weld microstructure is shown to be composed of two distinct zones. The presence of two competing heat transfer channels to the relatively cooler base metal and the relatively hotter previous weld spot is proposed to develop two zones. At high overlapping factors, an array of continuous axial grains at the weld centerline is formed. At low overlapping factors, in the zone of higher cooling rate, a higher percentage of ferrite is transformed to austenite. This is shown to be because with extreme cooling rates involved in pulsed laser welding with low overlapping, the ferrite-to-austenite transformation can be limited only to the grain boundaries.

  6. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  7. Thermal and molecular investigation of laser tissue welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ward, IV

    Despite the growing number of successful animal and human trials, the exact mechanisms of laser tissue welding remain unknown. Furthermore, the effects of laser heating on tissue on the molecular scale are not fully understood. To address these issues, a multi-front attack on both extrinsic (solder/patch mediated) and intrinsic (laser only) tissue welding was launched using two-color infrared thermometry, computer modeling, weld strength assessment, biochemical assays, and vibrational spectroscopy. The coupling of experimentally measured surface temperatures with the predictive numerical simulations provided insight into the sub surface dynamics of the laser tissue welding process. Quantification of the acute strength of the welds following the welding procedure enabled comparison among trials during an experiment, with previous experiments, and with other studies in the literature. The acute weld integrity also provided an indication of the probability of long-term success. Molecular effects induced in the tissue by laser irradiation were investigated by measuring the concentrations of specific collagen covalent crosslinks and measuring the infrared absorption spectra before and after the laser exposure. This investigation yielded results pertaining to both the methods and mechanisms of laser tissue welding. The combination of two-color infrared thermometry to obtain accurate surface temperatures free from emissivity bias and computer modeling illustrated the importance of including evaporation in the simulations, which effectively serves as an inherent cooling mechanism during laser irradiation. Moreover, the hydration state predicted by the model was useful in assessing the role of electrostatic versus covalent bonding in the fusion. These tools also helped elicit differences between dye- enhanced liquid solders and solid-matrix patches in laser-assisted tissue welding, demonstrating the significance of repeatable energy delivery. Surprisingly, covalent bonds

  8. CO2 and diode laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinhong; Li Lin; Liu Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are being increasingly used in automotive and aerospace structures. Laser welding is an important joining method in such applications. There are several kinds of industrial lasers available at present, including the conventional CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers as well as recently available high power diode lasers. A 1.5 kW diode laser and a 2 kW CO 2 laser are used in the present study for the welding of AZ31 alloys. It is found that different welding modes exist, i.e., keyhole welding with the CO 2 laser and conduction welding with both the CO 2 and the diode lasers. This paper characterizes welds in both welding modes. The effect of beam spot size on the weld quality is analyzed. The laser processing parameters are optimized to obtain welds with minimum defects

  9. First results of laser welding of neutron irradiated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osch, E.V. van; Hulst, D.S. d'; Laan, J.G. van der.

    1994-10-01

    First results of experimental investigations on the laser reweldability of neutron irradiated material are reported. These experiments include the manufacture of 'heterogeneous' joints, which means joining of irradiated stainless steel of type AISI 316L-SPH to 'fresh' unirradiated material. The newly developed laser welding facility in the ECN Hot Cell Laboratory and experimental procedures are described. Visual inspections of welded joints are reported as well as results of electron microscopy and preliminary metallographic examinations. (orig.)

  10. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  11. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu Jr

    2013-01-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu–Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu–Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint. (paper)

  12. Nd-YAG laser welding of bare and galvanised steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.C.; Norris, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Until recently, one of the problems that has held back the introduction of lasers into car body fabrication has been the difficulty of integrating the lasers with robots. Nd-YAG laser beams can be transmitted through fibre optics which, as well as being considerably easier to manipulate than a mirror system, can be mounted on more lightweight accurate robots. Although previously only available at low powers, recent developments in Nd-YAG laser technology mean that lasers of up to 1kW average power will soon be available, coupled to a fibre optic beam delivery system. The increasing usage of zinc coated steels in vehicle bodies has led to welding problems using conventional resistance welding as well as CO 2 laser welding. The use of Nd-YAG lasers may be able to overcome these problems. This paper outlines work carried out at The Welding Institute on a prototype Lumonics 800W pulsed Nd-YAG laser to investigate its welding characteristics on bare and zinc coated car body steels

  13. Problems in laser repair welding of polished surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skumavc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents problems in laser repair welding of the tools for injection moulding of plastics and light metals. Tools for injection moulding of the car headlamps are highly polished in order to get a desirable quality of the injected part. Different light metals, glasses, elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are injected into the die cavity under high pressures resulting in the surface damages of the tool. Laser welding is the only suitable repair welding technique due to the very limited sputtering during deposition of the filler metal. Overlapping of the welds results in inhomogeneous hardness of the remanufactured surface. Results have shown strong correlation between hardness and surface waviness after final polishing of the repair welded surface.

  14. Intelligent monitoring of YAG laser welding on steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Shigetaka; Nagura, Yasumi; Ishide, Takashi; Nagashima, Tadashi; Akaba, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    The 'KASHIKOKI' intelligent device for monitoring the YAG laser welding of steam generator tubes is described in this paper. The 'KASHIKOKI', it monitors the series of six channels, for example, the reflected laser beam and the welding speed, etc. It learns the normal criteria and the anomalous criteria of welding, and discriminates between normal and anomalous welding using the learned criteria, and distinguishes the anomaly into several types. As the results of evaluation test, the degree of correspondence between this device and an expert is about 90%. This paper describes the new methods the multi-variate analysis model for discriminating between normal and anomalous welding, and a neural network model for distinguishing the types of anomaly. (author)

  15. Influence of shielding gas composition on weld profile in pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jokar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Weld area and weld depth/width ratio can be considered to be of the most important geometrical factors in pulsed laser welding. The effects of carbon dioxide and oxygen additions to the argon shielding gas on the weld properties in pulsed laser welding of low carbon steel is investigated. Presence of carbon dioxide and oxygen up to 10 and 15 percent respectively decreases the weld geometrical factors. But, at higher levels of additions, the weld geometrical factors will increase. It is observed that the plasma plume temperature decreases from 6000K to 5500K with the addition of 15% carbon dioxide but increases to 7700K with 25% carbon dioxide addition. Increase in laser absorption coefficient, laser energy absorption, formation of oxide layer on the work-piece surface, exothermic reactions and their competitive effects can be considered as the competing phenomena involved in such a behavior in the weld profile

  16. Study of Gravity Effects on Titanium Laser Welding in the Vertical Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Baohua; Yuan, Zhang; Pu, Haitao; Li, Haigang; Cheng, Hao; Du, Dong; Shan, Jiguo

    2017-09-08

    To obtain satisfactory welds in positional laser beam welding, it is necessary to know how process parameters will influence the quality of welds in different welding positions. In this study, the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V sheets were laser welded in two vertical welding positions (vertical up and vertical down), and the appearance, porosity, strength, and ductility of the laser joints were evaluated. Results show that undercuts of the vertical up welds were greater than that of vertical down welds, while the porosity contents were much higher in vertical down welds than that in vertical up welds. When welding with a higher heat input, the vertical up welding position resulted in poor weld profiles (undercuts and burn-through holes), whereas the vertical down welding position led to excessive porosity contents in welds. Both severe undercut and excessive porosity were detrimental to the tensile properties of the welds. Weld appearance was improved and porosity contents were reduced by using a lower heat input, achieving better weld quality. Therefore, it is suggested that process parameter settings with relatively high laser powers and welding speeds, which can result in lower heat inputs, are used when laser welding the Ti6Al4V titanium alloys vertically.

  17. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  18. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads in laser butt welding is sought identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number of "reference" welds are made and compared to the sheets with shear cut edges. In the tests the gap...... was set at 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mm. Mild steel (St 1203) with a thickness of 0.75 and 1.25 mm with and without zinc coating were analysed. A total of 120 welds were made at different welding speeds.As quality norm DIN 8563 was used to divide the welds into quality classes. A number of welds...... were also x-ray photographed.Of the weld combinations analysed 80 % were of high quality and 17 % of a non-acceptable quality. 90 % of the bad welds had a gap distance larger than 0.05 mm. The results showed that 85 % of the bad welds were shear cut and only 15 % grinded. Two third of the bad welds...

  19. Jellyfish Identification Software for Underwater Laser Cameras (JTRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Mariani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish can form erratic blooms in response to seasonal and irregular changes in environmental conditions with often large, transient effects on local ecosystem structure as well as effects on several sectors of the marine and maritime economy. Early warning systems able to detect conditions for jelly fish proliferation can enable management responses to mitigate such effects providing benefit to local ecosystems and economies. We propose here the creation of a research team in response to the EU call for proposal under the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund called “Blue Labs: innovative solutions for maritime challenges”. The project will establish a BLUELAB team with a strong cross-sectorial component that will benefit of the expertise of researchers in IT and Marine Biology, Computer Vision and embedded systems, which will work in collaboration with Industry and Policy maker to develop an early warning system using a new underwater imaging system based on Time of Flight Laser cameras. The camera will be combined to machine learning algorithm allowing autonomous early detection of jellyfish species (e.g. polyp, ephyra and planula stages. The team will develop the system and the companion software and will demonstrate its applications in real case conditions.

  20. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  1. Laser welding by dental Nd:YAG device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Bertrand, Caroline; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, Samir

    2009-06-01

    Welding laser was introduced in jewellery during years 70 and, just after, was successfully used also by dental technicians. Welding laser gives a great number of advantages, versus traditional welding and, for this reason, this procedure had a great diffusion in the technician laboratories and stimulated the companies to put in the market more and more evolutes appliances. Some aspects, such great dimensions, high costs and delivery system today still characterize these machines by fixed lenses, which have strictly limited its use only to technician laboratories. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility, by using a fibber-delivered laser normally utilized in the dental office, to make, by dentist himself in his office, welding on different metals and to evaluate advantages and possibilities of this new technique.

  2. Process Studies on Laser Welding of Copper with Brilliant Green and Infrared Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Engler, Sebastian; Ramsayer, Reiner; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2011-01-01

    Copper materials are classified as difficult to weld with state-of-the-art lasers. High thermal conductivity in combination with low absorption at room temperature require high intensities for reaching a deep penetration welding process. The low absorption also causes high sensitivity to variations in surface conditions. Green laser radiation shows a considerable higher absorption at room temperature. This reduces the threshold intensity for deep penetration welding significantly. The influen...

  3. Geographical positioning using laser optical instrument for near-shore underwater archaeological explorations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    carefully identified comers of the underwater artifacts) is found to be more accurate, faster, and reliable. This method can be effectively used only for shallow water near shore underwater archaeo- GLIMPSES OF MARINE ARCHAEOLOGY IN INDIA logical... Trak (placed over selected ground controi station) and a multi-prism (placed over carefully identified comers of the artifact). The standard survey procedures prescribed in the Laser Trak operation manual (Make III model) were used to carry out...

  4. Laser beam welding of Waspaloy: Characterization and corrosion behavior evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Razavi, Reza

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a study on Nd:YAG laser welding of Waspaloy sheets has been made. Microstructures, phase changes and hardness of the laser joint were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and vickers microhardness (HV0.3). Corrosion behavior of the weldment at low temperature in 3.5%wt NaCl solution at room temperature was also investigated using open circuit potential and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on samples in the molten salt environment (Na2SO4-60%V2O5) at 900 °C for 50 h. Results indicated that the microstructure of weld zone was mainly dendritic grown epitaxially in the direction perpendicular to the weld boundary and heat transfer. Moreover, the Ti-Mo carbide particles were observed in the structure of the weld zone and base metal. The average size of carbides formed in the base metal (2.97±0.5 μm) was larger than that of the weld zone (0.95±0.2 μm). XRD patterns of the weld zone and base metal showed that the laser welding did not alter the phase structure of the weld zone, being in γ-Ni(Cr) single phase. Microhardness profile showed that the hardness values of the weld zone (210-261 HV) were lower than that of the base metal (323-330 HV). Electrochemical and hot corrosion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal was greater than the base metal in both room and high temperatures.

  5. Laser Indirect Shock Welding of Fine Wire to Metal Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Huang, Tao; Luo, Yapeng; Liu, Huixia

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced method for welding fine wire to metal sheet, namely laser indirect shock welding (LISW). This process uses silica gel as driver sheet to accelerate the metal sheet toward the wire to obtain metallurgical bonding. A series of experiments were implemented to validate the welding ability of Al sheet/Cu wire and Al sheet/Ag wire. It was found that the use of a driver sheet can maintain high surface quality of the metal sheet. With the increase of laser pulse energy, the bonding area of the sheet/wire increased and the welding interfaces were nearly flat. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that the intermetallic phases were absent and a short element diffusion layer which would limit the formation of the intermetallic phases emerging at the welding interface. A tensile shear test was used to measure the mechanical strength of the welding joints. The influence of laser pulse energy on the tensile failure modes was investigated, and two failure modes, including interfacial failure and failure through the wire, were observed. The nanoindentation test results indicate that as the distance to the welding interface decreased, the microhardness increased due to the plastic deformation becoming more violent.

  6. Experimental Development of Dual Phase Steel Laser-arc Hybrid Welding and its Comparison to Laser and Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Duarte Antunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Dual phase DP600 steels have been used in many automobile structures and laser welding has been the standard method for the joining of different sections. This work proposed a comparison between laser welding with arc welding (GMAW and with hybrid laser-arc welding in order to access the microstructures and the mechanical behavior. The laser and hybrid welds are competitive in terms of microstructure and mechanical behavior, presenting both acceptable and tough welds. The maximum ductility of the laser and hybrid welds are very similar, around 14%, and near to the values observed in the base material. The GMAW presents low ductility due to the softening caused by tampering of the martensite, and thus is unacceptable as the welding procedure.

  7. Finite element simulation of laser transmission welding of dissimilar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developed model derives its main advantage from its applicability in parametric studies of a wide range of laser transmission metal to plastic welding problems of different geometrical, material and joint type, requiring only the basic thermo-physical material properties, the geometric details and the laser process ...

  8. High power Nd:YAG laser welding in manufacturing of vacuum vessel of fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, Tommi E-mail: tommi.jokinen@vtt.fi; Kujanpaeae, Veli E-mail: veli.kujanpaa@lut.fi

    2003-09-01

    Laser welding has shown many advantages over traditional welding methods in numerous applications. The advantages are mainly based on very precise and powerful heat source of laser light, which change the phenomena of welding process when compared with traditional welding methods. According to the phenomena of the laser welding, penetration is deeper and thus welding speed is higher. Because of the precise power source and high-welding speed, the heat input to the workpiece is small and distortions are reduced. Also, the shape of laser weld is less critical for distortions than traditional welds. For welding thick sections, the usability of lasers is not so practical than with thin sheets, because with power levels of present Nd:YAG lasers depth of penetration is limited up to about 10 mm by single-pass welding. One way to overcome this limitation is to use multi-pass laser welding, in which narrow gap and filler wire is applied. By this process, thick sections can be welded with smaller heat input and then smaller distortions and the process seems to be very effective comparing 'traditional' welding methods, not only according to the narrower gap. Another way to increase penetration and fill the groove is by using the so-called hybrid process, in which laser and GMAW (gas metal arc welding) are combined. In this paper, 20-mm thick austenitic stainless steel was welded using narrow gap configuration with a multi-pass technique. Two welding procedures were used: Nd:YAG laser welding with filler wire and with addition of GMAW, the hybrid process. In the welding experiments, it was noticed that both processes are feasible for welding thicker sections with good quality and with minimal distortions. Thus, these processes should be considered when the evaluation of the welding process is done for joining vacuum vessel sectors of ITER.

  9. Assessment of Hot Crack Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Crack testing concerning small and fast solidifying laser welds in austenitic stainless steel has been studied. A set of methods has been applied to investigate alloy properties, including (1) Application of known information to predict solidification phases, (2) Weld metal solidification rate...... crack tests, the Weeter spot weld test has been chosen to form a basis for the development of a practicable method to select specific alloys for welding applications. A new test, the Groove weld test was developed, which has reduced the time consumption and lightened the analysis effort considerably...... measurements for prediction of phases, (3) Various crack tests to assess the crack susceptibility of alloys and (4) A combination of the above for selection of suitable, weldable alloys. The possibility of using such specific methods for alloys and applications has been investigated and recommendations...

  10. Changes in type I collagen following laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, L S; Moazami, N; Pocsidio, J; Oz, M C; LoGerfo, P; Treat, M R

    1992-01-01

    Selection of ideal laser parameters for tissue welding is inhibited by poor understanding of the mechanism. We investigated structural changes in collagen molecules extracted from rat tail tendon (> 90% type I collagen) after tissue welding using an 808 nm diode laser and indocyanine green dye applied to the weld site. Mobility patterns on SDS-PAGE were identical in the lasered and untreated tendon extracts with urea or acetic acid. Pepsin incubation after acetic acid extraction revealed a reduction of collagen alpha and beta bands in lasered compared with untreated specimens. Circular dichroism studies of rat tail tendon showed absence of helical structure in collagen from lasered tendon. No evidence for covalent bonding was present in laser-treated tissues. Collagen molecules are denatured by the laser wavelength and parameters used in this study. No significant amount of helical structure is regenerated on cooling. We conclude that non-covalent interactions between denatured collagen molecules may be responsible for the creation of tissue welding.

  11. Laser beam welding of titanium additive manufactured parts

    OpenAIRE

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the joinability of titanium Additive Manufactured (AM) parts is explored. Keyhole welding, using a pulsed laser beam, of conventionally produced parts is compared to AM parts. Metal AM parts are notorious for having remaining porosities and other non-isotropic properties due to the layered manufacturing process. This study shows that due to these deficiencies more energy per unit weld length is required to obtain a similar keyhole geometry for titanium AM parts. It is also demon...

  12. Cracking susceptibility of aluminum alloys during laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Abbaschian

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser parameters in welding aluminum alloys was studied in order to reduce hot cracking. The extension of cracks at the welding surface was used as a cracking susceptibility (CS index. It has been shown that the CS changes with changing welding velocity for binary Al-Cu alloys. In general, the CS index increased until a maximum velocity and then dropped to zero, generating a typical lambda-curve. This curve is due to two different mechanisms: 1 the refinement of porosities with increasing velocity and 2 the changes in the liquid fraction due to decreasing microsegregation with increasing velocities.

  13. Seam gap bridging of laser based processes for the welding of aluminium sheets for industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderink, B.J.; Aalderink, Benno; Pathiraj, B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser welding has a large potential for the production of tailor welded blanks in the automotive industry, due to the low heat input and deep penetration. However, due to the small laser spot and melt pool, laser-based welding processes in general have a low tolerance for seam gaps. In this paper,

  14. Influence of shielding gas pressure on welding characteristics in CO2 laser-MIG hybrid welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanbin; Lei, Zhenglong; Li, Liqun; Wu, Lin

    2006-01-01

    The droplet transfer behavior and weld characteristics have been investigated under different pressures of shielding gas in CO2 laser and metal inert/active gas (laser-MIG) hybrid welding process. The experimental results indicate that the inherent droplet transfer frequency and stable welding range of conventional MIG arc are changed due to the interaction between CO2 laser beam and MIG arc in laser-MIG hybrid welding process, and the shielding gas pressure has a crucial effect on welding characteristics. When the pressure of shielding gas is low in comparison with MIG welding, the frequency of droplet transfer decreases, and the droplet transfer becomes unstable in laser-MIG hybrid welding. So the penetration depth decreases, which shows the characteristic of unstable hybrid welding. However, when the pressure of shielding gas increases to a critical value, the hybrid welding characteristic is changed from unstable hybrid welding to stable hybrid welding, and the frequency of droplet transfer and the penetration depth increase significantly.

  15. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  16. Fusion welding studies using laser on Ti-SS dissimilar combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugarajan, B.; Padmanabham, G.

    2012-11-01

    Laser welding investigations were carried out on dissimilar Ti-SS combination. The study is aimed to improve the weld strength and ductility by minimizing harmful intermetallics and taking advantage of high cooling rates in laser welding. Results of continuous wave 3.5 kW CO2 laser welding of totally dissimilar combination of Titanium and stainless steel (304) have been discussed. Bead on plate welding experiments were conducted to identify the laser welding parameters using depth of penetration as criteria. The welding of dissimilar combination has been attempted both autogenously and with interlayers such as Vanadium (V) and Tantalum (Ta) in the form of laser cladding as well as strip. Autogenous welds were carried out by varying the laser power, welding speed and position of the laser beam with respect to the joint centre. The resultant welds are characterized by macrostructure analysis, SEM/EDAX and XRD and as welded tensile test in UTM. The autogenous welds have exhibited extensive cracking even when welded at high speeds or by manipulating the beam position with respect to the joint. Similarly Vandaium as interlayer could not achieve crack free joint. A joint with 40 MPa strength could be made with Ta as interlayer. Results and analysis of these variants of laser welded joints are reported and discussed.

  17. Prevention of microcracking by REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal in laser clad welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okauchi, Hironori; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    Effect of REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal on microcracking prevention was verified in laser clad welding. Laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal or type 316L stainless steel was conducted using the five different filler metals of alloy 690 varying the La content. Ductility-dip crack occurred in laser clad welding when La-free alloy 690 filler metal was applied. Solidification and liquation cracks occurred contrarily in the laser cladding weld metal when the 0.07mass%La containing filler metal was applied. In case of laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal and type 316L stainless steel, the ductility-dip cracking susceptibility decreased, and solidification/liquation cracking susceptibilities increased with increasing the La content in the weld metal. The relation among the microcracking susceptibility, the (P+S) and La contents in every weld pass of the laser clad welding was investigated. Ductility-dip cracks occurred in the compositional range (atomic ratio) of La/(P+S) 0.99(on alloy 132 weld metal), >0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel), while any cracks did not occur at La/(P+S) being between 0.21-0.99 (on alloy 132 weld metal) 0.10-0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel). Laser clad welding test on type 316L stainless steel using alloy 690 filler metal containing the optimum La content verified that any microcracks did not occurred in the laser clad welding metal. (author)

  18. Research on Heat Source Model and Weld Profile for Fiber Laser Welding of A304 Stainless Steel Thin Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat source model is the key issue for laser welding simulation. The Gaussian heat source model is not suitable to match the actual laser weld profile accurately. Furthermore, fiber lasers are widely recognized to result in good-quality laser beam output, a narrower weld zone, less distortion, and high process efficiency, compared with other types of lasers (such as CO2, Nd : YAG, and diode lasers. At present, there are few heat source models for fiber laser welding. Most of researchers evaluate the weld profile only by the bead width and depth of penetration, which is not suitable for the laser keyhole welding nail-like profile. This paper reports an experimental study and FEA simulation of fiber laser butt welding on 1 mm thick A304 stainless steel. A new heat source model (cylindrical and cylindrical is established to match the actual weld profile using Marc and Fortran software. Four bead geometry parameters (penetration depth, bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist are used to compare between the experimental and simulation results. The results show that the heat source model of cylindrical and cylindrical can match the actual shape of the fiber laser welding feasibly. The error range of the penetration depth, bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist between experimental and simulation results is about 4.1 ± 1.6%, 2.9 ± 2.0%, 13.6 ± 7.4/%, and 18.3 ± 8.0%, respectively. In addition, it is found that the depth of penetration is more sensitive to laser power rather than bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist. Welding speed has a similar influence on the depth of penetration, weld width, waist width, and depth of the waist.

  19. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  20. Dependence of fracture toughness of molybdenum laser welds on dendritic spacing and in situ titanium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellison, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture toughness of molybdenum welds has been improved by in situ gettering of oxygen by means of physically deposited titanium. The addition of titanium suppressed brittle intergranular fracture. Pulsed laser welds (both Nd:YAG and CO 2 ) exhibited superior toughness to that of continuous wave CO 2 laser welds. Also, welds of vacuum arc remelted grades were tougher than those of sintered molybdenum. However, weld toughness could not be correlated with either oxygen or carbon content

  1. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks.

  2. Welding of dissimilar metals by CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garciandia, F.; Zubiri, F.; Etayo, J.L.; Cervantes, R.; Iriberri, I.

    1998-01-01

    The work carried out in CETENASA (laser department) in order to weld dissimilar metals is summarized. The involved metallic pair is M-35 and F-143, a high speed steel and a spring steel, respectively. Looking at the chemical composition of the involved alloys that will appear later, it can be easily understood the difficulty to obtain welded parts with structures metallurgically acceptable because of the high cracking degree that these materials show, specially M-35. The principles of a study which is being developed in the authors laboratory and which shows some interesting CO 2 laser possibilities are presented. (Author) 2 refs

  3. Diode Lasers used in Plastic Welding and Selective Laser Soldering - Applications and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinl, S.

    Aside from conventional welding methods, laser welding of plastics has established itself as a proven bonding method. The component-conserving and clean process offers numerous advantages and enables welding of sensitive assemblies in automotive, electronic, medical, human care, food packaging and consumer electronics markets. Diode lasers are established since years within plastic welding applications. Also, soft soldering using laser radiation is becoming more and more significant in the field of direct diode laser applications. Fast power controllability combined with a contactless temperature measurement to minimize thermal damage make the diode laser an ideal tool for this application. These advantages come in to full effect when soldering of increasingly small parts in temperature sensitive environments is necessary.

  4. Wavelength dependency in high power laser cutting and welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrilla, David; Ziermann, Stephan; Holzer, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Laser cutting and welding have been around for more than 30 years. Within those three decades there has never been a greater variety of high power laser types and wavelengths to choose from than there is today. There are many considerations when choosing the right laser for any given application - capital investment, cost of ownership, footprint, serviceability, along with a myriad of other commercial & economic considerations. However, one of the most fundamental questions that must be asked and answered is this - "what type of laser is best suited for the application?". Manufacturers and users alike are realizing what, in retrospect, may seem obvious - there is no such thing as a universal laser. In many cases there is one laser type and wavelength that clearly provides the highest quality application results. This paper will examine the application fields of high power, high brightness 10.6 & 1 micron laser welding & cutting and will provide guidelines for selecting the laser that is best suited for the application. Processing speed & edge quality serve as key criteria for cutting. Whereas speed, seam quality & spatter ejection provide the paradigm for welding.

  5. Double fillet lap of laser welding of thin sheet AZ31B Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mahadzir; Salleh, M. N. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the experimental laser welding of thin sheet AZ31B using double fillet lap joint method. Laser welding is capable of producing high quality weld seams especially for small weld bead on thin sheet product. In this experiment, both edges for upper and lower sheets were subjected to the laser beam from the pulse wave (PW) mode of fiber laser. Welded sample were tested their joint strength by tensile-shear strength method and the fracture loads were studied. Strength for all welded samples were investigated and the effect of laser parameters on the joint strength and appearances were studied. Pulsed energy (EP) from laser process give higher effect on joint strength compared to the welding speed (WS) and angle of irradiation (AOI). Highest joint strength was possessed by sample with high EP with the same value of WS and AOI. The strength was low due to the crack defect at the centre of weld region.

  6. Keyhole shapes during laser welding of thin metal sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalderink, B J; Lange, D F de; Aarts, R G K M; Meijer, J

    2007-01-01

    Camera observations of the full penetration keyhole laser welding process show that the keyhole shape is elongated under certain welding conditions. Under these unfavourable circumstances, the welding process is susceptible to holes in the weld bead. Existing models of the pressure balance at the keyhole wall cannot explain this keyhole elongation. In this paper a new model is presented, accounting for the doubly curved shape of the keyhole wall. In this model, the surface tension pressure has one term that tends to close the keyhole and another term that tries to open it. Model calculations show that when the keyhole diameter is of the same order as the sheet thickness, the latter part can become dominant, causing the keyhole to elongate. Experiments on thin aluminium (AA5182) and mild steel (DC04) sheets verify these model calculations. As the keyhole radius depends on the radius of the focused laser spot, it was found for both materials that the ratio of the spot radius and the sheet thickness must be above a critical value to prevent keyhole elongation. These critical radii are 0.25 for AA5182 and 0.4 for DC04, respectively. Furthermore, differences in appearance of the weld bead between the circular and the elongated keyhole welds could be explained by this model

  7. Studies on post weld heat treatment of dissimilar aluminum alloys by laser beam welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, B.; Krishna, N. Murali; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Sivaprasad, K.; Muthupandi, V.

    2018-03-01

    The present study mainly focuses on post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of AA5083 and AA6061 alloys by joining these using laser beam welding at three different laser power and two different beam spot sizes and three different welding speeds. Effects of these parameters on microstructural and mechanical properties like hardness, tensile strength were studied at PWHT condition and significant changes had been observed. The PWHT used was artificial aging technique. The microstructural observations revealed that there was a appreciable changes were taken place in the grain size. The microhardness observations proven that the change in the hardness profile in AA6061 was appreciable than in the AA5083. The tensile strength of 246 MPa was recorded as highest. The fractured surfaces observed are predominantly ductile in nature.

  8. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    of "reference" welds are made and compared to sheets with the edges shear cut. The gap distance is precisely controlled by inserting spacers between the sheets. In the tests the gap is set at 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mm. Mild steel (St 1203) with thickness? of 0.75 and 1.25 mm with and without zinc......When butt-welding metal sheets with high power lasers the gap distance between the sheets determine the final quality of the seam. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads is identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number...... coating were analysed. A total of 120 welds are made at different welding speeds.As quality norm DIN 8563 is used to divide the welds into quality classes. Since this norm only deals with surface defects a number of welds are also x-ray photographed.According to DIN 8563 the welds have classes of either B...

  9. Laser welding parameters for manufacturing iridium-192 (Ir-192) source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anung Pujiyanto; Moch Subechi; Hotman Lubis; Diandono KY

    2013-01-01

    Number of cervical cancer patients in Indonesia is growing every year. One of cervical cancer treatment was fairly effective use brachytherapy treatment with radioisotope sources of iridium-192. Manufacturing of iridium sources for brachytherapy can be done by incorporating the iridium-192 into stainless steel microcapsules then welding using laser welder which the quality of the welding of iridium source (Ir-192) was determined by the welding parameters such as full power, energy frequency, average power and speed. Based on the result of leakage test using pressure -20 inch Hg and tensile test 2.5 bar showed the welding parameters III and IV did not have leakage and damaged. So that parameters III and IV are recommended to be applied to Ir-192 HDR's source. (author)

  10. Fiber Laser Welding Properties of Copper Materials for Secondary Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae YOU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary battery is composed of four main elements: cathodes, anodes, membranes and electrolyte. The cathodes and the anodes are connected to the poles that allow input and output of the current generated while the battery is being charged or discharged. In this study laser welding is conducted for 40 sheets of pure copper material with thickness of 38μm, which are used in currently manufactured lithium-ion batteries, using pulse-wave fiber laser to compare welded joint to standard bolt joint and to determine optimum process parameters. The parameters, which has significant impact on penetration of the pulse waveform laser to the overlapped thin sheets, is the peak power while the size of the weld zone is mainly affected by the pulse irradiation time and the focal position. It is confirmed that overlapping rate is affected by the pulse repetition rate rather than by the pulse irradiation time. At the cross-section of the weld zone, even with the increased peak power, the width of the front bead weld size does not change significantly, but the cross-sectional area becomes larger. This is because the energy density per pulse increases as the peak power increases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.4.16316

  11. Intraoral Laser Welding (ILW in Implant Prosthetic Dentistry: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fornaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this clinical study was to describe the possibility of using the Nd:YAG laser device utilized in the dental offices to weld metals intraorally. The authors, before applying this technique “in vivo” on human subjects, tested the “in vitro” metal welding efficacy of dental Nd:YAG device firstly by interferometry, SEM, and EDS and subsequently by thermal camera and thermocouples in order to record temperature changes during the welding process on bovine jaws. Four implants were inserted in the edentulous maxillary arch of a 67 years old male patient. Immediately after that, a bar previously made by the dental technician was intraorally welded to the abutments by Nd:YAG laser (Fidelis Plus III, Fotona, Slovenia with these parameters: 9.90 mJ, 1 Hz, 15 msec, 0.6 mm spot. Then the prosthesis was connected to the bar with four OT Caps. This clinical study, even if preliminary, suggests that laser welding technique may be intraorally used without side effects.

  12. Characterisation of weld zone reactions in dissimilar glass-to-aluminium pulsed picosecond laser welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuca, Octav P., E-mail: octav.ciuca@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Carter, Richard M. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Prangnell, Philip B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hand, Duncan P. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Precision welded joints, produced between fused silica glass and aluminium by a newly-developed picosecond-pulse laser technique, have been analysed for the first time using a full range of electron microscopy methods. The welds were produced as lap joints by focusing a 1.2 μm diameter laser beam through the transparent glass top sheet, slightly below the surface of the metal bottom sheet. Despite the extremely short interaction time, extensive reaction was observed in the weld zone, which involved the formation of nanocrystalline silicon and at least two transitional alumina phases, γ- and δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The weld formation process was found to be complex and involved: the formation of a constrained plasma cavity at the joint interface, non-linear absorption in the glass, and the creation of multiple secondary keyholes in the metal substrate by beam scattering. The joint area was found to expand outside of the main interaction volume, as the energy absorbed into the low conductivity and higher melting point silica glass sheet melted the aluminium surface across a wider contact area. The reasons for the appearance of nanocrystalline Si and transitional alumina reaction products within the welds are discussed. - Highlights: •Pulsed laser welding of dissimilar materials causes extensive chemical reactivity. •Metastable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases form due to laser-induced highly-transient thermal regime. •Fused silica is reduced by Al to form nanocrystalline Si. •Mechanism of joint formation is discussed.

  13. Butt Weldability for SS400 Using Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Do; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, Duck; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, In Duck

    2016-01-01

    This study presents results of an experimental investigation of the laser-arc, hybrid, butt welding process of SS400 structural steel. Welding parameters including laser power, welding current and speed were varied in order to obtain one-pass, full-penetration welds without defects. The conditions that resulted in optimal beads were identified. After welding, hardness measurements and microstructure observations were carried out in order to study weld properties. The mechanical properties of both the base material and welded specimen were compared based on the results of tensile strength measurements. The yield and tensile strengths were found to be similar

  14. Butt Weldability for SS400 Using Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, Duck [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, In Duck [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    This study presents results of an experimental investigation of the laser-arc, hybrid, butt welding process of SS400 structural steel. Welding parameters including laser power, welding current and speed were varied in order to obtain one-pass, full-penetration welds without defects. The conditions that resulted in optimal beads were identified. After welding, hardness measurements and microstructure observations were carried out in order to study weld properties. The mechanical properties of both the base material and welded specimen were compared based on the results of tensile strength measurements. The yield and tensile strengths were found to be similar.

  15. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal vapor dominated laser-arc hybrid welding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribic, B.; DebRoy, T.; Burgardt, P.

    2011-01-01

    During laser-arc hybrid welding, plasma properties affect the welding process and the weld quality. However, hybrid welding plasmas have not been systematically studied. Here we examine electron temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivity for laser, arc, and laser-arc hybrid welding using optical emission spectroscopy. The effects of arc currents and heat source separation distances were examined because these parameters significantly affect weld quality. Time-average plasma electron temperatures, electron and ion densities, electrical conductivity, and arc stability decrease with increasing heat source separation distance during hybrid welding. Heat source separation distance affects these properties more significantly than the arc current within the range of currents considered. Improved arc stability and higher electrical conductivity of the hybrid welding plasma result from increased heat flux, electron temperatures, electron density, and metal vapor concentrations relative to arc or laser welding.

  16. A 532 nm Chaotic Fiber Laser Transmitter for Underwater Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    guidance the people fall, But in abundance of counselors there is victory.” — Proverbs 11:14 My first and most important thanks go to Jesus, for his...Vincent Jezequel, Frederic Audo, Fabrice Pellen, and Bernard Le Jeune. Experimentally based simulations on modulated lidar for shallow underwater target

  17. Model for Estimation of Thermal History Produced by a Single Pass Underwater Wet Weld

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dill, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Thermal history calculations for single pass underwater wet weldments were made by solving the appropriate beat transfer equations using the three-dimensional Crank-Nicholson finite difference method...

  18. Sensor based robot laser welding - based on feed forward and gain sceduling algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik John

    2001-01-01

    A real-time control system forlaser welding of thick steel plates are developed and tested in a industrial environment. The robotic execution of the laser welding process is based on measure weld joint geometry and impirically established welding procedures. The influence of industrial production...

  19. Microstructural examination of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy welds made by pulsed Nd:YAG laser and TIG welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, R.B.; Varma, P.V.S.; Panakkal, J.P.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the weld microstructure of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy material. Bead on plate welds were made using pulsed Nd:YAG laser and TIG welding technique at different parameters. These welds were characterized at macro and microstructural level. Weld pools of Pulsed Laser and TIG welds were not resolved by optical microscopy. SEM too did not reveal much. Orientation imaging microscopy could reveal the presence of fine martensite. It was observed that microstructure is very sensitive to welding parameters. Microhardness studies suggested formation of martensite in the weld pool. It was also observed that laser welds had very sharp weld pool boundary as compared to TIG welds. Variation in microhardness of the weldment is seen and is influenced by overlapping of weld spots causing thermal treatment of previously deposited spots. (author)

  20. Laser Welding Of Finned Tubes Made Of Austenitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolecki M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the technology of welding of finned tubes made of the X5CrNi1810 (1.4301 austenitic steel, developed at Energoinstal SA, allowing one to get high quality joints that meet the requirements of the classification societies (PN-EN 15614, and at the same time to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The authors described an automatic technological line equipped with a Trumph disc laser and a tube production technological process. To assess the quality of the joints, one performed metallographic examinations, hardness measurements and a technological attempt to rupture the fin. Analysis of the results proved that the laser-welded finned tubes were performed correctly and that the welded joints had shown no imperfections.

  1. Refurbishment of damaged tools using the combination of GTAW and laser beam welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of two welding processes for the refurbishment of damaged industrial tools. In the first part the problem is presented followed by the comparison of GTAW and laser welding in terms of repair welding of damaged tools. The macrosections of the welds show the difference between both welding processes in repairing of damaged tools. At the conclusion the main findings are presented. In many cases it is useful to use both welding processes in order to achieve better weld quality and to make welding more economical. The order of the technology used depends on the tool material, the use of the tool and the tool damage.

  2. Effect of Heat Input During Disk Laser Bead-On-Plate Welding of Thermomechanically Rolled Steel on Penetration Characteristics and Porosity Formation in the Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of heat input during laser bead-on-plate welding of 5.0 mm thick plates of S700MC steel by modern Disk laser on the mechanism of steel penetration, shape and depth of penetration, and also on tendency to weld porosity formation. Based on the investigations performed in a wide range of laser welding parameters the relationship between laser power and welding speed, thus heat input, required for full penetration was determined. Additionally the relationship between the laser welding parameters and weld quality was determined.

  3. Investigation of Laser Welding of Ti Alloys for Cognitive Process Parameters Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding of titanium alloys is attracting increasing interest as an alternative to traditional joining techniques for industrial applications, with particular reference to the aerospace sector, where welded assemblies allow for the reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio, compared to other traditional mechanical joining techniques. In this research work, an investigation on laser welding of Ti–6Al–4V alloy plates is carried out through an experimental testing campaign, under different process conditions, in order to perform a characterization of the produced weld bead geometry, with the final aim of developing a cognitive methodology able to support decision-making about the selection of the suitable laser welding process parameters. The methodology is based on the employment of artificial neural networks able to identify correlations between the laser welding process parameters, with particular reference to the laser power, welding speed and defocusing distance, and the weld bead geometric features, on the basis of the collected experimental data.

  4. Investigation of Laser Welding of Ti Alloys for Cognitive Process Parameters Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-04-20

    Laser welding of titanium alloys is attracting increasing interest as an alternative to traditional joining techniques for industrial applications, with particular reference to the aerospace sector, where welded assemblies allow for the reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio, compared to other traditional mechanical joining techniques. In this research work, an investigation on laser welding of Ti⁻6Al⁻4V alloy plates is carried out through an experimental testing campaign, under different process conditions, in order to perform a characterization of the produced weld bead geometry, with the final aim of developing a cognitive methodology able to support decision-making about the selection of the suitable laser welding process parameters. The methodology is based on the employment of artificial neural networks able to identify correlations between the laser welding process parameters, with particular reference to the laser power, welding speed and defocusing distance, and the weld bead geometric features, on the basis of the collected experimental data.

  5. Thin-Sheet zinc-coated and carbon steels laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecas, P.; Gouveia, H.; Quintino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research on CO 2 laser welding of thin-sheet carbon steels (Zinc-coated and uncoated), at several thicknesses combinations. Laser welding has an high potential to be applied on sub-assemblies welding before forming to the automotive industry-tailored blanks. The welding process is studied through the analysis of parameters optimization, metallurgical quality and induced distortions by the welding process. The clamping system and the gas protection system developed are fully described. These systems allow the minimization of common thin-sheet laser welding defects like misalignment, and zinc-coated laser welding defects like porous and zinc ventilation. The laser welding quality is accessed by DIN 8563 standard, and by tensile, microhardness and corrosion test. (Author) 8 refs

  6. The use of conduction model in laser weld profile computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabas, Bogusław

    2007-02-01

    Profiles of joints resulting from deep penetration laser beam welding of a flat workpiece of carbon steel were computed. A semi-analytical conduction model solved with Green's function method was used in computations. In the model, the moving heat source was attenuated exponentially in accordance with Beer-Lambert law. Computational results were compared with those in the experiment.

  7. Laser beam welding of titanium additive manufactured parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the joinability of titanium Additive Manufactured (AM) parts is explored. Keyhole welding, using a pulsed laser beam, of conventionally produced parts is compared to AM parts. Metal AM parts are notorious for having remaining porosities and other non-isotropic properties due to the

  8. Laser welding of a beryllium/tantalum collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, A.C.; Anglin, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the methods utilized in the fabrication of a collimator from 0.001 inch thick beryllium and tantalum foil. The laser welding process proved to be an acceptable method for joining the beryllium in a standing edge joint configuration

  9. The possibility of using laser and micro-jet technology in the welding of structural elements of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2015-01-01

    A paper presents the possibility of laser welding using micro-jet cooling. The effect of micro-jet cooling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld metal deposit was carried out. New welding process was analyzed for use in the automotive industry. Studies have confirmed the positive effect of cooling micro-jet cooling both for the MIG welding and laser welding.

  10. Fatigue strength of laser welded joint sheet; Laser yosetsu tsugite no hiro kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A; Yoshimura, T; Tsuboi, M; Takasago, T; Nishio, T [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, fatigue strength of laser welded butt joint has been investigated. In order to obtain the influence of underfill and pitting, fatigue test was conducted with different sheet thickness and mechanical properties. Fatigue crack initiated at underfill and pitting in the weld metal. Stress concentration factor and hardness of the weld metal were considered to estimate fatigue limit. However, hardness of the weld metal has no significant effect on fatigue strength. As a result, fatigue strength was well estimated by hardness of base metal and stress concentration factor calculated from the shape of underflll and pitting. 7 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Electrophoretic mobility patterns of collagen following laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lawrence S.; Moazami, Nader; Pocsidio, Joanne O.; Oz, Mehmet C.; LoGerfo, Paul; Treat, Michael R.

    1991-06-01

    Clinical application of laser vascular anastomosis in inhibited by a lack of understanding of its mechanism. Whether tissue fusion results from covalent or non-covalent bonding of collagen and other structural proteins is unknown. We compared electrophoretic mobility of collagen in laser treated and untreated specimens of rat tail tendon (>90% type I collagen) and rabbit aorta. Welding was performed, using tissue shrinkage as the clinical endpoint, using the 808 nm diode laser (power density 14 watts/cm2) and topical indocyanine green dye (max absorption 805 nm). Collagen was extracted with 8 M urea (denaturing), 0.5 M acetic acid (non-denaturing) and acetic acid/pepsin (cleaves non- helical protein). Mobility patterns on gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after urea or acetic acid extraction were identical in the lasered and control tendon and vessel (confirmed by optical densitometry), revealing no evidence of formation of novel covalent bonds. Alpha and beta band intensity was diminished in pepsin incubated lasered specimens compared with controls (optical density ratio 0.00 +/- 9 tendon, 0.65 +/- 0.12 aorta), indicating the presence of denatured collagen. With the laser parameters used, collagen is denatured without formation of covalent bonds, suggesting that non-covalent interaction between denatured collagen molecules may be responsible for the weld. Based on this mechanism, welding parameters can be chosen which produce collagen denaturation without cell death.

  12. Design, implementation and testing of a fuzzy control scheme for laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Aalderink, B.J.; Aalderink, Benno; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen; Meijer, J.

    2008-01-01

    A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) scheme has been developed for laser welding. Process light emissions are measured and combined to determine the current status of the welding process. If the process is not in a desired welding state, the FLC will adapt the laser power. The FLC has been demonstrated

  13. Interaction of both plasmas in CO2 laser-MAG hybrid welding of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuna, Muneharu; Chen, Liang

    2003-03-01

    Researches and developments of laser and arc hybrid welding has been curried out since in 1978. Especially, CO2 laser and TIG hybrid welding has been studied for increasing the penetration depth and welding speed. Recently laser and MIG/MAG/Plasma hybrid welding processes have been developed and applied to industries. It was recognized as a new welding process that promote the flexibility of the process for increasing the penetration depth, welding speed and allowable joint gap and improving the quality of the welds. In the present work, CO2 Laser-MAG hybrid welding of carbon steel (SM490) was investigated to make clear the phenomenon and characteristics of hybrid welding process comparing with laser welding and MAG process. The effects of many process parameters such as welding current, arc voltage, welding speed, defocusing distance, laser-to-arc distance on penetration depth, bead shape, spatter, arc stability and plasma formation were investigated in the present work. Especially, the interaction of laser plasma and MAG arc plasma was considered by changing the laser to arc distance (=DLA).

  14. Design of welding parameters for laser welding of thin-walled stainless steel tubes using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, M.; Behúlová, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the laser technology is used in a wide spectrum of applications, especially in engineering, electronics, medicine, automotive, aeronautic or military industries. In the field of mechanical engineering, the laser technology reaches the biggest increase in the automotive industry, mainly due to the introduction of automation utilizing 5-axial movements. Modelling and numerical simulation of laser welding processes has been exploited with many advantages for the investigation of physical principles and complex phenomena connected with this joining technology. The paper is focused on the application of numerical simulation to the design of welding parameters for the circumferential laser welding of thin-walled exhaust pipes from theAISI 304 steel for automotive industry. Using the developed and experimentally verified simulation model for laser welding of tubes, the influence of welding parameters including the laser velocity from 30 mm.s-1 to 60 mm.s-1 and the laser power from 500 W to 1200 W on the temperature fields and dimensions of fusion zone was investigated using the program code ANSYS. Based on obtained results, the welding schedule for the laser beam welding of thin-walled tubes from the AISI 304 steel was suggested.

  15. Microstructural characteristics of the laser welded joint of ITER correction coil sub case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chao, E-mail: fangchao@ipp.ac.cn [ASIPP, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta (Finland); Song, Yuntao; Wei, Jing; Xin, Jijun [ASIPP, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Hekki; Salminen, Antti [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta (Finland); Li, Hongwei [ITER China, 15B Fuxing Road, Beijing 100862 (China); Libeyre, Paul; Dolgetta, Nello [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The multi-pass laser welding was developed for the ITER CC case manufacture. • The laser welding procedure was studied and optimized. • The microstructural characteristic of the welded joint was discussed. - Abstract: The ITER correction coil (CC) case reinforces the winding packs against the electromagnetic loads, minimizes stresses and deformations to the winding pack. The cases are made of high strength and high toughness austenitic stainless steel (316LN) hot rolled heavy plate and have a thickness of 20 mm. Considering the small cross-section and large dimensions of the case, deformation of the case when welding becomes a challenge in the case manufacturing. Therefore, laser welding was developed as the main welding technology for manufacturing. In this paper, multi-pass laser welding technology is used, the laser weldability of a 20 mm thick 316LN austenitic stainless steel plate is studied and the microstructure of the welded joint is analyzed. The welding experiment used an YLS-6000 fiber laser (IPG) and weld filler of 316LMn to match the base metal was used. The result shows that the welded joint has no obvious surface and internal defects based on the optimized welding parameters. The weld joint have a fine austenite microstructure and display columnar dendrites and cellular grains with strong directional characteristics. No apparent heat affected zone is observed and approximately 2 μm an austenite microstructure of the fusion line is clearly presented.

  16. Microstructural characteristics of the laser welded joint of ITER correction coil sub case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chao; Song, Yuntao; Wei, Jing; Xin, Jijun; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Hekki; Salminen, Antti; Li, Hongwei; Libeyre, Paul; Dolgetta, Nello

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi-pass laser welding was developed for the ITER CC case manufacture. • The laser welding procedure was studied and optimized. • The microstructural characteristic of the welded joint was discussed. - Abstract: The ITER correction coil (CC) case reinforces the winding packs against the electromagnetic loads, minimizes stresses and deformations to the winding pack. The cases are made of high strength and high toughness austenitic stainless steel (316LN) hot rolled heavy plate and have a thickness of 20 mm. Considering the small cross-section and large dimensions of the case, deformation of the case when welding becomes a challenge in the case manufacturing. Therefore, laser welding was developed as the main welding technology for manufacturing. In this paper, multi-pass laser welding technology is used, the laser weldability of a 20 mm thick 316LN austenitic stainless steel plate is studied and the microstructure of the welded joint is analyzed. The welding experiment used an YLS-6000 fiber laser (IPG) and weld filler of 316LMn to match the base metal was used. The result shows that the welded joint has no obvious surface and internal defects based on the optimized welding parameters. The weld joint have a fine austenite microstructure and display columnar dendrites and cellular grains with strong directional characteristics. No apparent heat affected zone is observed and approximately 2 μm an austenite microstructure of the fusion line is clearly presented.

  17. Experimental and computational laser tissue welding using a protein patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Heredia, N J; Maitland, D J; Eder, D C; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; London, R A; Matthews, D L

    1998-01-01

    An in vitro study of laser tissue welding mediated with a dye-enhanced protein patch was conducted. Fresh sections of porcine aorta were used for the experiments. Arteriotomies were treated using an indocyanine green dye-enhanced collagen patch activated by an 805-nm continuous-wave fiber-delivered diode laser. Temperature histories of the surface of the weld site were obtained using a hollow glass optical fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. The experimental effort was complemented by simulations with the LATIS (LAser-TISsue) computer code, which uses coupled Monte Carlo, thermal transport, and mass transport models. Comparison of simulated and experimental thermal data indicated that evaporative cooling clamped the surface temperature of the weld site below 100 °C. For fluences of approximately 200 J/cm2, peak surface temperatures averaged 74°C and acute burst strengths consistently exceeded 0.14×106 dyn/cm (hoop tension). The combination of experimental and simulation results showed that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the computer code has a significant impact on the thermal distributions and hydration levels throughout the tissue volume. The solid-matrix protein patch provided a means of controllable energy delivery and yielded consistently strong welds. © 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  18. Investigations on laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; Britten, Simon W.; Engelmann, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Within the plastic industry laser transmission welding ranks among the most important joining techniques and opens up new application areas continuously. So far, a big disadvantage of the process was the fact that the joining partners need different optical properties. Since thermoplastics are transparent for the radiation of conventional beam sources (800- 1100 nm) the absorbance of one of the joining partners has to be enhanced by adding an infrared absorber (IR-absorber). Until recently, welding of absorber-free parts has not been possible. New diode lasers provide a broad variety of wavelengths which allows exploiting intrinsic absorption bands of thermoplastics. The use of a proper wavelength in combination with special optics enables laser welding of two optically identical polymer parts without absorbers which can be utilized in a large number of applications primarily in the medical and food industry, where the use of absorbers usually entails costly and time-consuming authorization processes. In this paper some aspects of the process are considered as the influence of the focal position, which is crucial when both joining partners have equal optical properties. After a theoretical consideration, an evaluation is carried out based on welding trials with polycarbonate (PC). Further aspects such as gap bridging capability and the influence of thickness of the upper joining partner are investigated as well.

  19. [INVITED] Evaluation of process observation features for laser metal welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenner, Felix; Klämpfl, Florian; Nagulin, Konstantin Yu.; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-06-01

    In the present study we show how fast the fluid dynamics change when changing the laser power for different feed rates during laser metal welding. By the use of two high-speed cameras and a data acquisition system we conclude how fast we have to image the process to measure the fluid dynamics with a very high certainty. Our experiments show that not all process features which can be measured during laser welding do represent the process behavior similarly well. Despite the good visibility of the vapor plume the monitoring of its movement is less suitable as an input signal for a closed-loop control. The features measured inside the keyhole show a good correlation with changes of process parameters. Due to its low noise, the area of the keyhole opening is well suited as an input signal for a closed-loop control of the process.

  20. Research on the underwater target imaging based on the streak tube laser lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zihao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Zhang, Yanchao; Bi, Zongjie; Yang, Gang; Gu, Erdan

    2018-03-01

    A high frame rate streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) for real-time 3D imaging of underwater targets is presented in this paper. The system uses 532nm pulse laser as the light source, the maximum repetition rate is 120Hz, and the pulse width is 8ns. LabVIEW platform is used in the system, the system control, synchronous image acquisition, 3D data processing and display are realized through PC. 3D imaging experiment of underwater target is carried out in a flume with attenuation coefficient of 0.2, and the images of different depth and different material targets are obtained, the imaging frame rate is 100Hz, and the maximum detection depth is 31m. For an underwater target with a distance of 22m, the high resolution 3D image real-time acquisition is realized with range resolution of 1cm and space resolution of 0.3cm, the spatial relationship of the targets can be clearly identified by the image. The experimental results show that STIL has a good application prospect in underwater terrain detection, underwater search and rescue, and other fields.

  1. Numerical simulation of the laser welding process for the prediction of temperature distribution on welded aluminium aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirkas, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The present investigation is focused to the modelling of the temperature field in aluminium aircraft components welded by a CO2 laser. A three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to simulate the laser welding process and predict the temperature distribution in T-joint laser welded plates with fillet material. The simulation of the laser beam welding process was performed using a nonlinear heat transfer analysis, based on a keyhole formation model analysis. The model employs the technique of element ;birth and death; in order to simulate the weld fillet. Various phenomena associated with welding like temperature dependent material properties and heat losses through convection and radiation were accounted for in the model. The materials considered were 6056-T78 and 6013-T4 aluminium alloys, commonly used for aircraft components. The temperature distribution during laser welding process has been calculated numerically and validated by experimental measurements on different locations of the welded structure. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  2. Thermal damage control of dye-assisted laser tissue welding: effect of dye concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Buckley, Lisa A.; Prahl, Scott A.; Shaffer, Brian S.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2001-05-01

    Successful laser-assisted tissue welding was implemented to provide proper weld strength with minimized tissue thermal injury. We investigated and compared the weld strengths and morphologic changes in porcine small intestinal submucose (SIS) and porcine ureteral tissues with various concentration of indocyanine green (ICG) and with a solid albumin sheet. The study showed that the tissues were welded at lower ICG concentration (0.05 mM) with minimized tissue thermal damage using an 800-nm wavelength diode laser.

  3. Review of techniques for on-line monitoring and inspection of laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, J; Yan, Y

    2005-01-01

    Laser welding has been applied to various industries, in particular, automotive, aerospace and microelectronics. However, traditional off-line testing of the welds is costly and inefficient. Therefore, on-line inspection systems with low cost have being developed to increase productivity and maintain high welding quality. This paper presents the applications of acoustic, optical, visual, thermal and ultrasonic techniques and latest development of laser welding monitoring. The advantages and limitations of these techniques are also discussed

  4. Application of YAG Laser TIG Arc Hybrid Welding to Thin AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Kim, Jongcheol; Hasegawa, Yu; Suga, Yasuo

    A magnesium alloy is said to be an ecological material with high ability of recycling and lightweight property. Especially, magnesium alloys are in great demand on account of outstanding material property as a structural material. Under these circumstances, research and development of welding process to join magnesium alloy plates are of great significance for wide industrial application of magnesium. In order to use it as a structure material, the welding technology is very important. TIG arc welding process is the most ordinary process to weld magnesium alloy plates. However, since the heat source by the arc welding process affects the magnesium alloy plates, HAZ of welded joint becomes wide and large distortion often occurs. On the other hand, a laser welding process that has small diameter of heat source seems to be one of the possible means to weld magnesium alloy in view of the qualitative improvement. However, the low boiling point of magnesium generates some weld defects, including porosity and solidification cracking. Furthermore, precise edge preparation is very important in butt-welding by the laser welding process, due to the small laser beam diameter. Laser/arc hybrid welding process that combines the laser beam and the arc is an effective welding process in which these two heat sources influence and assist each other. Using the hybrid welding, a synegistic effect is achievable and the disadvantages of the respective processes can be compensated. In this study, YAG laser/TIG arc hybrid welding of thin magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets was investigated. First of all, the effect of the irradiation point and the focal position of laser beam on the quality of a weld were discussed in hybrid welding. Then, it was confirmed that a sound weld bead with sufficient penetration is obtained using appropriate welding conditions. Furthermore, it was made clear that the heat absorption efficiency is improved with the hybrid welding process. Finally, the tensile tests

  5. UNS S32750 super duplex steel welding using pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francini, O.D.; Andrade, G.G.; Clemente, M.S.; Gallego, J.; Ventrella, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Laser is a flexible and powerful tool with many relevant applications in industry, mainly in the welding area. Lasers today provide the welding industry technical solutions to many problems. This work studied the weld metal obtained by pulsed laser welding of Nd: YAG super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 employed in the oil and natural gas, analyzing the influence of high cooling rate, due to the laser process, the swing phase ferrite / austenite. Were performed weld beads in butt joint with different repetition rates. The different microstructures were obtained by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the effect of varying the welding energy of Nd: YAG laser on the volume fractions of the phases ferrite/austenite in the weld metal was its ferritization and low austenite amount on the grain boundary. (author)

  6. Studies of Hot Crack Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther

    During the present work crack testing concerning small and fast solidifying laser welds in austenitic stainless steel has been studied. A set of methods has been applied to investigate alloy properties, including ·Application of known information to predict solidification phases from the alloy...... composition. ·Weld metal solidification rate measurements for prediction of phases. ·Various crack tests to assess the crack susceptibility of alloys. ·A combination of the above for selection of suitable, weldable alloys. The possibility of using such specific methods for alloys and applications has been...... to the crack behaviour, but do not show an expected correlation between the crack resistance and the solidification rate. The employment of pulsed seams is therefore assessed not to be usable in the present selection methods. From evaluation of several crack tests, the Weeter spot weld test has been chosen...

  7. Development of an auto-welding system for CRD nozzle repair welds using a 3D laser vision sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.; Kim, Y.; Byeon, J.; Sung, K.; Yeom, C.; Rhee, S.

    2007-01-01

    A control rod device (CRD) nozzle attaches to the hemispherical surface of a reactor head with J-groove welding. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) causes degradation in these welds, which requires that these defect areas be repaired. To perform this repair welding automatically on a complicated weld groove shape, an auto-welding system was developed incorporating a laser vision sensor that measures the 3-dimensional (3D) shape of the groove and a weld-path creation program that calculates the weld-path parameters. Welding trials with a J-groove workpiece were performed to establish a basis for developing this auto-welding system. Because the reactor head is placed on a lay down support, the outer-most region of the CRD nozzle has restricted access. Due to this tight space, several parameters of the design, such as size, weight and movement of the auto-welding system, had to be carefully considered. The cross section of the J-groove weld is basically an oval shape where the included angle of the J-groove ranges from 0 to 57 degrees. To measure the complex shape, we used double lasers coupled to a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. We then developed a program to generate the weld-path parameters using the measured 3D shape as a basis. The program has the ability to determine the first and final welding positions and to calculate all weld-path parameters. An optimized image-processing algorithm was applied to resolve noise interference and diffused reflection of the joint surfaces. The auto-welding system is composed of a 4-axis manipulator, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) power supply, an optimized designed and manufactured GTAW torch and a 3D laser vision sensor. Through welding trials with 0 and 38-degree included-angle workpieces with both J-groove and U-groove weld, the performance of this auto-welding system was qualified for field application

  8. Modeling and validation of multiple joint reflections for ultra- narrow gap laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.; Keel, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sklar, E. [Opticad Corp., Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The effects of multiple internal reflections within a laser weld joint as a function of joint geometry and processing conditions have been characterized. A computer model utilizing optical ray tracing is used to predict the reflective propagation of laser beam energy focused into the narrow gap of a metal joint for the purpose of predicting the location of melting and coalescence which form the weld. The model allows quantitative analysis of the effects of changes to joint geometry, laser design, materials and processing variables. This analysis method is proposed as a way to enhance process efficiency and design laser welds which display deep penetration and high depth to width aspect ratios, reduced occurrence of defects and enhanced melting. Of particular interest to laser welding is the enhancement of energy coupling to highly reflective materials. The weld joint is designed to act as an optical element which propagates and concentrates the laser energy deep within the joint to be welded. Experimentation has shown that it is possible to produce welds using multiple passes to achieve deep penetration and high depth to width aspect ratios without the use of filler material. The enhanced laser melting and welding of aluminum has been demonstrated. Optimization through modeling and experimental validation has resulted in the development of a laser welding process variant we refer to as Ultra-Narrow Gap Laser Welding.

  9. Low temperature corneal laser welding investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, Paolo; Sbrana, Francesca; Tiribilli, Bruno; Pini, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    The structural modifications in the stromal matrix induced by low-temperature corneal laser welding were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This procedure consists of staining the wound with Indocyanine Green (ICG), followed by irradiation with a near-infrared laser operated at low-power densities. This induces a local heating in the 55-65 °C range. In welded tissue, extracellular components undergo heat-induced structural modifications, resulting in a joining effect between the cut edges. However, the exact mechanism generating the welding, to date, is not completely understood. Full-thickness cuts, 3.5 mm in length, were made in fresh porcine cornea samples, and these were then subjected to laser welding operated at 16.7 W/cm2 power density. AFM imaging was performed on resin-embedded semi-thin slices once they had been cleared by chemical etching, in order to expose the stromal bulk of the tissue within the section. We then carried out a morphological analysis of characteristic fibrillar features in the laser-treated and control samples. AFM images of control stromal regions highlighted well-organized collagen fibrils (36.2 +/- 8.7 nm in size) running parallel to each other as in a typical lamellar domain. The fibrils exhibited a beaded pattern with a 22-39 nm axial periodicity. Laser-treated corneal regions were characterized by a significant disorganization of the intralamellar architecture. At the weld site, groups of interwoven fibrils joined the cut edges, showing structural properties that were fully comparable with those of control regions. This suggested that fibrillar collagen is not denatured by low-temperature laser welding, confirming previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and thus it is probably not involved in the closure mechanism of corneal cuts. The loss of fibrillar organization may be related to some structural modifications in some interfibrillar substance as proteoglycans or collagen VI. Furthermore, AFM

  10. Analysis of Pulsed Laser Welding Parameters Effect on Weld Geometry of 316L Stainless Steel using DOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pakmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the optimization of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding parameters was done on a lap-joint of a 316L stainless steel foil in order to predict the weld geometry through response surface methodology. For this purpose, the effects of laser power, pulse duration, and frequency were investigated. By presenting a second-order polynomial, the above-mentioned statistical method was managed to be well employed to evaluate the effect of welding parameters on weld width. The results showed that the weld width at the upper, middle and lower surfaces of weld cross section increases by increasing pulse durationand laser power; however, the effects of these parameters on the mentioned levels are different. The effect of pulse duration in the models of weld upper, middle and lower widths was calculated as 76, 73 and 68%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of power on theses widths was determined as 18, 24 and 28%, respectively. Finally, by superimposing these models, optimum conditions were obtained to attain a full penetration weld and the weld with no defects.

  11. Local drying underwater cutting of reactor core internals by CO laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beppu, Seiji; Takano, Genta; Matsumoto, Osa; Sugihara, Masaaki; Miya, Kenzo.

    1991-01-01

    Since the CO laser operates at shorter wavelength than the CO 2 laser, the former has superior ability to cut materials. Its applicability to the cutting of reactor core internals in a nuclear power plant has been studied. In order to use such a laser for cutting actual structures, it would be useful to develop underwater cutting technology for the purpose of minimizing radiation exposure during cutting. However, since the laser beam is absorbed by water, a path needs to be cleared along the laser's line of sight. The authors have developed a nozzle that forms a local dry zone and have demonstrated that CO laser cutting can be carried out under water as it is in air. (author)

  12. Keyhole behavior and liquid flow in molten pool during laser-arc hybrid welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuaki; Katayama, Seiji; Matsunawa, Akira

    2003-03-01

    Hybrid welding was carried out on Type 304 stainless steel plate under various conditions using YAG laser combined with TIG arc. During arc and laser-arc hybrid welding, arc voltage variation was measured, and arc plasma, laser-induced plume and evaporation spots as well as keyhole behavior and liquid flow in the molten pool were observed through CCD camera and X-ray real-time transmission apparatus. It was consequently found that hybrid welding possessed many features in comparison with YAG laser welding. The deepest weld bead could be produced when the YAG laser beam of high power density was shot on the molten pool made beforehand stably with TIG arc. A keyhole was long and narrow, and its behavior was rather stable inside the molten pool. It was also confirmed that porosity was reduced by the suppression of bubble formation in hybrid welding utilizing a laser of a moderate power density.

  13. A Comparative Study on the Laser Welding of Ti6Al4V Alloy Sheets in Flat and Horizontal Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Chang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has been increasingly utilized to manufacture a variety of components thanks to its high quality and speed. For components with complex shapes, the welding position needs be continuously adjusted during laser welding, which makes it necessary to know the effects of the welding position on the quality of the laser welds. In this paper, the weld quality under two (flat and horizontal welding positions were studied comparatively in the laser welding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, in terms of weld profiles, process porosity, and static tensile strengths. Results show that the flat welding position led to better weld profiles, less process porosity than that of the horizontal welding position, which resulted from the different actions of gravity on the molten weld metals and the different escape routes for pores under different welding positions. Although undercuts showed no association with the fracture positions and tensile strengths of the welds, too much porosity in horizontal laser welds led to significant decreases in the strengths and specific elongations of welds. Higher laser powers and travel speeds were recommended, for both flat and horizontal welding positions, to reduce weld porosity and improve mechanical properties.

  14. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  15. Experimental Measurements of Temporal Dispersion for Underwater Laser Communications and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochenour, Brandon Michael

    ) at which multiple scattering and temporal dispersion are observed, while finer details of the scattering phase function shape are related to the amount of temporal dispersion that occurs. 3. Consistent with intuition, temporal dispersion is increased while increasing the receiver field-of-view when observing the light field at the beam axis. This is due to the collection of non-scattered, minimally scattered, and multiply scattered light. Observation of the light field far from the beam axis also results in increased temporal dispersion relative to on-axis observation, as only multiply scattered light is collected. However, no additional temporal dispersion is induced by widening the receiver field-of-view at these off-axis locations. This is contrary to the current conventional understanding, and illustrates the interdependence of geometry, system configuration, and environmental characteristics. 4. The experimental results are used to establish operational limits for underwater optical communication links with regard to sensitivity, dynamic range, and bandwidth. Establishing these bounds, particularly as they relate to channel bandwidth, have typically not be possible due to the previous lack of experimental evidence. 5. The intensity distribution of high frequency modulated light exhibits an effective 'angular narrowing' relative to non-modulated light. This result was theoretically predicted over 40 years ago, and experimentally verified for the first time in this work. This phenomenon is then exploited as a method to improve the resolution of underwater laser imaging systems. These results provide an improved understanding of temporal and spatial dispersion, as well as their relationship to each other. Understanding how both environmental and sensor properties effect spatial and temporal impairments are essential for optimizing the operating range and bandwidth of underwater laser communication links, or the range, resolution, and reliability of underwater laser

  16. Blue laser diode (450 nm) systems for welding copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Sa, M.; Finuf, M.; Fritz, R.; Tucker, J.; Pelaprat, J.-M.; Zediker, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper will discuss the development of high power blue laser systems for industrial applications. The key development enabling high power blue laser systems is the emergence of high power, high brightness laser diodes at 450 nm. These devices have a high individual brightness rivaling their IR counterparts and they have the potential to exceed their performance and price barriers. They also have a very high To resulting in a 0.04 nm/°C wavelength shift. They have a very stable lateral far-field profile which can be combined with other diodes to achieve a superior brightness. This paper will report on the characteristics of the blue laser diodes, their integration into a modular laser system suitable for scaling the output power to the 1 kW level and beyond. Test results will be presented for welding of copper with power levels ranging from 150 Watts to 600 Watts

  17. In vivo comparison of near infrared lasers for skin welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakoğlu, Haşim Ozgür; Gülsoy, Murat

    2010-05-01

    The skin closure abilities of near infrared lasers and suturing were compared by histological examination and mechanical tensile tests during a 21-day healing period. One-centimeter incisions on the dorsal skin of Wistar rats were treated by one of the closing techniques: (a) soldering, using an 809 nm diode laser (0.5 W, 5 s) with 25% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 2.5 mg/ml indocyanine green (ICG); (b) direct welding with a 980 nm diode laser (0.5 W, 5 s); (c) direct welding with a 1,070 nm fiber laser (0.5 W, 5 s); (d) suturing. Six spots (79.61 J/cm(2) for each spot) were applied through the incisions. Healing was inspected on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st post-operative days. The closure index (CI), thermally altered area (TAA), granulation area (GA) and epidermal thickness (ET) were determined by histological examination. Tensile tests were performed at a 5 mm/min crosshead speed up to the first opening along the incision. Immediate superficial closure with high CI values was found for the laser-irradiated incisions at the early phase of recovery. Clear welds without thermal damage were observed for the group irradiated at 1,070 nm. For the sutured group, the incisions remained unclosed for the first day, and openings through the incision were observed. At the end of the 21-day recovery period, no differences between experimental groups were observed in terms of the CI, GA and ET values. However, the tensile strength of the groups irradiated at 980 nm and 1,070 nm was found to be higher than that of the sutured incisions. The laser welding techniques were found to be reliable in terms of immediate and mechanically strong closure compared with suturing. Of them, 1,070 nm laser welding yielded noticeably stronger bonds, with minimal scarring at the end of the 21-days of recovery.

  18. Influences of Laser Spot Welding on Magnetic Property of a Sintered NdFeB Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has been considered as a promising method to join sintered NdFeB permanent magnets thanks to its high precision and productivity. However, the influences of laser welding on the magnetic property of NdFeB are still not clear. In the present paper, the effects of laser power on the remanence (Br were experimentally investigated in laser spot welding of a NdFeB magnet (N48H. Results show that the Br decreased with the increase of laser power. For the same welding parameters, the Br of magnets, that were magnetized before welding, were much lower than that of magnets that were magnetized after welding. The decrease in Br of magnets after laser welding resulted from the changes in microstructures and, in turn, the deterioration of magnetic properties in the nugget and the heat affected zone (HAZ in a laser weld. It is recommended that the dimensions of nuggets and HAZ in laser welds of a NdFeB permanent magnet should be as small as possible, and the magnets should be welded before being magnetized in order to achieve a better magnetic performance in practical engineering applications.

  19. Underwater cutting of reactor core internals by CO laser using local-dry-zone creating nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Osa (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Takasago Research and Development Center); Sugihara, Masaaki; Miya, Kenzo

    1992-11-01

    With a view to practical application of the CO laser to underwater cutting of thick steel plates, a nozzle for creating a local dry zone on the workpiece has been developed and tested. The nozzle directed against the workpiece surface discharges a jet of air, which forms the local dry zone, bounded by a cone of high-speed water jet discharged from a concentric annular outlet. Preliminary tests were performed to optimize the nozzle shape and operating conditions. The resulting nozzle was used with a 5 kW CO laser for actual underwater cutting tests on stainless steel plates: Entirely satisfactory cutting performance was confirmed on various workpiece geometries and working positions. (author).

  20. Fiber Laser Welding of Dissimilar 2205/304 Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghusoon Ridha Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt on pulsed-fiber laser welding on an austenitic-duplex stainless steel butt joint configuration was investigated. The influence of various welding parameters, such as beam diameter, peak power, pulse repetition rate, and pulse width on the weld beads geometry was studied by checking the width and depth of the welds after each round of welding parameters combination. The weld bead dimensions and microstructural progression of the weld joints were observed microscopically. Finally, the full penetration specimens were subjected to tensile tests, which were coupled with the analysis of the fracture surfaces. From the results, combination of the selected weld parameters resulted in robust weldments with similar features to those of duplex and austenitic weld metals. The weld depth and width were found to increase proportionally to the laser power. Furthermore, the weld bead geometry was found to be positively affected by the pulse width. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of dendritic and fine grain structures within the weld zone at low peak power, while ferritic microstructures were found on the sides of the weld metal near the SS 304 and austenitic-ferritic microstructure beside the duplex 2205 boundary. Regarding the micro-hardness tests, there was an improvement when compared to the hardness of duplex and austenitic stainless steels base metals. Additionally, the tensile strength of the fiber laser welded joints was found to be higher when compared to the tensile strength of the base metals (duplex and austenitic in all of the joints.

  1. Reflection of illumination laser from gas metal arc weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoji; Zhang, YuMing

    2009-01-01

    The weld pool is the core of the welding process where complex welding phenomena originate. Skilled welders acquire their process feedback primarily from the weld pool. Observation and measurement of the three-dimensional weld pool surface thus play a fundamental role in understanding and future control of complex welding processes. To this end, a laser line is projected onto the weld pool surface in pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and an imaging plane is used to intercept its reflection from the weld pool surface. Resultant images of the reflected laser are analyzed and it is found that the weld pool surface in GMAW does specularly reflect the projected laser as in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Hence, the weld pool surface in GMAW is also specular and it is in principle possible that it may be observed and measured by projecting a laser pattern and then intercepting and imaging the reflection from it. Due to high frequencies of surface fluctuations, GMAW requires a relatively short time to image the reflected laser

  2. Joining Pipe with the Hybrid Laser-GMAW Process: Weld Test Results and Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    GMAW head separations an additional gas nozzle directed N2 gas at the laser keyhole for plasma suppression and supplemental shielding. Experiments were...beam weld and GMA weld taking place simultaneously in close prox- i m i t y. It has been noted in the literature that hy- brid often refers to laser ...near the beginning and end of the weld. Laser beam keyhole instability may be the cause. Ongoing investigations are being undertaken to determine the

  3. Hot cracking characteristic of welding using Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Kyoung Bo; Yoo, Young Tae; Oh, Yong Seak; Shin, Ho Jun; Kim, Ji Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The Nd:YAG laser process is known to have high speed and deep penetration capability to become one of the most advanced welding technologies. In spite of its good mechanical characteristics, SM45C carbon steel has a high carbon contents and suffers a limitation in the industrial application due to the poor welding properties. The major process parameters studied in the present laser welding experiment were position of focus, travel speed and laser power

  4. Custom-made laser-welded titanium implant prosthetic abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesia-Puig, Miguel A

    2005-10-01

    A technique to create an individually modified implant prosthetic abutment is described. An overcasting is waxed onto a machined titanium abutment, cast in titanium, and joined to it with laser welding. With the proposed technique, a custom-made titanium implant prosthetic abutment is created with adequate volume and contour of metal to support a screw-retained, metal-ceramic implant-supported crown.

  5. Investigation of residual stress in laser welding dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirim, Denilson de Camargo; Oliveira, Rene Ramos de; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Rossi, Wagner de; Lima, Nelson Batista de; Delijaicov, Sergio; Gomes, Diego Oliva

    2010-01-01

    One of the most critical problems found in the different materials welding is the residual stress formation, that happens mainly for the fact of those materials they possess coefficients of thermal expansion and different thermal conductivities. Like this in this work the residual tension was evaluated in the technique of welding laser among the steel low carbon, AISI 1010 and AISI 304. The materials were united for it welds autogenous of top with a laser of continuous Nd:YAG in that they were varied the potency, speed and the focus of the laser stayed constant in relation to surface of the sample. The main objective of the study went identification and to analysis of the residual stress in HAZ on both sides of seem. Um planning factorial of two factors at two levels each it was executed for optimization the combination of the factors potency and speed. The obtained answers were the residual stress in different depths in HAZ. In the surface of the sample measures of residual stress were accomplished by the technique of X-ray diffraction. The hole drilling strain gage method it was applied to measure the residual stress on both sides of the union. The results were analyzed using the variance analysis and the statistical regression based on the different influences of the entrance and combination of the factors in the residual stress generated in that union. The results indicate that the development of models can foresee the answers satisfactorily. (author)

  6. Keyhole behaviour during laser welding of zinc-coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y; Richardson, I M

    2011-01-01

    The production of consistent, high-quality laser welds on zinc-coated steels for the automotive industry remains a challenge. A simple overlap joint geometry is desirable in these applications but has been shown to be extremely detrimental to laser welding because the zinc vapour formed at the interface between the two sheets expands into the keyhole and disrupts fluid flow in the melt pool, which often leads to metal ejection. In this work, laser welding on sheets with various coating thicknesses has been performed and it is observed that the sheets with thick coatings (∼20 μm) show surprisingly good weldability. High speed video camera visualizations of the keyhole provide insight into the keyhole dynamics during the process. It appears that the dynamic pressure of zinc vapour can effectively elongate the keyhole and the process can reach a stable state when an elongated keyhole is continuously present. A simple analytical model has been developed to describe the influence of zinc vapour on keyhole elongation.

  7. Crystallization to polycrystalline silicon thin film and simultaneous inactivation of electrical defects by underwater laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Emi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-12-17

    We propose a low-temperature laser annealing method of a underwater laser annealing (WLA) for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films. We performed crystallization to poly-Si films by laser irradiation in flowing deionized-water where KrF excimer laser was used for annealing. We demonstrated that the maximum value of maximum grain size of WLA samples was 1.5 {mu}m, and that of the average grain size was 2.8 times larger than that of conventional laser annealing in air (LA) samples. Moreover, WLA forms poly-Si films which show lower conductivity and larger carrier life time attributed to fewer electrical defects as compared to LA poly-Si films.

  8. Significance of the Resonance Condition for Controlling the Seam Position in Laser-assisted TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, B.; Huse, M.; Hermsdorf, J.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.; Overmeyer, L.; Kozakov, R.; Uhrlandt, D.

    As an energy-preserving variant of laser hybrid welding, laser-assisted arc welding uses laser powers of less than 1 kW. Recent studies have shown that the electrical conductivity of a TIG welding arc changes within the arc in case of a resonant interaction between laser radiation and argon atoms. This paper presents investigations on how to control the position of the arc root on the workpiece by means of the resonant interaction. Furthermore, the influence on the welding result is demonstrated. The welding tests were carried out on a cooled copper plate and steel samples with resonant and non-resonant laser radiation. Moreover, an analysis of the weld seam is presented.

  9. A comparative study of laser beam welding and laser-MIG hybrid welding of Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruifeng; Li Zhuguo; Zhu Yanyan; Rong Lei

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy sheets were welded by LBW and LAMIG methods. → LAMIG welded joints have better combination of strength and ductility. → LAMIG welding is proved to be feasible for the production of titanium sheet joints. - Abstract: Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy sheets with thickness of 4 mm were welded using laser beam welding (LBW) and laser-MIG hybrid welding (LAMIG) methods. To investigate the influence of the methods difference on the joint properties, optical microscope observation, microhardness measurement and mechanical tests were conducted. Experimental results show that the sheets can be welded at a high speed of 1.8 m/min and power of 8 kW, with no defects such as, surface oxidation, porosity, cracks and lack of penetration in the welding seam. In addition, all tensile test specimens fractured at the parent metal. Compared with the LBW, the LAMIG welding method can produce joints with higher ductility, due to the improvement of seam formation and lower microhardness by employing a low strength TA-10 welding wire. It can be concluded that LAMIG is much more feasible for welding the Ti-Al-Zr-Fe titanium alloy sheets.

  10. Development of automatic pre-tracking system for fillet weld based on laser trigonometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqin; Yu, Fusheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic fillet weld pre-tracking system for welding the work piece of lorry back boards with several bend in haul automobile is developed basing on laser trigonometry. The optical measuring head based on laser-PSD trigonometry is used as position sensor. It is placed in front of the traveling direction of welding wire to get the distances from welding wire to the two side boards of the welding lines, upper board and bottom board of the fillet weld respectively. A chip of AT89S52 is used as the micro controller in this system. The AC servomotors, ball-screws and straight guide rails constitute the sliding table to take welding wire move. The laser-PSD sensors pass through the vertical board, upper board and bottom board of the fillet weld when welding wire moves and then get the distance. The laser-PSD sensors output the analog signals. After A/D conversion, the digital signal is input into AT89S52 and calculated. Then the information of the position and lateral deviation of the welding wire when welding a certain position are gotten to control welding wires. So the weld pre-tracking for welding the work piece with long distance and large bend in haul automobile is realized. The position information is input into EEPROM to be saved for short time after handled by AT89S52. The information is as the welding position information as well as the speed adjusting data of the welding wire when it welds the several bend of the work piece. The practice indicates that this system has high pre-tracking precision, good anti-disturb ability, excellent reliability, easy operating ability and good adaptability to the field of production.

  11. Numerical analysis of laser welding with consideration analytical methods of determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekarska Wiesława

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical analysis of laser welding process with consideration analytical methods determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joints are presents in this paper. The analytical CCT diagram and final structural composition of S355 steel are presented. The empirical relations presents in paper are determined by chemical compositions investigated steel and cooling rate between temperatures 800-500°C (t8/5. Phase composition and mechanical properties each of structures of steel in weld and heat affected zone (HAZ are determined on the basis of analytical methods. Laser welded flat is used in numerical simulations in ABAQUS. Mathematical modes of volumetric welding source are used in the calculations. Temperature fields, shape and size of melting zone for selected points in the cross-section of the joint are determined on the basis of thermal cycles obtained numerical.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Electric Current-Aided Laser Stake Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinge Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, aluminum alloy T-joints were welded using the laser stake-welding process. In order to improve the welding quality of the T-joints, an external electric current was used to aid the laser stake-welding process. The effects of the process parameters on the weld morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the welded joints were analyzed and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the aided electric current should be no greater than a certain maximum value. Upon increasing the aided electric current, the weld width at the skin and stringer faying surface obviously increased, but there was an insignificant change in the penetration depth. Furthermore, the electric current and pressing force should be chosen to produce an expected weld width at the faying surface, whereas the laser power and welding speed should be primarily considered to obtain an optimal penetration depth. The tensile shear specimens failed across the faying surface or failed in the weld zone of the skin. The specimens that failed in the weld of the skin could resist a higher tensile shear load compared with specimens that failed across the faying surface. The microstructural observations and microhardness results demonstrated that the tensile shear load capacity of the aluminum alloy welded T-joint was mainly determined by the weld width at the faying surface.

  13. Hybrid laser-gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of high strength steel gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Ian D.; Norfolk, Mark I. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid Laser/arc welding process (HLAW) can complete 5G welds, assure weld soundness, material properties, and an acceptable geometric profile. Combining new lasers and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) has led to important innovations in the HLAW process, increasing travel speed for successful root pass welding. High power Yb fiber lasers allow a 10 kW laser to be built the size of a refrigerator, allowing portability for use on the pipeline right-of-way. The objective was to develop and apply an innovative HLAW system for mechanized welding of high strength, high integrity, pipelines and develop 5G welding procedures for X80 and X100 pipe, including mechanical testing to API 1104. A cost-matched JIP developed a prototype HLAW head based on a commercially available bug and band system (CRC-Evans P450). Under the US Department of Transportation (DOT) project, the subject of this paper, the system was used to advance pipeline girth welding productivity. External hybrid root pass welding achieved full penetration welds with a 4-mm root at a travel speed of 2.3-m/min. Welds were made 'double down' using laser powers up to 10 kW and travel speeds up to 3-m/min. The final objective of the project was to demonstrate the hybrid LBW/GMAW system under simulated field conditions. (author)

  14. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  15. The laser revolution in shipbuilding: laser welding and cutting at Blohm + Voss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsks, T. [Blohm und Voss GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Laser Production Line

    2000-12-01

    Precision manufacturing in steel shipbuilding has gained significantly in importance in recent years as a means of raising productivity and thus enhancing competitiveness. Precision manufacturing means working to very narrow tolerances, minimizing assembly costs by eliminating the need for straightening and adjustment, reducing reworking requirements and shortening throughput times. Blohm+Voss GmbH is the world's first shipbuilding company to use laser technology as part of its precision manufacturing approach, combined with complex clamping techniques which render exact prepositioning and tack welding of components superfluous. Laser cutting makes it possible to cut large formats with virtually parallel cut edges and very narrow cutting gaps which - in conjunction with suitable clamping - allow laser welding without the use of fillers. With a smaller heat-affected zone, laser welding causes less part distortion than conventional methods. This makes it possible to use thinner sheets and sections and thus supports the very low-weight constructions required for the types of ship built by Blohm+Voss. By combining laser cutting and laser welding in a single production line, Blohm+Voss currently boasts the most advanced prefabrication facility in shipbuilding, capable of producing components up to 12 meters long and 4 meters wide. (orig.)

  16. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    post-irradiation examination, maintenance, decommissioning and to reduce storage space of irradiated materials like used zircaloy pressure tubes etc., of nuclear power plants. ... laser; material processing; heat affected zone; microstructure.

  17. Improving the properties of stainless steel electron-beam welds by laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xueyi; Zhou Changchi

    1991-10-01

    For improving the properties of corrosion resistance of stainless steel, which is widely used in nuclear engineering, the technological test on rapid fusing and setting formed by using laser treatment in electron-beam welds on stainless steel was investigated and the analytical results of welding structure and properties were reported. The experimental results show that after laser treatment more finegrained structure in the surface of the welding centreline and welding heat-affected zone was observed. Segregation of chemical composition was reduced. Plasticity and corrosion resistance in the welding zone was increased. Intergranular corrosion of heat-affected zone was improved

  18. Numerical estimation of temperature field in a laser welded butt joint made of dissimilar materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saternus Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns numerical analysis of thermal phenomena occurring in the butt welding of two different materials by a laser beam welding. The temperature distribution for the welded butt-joint is obtained on the basis of numerical simulations performed in the ABAQUS program. Numerical analysis takes into account the thermophysical properties of welded plate made of two different materials. Temperature distribution in analysed joints is obtained on the basis of numerical simulation in Abaqus/Standard solver, which allowed the determination of the geometry of laser welded butt-joint.

  19. Statistical analysis of process parameters to eliminate hot cracking of fiber laser welded aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Wang, Hui-Ping; Wang, Xiaojie; Cui, Haichao; Lu, Fenggui

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates hot cracking rate in Al fiber laser welding under various process conditions and performs corresponding process optimization. First, effects of welding process parameters such as distance between welding center line and its closest trim edge, laser power and welding speed on hot cracking rate were investigated experimentally with response surface methodology (RSM). The hot cracking rate in the paper is defined as ratio of hot cracking length over the total weld seam length. Based on the experimental results following Box-Behnken design, a prediction model for the hot cracking rate was developed using a second order polynomial function considering only two factor interaction. The initial prediction result indicated that the established model could predict the hot cracking rate adequately within the range of welding parameters being used. The model was then used to optimize welding parameters to achieve cracking-free welds.

  20. Macrostructural and microstructural features of 1 000 MPa grade TRIP steel joint by CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenquan; Sun Daqian; Kang Chungyun

    2008-01-01

    Bead-on-plate CO2 laser welding of 1 000 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was conducted under different welding powers, welding speeds and shield gases. The macrostructural and microstructural features of the welded joint were investigated. The increase of welding speed reduced the width of the weld bead and the porosities in the weld bead resulting from the different flow mode of melted metal in weld pool. The decrease of welding power or use of shield gas of helium also contributed to the reduction of porosity in the weld bead due to the alleviation of induced plasma formation, thus stabilizing the keyhole. The porosity formation intimately correlated with the evaporation of alloy element Mn in the base metal. The laser welded metal had same martensite microstructure as that of water-quenched base metal. The welding parameters which increased cooling rate all led to fine microstructures of the weld bead.

  1. Two-dimensional modeling of conduction-mode laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    WELD2D is a two-dimensional finite difference computer program suitable for modeling the conduction-mode welding process when the molten weld pool motion can be neglected. The code is currently structured to treat butt-welded geometries in a plane normal to the beam motion so that dissimilar materials may be considered. The surface heat transfer models used in the code include a Gaussian beam or uniform laser source, and a free electron theory reflectance calculation. Temperature-dependent material parameters are used in the reflectance calculation. Measured cold reflection data are used to include surface roughness or oxide effects until melt occurs, after which the surface is assumed to be smooth and clean. Blackbody reradiation and a simple natural convection model are also included in the upper surface boundary condition. Either an implicit or explicit finite-difference representation of the heat conduction equation in an enthalpy form is solved at each time step. This enables phase transition energies to be easily and accurately incorporated into the formulation. Temperature-dependent 9second-order polynominal dependence) thermal conductivities are used in the conduction calculations. Constant values of specific heat are used for each material phase. At present, material properties for six metals are included in the code. These are: aluminium, nickel, steel, molybdenum, copper and silicon

  2. Monitoring and Control of the Hybrid Laser-Gas Metal-Arc Welding Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.; Nichol, C. I.; Clark, D.; Todorov, E.; Couch, R. D.; Yu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  3. Joining of cemented carbides to steel by laser beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbatti, C.; Garcia, J.; Pyzalla, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Liedl, G. [TU Wien, Institut fuer Umform- und Hochleistungslasertechnik (IFLT), 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Welding of dissimilar materials such as steel and cemented carbides (hardmetals, cermets) is particularly challenging e.g. because mismatches in their thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivities result in residual stress formation and because of the formation of brittle intermetallic phases. Laser beam welding of cemented carbides to steel appears as an attractive complementary technique to conventional brazing processes due to its high precision, high process speed, low heat input and the option of welding without filler. Here a laser welding process including pre-heat treatment and post-heat treatment was applied successfully to joining as-sintered and nitrided hardmetals and cermets to low alloyed steel. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welds are investigated by microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microhardness measurements, and bending tests. The results reveal that the three-step laser beam welding process produced crack-free and non-porous joints. Nitridation of the cemented carbides results in a significant reduction of the amount of brittle intermetallic phases. The mechanical properties of the joints are competitive to those of the conventional brazed steel-cemented carbide joints. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Das Schweissen von ungleichartigen Werkstoffen wie z. B. Staehlen mit Hartmetallen und Cermets stellt eine erhebliche Herausforderung dar, u. a. infolge der unterschiedlichen thermischen Ausdehnungskoeffizienten und Waermeleitfaehigkeiten, welche die Bildung von Eigenspannungen zur Folge haben, sowie aufgrund der Bildung sproeder intermetallischer Phasen. Das Laserstrahlschweissen von Hartmetallen/Cermets mit Stahl erscheint als attraktives komplementaeres Verfahren zum ueblicherweise verwendeten Loeten, da es die Herstellung von Verbindungen mit hoeherer Praezision, hoeherer Geschwindigkeit sowie geringerem Waermeeintrag erlaubt und die Verwendung eines Zusatzwerkstoffs nicht notwendig ist

  4. Tensile strength of laser welded cobalt-chromium alloy with and without an argon atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Anna; Clark, Robert K F; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R

    2010-06-01

    The tensile strength and depth of weld of two cobalt chromium alloys before and after laser welding with and without an argon gas atmosphere were investigated. Using two cobalt chromium alloys, rod shaped specimens (5 cm x 1.5 mm) were cast. Specimens were sand blasted, sectioned and welded with a pulsed Nd: YAG laser welding machine and tested in tension using an Instron universal testing machine. A statistically significant difference in tensile strength was observed between the two alloys. The tensile strength of specimens following laser welding was significantly less than the unwelded controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the micro-structure of the cast alloy was altered in the region of the weld. No statistically significant difference was found between specimens welded with or without an argon atmosphere.

  5. Infrared temperature measurement and interference analysis of magnesium alloys in hybrid laser-TIG welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R.-S.; Liu, L.-M.; Song, G.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared (IR) temperature measurement, as a convenient, non-contact method for making temperature field measurements, has been widely used in the fields of welding, but the problem of interference from radiant reflection is a complicating factor in applying IR temperature sensing to welding. The object of this research is to make a deep understand about the formation of interference, explore a new method to eliminate the interfering radiation during laser-TIG hybrid welding of magnesium alloys and to obtain the distribution of temperature field accurately. The experimental results showed that the interferences caused by radiant specular reflection of arc light, ceramic nozzle, electrode and laser nozzle were transferred out of welding seam while the IR thermography system was placed perpendicularly to welding seam. And the welding temperature distribution captured by IR termography system which had been calibrated by thermocouple was reliable by using this method in hybrid laser-TIG welding process of AZ31B magnesium alloy

  6. Laser welding of thin polymer films to container substrates for aseptic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N.; Kerr, D.; Jackson, M. R.; Parkin, R. M.

    2000-03-01

    Keyhole laser welding of polymers is a subject well covered and researched, but relatively little information exists regarding the welding of thin polymer films, particularly to a heavier substrate. This paper presents the design of a suitable test apparatus for laser welding thin film to a heavier substrate, and shows the results of an investigation into the feasibility of laser welding multi-layer polymer film lids to tubs for the manufacture of aseptic food containers. A consistent weld, free from defects, is the key to process success. Typical welding defects have been synthesised in order to investigate, and consequently remove, their cause. The result is a reliable welding method based on even film clamping. With careful attention to machine design, a seal of high mechanical strength and chemical integrity is possible.

  7. Study of Laser Welding of HCT600X Dual Phase Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švec Pavol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of beam power and welding speed on microstructure, microhardnes and tensile strength of HCT600X laser welded steel sheets were evaluated. The welding parameters influenced both the width and the microstructure of the fusion zone and heat affected zone. The welding process has no effect on tensile strength of joints which achieved the strength of base metal and all joints fractured in the base metal.

  8. Fibre Laser Welding of HY-80 Steel: Procedure Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    2 Welding The material used in this study was quenched and tempered martensitic HY80 steel which conforms to MIL-S-1621 [2]. The testing...Journal, 1977. [4] AWS, D1.6 in Structural Welding Code Stainless Steel . 2007, American Welding Society: Miami Florida. [5] DefStan, 02-770 Part 2...Canada Fibre Laser Welding of HY-80 Steel Proceedure Development and Testing Christopher Bayley DLP Neil Aucoin DLP Xinjin Cao NRC IAR AMTC Technical

  9. Evaluation of residual stress on pipe welded joints using laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho Seob; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Koung Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Residual stresses that occur during the welding process, are the main cause of failure and defects in welded structures. This paper, presents the use of an electronic processing laser speckle interferometer to measure the residual stress of a welded pipe for a nuclear power plant. A tensile testing machine was used to evaluate a welded pipe that failed in compression. The inform plane deformation and modulus of elasticity of the base metal and welds were measured using an interferometer. Varying the load on the welded pipe had a larger effect on the deformation of the base metal the other properties of the base metal and welds. The elastic moduli of the base metal and weld of the welded pipe were 202.46 and 212.14 GPa, respectively, the residual stress was measured to be 6.29 MPa.

  10. Application of CO2 laser beam weld for repair of fuel element of nuclear reactor 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Yanagi, Hideharu; Sukegawa, Toshio; Saito, Isao; Sasuga, Norihiko; Aizawa, Nagaaki; Miya, Kenzo

    1986-01-01

    The present studies are to develop CO 2 laser beam welding techniques in order to apply for repoint of nuclear reactor fuel of Fast Neutron Source Reactor YAYOI. For that purpos, many experiments were conduted to obtain various effects of laser welding variables with use of SUS 304 plates, pipes and simulated dumy fuels. These experiments provided us an optimal welding condition through metallurgical observations, non-destructive and mechanical tests. It was found that the laser welds exhibited properties equivalent to those of the base metal, in addition they provided us a favorable system than that of electron beam welds against a cladding of radioactive nuclear fuel in a hot cell. The present paper reports on the characteristics of laser welds, structural analysis of fuel element and a system design of remotely operated devices setting in a hot cell. (author)

  11. Status analysis of keyhole bottom in laser-MAG hybrid welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Gao, Xiangdong; Chen, Ziqin

    2018-01-08

    The keyhole status is a determining factor of weld quality in laser-metal active gas arc (MAG) hybrid welding process. For a better evaluation of the hybrid welding process, three different penetration welding experiments: partial penetration, normal penetration (or full penetration), and excessive penetration were conducted in this work. The instantaneous visual phenomena including metallic vapor, spatters and keyhole of bottom surface were used to evaluate the keyhole status by a double high-speed camera system. The Fourier transform was applied on the bottom weld pool image for removing the image noise around the keyhole, and then the bottom weld pool image was reconstructed through the inverse Fourier transform. Lastly, the keyhole bottom was extracted from the de-noised bottom weld pool image. By analyzing the visual features of the laser-MAG hybrid welding process, mechanism of the closed and opened keyhole bottom were revealed. The results show that the stable opened or closed status of keyhole bottom is directly affected by the MAG droplet transition in the normal penetration welding process, and the unstable opened or closed status of keyhole bottom would appear in excessive penetration welding and partial penetration welding. The analysis method proposed in this paper could be used to monitor the keyhole stability in laser-MAG hybrid welding process.

  12. Study of Dynamic Features of Surface Plasma in High-Power Disk Laser Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Teng; Gao Xiangdong; Seiji, Katayama; Jin, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    High-speed photography was used to obtain the dynamic changes in the surface plasma during a high-power disk laser welding process. A color space clustering algorithm to extract the edge information of the surface plasma region was developed in order to improve the accuracy of image processing. With a comparative analysis of the plasma features, i.e., area and height, and the characteristics of the welded seam, the relationship between the surface plasma and the stability of the laser welding process was characterized, which provides a basic understanding for the real-time monitoring of laser welding.

  13. Laser line scan underwater imaging by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyi; Luo, Meixing; Song, Xiyu; Wang, Dundong; He, Ning

    2017-12-01

    This work employs the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera to acquire images in a scanning manner for laser line scan (LLS) underwater imaging to alleviate backscatter impact of seawater. Two operating features of the CMOS camera, namely the region of interest (ROI) and rolling shutter, can be utilized to perform image scan without the difficulty of translating the receiver above the target as the traditional LLS imaging systems have. By the dynamically reconfigurable ROI of an industrial CMOS camera, we evenly divided the image into five subareas along the pixel rows and then scanned them by changing the ROI region automatically under the synchronous illumination by the fun beams of the lasers. Another scanning method was explored by the rolling shutter operation of the CMOS camera. The fun beam lasers were turned on/off to illuminate the narrow zones on the target in a good correspondence to the exposure lines during the rolling procedure of the camera's electronic shutter. The frame synchronization between the image scan and the laser beam sweep may be achieved by either the strobe lighting output pulse or the external triggering pulse of the industrial camera. Comparison between the scanning and nonscanning images shows that contrast of the underwater image can be improved by our LLS imaging techniques, with higher stability and feasibility than the mechanically controlled scanning method.

  14. Effect of Mg and Cu on mechanical properties of high-strength welded joints of aluminum alloys obtained by laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annin, B. D.; Fomin, V. M.; Karpov, E. V.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental investigations of welded joints of high-strength aluminum-lithium alloys of the Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li systems are reported. The welded joints are obtained by means of laser welding and are subjected to various types of processing for obtaining high-strength welded joints. A microstructural analysis is performed. The phase composition and mechanical properties of the welded joints before and after heat treatment are studied. It is found that combined heat treatment of the welded joint (annealing, quenching, and artificial ageing) increases the joint strength, but appreciably decreases the alloy strength outside the region thermally affected by the welding process.

  15. Real Time Trajectory Correction System Of Optical Head In Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieszyński Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of laser welding technology requires that the laser beam is guided through the whole length of the joint with sufficiently high accuracy. This paper describes result of research on development of optomechatronic system that allows for the precise positioning of the laser head’s TCP point on the edge of welded elements during laser processing. The developed system allows for compensation of workpiece’s fixture inaccuracies, precast distortions and workpiece deformations occurring during the process.

  16. Effects of Laser Peening, and Shot Peening, on Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Hackel, Lloyd; Rankin, Jon; Truong, Chanh; Walter, Matt

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the effects of laser peening and shot peening on friction stir welding is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Friction Stir Welding (FSW); 3) Microstructure; 4) Laser & Shot Peening; 5) Residual Stresses; 6) Tensile Behavior; 7) Fatigue Life & Surface Roughness; 8) Crack Growth; and 9) Benefits.

  17. A new method to butt weld pipes with laser at different angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualini, M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Laser butt welding of pipes at different angles may be cumbersome and may require very expensive tooling. The pipe size may not allow using the laser for large volume throughputs. We propose a rotary optical head composed by an adjustable focus lens system and two reflecting mirrors. The laser beam is bent at 90 deg. C. so that weld can be performed inwards outwards. The optic head design compensates the rotary backlash and vibrations, like a penta prism thus ensuring a perfect follow up of the weld track. The optic head can be inclined at 45 deg. C. to laser butt weld pipe each other at 90 deg. C. In this case the laser beam focus position is computer controlled in order to keep the focus point always on the elliptical weld profile. The paper covers theoretical and practical aspects of the proposed device. (author)

  18. The possibility of using laser and micro-jet technology in the welding of structural elements of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech MAJEWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A paper presents the possibility of laser welding using micro-jet cooling. The effect of micro-jet cooling on microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld metal deposit was carried out. New welding process was analyzed for use in the automotive industry. Studies have confirmed the positive effect of cooling micro-jet cooling both for the MIG welding and laser welding.

  19. Investigation on edge joints of Inconel 625 sheets processed with laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, F.; Alfieri, V.; Cardaropoli, F.; Sergi, V.

    2017-08-01

    Laser welding of Inconel 625 edge joint beads in square groove configuration was investigated. The use of different weld geometries in new aerospace solutions explains research on edge joints. A structured plan was carried out in order to characterize the process defining the influence of laser power and welding speed and to study possible interactions among the governing factors. As weld pool protection is crucial in order to obtain sound joints when processing superalloys, a special glove box for gas supply was designed to upgrade the welding head. Welded joints were characterized referring to bead profile, microstructure and X-rays. It was found that heat input plays an important role as it affects welding stability, porosity content and bead shape. Results suggest operating with low values of heat input to reduce porosity and guarantee stable bead conformation. Furthermore, a decrease in the grain size has been observed as a consequence of decreasing heat input.

  20. CO2 laser welding of galvanized steel sheets using vent holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weichiat; Ackerson, Paul; Molian, Pal

    2009-01-01

    Joining of galvanized steels is a challenging issue in the automotive industry because of the vaporization of zinc at 906 deg. C during fusion welding of steel (>1530 deg. C). In this work, hot-dip galvanized steel sheets of 0.68 mm thick (24-gage) were pre-drilled using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to form vent holes along the weld line and then seam welded in the lap-joint configuration using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. The welds were evaluated through optical and scanning electron microscopy and tensile/hardness tests. The vent holes allowed zinc vapors to escape through the weld zone without causing expulsion of molten metal, thereby eliminating the defects such as porosity, spatter, and loss of penetration. In addition, riveting of welds occurred so long as the weld width was greater than the hole diameter that in turn provided much higher strength over the traditional 'joint gap' method

  1. A three-dimensional sharp interface model for self-consistent keyhole and weld pool dynamics in deep penetration laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Shengyong; Chen Liliang; Zhou Jianxin; Yin Yajun; Chen Tao

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional sharp interface model is proposed to investigate the self-consistent keyhole and weld pool dynamics in deep penetration laser welding. The coupling of three-dimensional heat transfer, fluid flow and keyhole free surface evolutions in the welding process is simulated. It is theoretically confirmed that under certain low heat input welding conditions deep penetration laser welding with a collapsing free keyhole could be obtained and the flow directions near the keyhole wall are upwards and approximately parallel to the keyhole wall. However, significantly different weld pool dynamics in a welding process with an unstable keyhole are numerically found. Many flow patterns in the welding process with an unstable keyhole, verified by x-ray transmission experiments, were successfully simulated and analysed. Periodical keyhole collapsing and bubble formation processes are also successfully simulated and believed to be in good agreement with experiments. The mechanisms of keyhole instability are found to be closely associated with the behaviour of humps on the keyhole wall, and it is found that the welding speed and surface tension are closely related to the formation of humps on the keyhole wall. It is also shown that the weld pool dynamics in laser welding with an unstable keyhole are closely associated with the transient keyhole instability and therefore modelling keyhole and weld pool in a self-consistent way is significant to understand the physics of laser welding.

  2. Modeling of plasma plume induced during laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscicki, T.; Hoffman, J.; Szymanski, Z.

    2005-01-01

    During laser welding, the interaction of intense laser radiation with a work-piece leads to the formation of a long, thin, cylindrical cavity in a metal, called a keyhole. Generation of a keyhole enables the laser beam to penetrate into the work-piece and is essential for deep welding. The keyhole contains ionized metal vapour and is surrounded by molten material called the weld pool. The metal vapour, which flows from the keyhole mixes with the shielding gas flowing from the opposite direction and forms a plasma plume over the keyhole mouth. The plasma plume has considerable influence on the processing conditions. Plasma strongly absorbs laser radiation and significantly changes energy transfer from the laser beam to a material. In this paper the results of theoretical modelling of plasma plume induced during welding with CO 2 laser are presented. The set of equations consists of equation of conservation of mass, energy, momentum and the diffusion equation: ∂ρ/∂t + ∇·(ρ ρ ν =0; ∂(ρE)/∂t + ∇·( ρ ν (ρE + p)) = ∇ (k eff ∇T - Σ j h j ρ J j + (τ eff · ρ ν )) + Σ i κ i I i - R; ∂/∂t(ρ ρ ν ) + ∇· (ρ ρ ν ρ ν ) = - ∇p + ∇(τ) + ρ ρ g + ρ F, where τ is viscous tensor τ = μ[(∇ ρ ν + ∇ ρT ν )-2/3∇· ρ ν I]; ∂/∂t(ρY i ) + ∇·(ρ ρ ν Y i ) = ∇·ρD i,m ∇T i ; where μ ν denotes velocity vector, E - energy, ρ mass density; k - thermal conductivity, T- temperature, κ - absorption coefficient, I i local laser intensity, R - radiation loss function, p - pressure, h j enthalpy, J j - diffusion flux of j component, ν g - gravity, μ F - external force, μ - dynamic viscosity, I - unit tensor, Y i - mass fraction of iron vapor in the gas mixture, D i,m - mass diffusion coefficient. The terms k eff and τ eff contain the turbulent component of the thermal conductivity and the viscosity, respectively. All the material functions are functions of the temperature and mass fraction only. The equations

  3. Upgrade of laser and electron beam welding database

    CERN Document Server

    Furman, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this project was to fix existing issues and update the existing database holding parameters of laser-beam and electron-beam welding machines. Moreover, the database had to be extended to hold the data for the new machines that arrived recently at the workshop. As a solution - the database had to be migrated to Oracle framework, the new user interface (using APEX) had to be designed and implemented with the integration with the CERN web services (EDMS, Phonebook, JMT, CDD and EDH).

  4. Evaluation of the sheet mechanical response to laser welding processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmignani, B.; Daneri, A.; Toselli, G.; Bellei, M.

    1995-07-01

    The simulation of the mechanical response of steel sheets, due to the heating during welding processes by a laser source beam, obtained by Abaqus standard code, is discussed. Different hypotheses for the material behaviour at temperatures greater than the fusion one have been tested and compared; in particular, some tests have been made taking the annealing effect into account by means of an user routine UMAT developed ad hoc. This work was presented at the 8th international Abaqus Users' conference at Paris, 31 May - 2 June 1995

  5. The characteristics of laser welded magnesium alloy using silver nanoparticles as insert material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, M.; Maekawa, K.; Yamasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ag nanoparticles are used as insert material for welding Mg alloy with laser. ► We examine the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded Mg alloys. ► Nananoparticle promote grain refinement to the weld structure. ► Finer nanoparticle produces high weld efficiency and mechanical properties. - Abstract: This paper describes the characteristics of the laser welding of thin-sheet magnesium alloys using silver (Ag) nanoparticles as an insert material. The experiment was conducted using nanoparticles with 5 nm and 100 nm diameters that were welded with a Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the specimens welded using inserts with different sizes of nanoparticles and without an insert material, were examined. Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) analysis was conducted to confirm the existence of Ag in the welded area. The introduction of the Ag nanoparticle insert promoted large area of fine grain and broadened the acceptable range of scanning speed parameters compared to welds without an insert. Welds with 5 nm nanoparticles yielded the highest fracture load of up to 818 N while the lowest fracture load was found for weld specimens with 100 nm nanoparticles. This lower fracture load was due to larger voids and a smaller throat length, which contributed to a lower fracture load when using larger nanoparticles.

  6. Comparison of Welding Residual Stresses of Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding and Submerged Arc Welding in Offshore Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In the offshore industry, welding-induced distortion and tensile residual stresses have become a major concern in relation to the structural integrity of a welded structure. Particularly, the continuous increase in size of welded plates and joints needs special attention concerning welding induced...... residual stresses. These stresses have a negative impact on the integrity of the welded joint as they promote distortion, reduce fatigue life, and contribute to corrosion cracking and premature failure in the weld components. This paper deals with the influence and impact of welding method on the welding...... induced residual stresses. It is also investigated whether the assumption of residual stresses up to yield strength magnitude are present in welded structures as stated in the design guidelines. The fatigue strength for welded joints is based on this assumption. The two welding methods investigated...

  7. Effect of fiber laser parameters on laser welded AZ31B Magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Salleh Naqiuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of Magnesium (Mg alloys has been hugely applied in the industrial application such as in automotive, marine, and electronic due to its advantages of recyclability and lightweight. This alloys required low heat input to be weld since it is easily evaporated due to the Magnesium Oxide (MgO at the surface and it also possesses lower melting point compared to steel. Laser welding is more convenient to weld Mg alloys due to its high power and lower heat input. AZ31B was selected since it has strong mechanical properties among others Mg alloys due to the major alloying elements; Aluminium (Al and Zinc (Zn. Low power fiber laser machine with wavelength of 900 nm was used in this experiment. The intention of this work was to investigate the effect of low power fiber laser parameters and effect of shielding gas on weld penetration and microstructure. Another aim in this work was to produce the joint for this thin sheets metal. Penetration depth and microstructure evaluation were emphasized in the analysis section. Bead-on-Plate (BOP and laser lap welding was conducted on AZ31B with thicknesses of 1.0 mm and 0.6 mm for feasibility study using pulsed wave (PW mode. Defocusing features was used in order to find better focal position, which has less occurrence of evaporation (underfill. The effect of different angle of irradiation was also investigated. Two types of shielding gases, Argon (Ar and Nitrogen (N2 were used in order to study the effect of shielding gas. Lastly, the effect of pulsed energy on penetration types and depth of BOP welded samples was investigated. Focus point was found at focal length of 156 mm with 393.75 μm. For BOP experiment, higher pulsed energy used contributes to melt through defect. Meanwhile, Ns shielding gas proved to be better shielding gas in laser welding the AZ31B. Higher angle of irradiation could reduce the underfill defect. Fillet Lap joint of similar metal was successfully done where 2.0 J of

  8. Welding of zircalloy-2 and zircalloy-4 by CO2 laser and by TIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, V.

    1990-01-01

    This study deals with the welding of zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 by means of two techniqes, namely tungsten inert gas welding and CO 2 laser welding. Suitable devices and jigs were developed and manufactured to allow the welding of flat specimens and cylindrical specimens. The optimal welding parameters for the two welding methods were determined. The quality of the welds was determined by tensile strength tests at room temperature and by determining the corrosion resistance to steam at temprature of 450 deg C, 550 deg C, and at 650 deg C. The influence of the weld on the microstructure of the material, on its composition and its crystallographic structure was investigated. Analysis of fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens was carried out with a scanning electron microscope. (author)

  9. Microstructure and Porosity of Laser-welded Dissimilar Material Joints of HR-2 and J75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianfeng; Teng, Wenhua; Zhao, Shuming; He, Wenpei

    Dissimilar laser welding of HR-2 and J75 has a wide range of applications in high-and low-temperature hydrogen storage. The porosity distributions of the welded joints were investigated at different line energies, penetration status, and welding positions (1G, 2G, and 3G). The effect of the welding position on the welding appearance was evident only at high line energies because of the essential effect of gravity of the larger and longer dwelling molten pool. The porosity of the welded joints between the solutionised and aged J75 and HR-2 at the 3G position and partial penetration was located at the weld centre line, while the porosity at the 2G position with full penetration was distributed at the weld edges, which is consistent with the distribution of floating slag. Full keyhole penetration resulted in minimum porosity, partial penetration resulted in moderate porosity, and periodic molten pool penetration resulted in maximum porosity.

  10. Investigation on laser welding characteristics for appendage of bearing pads of nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Kim, W. K.; Park, C. H.; Ko, J. H.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    In CANDU nuclear fuel manufacturing the brazing technology has been adopted conventionally to attach the bearing pads of nuclear fuel elements. However, in order to meet good performance of nuclear fuel and improved working efficiency, we started developing the laser welding technology for attachments of the bearing pads. Since the YAG laser can be suitable for small parts and transmit the beam through the optical fiber, the process is corresponding to mass-production with working shops. Making the most of this feature, we have developed the laser welding for appendage of the bearing pads of nuclear fuel elements, and has studied on the laser welding characterisitcs of appendages for nuclear fuel element

  11. Pore formation during C.W.Nd: YAG laser welding of aluminum alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, M.; Zhao, H.; DebRoy, T.

    2000-01-01

    Pore formation is an important concern in laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys. This paper investigates the influence of the laser beam defocusing on pore formation during continuous wave Nd:YAG laser welding of aluminum automotive alloys 5182 and 5754. It was found that the instability of the keyhole during welding was a dominant cause of pore formation while hydrogen rejection played an insignificant role. The defocusing of the laser beam greatly affected the stability of the keyhole. Finally, the mechanism of the collapse of the keyhole and pore formation is proposed. (Author) 45 refs

  12. Microstructure and mechanical characteristics of a laser welded joint in SA508 nuclear pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei, E-mail: wei.guo-2@manchester.ac.uk [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9 PL (United Kingdom); Dong, Shiyun [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9 PL (United Kingdom); Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Guo, Wei; Francis, John A.; Li, Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9 PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    SA508 steels are typically used in civil nuclear reactors for critical components such as the reactor pressure vessel. Nuclear components are commonly joined using arc welding processes, but with design lives for prospective new build projects exceeding 60 years, new welding technologies are being sought. In this exploratory study, for the first time, autogenous laser welding was carried out on 6 mm thick SA508 Cl.3 steel sheets using a 16 kW fiber laser system operating at a power of 4 kW. The microstructure and mechanical properties (including microhardness, tensile strength, elongation, and Charpy impact toughness) were characterized and the microstructures were compared with those produced through arc welding. A three-dimensional transient model based on a moving volumetric heat source model was also developed to simulate the laser welding thermal cycles in order to estimate the cooling rates included by the process. Preliminary results suggest that the laser welding process can produce welds that are free of macroscopic defects, while the strength and toughness of the laser welded joint in this study matched the values that were obtained for the parent material in the as-welded condition.

  13. Laser-Generated Shocks and Bubbles as Laboratory-Scale Models of Underwater Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore G. Jones

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater shocks and bubbles were generated using a high energy pulsed laser system. The advantages of this experimental approach are: (1 precisely controlled and measured experimental conditions; (2 improved diagnostics, including extensive imaging capabilities; (3 unique experiments, including a simultaneously detonated line charge; and (4 the ability to provide validation quality data for hydrodynamic simulation codes. Bubble sensitivity to variation of several experimental parameters was examined. Numerical simulations were performed corresponding to the experimental shots, showing that empirical bubble theory, experimental bubble data, and simulations were all in good agreement.

  14. 375-nm ultraviolet-laser based non-line-of-sight underwater optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2018-05-04

    For circumventing the alignment requirement of line-of-sight (LOS) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), we demonstrated a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UWOC link adequately enhanced using ultraviolet (UV) 375-nm laser. Path loss was chosen as a figure-of-merit for link performance in this investigation, which considers the effects of geometries, water turbidity, and transmission wavelength. The experiments suggest that path loss decreases with smaller azimuth angles, higher water turbidity, and shorter wavelength due in part to enhanced scattering utilizing 375-nm radiation. We highlighted that it is feasible to extend the current findings for long distance NLOS UWOC link in turbid water, such as harbor water.

  15. Effects of underwater turbulence on laser beam propagation and coupling into single-mode optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Frank; Lasher, Mark

    2010-06-01

    We characterize and compare the effects of turbulence on underwater laser propagation with theory. Measurements of the coupling efficiency of the focused beam into a single-mode fiber are reported. A simple tip-tilt control system, based on the position of the image centroid in the focal plane, was shown to maintain good coupling efficiency for a beam radius equal to the transverse coherence length, r(0). These results are relevant to high bandwidth communication technology that requires good spatial mode quality.

  16. Use of pre-pulse in laser spot welding of materials with high optical reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, Ihor; Geiger, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Laser micro welding has become a standard manufacturing technique, particularly in industry sectors, such as automotive and aerospace electronics or medical devices, where the requirements for strength, miniaturization and temperature resistance are constantly rising. So far the use of laser micro welding is limited due to the fluctuation of the quality of the welded joints, because the welding results for material with high optical reflection and thermal conductivity, such as copper and copper alloys, depend very strongly on the condition of the material surface. This paper presents investigations on the use of a laser pre-pulse in spot welding of electronic materials with Nd:YAG laser. In order to achieve reproducible joining results two strategies are followed-up. The first one utilizes a reflection-based process control for measuring the reflection during the short pre-pulse. The intensity of the reflected light is used to calculate an appropriated welding pulse power, which corresponds to the measured relative absorption. Adjustment of laser parameters according to the condition of the surface is done in real time before laser main pulse. A second possibility for the stabilization of copper welding is the employment of a short and powerful laser pre-pulse before laser main pulse. This pre-pulse affects the workpiece surface and creates more reproducible absorption conditions for the main pulse, independent from the initial situation on material surface.

  17. Effect of Shielding Gas on the Properties of AW 5083 Aluminum Alloy Laser Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskoč, Maroš; Sahul, Miroslav; Sahul, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the shielding gas influence on the properties of AW 5083 aluminum alloy weld joints produced with disk laser. Butt weld joints were produced under different shielding gas types, namely Ar, He, Ar + 5 vol.% He, Ar + 30 vol.% He and without shielding weld pool. Light and electron microscopy, computed tomography, microhardness measurements and tensile testing were used for evaluation of weld joint properties. He-shielded weld joints were the narrowest ones. On the other hand, Ar-shielded weld joints exhibited largest weld width. The choice of shielding gas had significant influence on the porosity level of welds. The lowest porosity was observed in weld joint produced in Ar with the addition of 5 vol.% He shielding atmosphere (only 0.03%), while the highest level of porosity was detected in weld joint produced in pure He (0.24%). Except unshielded aluminum alloy weld joint, the lowest tensile strength was recorded in He-shielded weld joints. On the contrary, the highest average microhardness was measured in He-shielded weld joints.

  18. High-power laser and arc welding of thorium-doped iridium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Liu, C.T.

    1980-05-01

    The arc and laser weldabilities of two Ir-0.3% W alloys containing 60 and 200 wt ppM Th have been investigated. The Ir-.03% W alloy containing 200 wt ppM Th is severely prone to hot cracking during gas tungsten-arc welding. Weld metal cracking results from the combined effects of heat-affected zone liquation cracking and solidification cracking. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fractured surface revealed patches of low-melting eutectic. The cracking is influenced to a great extent by the fusion zone microstructure and thorium content. The alloy has been welded with a continuous-wave high-power CO 2 laser system with beam power ranging from 5 to 10 kW and welding speeds of 8 to 25 mm/s. Successful laser welds without hot cracking have been obtained in this particular alloy. This is attributable to the highly concentrated heat source available in the laser beam and the refinement in fusion zone microstructure obtained during laser welding. Efforts to refine the fusion zone structure during gas tungsten-arc welding of Ir-0.3 % W alloy containing 60 wt ppM Th were partially successful. Here transverse arc oscillation during gas tungsten-arc welding refines the fusion zone structure to a certain extent. However, microstructural analysis of this alloy's laser welds indicates further refinement in the fusion zone microstructure than in that from the gas tungsten-arc process using arc oscillations. The fusion zone structure of the laser weld is a strong function of welding speed

  19. Investigation on fibrous collagen modifications during corneal laser welding by second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Rossi, Francesca; Cicchi, Riccardo; Stringari, Chiara; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Pavone, Francesco S.; Pini, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    The structural modifications in the collagen lattice of corneal stroma induced by near-infrared laser welding were investigated with second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. The corneal laser welding procedure is performed by staining the wound edges with a saturated water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) followed by irradiation with a 810 nm diode laser operated in continuous (CWLW: continuous wave laser welding) or pulsed (PLW: pulsed laser welding) mode. Both these procedures can provide closure of corneal wounds by inducing different structural modifications in the extracellular matrix. SHG imaging of native corneal stroma revealed collagen bundles composed of many regularly aligned collagen fibrils. After CWLW the regular lamellar arrangement was lost; collagen bundles appeared densely packed with an increasing disordered arrangement toward the welded cut. The weld was characterized by a loss of details; nevertheless, the observation of the second harmonic signal at this site indicated the lack of collagen denaturation. By contrast, PLW mode produced welding spots at the interface between donor and recipient corneal layers, which were characterized by a severe loss of the SHG signal, suggesting the occurrence of a complete collagen denaturation. SHG imaging appeared to be a powerful tool for visualizing the supramolecular morphological modifications in the collagen matrix after laser welding.

  20. Yb-fibre Laser Welding of 6 mm Duplex Stainless Steel 2205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolut, M.; Kong, C. Y.; Blackburn, J.; Cashell, K. A.; Hobson, P. R.

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is one of the materials of choice for structural and nuclear applications, having high strength and good corrosion resistance when compared with other grades of stainless steel. The welding process used to join these materials is critical as transformation of the microstructure during welding directly affects the material properties. High power laser welding has recently seen an increase in research interest as it offers both speed and flexibility. This paper presents an investigation into the important parameters affecting laser welding of DSS grade 2205, with particular focus given to the critical issue of phase transformation during welding. Bead-on-plate melt-run trials without filler material were performed on 6mm thick plates using a 5 kW Yb-fibre laser. The laser beam was characterized and a Design of Experiment approach was used to quantify the impact of the process parameters. Optical metallographic methods were used to examine the resulting microstructures.

  1. A comparative study of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding and TIG welding of thin Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming at comparing properties of the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy joints between pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding and traditional fusion welding. To achieve the research purpose, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates with a thickness of 0.8 mm were welded using pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (TIG), respectively. Residual distortions, weld geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints produced with LBW and TIG welding were compared. During the tensile test, with the aid of a high speed infrared camera, evolution of the plastic strain within tensile specimens corresponding to LBW and TIG welding were recorded and analyzed. Compared with the TIG, the welded joint by LBW has the characters of small overall residual distortion, fine microstructure, narrow heat-affected zone (HAZ), high Vickers hardness. LBW welding method can produce joints with higher strength and ductility. It can be concluded that Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding is much more suitable for welding the thin Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plate than TIG welding.

  2. Autocorrelation analysis of plasma plume light emissions in deep penetration laser welding of steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 012009. ISSN 1042-346X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * plasma plume * light emissions * autocorrelation analysis * weld depth Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2016

  3. Thermal Analysis and Microhardness Mapping in Hybrid Laser Welds in a Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    conditions. Via the keyhole the laser beam brings about easier ignition of the arc, stabilization of the arc welding process, and penetration of the...with respect to the conventional GMAW or GTAW processes without the need for very close fit-up. This paper will compare an autogenous laser weld to a...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP017864 TITLE: Thermal Analysis and Microhardness Mapping in Hybrid Laser

  4. Investigation of mixing and diffusion processes in hybrid spot laser-MIG keyhole welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J; Tsai, H L

    2009-01-01

    In hybrid laser-MIG keyhole welding, anti-crack elements can be added into the weld pool through a filler metal in anticipation of compensating mass loss, preventing porosity formation and improving compositional and mechanical properties of the welds. Understanding the mixing and diffusion of the filler metal in the molten pool is vital to achieve these desired objectives. In this study, mathematical models and associated numerical techniques have been developed to investigate the mixing and diffusion processes in hybrid laser-MIG keyhole welding. The transient interactions between droplets and weld pool and dynamics of the melt flow are studied. The effects of key process parameters, such as droplet size (wire diameter), droplet generation frequency (wire feed speed) and droplet impinging speed, on mixing/diffusion are systematically investigated. It was found that compositional homogeneity of the weld pool is determined by the competition between the mixing rate and the solidification rate. A small-size filler droplet together with high generation frequency can increase the latitudinal diffusion of the filler metal into the weld pool, while the large-size droplet along with the low generation frequency helps to get more uniform longitudinal diffusion. Increasing the impinging velocity of the filler droplet can improve the latitudinal diffusion of the filler metal. However, a high impinging velocity can cause a lower diffusion zone in the upper part of the welds. This study provides a good foundation for optimizing the hybrid laser-MIG keyhole welding process to achieve quality welds with desired properties.

  5. Optimization of hybrid laser - TIG welding of 316LN steel using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, M.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Ravikumar, R.; Saxena, Rajesh; Vasudevan, M.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the hybrid laser - TIG welding parameters for welding of 316LN austenitic stainless steel have been investigated by combining a pulsed laser beam with a TIG welding heat source at the weld pool. Laser power, pulse frequency, pulse duration, TIG current were presumed as the welding process parameters whereas weld bead width, weld cross-sectional area and depth of penetration (DOP) were considered as the process responses. Central composite design was used to complete the design matrix and welding experiments were conducted based on the design matrix. Weld bead measurements were then carried out to generate the dataset. Multiple regression models correlating the process parameters with the responses have been developed. The accuracy of the models were found to be good. Then, the desirability approach optimization technique was employed for determining the optimum process parameters to obtain the desired weld bead profile. Validation experiments were then carried out from the determined optimum process parameters. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured values.

  6. An optimization method for defects reduction in fiber laser keyhole welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen; Mi, Gaoyang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Laser welding has been widely used in automotive, power, chemical, nuclear and aerospace industries. The quality of welded joints is closely related to the existing defects which are primarily determined by the welding process parameters. This paper proposes a defects optimization method that takes the formation mechanism of welding defects and weld geometric features into consideration. The analysis of welding defects formation mechanism aims to investigate the relationship between welding defects and process parameters, and weld features are considered to identify the optimal process parameters for the desired welded joints with minimum defects. The improved back-propagation neural network possessing good modeling for nonlinear problems is adopted to establish the mathematical model and the obtained model is solved by genetic algorithm. The proposed method is validated by macroweld profile, microstructure and microhardness in the confirmation tests. The results show that the proposed method is effective at reducing welding defects and obtaining high-quality joints for fiber laser keyhole welding in practical production.

  7. Flaw evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding based plume shape by infrared thermal camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Yoo, Young Tae; Yang, Dong Jo; Song, Kyung Seol; Ro, Kyoung Bo

    2003-01-01

    In Nd:YAG laser welding evaluation methods of welding flaw are various. But, the method due to plume shape is difficult to classification od welding flaw. The Nd:YAG laser process is known to have high speed and deep penetration capability to become one of the most advanced welding technologies. At the present time, some methods are studied for measurement of plume shape by using high-speed camera and photo diode. This paper describes the machining characteristics of SM45C carbon steel welding by use of an Nd:YAG laser. In spite of its good mechanical characteristics, SM45C carbon steel has a high carbon contents and suffers a limitation in the industrial application due to the poor welding properties. In this study, plume shape was measured by infrared thermal camera that is non-contact/non-destructive thermal measurement equipment through change of laser generating power, speed, focus. Weld was performed on bead-on method. Measurement results are compared as two equipment. Here, two results are composed of measurement results of plume quantities due to plume shape by infrared thermal camera and inspection results of weld bead include weld flaws by ultrasonic inspector.

  8. Laser weld reconstitution of conventional Charpy and Miniaturized Notch Test (MNT) specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manahan, M.P.; Williams, J.; Martukanitz, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    As nuclear power plants approach end-of-license (EOL) and consideration is given to license renewal, there is an ever increasing need to expand the amount of data obtainable from the original surveillance specimens. A laser welding technique to reconstitute broken Charpy specimens is being developed to produce both conventional and miniaturized Charpy specimens. This paper reports on early laser welding development efforts and summarizes previous proof-of-principle experiments on a 1/16 scale miniaturized Charpy test. In order to benchmark the laser welding procedure, the laser-reconstituted specimen data have been compared with the original specimen data. In addition, the microstructure after welding has been examined to ensure that the material in the vicinity of the notch is essentially unchanged after the welding process. Data which characterize the thermal transient during welding are obtained by attaching thermocouples to the specimens. Other important considerations include perturbation of the stress field near the notch, dynamic stress waves, and contact of the weld region with the tup. Precise control of welding parameters has been demonstrated, heat-affected zones as small as 0.25 mm can be achieved, and sufficient penetration depth can be obtained to enable welding thick sections (1T or greater) to yield conventional Charpy specimens or fracture toughness specimens and thin sections (∼5 mm) to yield Miniaturized Notch Test (MNT) specimens

  9. Optimization of hybrid laser arc welding of 42CrMo steel to suppress pore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Hunan University, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Changsha (China); Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, College of Mechanical Engineering, Yueyang (China); Chen, Genyu; Mao, Shuai; Zhou, Cong; Chen, Fei [Hunan University, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Changsha (China)

    2017-06-15

    The hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) of 42CrMo quenched and tempered steel was conducted. The effect of the processing parameters, such as the relative positions of the laser and the arc, the shielding gas flow rate, the defocusing distance, the laser power, the wire feed rate and the welding speed, on the pore formation was analyzed, the morphological characteristics of the pores were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the majority of the pores were invasive. The pores formed at the leading a laser (LA) welding process were fewer than those at the leading a arc (AL) welding process. Increasing the shielding gas flow rate could also facilitate the reduction of pores. The laser power and the welding speed were two key process parameters to reduce the pores. The flow of the molten pool, the weld cooling rate and the pore escaping rate as a result of different parameters could all affect pore formation. An ideal pore-free weld was obtained for the optimal welding process parameters. (orig.)

  10. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Varma, P.V.; Gupta, Amit; Amit, K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2009-02-01

    End plug welding of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) fuel elements involves welding of fully Austenitic Stainless Steel (ASS) of grade D9 clad tube with 316M end plug. Pulsed Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is being used for the production of PFBR fuel elements at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF). GTAW is an established process for end plug welding and hence adopted by many countries. GTAW has got certain limitations like heat input, arc gap sensitivity and certain sporadic defects like tungsten inclusion. Experiments have been carried out at AFFF to use Laser Beam Welding (LBW) technique as LBW offers a number of advantages over the former process. This report mainly deals with the optimization of laser parameters for welding of PFBR fuel elements. To facilitate pulsed Nd-YAG laser spot welding, parameters like peak power, pulse duration, pulse energy, frequency and defocusing of laser beam on to the work piece have been optimized. On the basis of penetration requirement laser welding parameters have been optimized. (author)

  11. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  12. A robotic platform for laser welding of corneal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Micheletti, Filippo; Magni, Giada; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Leoni, Fabio; Magnani, Bernardo

    2017-07-01

    Robotic surgery is a reality in several surgical fields, such as in gastrointestinal surgery. In ophthalmic surgery the required high spatial precision is limiting the application of robotic system, and even if several attempts have been designed in the last 10 years, only some application in retinal surgery were tested in animal models. The combination of photonics and robotics can really open new frontiers in minimally invasive surgery, improving the precision, reducing tremor, amplifying scale of motion, and automating the procedure. In this manuscript we present the preliminary results in developing a vision guided robotic platform for laser-assisted anterior eye surgery. The robotic console is composed by a robotic arm equipped with an "end effector" designed to deliver laser light to the anterior corneal surface. The main intended application is for laser welding of corneal tissue in laser assisted penetrating keratoplasty and endothelial keratoplasty. The console is equipped with an integrated vision system. The experiment originates from a clear medical demand in order to improve the efficacy of different surgical procedures: when the prototype will be optimized, other surgical areas will be included in its application, such as neurosurgery, urology and spinal surgery.

  13. Laser beam welding of titanium nitride coated titanium using pulse-shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Sergio Fernandes de Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new welding method which allows the assembly of two titanium nitride coated titanium parts is proposed. The welding procedure utilizes the possibility for pulse-shaping in order to change the energy distribution profile during the laser pulse. The pulse-shaping is composed of three elements: a a short high power pulse for partial ablation at the surface; b a long pulse for thermal penetration; and c a quenching slope for enhanced weldability. The combination of these three elements produces crack-free welds. The weld microstructure is changed in comparison to normal welding, i.e. with a rectangular pulse, as the nitrogen and the microhardness are more homogenously distributed in the weld under pulse-shaping conditions. This laser pulse dissolves the TiN layer and allows nitrogen to diffuse into the melt pool, also contributing to an enhanced weldability by providing suitable thermal conditions.

  14. Investigation of the Microstructure of Laser-Arc Hybrid Welded Boron Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seungwoo; Lee, Young Ho; Choi, Dong-Won; Cho, Kuk-Rae; Shin, Seung Man; Lee, Youngseog; Kang, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Zonghoon

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure of boron steel for automotive driving shaft manufacturing after laser-arc hybrid welding was investigated. Laser-arc hybrid welding technology was applied to 3-mm-thick plates of boron steel, ST35MnB. The temperature distribution of the welding pool was analyzed using the finite element method, and the microstructure of the welded boron steel was characterized using optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The microstructure of the weld joint was classified into the fusion zone, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the base material. At the fusion zone, the bainite grains exist in the martensite matrix and show directionality because of heat input from the welding. The HAZ is composed of smaller grains, and the hardness of the HAZ is greater than that of the fusion zone. We discuss that the measured grain size and the hardness of the HAZ originate from undissolved precipitates that retard the grain growth of austenite.

  15. Development of remote bore tools for pipe welding/cutting by YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Obara, Kenjiro; Taguchi, Kou; Nakamori, Naokazu

    1996-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, an internal access pipe welding/cutting using YAG laser beam is being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T44). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In this report, the details of a welding/cutting head with a flexible optical fiber for YAG laser are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and rewelding. (author)

  16. Characteristics of Laser Beam and Friction Stir Welded AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2012-04-01

    This article presents the comparative evaluation of microstructural features and mechanical properties of friction stir welded (solid-state) and laser beam welded (high energy density fusion welding) AISI 409M grade ferritic stainless steel joints. Optical microscopy, microhardness testing, transverse tensile, and impact tests were performed. The coarse ferrite grains in the base material were changed to fine grains consisting duplex structure of ferrite and martensite due to the rapid cooling rate and high strain induced by severe plastic deformation caused by frictional stirring. On the other hand, columnar dendritic grain structure was observed in fusion zone of laser beam welded joints. Tensile testing indicates overmatching of the weld metal relative to the base metal irrespective of the welding processes used. The LBW joint exhibited superior impact toughness compared to the FSW joint.

  17. Study of welding characteristics of inconel 600 alloy using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seong Wook; Yoo, Young Tae; Shin, Ho Jun

    2004-01-01

    Laser beam welding is increasingly being used in welding of structural steels. The laser welding process is one of the most advanced manufacturing technologies owing to its high speed and deep penetration. The thermal cycles associated with laser welding are generally much faster than those involved in conventional arc welding processes, leading to a rather small weld zone. Experiments are performed for Inconel 600 plates changing several process parameter such as laser power, welding speed, shielding gas flow rate, presence of surface pollution, with fixed or variable gap and misalignment between plate and plate, etc. The follow conclusions can be drawn that laser power and welding speed have a pronounced effect on size and shape of the fusion zone. Increase in welding speed resulted in an increase in weld depth/ aspect ratio and hence a decrease in the fusion zone size. The penetration depth increased with the increase in laser power. Welding characteristics of austienite Inconel 600 using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser are experimentally investigated. This paper describes the weld ability of inconel 600 for machine structural use by Nd:YAG laser

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded and laser welded high entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Min-Gu; Kim, Han-Jin; Kang, Minjung; Madakashira, Phaniraj P.; Park, Eun Soo; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Kim, Dong-Ik; Hong, Sung-Tae; Han, Heung Nam

    2018-01-01

    The high entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi has been shown to have promising structural properties. For a new alloy to be used in a structural application it should be weldable. In the present study, friction stir welding (FSW) and laser welding (LW) techniques were used to butt weld thin plates of CrMnFeCoNi. The microstructure, chemical homogeneity and mechanical behavior of the welds were characterized and compared with the base metal. The tensile stress-strain behavior of the welded specimens were reasonable when compared with that of the base metal. FSW refined the grain size in the weld region by a factor of ˜14 when compared with the base metal. High-angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed chemical inhomogeneity between dendritic and interdendritic regions in the fusion zone of LW. Large fluctuations in composition (up to 15 at%) did not change the crystal structure in the fusion zone. Hardness measurements were carried out in the weld cross section and discussed in view of the grain size, low angle grain boundaries and twin boundaries in FSW specimens and the dendritic microstructure in LW specimens.

  19. Laser Beam Welding of Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. Strengths of up to 2 GPa at fracture elongations of 15% can be attained through this. Welding of these materials, as a result, became a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply efficient heat control. For two application cases, tailored blank production in as-rolled condition and welding during assembly in hot stamped condition, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown through metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KS-II concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method.

  20. Welding of cold worked austenitic steels - comparison of TIG, EB and laser processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.; Prunele, D. de; Castilan, F.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of welding on cold worked components is a local falling of their properties. Modifications induced by such an operation depend on the thermal cycle and consequently on the welding process. An experimental study aim of which is to compare respective effects of different welding processes (TIG, EB, laser) has been realized. This publication presents results related to 316L and 316Ti steels. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  1. Residual stress improvement mechanism on metal material by underwater laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji; Yoda, Masaki; Mukai, Naruhiko; Obata, Minoru; Kanno, Masanori

    2000-01-01

    Residual stress improvement technology for component surface by underwater pulsed laser irradiation has been developed as a method of preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of core components in nuclear reactors. In order to optimize the laser irradiation conditions based on a complete understanding of the mechanism, the propagation of a shock wave induced by the impulse of laser irradiation and the dynamic response of the irradiated material were analyzed through time-dependent elasto-plastic calculations with a finite element program. The calculated results are compared with the measured results obtained by experiments in which laser pulses with an energy of 200 mJ are focused to a diameter of 0.8 mm on a water-immersed test piece of 20% cold-worked Type 304 austenitic stainless steel to simulate neutron irradiation hardening. A residual compressive stress, which is nearly equivalent to the yield stress of the processed material, remains on the material surface after passage of the shock wave with enough amplitude to induce a permanent strain. Multiple irradiation of laser pulses extends the stress-improved depth to about 1 mm, which would be the limit corresponding to the three-dimensional dispersion effect of the shock wave. (author)

  2. [Effects of laser welding on bond of porcelain fused cast pure titanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juan-fang; He, Hui-ming; Gao, Bo; Wang, Zhong-yi

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the influence of the laser welding on bond of porcelain fused to cast pure titanium. Twenty cast titanium plates were divided into two groups: laser welded group and control group. The low-fusing porcelain was fused to the laser welded cast pure titanium plates at fusion zone. The bond strength of the porcelain to laser welded cast pure titanium was measured by the three-point bending test. The interface of titanium and porcelain was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy depressive X-ray detector (EDX). The non-welded titanium plates were used as comparison. No significant difference of the bond strength was found between laser-welded samples [(46.85 +/- 0.76) MPa] and the controls [(41.71 +/- 0.55) MPa] (P > 0.05). The SEM displayed the interface presented similar irregularities with a predominance. The titanium diffused to low-fusing porcelain, while silicon and aluminum diffused to titanium basement. Laser welding does not affect low-fusing porcelain fused to pure titanium.

  3. Numerical Simulations on the Laser Spot Welding of Zirconium Alloy Endplate for Nuclear Fuel Bundle Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, G.; Narayana, K. L.; Boggarapu, Nageswara Rao

    2018-03-01

    In the nuclear industry, a critical welding process is joining of an end plate to a fuel rod to form a fuel bundle. Literature on zirconium welding in such a critical operation is limited. A CFD model is developed and performed for the three-dimensional non-linear thermo-fluid analysis incorporating buoyancy and Marnangoni stress and specifying temperature dependent properties to predict weld geometry and temperature field in and around the melt pool of laser spot during welding of a zirconium alloy E110 endplate with a fuel rod. Using this method, it is possible to estimate the weld pool dimensions for the specified laser power and laser-on-time. The temperature profiles will estimate the HAZ and microstructure. The adequacy of generic nature of the model is validated with existing experimental data.

  4. Evaluation of laser welding techniques for hydrogen transmission. Final report, September 1977-November 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucci, J

    1980-05-01

    This program was established to determine the feasibility of laser beam welding as a fabrication method for hydrogen transmission and is a precursor in the effort to systematically provide the technological base necessary for large-scale, economic pipeline transmission of fuel for a hydrogen energy system. The study contributes to the technology base by establishing the effect of conventional weld processes and laser beam welding on the mechanical properties of two classes of steels in an air and high pressure gaseous hydrogen environment. Screening evaluation of the tensile, low-cycle fatigue and fracture toughness properties and metallurgical analyses provide the basis for concluding that laser beam welding of AISI 304L stainless steel and ASTM A106B carbon steel can produce weldments of comparable quality to those produced by gas-tungsten arc and electron beam welding and is at least equally compatible with 13.8 MPa (2000 psig) gaseous hydrogen environment.

  5. Prevention of pharyngocutaneous fistulas by means of laser-weld techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, J A; Reinisch, L; Ossoff, R H

    1995-07-01

    Although much has been written on methods of dealing with pharyngocutaneous fistulas once they have formed, there are few reports of methods of preventing fistula formation from occurring. We examined the use of laser-weld techniques with the neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers to seal pharyngotomy closures. Laser-weld techniques have been used successfully in many other tissues, but reports documenting use in the upper aerodigestive tract are minimal. Indocyanine-green dye-enhanced collagen and fibrinogen were studied as laser solder materials for the diode laser. Twenty-nine experimental animals were studied. Neither the Nd:YAG nor the diode laser was successful in preventing fistula formation. Tensiometric studies documented significant strength of the laser welds ex vivo, but this finding was not clinically significant.

  6. The influence of laser pulse waveform on laser-TIG hybrid welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Luo, Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    By dividing laser pulse duration into two parts, three kinds of laser waveforms are designed, including a high power density pulse (HPDP) laser in a short duration set at the beginning of the laser waveform. This paper aims to find out the laser pulse waveform and idiographic critical values of HPDP, which can affect the magnesium penetration in laser-tungsten inert gas (TIG) hybrid welding. Results show that when the laser pulse duration of HPDP is not more than 0.4 ms, the welding penetration values of lasers with HPDP are larger than otherwise. Also, the welding penetration values of laser with HPDP have increased by up to 26.1%. It has been found that with HPDP, the laser can form the keyhole more easily because the interaction between laser and the plate is changed, when the TIG arc preheats the plate. Besides, the laser with high power density and short duration strikes on the plates so heavily that the corresponding background power can penetrate into the bottom of the keyhole and maintain the keyhole open, which facilitates the final welding penetration.

  7. Mechanical properties and microstructure of F-82H welded joints using CO{sub 2} laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, N.; Shiba, K.

    1996-10-01

    The laser welding of F-82H was successfully conducted. The heat affected zone of the welding, was about 21 mm width. It was quite adequate to make small specimens, such as SS-3 type sheet tensile specimen.

  8. Laser welding of SSM Cast A356 aluminium alloy processed with CSIR-Rheo technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akhter, R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of aluminium alloy A356 were manufactured by Semi Solid Metals HPDC technology, developed recently in CSIR, Pretoria. They were butt welded in as cast conditions using as Nd: YAG laser. The best metal and weld microstructure were presented...

  9. Laser welding study for further development in essential power plant part repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isarawit Chaopanich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to study the effects of laser welding when compared with shield metal arc welding (SMAW process on the heat input, welded deposit rate, residual stress, distortion, microstructure and micro hardness. The martensitic stainless steel grade 431 specimens were overlay welded with the stainless steel filler metals. From the results, the heat input of 0.26 kJ/mm in laser welding calculated was significantly lower than that of 1.66 kJ/mm in SMAW, and contributed to low level residual stress, minimal distortion, very small penetration depth and heat affected zone (HAZ of less than 100 µm. The micro hardness results indicated that the maximum value from laser welding in the HAZ was 370.2 HV lower than the value from SMAW of 525.5 HV. The welded deposit rate for laser welding was with 26.5 mm3 /min remarkably lower than the rate for SMAW of 1,800 mm3 /min.

  10. Application of the diode laser for welding in tairoled blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocos, J. L.; Zubiri, F.; Garciandia, F.; Pena, J.; Cortiella, A.; Berrueta, J. M.; Zapirain, F.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years, one of the most interesting subjects in the automotive industry is the weight reduction of the automobile, and so to diminish the fuel consumption. Among other performance, the use in the body car of materials which have high mechanical resistance must be considered for the weight reduction of the automobile and maintaining high benefits. In this work, it has been studied the utilization of the diode laser for high resistance steel sheets welding, concretely microalloying steels (ZStE), DP dual phase and TRIP transformation induced plasticity. These steels can be employed in tailored blanks, which are defined as two or more separate pieces of flat material of dissimilar thickness and/or physical properties joined together before forming, to provide superior qualities in the finished stamped part. In this study, the metallographic characterization has been realised in the welding seams, and the mechanical behaviour has been analysed employing the following tests: microhardenss, drawing, tensile and fatigue. (Author) 15 refs

  11. Cracking in dissimilar laser welding of tantalum to molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingwen; Huang, Yongde; Hao, Kun; Chen, Yuhua

    2018-06-01

    Dissimilar joining of tantalum (Ta) to molybdenum (Mo) is of great interest in high temperature structural component applications. However, few reports were found about joining of these two hard-to-weld metals. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the weldability of laser butt joining of 0.2 mm-thick Ta and Mo. In order to study cracking mechanism in Ta/Mo joint, similar Ta/Ta and Mo/Mo joints were compared under the same welding conditions. An optical microscope observation revealed presence of intergranular cracks in the Mo/Mo joint, while both transgranular and intergranular cracks were observed in Ta/Mo joint. The cracking mechanism of the Ta/Mo joint was investigated further by micro-hardness testing, micro X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that solidification cracking tendency of Mo is a main reason for crack initiation in the Ta/Mo joint. Low ductility feature in fusion zone most certainly played a role in the transgranular propagation of cracking.

  12. Comparative study on laser welding and TIG welding of semi-solid high pressure die cast A356 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available components. The low porosity levels in SSM high pressure die castings (HPDC) improves the weldability of these components. The aim of the current research was to perform a comparative study of laser and TIG welding of SSM HPDC aluminium alloy A356. SSM...

  13. Optimisation of laser welding parameters for welding of P92 material using Taguchi based grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugarajan B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Creep strength enhanced ferritic (CSEF steels are used in advanced power plant systems for high temperature applications. P92 (Cr–W–Mo–V steel, classified under CSEF steels, is a candidate material for piping, tubing, etc., in ultra-super critical and advanced ultra-super critical boiler applications. In the present work, laser welding process has been optimised for P92 material by using Taguchi based grey relational analysis (GRA. Bead on plate (BOP trials were carried out using a 3.5 kW diffusion cooled slab CO2 laser by varying laser power, welding speed and focal position. The optimum parameters have been derived by considering the responses such as depth of penetration, weld width and heat affected zone (HAZ width. Analysis of variance (ANOVA has been used to analyse the effect of different parameters on the responses. Based on ANOVA, laser power of 3 kW, welding speed of 1 m/min and focal plane at −4 mm have evolved as optimised set of parameters. The responses of the optimised parameters obtained using the GRA have been verified experimentally and found to closely correlate with the predicted value.

  14. Development of laser welded appendages to Zircaloy-4 fuel tubing (sheath/cladding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, S., E-mail: steve.livingstone@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Limited, Chalk River, ON, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Xiao, L. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Limited, Chalk River, ON, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Corcoran, E.C.; Ferrier, G.A.; Potter, K.N. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Examines feasibility of laser welding appendages to Zr-4 tubing. • Laser welding minimizes the HAZ and removes toxic Be. • Mechanical properties of laser welds appear competitive with induction brazed joints. • Work appears promising and lays the foundation for further investigations. - Abstract: Laser welding is a potential alternative to the induction brazing process commonly used for appendage attachment in CANDU{sup ®} fuel fabrication that uses toxic Be as a filler metal, and creates multiple large heat affected zones in the sheath. For this work, several appendages were laser welded to tubing using different laser heat input settings and then examined with a variety of techniques: visual examination, metallography, shear strength testing, impact testing, and fracture surface analysis. Where possible, the examination results are contrasted against production induction brazed joints. The work to date looks promising for laser welded appendages. Further work on joint optimization, corrosion testing, irradiation testing, and post-irradiation examination will be performed in the future.

  15. Feedback control of laser welding based on frequency analysis of light emissions and adaptive beam shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, NOV (2012), s. 784-791 ISSN 1875-3892. [LANE 2012. Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering /7./ International Conference on Photonic Technologies. Fürth, 12.11.2012-15.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * feedback control * frequency analysis * adaptive beam shaping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  16. Twin-spot laser welding of advanced high-strength multiphase microstructure steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajcar, Adam; Morawiec, Mateusz; Różański, Maciej; Stano, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The study addresses the results concerning the laser welding of TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steel using a beam focused at two spots (also referred to as twin-spot laser welding). The analysis involved the effect of variable welding thermal cycles on the properties and microstructure of welded joints. The tests were performed using a linear energy of 0.048 and 0.060 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 50%:50%, 60%:40% and 70%:30%. The tests also involved welding performed using a linear energy of 0.150 kJ/mm and the laser beam power distribution of 70%:30%. In addition, the research included observations of the microstructure of the fusion zone, heat affected zone and the transition zone using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fusion zone was composed of blocky-lath martensite whereas the HAZ (heat-affected zone) was characterised by the lath microstructure containing martensite, bainite and retained austenite. The distribution of twin-spot laser beam power significantly affected the microstructure and hardness profiles of welded joints. The highest hardness (480-505 HV), regardless of welding variants used, was observed in the HAZ.

  17. Texture characterisation of hexagonal metals: Magnesium AZ91 alloy, welded by laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouadri, A.; Barrallier, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cooled and cast magnesium AZ91 alloy was welded using a CO 2 laser. The changes in the microstructure were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Modification of the anisotropic properties was evaluated by the characterization of the texture in the base metal, in the core of the welded zone and in the welded zone close to the surface. In the two former zones, we have not observed a texture. Laser welding only leads to a change of the grain size and a disappearance of the eutectic phase. By contrast, in the welded zone close to the surface, the laser process leads both to a finer microstructure, to a loss of the Al-content and to the presence of several texture components. In this zone, our results showed that these textures are on pyramidal {101-bar 1} and prismatic {101-bar 0} planes. Much of the explanation for such texture rests with the fact that during the laser welding, material solidifies in strong non-equilibrium conditions. The kinetics of the nucleation and the growth are partly controlled by the high-rise and high fall of the temperature and the power produced by the laser process. The nature of the texture has been explained by the presence of a columnar to equiaxed transition in the welded zone

  18. In-Process Detection of Weld Defects Using Laser-Based Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, G.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Kisner, R.A.; Klein, M.B.; Pouet, B.

    1999-01-01

    Laser-based ultrasonic (LBU) measurement shows great promise for on-line monitoring of weld quality in tailor-welded blanks. Tailor-welded blanks are steel blanks made from plates of differing thickness and/or properties butt-welded together; they are used in automobile manufacturing to produce body, frame, and closure panels. LBU uses a pulsed laser to generate the ultrasound and a continuous wave (CW) laser interferometer to detect the ultrasound at the point of interrogation to perform ultrasonic inspection. LBU enables in-process measurements since there is no sensor contact or near-contact with the workpiece. The authors are using laser-generated plate (Lamb) waves to propagate from one plate into the weld nugget as a means of detecting defects. This paper reports the results of the investigation of a number of inspection architectures based on processing of signals from selected plate waves, which are either reflected from or transmitted through the weld zone. Bayesian parameter estimation and wavelet analysis (both continuous and discrete) have shown that the LBU time-series signal is readily separable into components that provide distinguishing features which describe weld quality. The authors anticipate that, in an on-line industrial application, these measurements can be implemented just downstream from the weld cell. Then the weld quality data can be fed back to control critical weld parameters or alert the operator of a problem requiring maintenance. Internal weld defects and deviations from the desired surface profile can then be corrected before defective parts are produced

  19. Weldability with Process Parameters During Fiber Laser Welding of a Titanium Plate (II) - The Effect of Control of Heat Input on Weldability -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Ji Sung [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Laser welding is a high-density energy welding method. Hence, deep penetration and high welding speed can be realized with lower heat input as compared with conventional welding. The heat input of a CW laser welding is determined by laser power and welding speed. In this study, bead and lap welding of 0.5 mmt pure titanium was performed using a fiber laser. Its weldability with laser power and welding speed was evaluated. Penetration, bead width, joining length, and bead shape were investigated, and the mechanical properties were examined through tensile-shear strength tests. Welds with sound joining length were obtained when the laser power and welding speed were respectively 0.5 kW and 2.5 m/min, and 1.5 kW and 6 m/min, and the weld obtained at low output presented better ductility than that obtained at high output.

  20. Weldability with Process Parameters During Fiber Laser Welding of a Titanium Plate (II) - The Effect of Control of Heat Input on Weldability -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Ji Sung

    2016-01-01

    Laser welding is a high-density energy welding method. Hence, deep penetration and high welding speed can be realized with lower heat input as compared with conventional welding. The heat input of a CW laser welding is determined by laser power and welding speed. In this study, bead and lap welding of 0.5 mmt pure titanium was performed using a fiber laser. Its weldability with laser power and welding speed was evaluated. Penetration, bead width, joining length, and bead shape were investigated, and the mechanical properties were examined through tensile-shear strength tests. Welds with sound joining length were obtained when the laser power and welding speed were respectively 0.5 kW and 2.5 m/min, and 1.5 kW and 6 m/min, and the weld obtained at low output presented better ductility than that obtained at high output

  1. Micro-Welding of Copper Plate by Frequency Doubled Diode Pumped Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiba, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Takai, Sunao; Okada, Akira

    A pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength with ms range pulse duration was newly developed by second harmonic generation of diode pumped pulsed Nd:YAG laser. High electro-optical conversion efficiency more than 13% could be achieved, and 1.5 kW peak power green laser pulse was put in optical fiber of 100 μm in diameter. In micro- welding of 1.0 mm thickness copper plate, a keyhole welding was successfully performed by 1.0 kW peak power at spot diameter less than 200 μm. The frequency doubled pulsed laser improved the processing efficiency of copper welding, and narrow and deep weld bead was stably obtained.

  2. Influence of scandium on the microstructure and strength properties of the welded joint at the laser welding of aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Golyshev, A. A.; Ivanova, M. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Today, aeronautical equipment manufacture involves up-to-date high-strength aluminum alloys of decreased density resulting from lithium admixture. Various technologies of fusible welding of these alloys are being developed. Serious demands are imposed to the welded joints of aluminum alloys in respect to their strength characteristics. The paper presents experimental investigations of the optimization of the laser welding of aluminum alloys with the scandium-modified welded joint. The effect of scandium on the micro-and macro-structure has been studied as well as the strength characteristics of the welded joint. It has been found that scandium under in the laser welding process increases the welded joint elasticity for the system Al-Mg-Li, aluminum alloy 1420 by 20 %, and almost doubles the same for the system Al-Cu-Li, aluminum alloy 1441.

  3. Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamini Janasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Double-sided laser beam welding of skin-stringer joints is an established method for many applications. However, in certain cases with limited accessibility, single-sided laser beam joining is considered. In the present study, single-sided welding of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based alloy Inconel 600 in a T-joint configuration was carried out using continuous-wave (CW, low-power Ytterbium (Yb-fiber laser. The influence of the overlapping factor and welding speed of the laser beam on weld morphology and properties was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. XRD analysis revealed the presence of intermetallic layers containing NiTi and NiTi2 at the skin-stringer joint. The strength of the joints was evaluated using pull testing, while the hardness of the joints was analyzed using Vickers hardness measurement at the base metal (BM, fusion zone (FZ and heat-affected zone (HAZ. The results showed that the highest force needed to break the samples apart was approximately 150 N at a laser welding power of 250 W, welding speed of 40 mm/s and overlapping factor of 50%. During low-power single-sided laser welding, the properties of the T-joints were affected by the overlapping factor and laser welding speed.

  4. Welding uranium with a multikilowatt, continuous-wave, carbon dioxide laser welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.W.; Townsend, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    A 15-kilowatt, continuous-wave carbon dioxide laser was contracted to make partial-penetration welds in 6.35-and 12.7-mm-thick wrought depleted uranium plates. Welding power and speed ranged from 2.3 to 12.9 kilowatts and from 21 to 127 millimeters per second, respectively. Results show that depth-to-width ratios of at least unity are feasible. The overall characteristics of the process indicate it can produce welds resembling those made by the electron-beam welding process

  5. Mechanisms of the porosity formation during the fiber laser lap welding of aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When joining the aluminum alloys, one of the biggest challenges is the formation of porosity, which deteriorates mechanical properties of welds. In this study, the lap welding was conducted on an aluminum alloy 5754 metal sheets with a thickness of 2 mm. The effects of various laser welding parameters on the weld quality were investigated. The porosity content was measured by X-ray inspections. The key is to control the solidification duration of molten pool. When the solidification duration of molten pool is large enough, more bubbles can escape from the molten pool and less remain as porosity.

  6. Ti-6Al-4V electron beam weld qualification using laser scanning confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjara, P.; Brochu, M.; Jahazi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Processing conditions for manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V components by welding using an electron beam source are known to influence the transformation microstructure in the narrow fusion and heat-affected zones of the weld region. This work examined the effect of multiple-sequence welding on the characteristics of the transformed beta microstructure, using laser scanning confocal microscopy to resolve the Widmanstaetten alpha-beta structure in the fusion zone. The evolution in the alpha interlamellar spacing and plate thickness with processing was then related to microhardness measurements in the weld region

  7. Comparison of pulsed Nd : YAG laser welding qualitative features with plasma plume thermal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbaghzadeh, J; Dadras, S; Torkamany, M J

    2007-01-01

    A spectroscopic approach was used to study the effects of different operating parameters on st14 sheet metal welding with a 400 W maximum average power pulsed Nd : YAG laser. The parameters included pulse duration and peak power and type and flow rate of the assist gas and welding speed. Weld quality, including penetration depth and melt width, has been compared with the FeI electron temperature obtained from spectroscopic observations of a plasma plume. A correlation between the standard deviation of the electron temperature and the quality of welding has also been found

  8. Metallurgical characterization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc, friction stir and laser beam welded AZ31B magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influences of welding processes such as friction stir welding (FSW), laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on mechanical and metallurgical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction technique were used to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of welded joints. LBW joints exhibited superior tensile properties compared to FSW and PCGTAW joints due to the formation of finer grains in weld region, higher fusion zone hardness, the absence of heat affected zone, presence of uniformly distributed finer precipitates in weld region.

  9. Influence of laser hardening with weld penetration onto mechanical and fatigue properties of 40H steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napadlek, W.; Przetakiewicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    In the article were described investigations results of mechanical properties (hardness, R 0.2 , R m , A 5 , Z) and fatigue properties (rotary bending) of the 40H steel samples, being quenched and tempered, induction and laser hardened. In the laser hardened samples with weld penetration of top layer cracking process in fatigue strength is started mainly in weld penetration area as structural notch. (author)

  10. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system

  11. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system.

  12. Elucidation of Metallic Plume and Spatter Characteristics Based on SVM During High-Power Disk Laser Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiangdong; Liu Guiqian

    2015-01-01

    During deep penetration laser welding, there exist plume (weak plasma) and spatters, which are the results of weld material ejection due to strong laser heating. The characteristics of plume and spatters are related to welding stability and quality. Characteristics of metallic plume and spatters were investigated during high-power disk laser bead-on-plate welding of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel plates at a continuous wave laser power of 10 kW. An ultraviolet and visible sensitive high-speed camera was used to capture the metallic plume and spatter images. Plume area, laser beam path through the plume, swing angle, distance between laser beam focus and plume image centroid, abscissa of plume centroid and spatter numbers are defined as eigenvalues, and the weld bead width was used as a characteristic parameter that reflected welding stability. Welding status was distinguished by SVM (support vector machine) after data normalization and characteristic analysis. Also, PCA (principal components analysis) feature extraction was used to reduce the dimensions of feature space, and PSO (particle swarm optimization) was used to optimize the parameters of SVM. Finally a classification model based on SVM was established to estimate the weld bead width and welding stability. Experimental results show that the established algorithm based on SVM could effectively distinguish the variation of weld bead width, thus providing an experimental example of monitoring high-power disk laser welding quality. (plasma technology)

  13. Numerical Simulation on the Origin of Solidification Cracking in Laser Welded Thick-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Bakir

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors affecting the use of lasers in the industry for welding thick structures is the process accompanying solidification cracks. These cracks mostly occurring along the welding direction in the welding center, and strongly affect the safety of the welded components. In the present study, to obtain a better understanding of the relation between the weld pool geometry, the stress distribution and the solidification cracking, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD model was combined with a thermo-mechanical model. The CFD model was employed to analyze the flow of the molten metal in the weld pool during the laser beam welding process. The weld pool geometry estimated from the CFD model was used as a heat source in the thermal model to calculate the temperature field and the stress development and distributions. The CFD results showed a bulging region in the middle depth of the weld and two narrowing areas separating the bulging region from the top and bottom surface. The thermo-mechanical simulations showed a concentration of tension stresses, transversally and vertically, directly after the solidification during cooling in the region of the solidification cracking.

  14. Melt pool and keyhole behaviour analysis for deep penetration laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, R

    2010-01-01

    One usually defines the main characteristic of the welding performances of a given laser system by its 'penetration curve' that corresponds to the welding depth as a function of the welding speed V w for a given set of operating parameters. Analysis of a penetration curve is interesting and gives very fruitful results. Coupled with high-speed video imaging of melt pool surface and ejected plume behaviour, the analysis of this penetration curve on a very large range of welding speeds, typically from 0 to 50 m min -1 , has allowed us to observe very different and characteristic regimes. These regimes are mainly characterized by the physical processes by which they impede the laser beam penetration inside the material. We show that it is only at rather high welding speeds that these limiting processes are reduced. Consequently, the scaling law of welding depth with welding speed is in agreement with adapted modelling of this process. On the other hand, as the welding speed is reduced, different effects depending on the weld pool dynamics and plume interaction strongly disturb the keyhole stability and are responsible for the deviation of the penetration curve from the previous modelling that agrees with a 1/V w scaling law. A corresponding criterion for the occurrence of this effect is defined.

  15. Process stability during fiber laser-arc hybrid welding of thick steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaziv, Ivan; Frostevarg, Jan; Akselsen, Odd M.; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Thick steel plates are frequently used in shipbuilding, pipelines and other related heavy industries, and are usually joined by arc welding. Deep penetration laser-arc hybrid welding could increase productivity but has not been thoroughly investigated, and is therefore usually limited to applications with medium thickness (5-15 mm) sections. A major concern is process stability, especially when using modern welding consumables such as metal-cored wire and advanced welding equipment. High speed imaging allows direct observation of the process so that process behavior and phenomena can be studied. In this paper, 45 mm thick high strength steel was welded (butt joint double-sided) using the fiber laser-MAG hybrid process utilizing a metal-cored wire without pre-heating. Process stability was monitored under a wide range of welding parameters. It was found that the technique can be used successfully to weld thick sections with appropriate quality when the parameters are optimized. When comparing conventional pulsed and the more advanced cold metal transfer pulse (CMT+P) arc modes, it was found that both can provide high quality welds. CMT+P arc mode can provide more stable droplet transfer over a limited range of travel speeds. At higher travel speeds, an unstable metal transfer mechanism was observed. Comparing leading arc and trailing arc arrangements, the leading arc configuration can provide higher quality welds and more stable processing at longer inter-distances between the heat sources.

  16. Welding zinc coated steel with a CO/sub 2/ laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, R.; Steen, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    Welding of zinc coated steel has been studied using a high power CO/sub 2/ laser. This process is of great interest to the manufactures of car, washing machines and other components made from sheet steel and subject to corrosion. The problem associated with the welding of zinc coated steel is the low boiling point of zinc (906C) relative to the high melting point of steel (1500C). The problem is particularly important in lap welding where the zinc layer is between the lapped sheets. Under these conditions the laser 'keyhole' will generate very high vapour pressure in the zinc layer with a consequent severe risk of vapour eruption destroying the continuity of the weld bead. Several techniques are presented for the removal of zinc vapours from the interface between the two sheets. It is shown that this problem solved by suitable gap between the sheets during lap welding. Hence full penetration welds without deterioration of the weld bead can be obtained. A theory has been presented which predicted an exact gap size needed to exhaust the zinc vapour. The gap depends upon the welding speed, zinc coating thickness and thickness of the sheet. The theory predicts the weld quality satisfactorily. (author)

  17. Q-switch Nd:YAG laser welding of AISI 304 stainless steel foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P' ng, Danny [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States); Molian, Pal [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)], E-mail: molian@iastate.edu

    2008-07-15

    Conventional fusion welding of stainless steel foils (<100 {mu}m thickness) used in computer disk, precision machinery and medical device applications suffer from excessive distortion, formation of discontinuities (pore, void and hot crack), uncontrolled melting (melt-drop through) and poor aesthetics. In this work, a 15 ns pulsed, 400 mJ Nd:YAG laser beam was utilized to overcome these barriers in seam welding of 60 {mu}m thin foil of AISI 304 stainless steel. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructures while hardness and tensile-shear tests were used to evaluate the strengths. Surface roughness was measured using a DekTak profilometer while porosity content was estimated using the light microscope. Results were compared against the data obtained from resistance seam welding. Laser welding, compared to resistance seam welding, required nearly three times less heat input and produced welds having 50% narrower seam, 15% less porosity, 25% stronger and improved surface aesthetics. In addition, there was no evidence of {delta}-ferrite in laser welds, supporting the absence of hot cracking unlike resistance welding.

  18. Effects of Ar and He on Microstructures and Properties of Laser Welded 800MPa TRIP Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber laser welding of cold rolled TRIP steel (transformation Induced Plasticity steel sheet with tensile strength of 820MPa and thickness of 1.4mm was carried out using shielding gases Ar and He, respectively. For the same laser power and welding speed, the effects of different shielding gases on penetration and bead section morphologies were investigated. The microstructures and properties of the TRIP steel joints were also studied. The investigation showed that higher penetration and lower porosity could be obtained under shielding gas He using the same laser power and welding speed. The microstructures of the TRIP joint mainly included martensite and retained austenite. But the joint microhardness and tensile strength were higher under the shielding gas He. The tensile strength of the welded joint perpendicular to the weld line was equal to that of the base metal. But the tensile strength of the joint parallel with the weld line was higher than that of the base metal. The plasticity and formability of the welded joint were impaired due to the formation of martensite in the weld metal.

  19. Mechanical strength and analysis of fracture of titanium joining submitted to laser and tig welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Gabrielli Piveta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the tensile strength and fracture mechanism of tungsten inert gas (TIG welds in cylindrical rods of commercially pure titanium (cp Ti with those of laser welds and intact samples. Thirty dumbbell-shaped samples were developed by using brass rods as patterns. The samples were invested in casings, subjected to thermal cycles, and positioned in a plasma arc welding machine under argon atmosphere and vacuum, and titanium was injected under vacuum/pressure. The samples were X-rayed to detect possible welding flaws and randomly assigned to three groups to test the tensile strength and the fracture mechanism: intact, laser welding, and TIG welding. The tensile test results were investigated using ANOVA, which indicated that the samples were statistically similar. The fracture analysis showed that the cpTi samples subjected to laser welding exhibited brittle fracture and those subjected to TIG welding exhibited mixed brittle/ductile fracture with a predominance of ductile fracture with the presence of microcavities and cleavage areas. Intact samples presented the characteristic straightening in the fracture areas, indicating the ductility of the material.

  20. UNS S32750 super duplex steel welding using pulsed Nd:YAG laser; Soldagem do aco superduplex UNS S32750 com laser pulsado Nd:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francini, O.D.; Andrade, G.G.; Clemente, M.S.; Gallego, J.; Ventrella, V.A., E-mail: ventrella@dem.feis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2016-07-01

    Laser is a flexible and powerful tool with many relevant applications in industry, mainly in the welding area. Lasers today provide the welding industry technical solutions to many problems. This work studied the weld metal obtained by pulsed laser welding of Nd: YAG super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 employed in the oil and natural gas, analyzing the influence of high cooling rate, due to the laser process, the swing phase ferrite / austenite. Were performed weld beads in butt joint with different repetition rates. The different microstructures were obtained by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the effect of varying the welding energy of Nd: YAG laser on the volume fractions of the phases ferrite/austenite in the weld metal was its ferritization and low austenite amount on the grain boundary. (author)

  1. Corneal tissue welding with infrared laser irradiation after clear corneal incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rfat; Ozeren, Mediha; Artunay, Ozgür; Bahçecioğlu, Halil; Seçkin, Ismail; Kalaycoğlu, Hamit; Kurt, Adnan; Sennaroğlu, Alphan; Gülsoy, Murat

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of infrared lasers for corneal welding to seal corneal cuts done in an experimental animal model. Full-thickness corneal cuts on freshly enucleated bovine eyes were irradiated with infrared (809-nm diode, 980-nm diode, 1070-nm YLF, and 1980-nm Tm:YAP) lasers to get immediate laser welding. An 809-nm laser was used with the topical application of indocyanine green to enhance the photothermal interaction at the weld site. In total, 60 bovine eyes were used in this study; 40 eyes were used in the first part of the study for the determination of optimal welding parameters (15 eyes were excluded because of macroscopic carbonization, opacification, or corneal shrinkage; 2 eyes were used for control), and 20 eyes were used for further investigation of more promising lasers (YLF and Tm:YAP). Laser wavelength, irradiating power, exposure time, and spot size were the dose parameters, and optimal dose for immediate closure with minimal thermal damage was estimated through histological examination of welded samples. In the first part of the study, results showed that none of the applications was satisfactory. Full-thickness success rates were 28% (2 of 7) for 809-nm and for 980-nm diode lasers and 67% (2 of 3) for 1070-nm YLF and (4 of 6) for 1980-nm Tm:YAP lasers. In the second part of the study, YLF and Tm:YAP lasers were investigated with bigger sample size. Results were not conclusive but promising again. Five corneal incisions were full-thickness welded out of 10 corneas with 1070-nm laser, and 4 corneal incisions were partially welded out of 10 corneas with 1980-nm laser in the second part of the study. Results showed that noteworthy corneal welding could be obtained with 1070-nm YLF laser and 1980-nm Tm:YAP laser wavelengths. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies will shed light on the potential usage of corneal laser welding technique.

  2. Laser tissue welding in genitourinary reconstructive surgery: assessment of optimal suture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppas, D P; Klioze, S D; Uzzo, R G; Schlossberg, S M

    1995-02-01

    Laser tissue welding in genitourinary reconstructive surgery has been shown in animal models to decrease operative time, improve healing, and decrease postoperative fistula formation when compared with conventional suture controls. Although the absence of suture material is the ultimate goal, this has not been shown to be practical with current technology for larger repairs. Therefore, suture-assisted laser tissue welding will likely be performed. This study sought to determine the optimal suture to be used during laser welding. The integrity of various organic and synthetic sutures exposed to laser irradiation were analyzed. Sutures studied included gut, clear Vicryl, clear polydioxanone suture (PDS), and violet PDS. Sutures were irradiated with a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP)-532 laser or an 808-nm diode laser with and without the addition of a light-absorbing chromophore (fluorescein or indocyanine green, respectively). A remote temperature-sensing device obtained real-time surface temperatures during lasing. The average temperature, time, and total energy at break point were recorded. Overall, gut suture achieved significantly higher temperatures and withstood higher average energy delivery at break point with both the KTP-532 and the 808-nm diode lasers compared with all other groups (P welding appears to be between 60 degrees and 80 degrees C. Gut suture offers the greatest margin of error for KTP and 808-nm diode laser welding with or without the use of a chromophore.

  3. Effect of Cut Quality on Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of Thick Section Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Schmidt, R. H.; Pedersen, S. S.; Kristiansen, M.

    From an industrial point of view, in a laser cutting-welding production chain, it is of great importance to know the influence of the attainable laser cut quality on the subsequent hybrid laser arc welding process. Many studies have been carried out in the literature to obtain lower surface roughness values on the laser cut edge. However, in practice, the cost and reliability of the cutting process is crucial and it does not always comply with obtaining the highest surface quality. In this study, a number of experiments on 25 mm steel plates were carried out to evaluate the influence of cut surface quality on the final quality of the subsequent hybrid laser welded joints. The different cut surfaces were obtained by different industrial cutting methods including laser cutting, abrasive water cutting, plasma cutting, and milling. It was found that the mentioned cutting methods could be used as preparation processes for the subsequent hybrid laser arc welding. However, cut quality could determine the choice of process parameters of the following hybrid laser arc welding.

  4. Experimental and Simulative Investigation of Laser Transmission Welding under Consideration of Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrient, M.; Da, X.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.

    Laser transmission welding is a well known joining technology for thermoplastics. Because of the needs of lightweight, cost effective and green production thermoplastics are usually filled with glass fibers. These lead to higher absorption and more scattering within the upper joining partner with a negative influence on the welding process. Here an experimental method for the characterization of the scattering behavior of semi crystalline thermoplastics filled with short glass fibers and a finite element model of the welding process capable to consider scattering as well as an analytical model are introduced. The experimental data is used for the numerical and analytical investigation of laser transmission welding under consideration of scattering. The scattering effects of several thermoplastics onto the calculated temperature fields as well as weld seam geometries are quantified.

  5. Study on robot motion control for intelligent welding processes based on the laser tracking sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Qian; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    A robot motion control method is presented for intelligent welding processes of complex spatial free-form curve seams based on the laser tracking sensor. First, calculate the tip position of the welding torch according to the velocity of the torch and the seam trajectory detected by the sensor. Then, search the optimal pose of the torch under constraints using genetic algorithms. As a result, the intersection point of the weld seam and the laser plane of the sensor is within the detectable range of the sensor. Meanwhile, the angle between the axis of the welding torch and the tangent of the weld seam meets the requirements. The feasibility of the control method is proved by simulation.

  6. Re-weldability tests of irradiated 316L(N) stainless steel using laser welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hirokazu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kalinin, George; Kohno, Wataru; Morishima, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    SS316L(N)-IG is the candidate material for the in-vessel and ex-vessel components of fusion reactors such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This paper describes a study on re-weldability of un-irradiated and/or irradiated SS316L(N)-IG and the effect of helium generation on the mechanical properties of the weld joint. The laser welding process is used for re-welding of the water cooling branch pipeline repairs. It is clarified that re-welding of SS316L(N)-IG irradiated up to about 0.2 dpa (3.3 appm He) can be carried out without a serious deterioration of tensile properties due to helium accumulation. Therefore, repair of the ITER blanket cooling pipes can be performed by the laser welding process

  7. Re-weldability tests of irradiated 316L(N) stainless steel using laser welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirokazu; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kalinin, George; Kohno, Wataru; Morishima, Yasuo

    2002-12-01

    SS316L(N)-IG is the candidate material for the in-vessel and ex-vessel components of fusion reactors such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This paper describes a study on re-weldability of un-irradiated and/or irradiated SS316L(N)-IG and the effect of helium generation on the mechanical properties of the weld joint. The laser welding process is used for re-welding of the water cooling branch pipeline repairs. It is clarified that re-welding of SS316L(N)-IG irradiated up to about 0.2 dpa (3.3 appm He) can be carried out without a serious deterioration of tensile properties due to helium accumulation. Therefore, repair of the ITER blanket cooling pipes can be performed by the laser welding process.

  8. Stress Distribution around Laser-Welded Cutting Wheels Using a Spherical Indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Lee, Wan Kyu; Jeong, In Hyeon; Nahm, Seung Hoon [KRISS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    A spherical indentation has been proposed as a nondestructive method of measuring local residual stress field in laser-voided joints. The apparent yield strengths interpreted from the spherical indentation data of as-welded cutting wheel were compared with the intrinsic yield strengths measured at nearly equivalent locations in annealed wheel. Their difference along the distance from the welding line is welding stress distribution because the intrinsic yield strength is invariant regardless of the elastic residual stress. The spherical indentations show that the laser-welded diamond cutting wheel displays a 10 min-wide distribution of the welding residual stress and has peak compressive and tensile stresses in the shank and tip regions, respectively.

  9. Laser Welding of Coated Press-hardened Steel 22MnB5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, Jukka; Minkkinen, Ari; Järn, Sanna

    The press-hardening process is widely used for steels that are used in the automotive industry. Using ultra-high-strength steels enables car manufacturers to build lighter, stronger, and safer vehicles at a reduced cost and generating lower CO2 emissions. In the study, laser welding properties of the coated hot stamped steel 22BMn5 were studied. A constant 900 °C temperature was used to heat the steel plates, and two different furnace times were used in the press-hardening, being 300 and 740 seconds. Some of the plates were shot blasted to see the influence of the partly removed oxide layer on the laser welding and quality. The welding set-up, welding, and testing of the weld specimens complied with the automotive testing code SEP 1220.

  10. Use of Aria to simulate laser weld pool dynamics for neutron generator production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, David R.; Notz, Patrick K.; Martinez, Mario J.; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-09-01

    This report documents the results for the FY07 ASC Integrated Codes Level 2 Milestone number 2354. The description for this milestone is, 'Demonstrate level set free surface tracking capabilities in ARIA to simulate the dynamics of the formation and time evolution of a weld pool in laser welding applications for neutron generator production'. The specialized boundary conditions and material properties for the laser welding application were implemented and verified by comparison with existing, two-dimensional applications. Analyses of stationary spot welds and traveling line welds were performed and the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3D) level set algorithm is assessed by comparison with 3D moving mesh calculations.

  11. A new technique for the closure of the lens capsule by laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Yoo, Sonia; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    A new method is presented for the closure of the lens capsule based on laser welding of suitably prepared patches of anterior capsular tissue. Experiments were performed in freshly enucleated porcine eyes. The patches were previously stained with a solution of indocyanine green in sterile water and then welded on the recipient capsule by means of diode laser radiation at 810 nm. The welded tissue revealed mechanical properties comparable to those of healthy tissue. This technique is proposed to repair capsular breaks and to provide the closure of the capsulorhexis in lens refilling procedures.

  12. Heat transfer and fluid flow during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel

    CERN Document Server

    He, X; Debroy, T

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of temperature and velocity fields during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel was studied using a transient, heat transfer and fluid flow model based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy in the weld pool. The weld pool geometry, weld thermal cycles and various solidification parameters were calculated. The fusion zone geometry, calculated from the transient heat transfer and fluid flow model, was in good agreement with the corresponding experimentally measured values for various welding conditions. Dimensional analysis was used to understand the importance of heat transfer by conduction and convection and the roles of various driving forces for convection in the weld pool. During solidification, the mushy zone grew at a rapid rate and the maximum size of the mushy zone was reached when the pure liquid region vanished. The solidification rate of the mushy zone/liquid interface was shown to increase while the temperature gradient in the liquid zone at...

  13. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting the weld microstructure the Q+P and the QT steels require weld heat treatment. The HSD steel is weldable without. Due to their applications the ultra-high strength steels are welded in as-rolled and strengthened condition. Also the reaction of the weld on hot stamping is reflected for the martensitic grades. The supra-ductile steels are welded as solution annealed and work hardened by 50%. The results show the general suitability for laser beam welding.

  14. Dual-beam laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in zero-gap lap joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harooni, Masoud; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-03-01

    Porosity within laser welds of magnesium alloys is one of the main roadblocks to achieving high quality joints. One of the causes of pore formation is the presence of pre-existing coatings on the surface of magnesium alloy such as oxide or chromate layers. In this study, single-beam and dual-beam laser heat sources are investigated in relation to mitigation of pores resulting from the presence of the as-received oxide layer on the surface of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy during the laser welding process. A fiber laser with a power of up to 4 kW is used to weld samples in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. The effect of dual-beam laser welding with different beam energy ratios is studied on the quality of the weld bead. The purpose of this paper is to identify the beam ratio that best mitigates pore formation in the weld bead. The laser molten pool and the keyhole condition, as well as laser-induced plasma plume are monitored in real-time by use of a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. Results showed that a dual-beam laser configuration can effectively mitigate pore formation in the weld bead by a preheating-welding mechanism.

  15. Improvement of laser keyhole formation with the assistance of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2009-11-01

    In the previous work, low-power laser/arc hybrid welding technique is used to weld magnesium alloy and high-quality weld joints are obtained. In order to make clear the interactions between low-power laser pulse and arc plasma, the effect of arc plasma on laser pulse is studied in this article. The result shows that the penetration of low-power laser welding with the assistance of TIG arc is more than two times deeper than that of laser welding alone and laser welding transforms from thermal-conduction mode to keyhole mode. The plasma behaviors and spectra during the welding process are studied, and the transition mechanism of laser-welding mode is analyzed in detail. It is also found that with the assistance of arc plasma, the threshold value of average power density to form keyhole welding for YAG laser is only 3.3×10 4 W/cm 2, and the average peak power density is 2.6×10 5 W/cm 2 in the present experiment. Moreover, the distribution of energy density during laser pulse is modulated to improve the formation and stability of laser keyholes.

  16. A Fundamental Study of Laser Beam Welding Aluminum-Lithium Alloy 2195 for Cryogenic Tank Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martukanitz, R. P.; Jan. R.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the potential for decreasing costs of joining stiffeners to skin by laser beam welding, a fundamental research program was conducted to address the impediments identified during an initial study involving laser beam welding of aluminum-lithium alloys. Initial objectives of the program were the identification of governing mechanism responsible for process related porosity while establishing a multivariant relationship between process parameters and fusion zone geometry for laser beam welds of alloy 2195. A three-level fractional factorial experiment was conducted to establish quantitative relationships between primary laser beam processing parameters and critical weld attributes. Although process consistency appeared high for welds produced during partial completion of this study, numerous cracks on the top-surface of the welds were discovered during visual inspection and necessitated additional investigations concerning weld cracking. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of filler alloy additions on crack sensitivity: the first experiment was used to ascertain the effects of various filler alloys on cracking and the second experiment involved modification to process parameters for increasing filler metal dilution. Results indicated that filler alloys 4047 and 4145 showed promise for eliminating cracking.

  17. Real-time monitoring of the laser hot-wire welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Ma, Junjie; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-04-01

    The laser hot-wire welding process was investigated in this work. The dynamics of the molten pool during welding was visualized by using a high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted by a green laser as an illumination source. It was found that the molten pool is formed by the irradiation of the laser beam on the filler wire. The effect of the hot-wire voltage on the stability of the welding process was monitored by using a spectrometer that captured the emission spectrum of the laser-induced plasma plume. The spectroscopic study showed that when the hot-wire voltage is above 9 V a great deal of spatters occur, resulting in the instability of the plasma plume and the welding process. The effect of spatters on the plasma plume was shown by the identified spectral lines of the element Mn I. The correlation between the Fe I electron temperature and the weld-bead shape was studied. It was noted that the electron temperature of the plasma plume can be used to real-time monitor the variation of the weld-bead features and the formation of the weld defects.

  18. Development of a Fiber Laser Welding Equipment for the LVDT Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.

    2010-12-01

    The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be designed to measure the pressure level and elongation during the irradiation test by using various metals and MI cables. LVDT's parts were composed of MI cables and Inconel 600 materials. Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-welding using Fiber laser is one of the key technologies to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We also have to secure micro-welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. Micro-welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tubes and MI cables with thickness of 0.15 mm. The soundness of welding area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the fuel rods during the fuel irradiation test. In this report, fundamental data for welding technology using Fiber laser was proposed to seal Inconel 600 sheaths of LVDT instrumented capsules for the irradiation test. Moreover, It is expected that the use of fuel irradiation tests will be revitalized by the self-development of LVDT's parts using the Fiber laser welding technology

  19. Secondary plasma formation after single pulse laser ablation underwater and its advantages for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, M R; Cvejić, M; Lazic, V; Jovićević, S

    2016-06-07

    In this work we present studies of spatial and temporal plasma evolution after single pulse ablation of an aluminium target in water. The laser ablation was performed using 20 ns long pulses emitted at 1064 nm. The plasma characterization was performed by fast photography, the Schlieren technique, shadowgraphy and optical emission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate the existence of two distinct plasma stages: the first stage has a duration of approximately 500 ns from the laser pulse, and is followed by a new plasma growth starting from the crater center. The secondary plasma slowly evolves inside the growing vapor bubble, and its optical emission lasts over several tens of microseconds. Later, the hot glowing particles, trapped inside the vapor cavity, were detected during the whole cycle of the bubble, where the first collapse occurs after 475 μs from the laser pulse. Differences in the plasma properties during the two evolution phases are discussed, with an accent on the optical emission since its detection is of primary importance for LIBS. Here we demonstrate that the LIBS signal quality in single pulse excitation underwater can be greatly enhanced by detecting only the secondary plasma emission, and also by applying long acquisition gates (in the order of 10-100 μs). The presented results are of great importance for LIBS measurements inside a liquid environment, since they prove that a good analytical signal can be obtained by using nanosecond pulses from a single commercial laser source and by employing cost effective, not gated detectors.

  20. Weld quality inspection using laser-EMAT ultrasonic system and C-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ume, I. Charles

    2014-02-01

    Laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique has attracted more and more interests in weld quality inspection because of its non-destructive and non-contact characteristics. When ultrasonic techniques are used to detect welds joining relative thin plates, the dominant ultrasonic waves present in the plates are Lamb waves, which propagate all through the thickness. Traditional Time of Flight(ToF) method loses its power. The broadband nature of laser excited ultrasound plus dispersive and multi-modal characteristic of Lamb waves make the EMAT acquired signals very complicated in this situation. Challenge rises in interpreting the received signals and establishing relationship between signal feature and weld quality. In this paper, the laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique was applied in a C-scan manner to record full wave propagation field over an area close to the weld. Then the effect of weld defect on the propagation field of Lamb waves was studied visually by watching an movie resulted from the recorded signals. This method was proved to be effective to detect the presence of hidden defect in the weld. Discrete wavelet transform(DWT) was applied to characterize the acquired ultrasonic signals and ideal band-pass filter was used to isolate wave components most sensitive to the weld defect. Different interactions with the weld defect were observed for different wave components. Thus this C-Scan method, combined with DWT and ideal band-pass filter, proved to be an effective methodology to experimentally study interactions of various laser excited Lamb Wave components with weld defect. In this work, the method was demonstrated by inspecting a hidden local incomplete penetration in weld. In fact, this method can be applied to study Lamb Wave interactions with any type of structural inconsistency. This work also proposed a ideal filtered based method to effectively reduce the total experimental time.

  1. Laser and electron beam welding of Ti-alloys: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam, G; Santos, J.F. dos; Kocak, M [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1998-12-31

    The welding of titanium alloys must be conducted in completely inert or vacuum environments due to the strong affinity of titanium to oxygen. Residual stresses in titanium welds can greatly influence the performance of a fabricated aerospace component by degrading fatigue properties. Moreover, distortion can cause difficulties in the final assembly and operation of high-tolerance aerospace systems. Power beam welding processes, namely laser and electron beam welding, offer remarkable advantages over conventional fusion welding processes and have a great potential to produce full-penetration, single-pass autogenous welds with minimal component distortion due to low heat input and high reproducibility of joint quality. Moreover, electron beam welding process, which is conducted in a vacuum chamber, inherently provides better atmospheric protection. Although considerable progress has been made in welding of titanium alloys by power beam processes, there is still a lack of a complete set of mechanical properties data of these joints. Furthermore, the problem of solid-state cracking in fusion welding of {gamma}-TiAl intermetallic alloys due to their low ductility is still to be overcome. The purpose of this literature review is to outline the progress made in this area and to provide basic information for the Brite-Euram project entitled assessment of quality of power beam weld joints ``ASPOW``. (orig.) 31 refs.

  2. Nd:YAG laser welding of aerospace grade ZE41A magnesium alloy: Modeling and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kazzaz, H.; Medraj, M.; Cao, X.; Jahazi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Keyhole formation as well as the geometry of weld profiles during Nd:YAG laser welding of ZE41A-T5 were studied through combining various models and concepts. The results indicated that weld width and fusion area decrease with increasing welding speed. In the case of partially penetrated welding, penetration depth decreases with increasing welding speed. Also, the model predicted that excessive decrease in laser power or increase in defocusing distance decreases surface power density, thereby changing the welding mode from fully penetrated keyhole, to partially penetrated keyhole, and then to the conduction mode. The predicted conditions for keyhole stability and welding modes as well as the weld profiles for various processing conditions were validated by some selected welding experiments. These experiments included studying the effects of welding speed, laser power, joint gap and laser defocusing on the weld geometry of 2- and 6-mm butt joints or bead-on-plates of ZE41A-T5 sand castings using a continuous wave 4 kW Nd:YAG laser system and 1.6-mm EZ33A-T5 filler wire. Good agreements were found between the model predictions and experimental results indicating the validity of the assumptions made for the development of the model

  3. Laser Welding Process Parameters Optimization Using Variable-Fidelity Metamodel and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chaochao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization methodology based on variable-fidelity (VF metamodels and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II for laser bead-on-plate welding of stainless steel 316L is presented. The relationships between input process parameters (laser power, welding speed and laser focal position and output responses (weld width and weld depth are constructed by VF metamodels. In VF metamodels, the information from two levels fidelity models are integrated, in which the low-fidelity model (LF is finite element simulation model that is used to capture the general trend of the metamodels, and high-fidelity (HF model which from physical experiments is used to ensure the accuracy of metamodels. The accuracy of the VF metamodel is verified by actual experiments. To slove the optimization problem, NSGA-II is used to search for multi-objective Pareto optimal solutions. The results of verification experiments show that the obtained optimal parameters are effective and reliable.

  4. Finite element analysis of spot laser of steel welding temperature history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibib Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding process reduces the heat input to the work-piece which is the main goal in aerospace and electronics industries. A finite element model for axi-symmetric transient heat conduction has been used to predict temperature distribution through a steel cylinder subjected to CW laser beam of rectangular beam profile. Many numerical improvements had been used to reduce time of calculation and size of the program so as to achieve the task with minimum time required. An experimental determined absorptivity has been used to determine heat induced when laser interact with material. The heat affected zone and welding zone have been estimated to determine the effect of welding on material. The ratio of depth to width of the welding zone can be changed by proper selection of beam power to meet the specific production requirement. The temperature history obtained numerically has been compared with experimental data indicating good agreement.

  5. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...... to be a very useful tool for parameter optimi-zation in laser welding process. Keywords: CO2 laser welding, gas parameters, factorial design, Analysis of Variance........ The bead-on-plate welding specimens are evaluated by a number of quality char-acteristics, such as the penetration depth and the seam width. The significance of the gas pa-rameters and their interactions are based on the data found by the Analysis of Variance-ANOVA. This statistic methodology is proven...

  6. Laser welding in penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery of pediatric patients: early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Malandrini, Alex; Canovetti, Annalisa; Lenzetti, Ivo; Capozzi, Paolo; Valente, Paola; Buzzonetti, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Diode laser welding of ocular tissues is a procedure that enables minimally invasive closure of a corneal wound. This procedure is based on a photothermal effect: a water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) is inserted in the surgical wound, in order to stain the corneal tissue walls. The stained tissue is then irradiated with a low power infrared diode laser, delivering laser light through a 300-μm core diameter optical fiber. This procedure enables an immediate closure of the wounds: it is thus possible to reduce or to substitute the use of surgical threads. This is of particular interest in children, because the immediate closure improves refractive outcome and anti-amblyopic effect; moreover this procedure avoids several general anaesthesia for suture management. In this work, we present the first use of diode laser welding procedure in paediatric patients. 5 selected patients underwent cataract surgery (Group 1), while 4 underwent fs-laserassisted penetrating keratoplasty (Group 2). In Group 1 the conventional surgery procedure was performed, while no stitches were used for the closure of the surgical wounds: these were laser welded and immediately closed. In Group 2 the donor button was sutured upon the recipient by 8 single stitches, instead of 16 single stitches or a running suture. The laser welding procedure was performed in order to join the donor tissue to the recipient bed. Objective observations in the follow up study evidenced a perfect adhesion of the laser welded tissues, no collateral effects and an optimal restoration of the treated tissues.

  7. Plasma plume induced during laser welding of Magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Azharonok, V.

    2005-01-01

    The laser welding process is influenced by the plasma produced by laser irradiation. When the pressure of the metal vapour reaches 1 atm and the plasma temperature is 10-15 kK then the electron density is about 2-3x10 23 m -3 . Under these conditions the absorption coefficient can reach several cm -1 . This means that dense plasma over the keyhole can block the laser radiation within the path of a few millimetres. Knowledge of plasma parameters helps to control technological process. The emission spectra were registered during laser welding of magnesium alloy using of a CCD camera connected to a spectrograph of focal length 1.3 m. The entrance slit of the spectrograph was perpendicular to the metal surface, so that successive tracks of the detector recorded the radiation from the plasma slices situated at different distances (heights) from the metal surface. The space-averaged electron densities are determined from the Stark broadening of the 5528.41 A Mg I spectral line and 4481.16 A Mg II line. The Stark widths of magnesium lines are taken from other paper. It has been found that the plasma density reaches 1x10 23 m -3 . Experimentally measured line broadening is obtained from the profiles of the spectral lines integrated along the line of sight (plasma diameter) and does not correspond to the maximum plasma density. Since the plasma is non-uniform, both the electron densities and temperatures obtained from spatially integrated line profiles are lower than their maximum values in the plasma centre. This effect is much stronger for the atomic line because its intensity reaches the maximum on the plasma periphery while the maximum intensity of the ionic line originates from the plasma centre. Therefore, the absorption of the laser beam evaluated from the space-averaged plasma parameters is underestimated. To find the maximum plasma density and temperature the radial temperature distribution in the plasma plume has to be reproduced. This has been done numerically by

  8. Preliminary study of laser welding for aortic dissection in a porcine model using a diode laser with indocyanine green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masanori; Morimoto, Yuji; Ohmori, Sayaka; Usami, Noriko; Arai, Tsunenori; Maehara, Tadaaki; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a dissected aorta could be welded by a diode laser with a solder using an in vitro porcine aortic dissection model. Porcine aortic strips were dissected into two flaps and the dissected faces were immersed in a solution of indocyanine green. The two flaps were pressed at 0.2 kg/cm2 with contact between the two immersed faces. The pressed flaps were irradiated with a diode laser (810 nm) at intensities of 170-425 W/cm2 for 8 seconds. The welded flaps were studied by light microscopy and the adhesive strengths were measured. The irradiated flaps were successfully welded. The breaking stress, the maximum stress recorded in a stress-strain curve, increased with increase in irradiation intensity up to 396 W/cm2 (2.7 x 10(2) mmHg) and decreased when the intensity reached 425 W/cm2. In the specimen irradiated at 396 W/cm2, the welded faces showed continuous fusion of elastin layers, while some voids were seen between the welded faces in the specimen irradiated at 425 W/cm2. The dissected porcine aortas were successfully welded using a laser with solder. The results suggest that the welded aorta can bear physiological blood pressure. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua

    2015-09-01

    Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects.

  10. Through the optical combiner monitoring in remote fiber laser welding of zinc coated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Daniele; Colosimo, Bianca M.; Previtali, Barbara; Bassan, Daniele; Lai, Manuel; Masotti, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    Thanks to the recent affirmation of the active fiber lasers, remote laser welding of zinc coated steels is under investigation with a particular emphasis on the overlap joint geometry. Due to the high power and high beam quality offered by these lasers, the remote laser welding process has become more practicable. However laser welding of lap zinc coated steels is still problematic because of the violent vaporisation of zinc. The presence of a gap between the plates allowing vapour degassing has been proven to avoid defects due to zinc vaporization. On the other hand variation in the gap value can lead to the welding defect formation. Therefore constant gap values should be ensured and deviation from the reference gap value has to be monitored during the execution of the welding process. Furthermore, the on-line monitoring of the gap values between the plates can be helpful for the on-line quality control of the welding process. The paper proposes a new monitoring solution for the measurement of the gap in remote fiber laser welding of overlapped zinc coated steels. In this solution, referred as Through the Optical Combiner Monitoring (TOCM) , the optical emissions from the welding process are directly observed through the optical combiner of the fiber laser source with spectroscopic equipment. The TOCM solution presented in the paper is integrated in an IPG YLS 3000 fiber laser source whose beam is deflected and focused by means of an El.En. ScanFiber scanning system with an equivalent focal length of 300 mm. After the definition of the right welding process conditions, spectroscopic tests are exploited to evaluate the optical emission from the welding plasma/plume. Acquired spectra are then analysed with multivariate data analysis approach in order to ensure gap monitoring. Results showed that with the proposed method it is possible to evaluate not only the gap between the plates but also the location inside the weld at which the variation occurs. Furthermore

  11. Laser patterning and welding of transparent polymers for microfluidic device fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleging, W.; Baldus, O.

    2006-02-01

    CO II-laser-assisted micro-patterning of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) has a great potential for the rapid manufacturing of polymeric devices including cutting and structuring. Channel widths of about 50 μm as well as large area patterning of reservoir structures or drilling of vias are established. For this purpose a high quality laser beam is necessary as well as an appropriate beam forming system. In combination with laser transmission welding a fast fabrication of two- and three-dimensional micro-fluidic devices was possible. Welding as well as multilayer welding of transparent polymers was investigated for different polymers such as PMMA, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), COC, and polystyrene (PS). The laser transmission welding process is performed with a high-power diode laser (wavelength 940 nm). An absorption layer with a thickness of several nanometers is deposited onto the polymer surfaces. The welding process has been established for the welding of polymeric parts containing microchannels, if the width of the channels is equal or larger than 100μm. For smaller feature sizes the absorption layer is structured by UV-laser radiation in order to get a highly localized welding seam, e.g., for the limitation of thermal penetration and thermal damaging of functional features such as channels, thin walls or temperature-sensitive substances often contained in micro-fluidic devices. This process strategy was investigated for the welding of capillary electrophoresis chips and capillary blood separation chips, including channel widths of 100 μm and 30 μm. Analysis of the thickness of the absorption layer was carried out with optical transmission spectroscopy.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation on under-water friction stir welding of armour grade AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Sree Sabari, S.; Malarvizhi, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madusudhan Reddy, G.

    2016-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising welding process that can join age hardenable aluminium alloys with high joint efficiency. However, the thermal cycles experienced by the material to be joined during FSW resulted in the deterioration of mechanical properties due to the coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates in the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). Under water friction stir welding (UWFSW) is a variant of FSW process which can maint...

  13. Comparative in vitro study of tissue welding using a 808 nm diode laser and a Ho:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B; Züger, B J; Erni, D; Banic, A; Schaffner, T; Weber, H P; Frenz, M

    2001-01-01

    In vitro porcine arteries and veins have been welded end-to-end using either a 808 nm diode laser combined with an indocyanine green enhanced albumin solder, or with a continuous-wave (cw) Ho:YAG laser without biological solder. The vascular stumps were approached to each other over a coronary dilatation catheter in order to obtain a precise alignment and good coaptation. Standard histology revealed for both welding techniques lateral tissue damage between 2 and 3 mm caused by laser-induced heat. Good solder attachment to the tissue was observed by the use of a scanning electron microscope. The vessels soldered with the 808 nm diode laser using albumin solder showed considerably higher tensile strength (1 N compared to 0.3 N) than vessels welded exclusively by Ho:YAG laser radiation. In contrast, leaking pressure (350 +/- 200 mmHg) and bursting pressure (457 +/- 200 mmHg) were found to be independent of the welding technique used. This study demonstrates that fast (total welding time about 2-5 min), stable and tight microvascular anastomosis can be achieved with the use of a dye-enhanced albumin laser soldering technique and an ancillary coronary dilatation catheter.

  14. Laser, tungsten inert gas, and metal active gas welding of DP780 steel: Comparison of hardness, tensile properties and fatigue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Park, Sung Hyuk; Kwon, Hyuk Sun; Kim, Gyo Sung; Lee, Chong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the mechanical properties of DP780 steel welded by three methods. • The size of the welded zone increases with heat input (MAG > TIG > laser). • The hardness of the welded zone increases with cooling rate (laser > TIG > MAG). • Tensile and fatigue properties are strongly dependent on welding method. • Crack initiation sites depend on the microstructural features of the welded zone. - Abstract: The microstructural characteristics, tensile properties and low-cycle fatigue properties of a dual-phase steel (DP780) were investigated following its joining by three methods: laser welding, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, and metal active gas (MAG) welding. Through this, it was found that the size of the welded zone increases with greater heat input (MAG > TIG > laser), whereas the hardness of the weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases with cooling rate (laser > TIG > MAG). Consequently, laser- and TIG-welded steels exhibit higher yield strength than the base metal due to a substantially harder WM. In contrast, the strength of MAG-welded steel is reduced by a broad and soft WM and HAZ. The fatigue life of laser-and TIG-welded steel was similar, with both being greater than that of MAG-welded steel; however, the fatigue resistance of all welds was inferior to that of the non-welded base metal. Finally, crack initiation sites were found to differ depending on the microstructural characteristics of the welded zone, as well as the tensile and cyclic loading

  15. Comparison of laser welds in thick section S700 high-strength steel manufactured in flat (1G) and horizontal (2G) positions

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Francis, John Anthony; Crowther, Dave; Thompson, Alan; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Lack of penetration, undercut and melt sagging are common welding defects for single-pass laser welds in thick plates, particularly when using a traditional 1G welding position (laser directed towards ground). This investigation shows, for the first time, that welding 13 mm thick high-strength S700 steel plates in the 2G position (laser beam perpendicular to the direction of gravity) can mitigate some of the common welding defects including undercut and sagging. A computational fluid dynamic ...

  16. New technique of skin embedded wire double-sided laser beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Tao, Wang; Chen, Yanbin

    2017-06-01

    In the aircraft industry, double-sided laser beam welding is an approved method for producing skin-stringer T-joints on aircraft fuselage panels. As for the welding of new generation aluminum-lithium alloys, however, this technique is limited because of high hot cracking susceptibility and strengthening elements' uneven distributions within weld. In the present study, a new technique of skin embedded wire double-sided laser beam welding (LBW) has been developed to fabricate T-joints consisting of 2.0 mm thick 2060-T8/2099-T83 aluminum-lithium alloys using eutectic alloy AA4047 filler wire. Necessary dimension parameters of the novel groove were reasonably designed for achieving crack-free welds. Comparisons were made between the new technique welded T-joint and conventional T-joint mainly on microstructure, hot crack, elements distribution features and mechanical properties within weld. Excellent crack-free microstructure, uniform distribution of silicon and superior tensile properties within weld were found in the new skin embedded wire double-sided LBW T-joints.

  17. Welding induced residual stress evaluation using laser-generated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chong; Zhou, Yuanlai; Reddy, Vishnu V. B.; Mebane, Aaron; Ume, I. Charles

    2018-04-01

    Welding induced residual stress could affect the dimensional stability, fatigue life, and chemical resistance of the weld joints. Ultrasonic method serves as an important non-destructive tool for the residual stress evaluation due to its easy implementation, low cost and wide application to different materials. Residual stress would result in the ultrasonic wave velocity variation, which is the so called acoustoelastic effect. In this paper, Laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique was proposed to experimentally study the relative velocity variation ΔV/V of Rayleigh wave, which has the potential to evaluate surface/subsurface longitudinal residual stress developed during the Gas Metal Arc Welding process. Broad band ultrasonic waves were excited by pulsed Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) attached to the welded plates was used to capture the Rayleigh wave signals propagating along the weld seam direction. Different time of flight measurements were conducted by varying the distance between the weld seam and Rayleigh wave propagating path in the range of 0 to 45 mm. The maximum relative velocity difference was found on the weld seam. With the increasing distance away from the weld seam, the relative velocity difference sharply decreased to negative value. With further increase in distance, the relative velocity difference slowly increased and approached zero. The distribution of relative velocity variations indicates that tensile stress appears in the melted zone as it becomes compressive near the heat-affected zone.

  18. Modeling of laser welding of steel and titanium plates with a composite insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, V. I.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Shapeev, V. P.

    2017-10-01

    A 3D model of laser welding proposed before by the authors was extended to the case of welding of metallic plates made of dissimilar materials with a composite multilayer intermediate insert. The model simulates heat transfer in the welded plates and takes into account phase transitions. It was proposed to select the composition of several metals and dimensions of the insert to avoid the formation of brittle intermetallic phases in the weld joint negatively affecting its strength properties. The model accounts for key physical phenomena occurring during the complex process of laser welding. It is capable to calculate temperature regimes at each point of the plates. The model can be used to select the welding parameters reducing the risk of formation of intermetallic plates. It can forecast the dimensions and crystalline structure of the solidified melt. Based on the proposed model a numerical algorithm was constructed. Simulations were carried out for the welding of titanium and steel plates with a composite insert comprising four different metals: copper and niobium (intermediate plates) with steel and titanium (outer plates). The insert is produced by explosion welding. Temperature fields and the processes of melting, evaporation, and solidification were studied.

  19. Mechanical behaviour of Nd:YAG laser welded superelastic NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L. Alberty; Fernandes, F.M. Braz; Miranda, R.M.; Silva, R.J.C.; Quintino, L.; Cuesta, A.; Ocana, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The main innovations claimed are: understand rolling direction effect on mechanical cycling of laser welded NiTi. → Functionality confirmed by stabilization of hysteretic response up to 8% strain. → Welds tensile cycled exhibited superior functional mechanical behaviour. → For applied stresses of 50 MPa below UTS the joints showed superelastic behaviour. - Abstract: Joining techniques for shape memory alloys (SMA) has become of great interest, as their functional properties, namely shape memory effect (SME) and superelasticity (SE), present unique solutions for state-of-the-art applications, although limited results concerning mechanical properties are reported. This paper reports experimental work performed with Nd:YAG continuous wave laser welding of superelastic cold-rolled plates of NiTi 1 mm thick. The mechanical behaviour was evaluated by means of tensile tests performed both to failure and to cycling. The superelastic behaviour of the welded joints was observed for applied stresses close to about 50 MPa below the ultimate tensile strength of the welds. The functionality was confirmed by analyzing the stabilization of the mechanical hysteretic response to strain levels up to 8%. For tensile cycling involving strain levels larger than 6%, welded specimens were found to exhibit superior functional mechanical behaviour presenting larger recoverable strain levels. The fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the effect of the rolling direction on mechanical properties was evaluated and discussed, reinforcing the importance of joint design when laser welding these alloys.

  20. Effects of heat treatments on laser welded Mg-rare earth alloy NZ30K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jun; Huang Jian; Li Min; Li Zhuguo; Dong Jie; Wu Yixiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Firstly find the tadpole-shape precipitates in the welding joint. → The precipitation strengthening can account for 79% of the total strength. → The results can provide some insights on the application of Mg-RE alloy. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of heat treatments on the quality of laser welded Mg-rare earth alloy NZ30K were systematically studied. The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints, welded by a 15 kW high power CO 2 laser, under different heat treatments had been tested and analyzed. The results indicated that the heat treatment plays an important role in the mechanical strength of laser welded joint of NZ30K. The microstructure of samples after the solution treatment as well as aging treatment is different from that of the as-received welded joint. For solution treatment, although the microstructure is much different from that of as-received welded joint, the solution strengthening effect is not obvious. There are lots of precipitates in the fusion zone after the aging treatment, which will significantly enhance the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the yield tensile strength (YTS) of the welding joint. 79% of YTS is caused by precipitation strengthening. Therefore, the results implied that the UTS and YTS can be greatly improved by proper heat treatment.

  1. Dye-enhanced protein solders and patches in laser-assisted tissue welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Heredia, N J; Maitland, D J; Da Silva, L B; Matthews, D L

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the use of dye-enhanced protein bonding agents in 805 nm diode laser-assisted tissue welding. A comparison of an albumin liquid solder and collagen solid-matrix patches used to repair arteriotomies in an in vitro porcine model is presented. Extrinsic bonding media in the form of solders and patches have been used to enhance the practice of laser tissue welding. Preferential absorption of the laser wavelength has been achieved by the incorporation of chromophores. Both the solder and the patch included indocyanine green dye (ICG) to absorb the 805 nm continuous-wave diode laser light used to perform the welds. Solder-mediated welds were divided into two groups (high power/short exposure and low power/long exposure), and the patches were divided into three thickness groups ranging from 0.1 to 1.3 mm. The power used to activate the patches was constant, but the exposure time was increased with patch thickness. Burst pressure results indicated that solder-mediated and patched welds yielded similar average burst strengths in most cases, but the patches provided a higher success rate (i.e., more often exceeded 150 mmHg) and were more consistent (i.e., smaller standard deviation) than the solder. The strongest welds were obtained using 1.0-1.3 mm thick patches, while the high power/short exposure solder group was the weakest. Though the solder and patches yielded similar acute weld strengths, the solid-matrix patches facilitated the welding process and provided consistently strong welds. The material properties of the extrinsic agents influenced their performance.

  2. Physics of zinc vaporization and plasma absorption during CO2 laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A. K.; Mazumder, J.; Li, P.

    2007-01-01

    A number of mathematical models have been developed earlier for single-material laser welding processes considering one-, two-, and three-dimensional heat and mass transfers. However, modeling of laser welding of materials with multiple compositions has been a difficult problem. This paper addresses a specific case of this problem where CO 2 laser welding of zinc-coated steel, commonly used in automobile body manufacturing, is mathematically modeled. The physics of a low boiling point material, zinc, is combined with a single-material (steel) welding model, considering multiple physical phenomena such as keyhole formation, capillary and thermocapillary forces, recoil and vapor pressures, etc. The physics of laser beam-plasma interaction is modeled to understand the effect on the quality of laser processing. Also, an adaptive meshing scheme is incorporated in the model for improving the overall computational efficiency. The model, whose results are found to be in close agreement with the experimental observations, can be easily extended for studying zinc-coated steel welding using other high power, continuous wave lasers such as Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG

  3. Real-time monitoring of laser welding of galvanized high strength steel in lap joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanrong; Ma, Junjie; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2012-10-01

    Two different cases regarding the zinc coating at the lap joint faying surface are selected for studying the influence of zinc vapor on the keyhole dynamics of the weld pool and the final welding quality. One case has the zinc coating fully removed at the faying surface; while the other case retains the zinc coating on the faying surface. It is found that removal of the zinc coating at the faying surface produces a significantly better weld quality as exemplified by a lack of spatters whereas intense spatters are present when the zinc coating is present at the faying surface. Spectroscopy is used to detect the optical spectra emitted from a laser generated plasma plume during the laser welding of galvanized high strength DP980 steel in a lap-joint configuration. A correlation between the electron temperature and defects within the weld bead is identified by using the Boltzmann plot method. The laser weld pool keyhole dynamic behavior affected by a high-pressure zinc vapor generated at the faying surface of galvanized steel lap-joint is monitored in real-time by a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source.

  4. Experimental study on the healing process following laser welding of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Mencucci, Rita; Menchini, Ugo; Ambrosini, Stefano; Vannelli, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study evaluating the application of laser welding of the cornea and the subsequent healing process is presented. The welding of corneal wounds is achieved after staining the cut walls with a solution of the chromophore indocyanine green, and irradiating them with a diode laser (810 nm) operating at low power (60 to 90 mW). The result is a localized heating of the cut, inducing controlled welding of the stromal collagen. In order to optimize this technique and to study the healing process, experimental tests, simulating cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty, were performed on rabbits: conventional and laser-induced suturing of corneal wounds were thus compared. A follow-up study 7 to 90 days after surgery was carried out by means of objective and histological examinations, in order to optimize the welding technique and to investigate the subsequent healing process. The analyses of the laser-welded corneas evidenced a faster and more effective restoration of the architecture of the stroma. No thermal damage of the welded stroma was detected, nor were there foreign body reactions or other inflammatory processes. Copyright 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  5. Distributed Nd-YAG laser welding and process control in inert glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J.O.; Lewis, G.K.; Barbe, M.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    We have fabricated and assembled a fiber optic delivered ND-YAG laser welding work station that consists of three glove boxes served by a single 1kw laser. Processing considerations related to the welding of special nuclear materials, toxic materials and complex part geometry are addressed within each work cell. We are proceeding with a development effort to integrate the equipment capabilities with remote sensing, process monitoring and control systems. These systems will provide real time data acquisition during welding, monitoring and verification of weld parameters, and CAD/CAM to CNC generated positioning paths. Computerized information storage, retrieval and network methods are used for weld process documentation and data analysis. A virtual control panel is being configured to integrate the monitoring and control operation of individual subsystems, such as laser and motion control into a single graphical interface. Development work on sensors to monitor laser beam characteristics and weld depth in real time with potential for adaptive control is in progress. System capabilities and results of these development efforts are presented

  6. Effect of laser welding parameters on the austenite and martensite phase fractions of NiTi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.P., E-mail: jp.oliveira@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENIMAT/i3N, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal); Braz Fernandes, F.M. [CENIMAT/i3N, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal); Miranda, R.M. [UNIDEMI, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal); Schell, N. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ocaña, J.L. [Centro Láser UPM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Edificio “La Arboleda”, Ctra. Valencia, km 7,300, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Although laser welding is probably the most used joining technique for NiTi shape memory alloys there is still a lack of understanding about the effects of laser welding parameters on the microstructural induced changes: in both the heat affected and fusion zones martensite may be present, while the base material is fully austenitic. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used for fine probing laser welded NiTi joints. Through Rietveld refinement the martensite and austenite phase fractions were determined and it was observed that the martensite content increases towards the weld centreline. This is related to a change of the local transformation temperatures on these regions, which occurs due to compositional variation in those regions. The martensite phase fraction in the thermally affected regions may have significant implications on functional properties on these joints. - Highlights: •Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used for fine probing of the microstructure in laser welded NiTi joints. •Rietveld refinement allowed to determine the content of martensite along the heat affected and fusion zones. •The martensite content increases from the base material towards the weld centreline.

  7. Development of laser-induced grating spectroscopy for underwater temperature measurement in shock wave focusing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Saito, Tsutomu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2004-02-01

    In Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) underwater shock wave focusing generates high pressures at very short duration of time inside human body. However, it is not yet clear how high temperatures are enhanced at the spot where a shock wave is focused. The estimation of such dynamic temperature enhancements is critical for the evaluation of tissue damages upon shock loading. For this purpose in the Interdisciplinary Shock Wave Research Center a technique is developed which employs laser induced thermal acoustics or Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy. Unlike most of gas-dynamic methods of measuring physical quantities this provides a non-invasive one having spatial and temporal resolutions of the order of magnitude of 1.0 mm 3 and 400 ns, respectively. Preliminary experiments in still water demonstrated that this method detected sound speed and hence temperature in water ranging 283 K to 333 K with errors of 0.5%. These results are used to empirically establish the equation of states of water, gelatin or agar cell which will work as alternatives of human tissues.

  8. Laser ablated micropillar energy directors for ultrasonic welding of microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben; Kistrup, Kasper; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    We present a new type of energy director (ED) for ultrasonic welding of microfluidic systems. These micropillar EDs are based on the replication of cone like protrusion structures introduced using a pico-second laser and may therefore be added to any mould surface accessible to a pico-second laser...

  9. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of Cu54Ni6Zr22Ti18 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Changhee; Lee, D.M.; Sun, J.H.; Shin, S.Y.; Bae, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to weld Cu 54 Ni 6 Zr 22 Ti 18 (numbers indicate at.%) metallic glass with glass forming ability of 6 mm. Through a single pulse irradiation on the glassy plate, the pulse condition for welding without crystallization was investigated. Under the selected pulse condition, the Cu 54 Ni 6 Zr 22 Ti 18 plate was periodically welded with different welding speeds. For the welding speed of 60 mm/min, no crystallization was observed in both weldment and heat-affected zone. For the 20 mm/min, the crystallized areas with a band shape were observed along the welding direction

  10. Effect of heat input on heat affected zone cracking in laser welded ATI Allvac 718Plus superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idowu, O.A.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The heat affected zones (HAZs) of low and high heat input laser welds of a newly developed superalloy, ATI Allvac 718Plus, were studied. Low heat input welds suffered significant HAZ grain boundary liquation cracking, while no cracking was observed in spite of a more extensive HAZ intergranular liquation in the higher heat input welds. Combination of lower welding stresses generated during cooling, and relaxation of these stresses by thick intergranular liquid were suggested to be the factors that contributed to the absence of cracking in the high heat input welds. Further, healing of some of the HAZ cracks in lower heat input welds by fusion zone interdendritic liquid occurred through liquid backfilling

  11. Design of Laser Welding Parameters for Joining Ti Grade 2 and AW 5754 Aluminium Alloys Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Behúlová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining of dissimilar Al-Ti alloys is very interesting from the point of view of weight reduction of components and structures in automotive or aerospace industries. In the dependence on cooling rate and chemical composition, rapid solidification of Al-Ti alloys during laser welding can lead to the formation of metastable phases and brittle intermetallic compounds that generally reduce the quality of produced weld joints. The paper deals with design and testing of welding parameters for preparation of weld joints of two sheets with different thicknesses from titanium Grade 2 and AW 5754 aluminium alloy. Temperature fields developed during the formation of Al-Ti butt joints were investigated by numerical simulation in ANSYS software. The influence of laser welding parameters including the laser power and laser beam offset on the temperature distribution and weld joint formation was studied. The results of numerical simulation were verified by experimental temperature measurement during laser beam welding applying the TruDisk 4002 disk laser. The microstructure of produced weld joints was assessed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. EDX analysis was applied to determine the change in chemical composition across weld joints. Mechanical properties of weld joints were evaluated using tensile tests and Vickers microhardness measurements.

  12. Dependence of fracture toughness of molybdenum laser welds on processing parameters and in-situ oxygen gettering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, L.E.; Jellison, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Fracture toughness properties have been determined for laser welds in different grades of molybdenum. The fracture toughness of welds in sintered molybdenum was consistently less than the fracture toughness of welds in vacuum arc remelted molybdenum. These differences cannot be attributed to oxygen content, since the oxygen level was nominally the same for all grades of molybdenum examined in this program. Alloy additions of titanium by means of physically deposited coatings significantly improved the fracture toughness of welds in sintered molybdenum, whereas titanium additions to welds in vacuum arc remelted molybdenum decreased the fracture toughness slightly. Pulsed laser welds exhibited fine columnar structures and, in the case of sintered molybdenum, superior fracture toughness when compared with continuous wave laser welds. 6 figures, 3 tables

  13. Spectral analysis of the process emission during laser welding of AISI 304 stainless steel with disk and Nd:YAG laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Optical emissions from the laser welding process can be obtained relatively easy in real-time. Such emissions come from the melt pool, keyhole, or plume during welding. Therefore it is very beneficial to establish a clear relation between characteristics of these emissions and the resulting weld

  14. Analysis of High-Power Diode Laser Heating Effects on HY-80 Steel for Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechec, Maxwell; Baker, Brad; McNelley, Terry; Matthews, Manyalibo; Rubenchik, Alexander; Rotter, Mark; Beach, Ray; Wu, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    In this research, several conditions of high power diode laser heated HY-80 steel were characterized to determine the viability of using such lasers as a preheating source before friction stir welding in order to reduce frictional forces thereby reducing tool wear and increasing welding speeds. Differences in microstructures within heat affected zones were identified at specific laser powers and traverse speeds. Vickers hardness values were recorded and analyzed to validate the formation of additional martensite in diode laser heated regions of HY-80 steel. Conditions that produced little to no additional martensite were identified and relationships among high power diode laser power, traverse speed, and martensite formation were determined. The development of heat affected zones, change in grain structure, and creation of additional martensite in HY-80 can be prevented through the optimization of laser amperage and transverse speed.

  15. High-strength laser welding of aluminum-lithium scandium-doped alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Ivanova, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of laser welding of an aluminum alloy (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by cold plastic deformation on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys. The strength of the plastically deformed welded joint, aluminum alloys of the Al-Mg-Li and Al-Cu-Li systems reached 0.95 and 0.6 of the base alloy strength, respectively.

  16. First industrial application of the auto-adaptative MAG STT welding technique with laser joint tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tien, Th.

    2007-01-01

    The Welding Institute has participated to the plan of construction of the Large Hadron Collider. The hoops of the dipolar magnets are composed of two half cylinders 15 m in length in 10 mm 316LN austenitic stainless steel and are assembled around the magnet in a horizontal-vertical position. The Welding Institute has developed a software for carrying out the auto-adaptative welding technique with laser joint tracking, in using the MAG STT (Surface Tension Transfer) process. The modelling of the welding laws and the strategy of filling the joints in multi-paths absorb the physical tolerances of the preparation (clearance, poor alignment, root..) in dynamic welding condition too. (O.M.)

  17. Measurement of laser welding pool geometry using a closed convex active contour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Pu; Duan, Aiqing; Xiao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer vision method to measure geometric parameters of the weld pool in a deep penetration CO 2 laser welding system. Accurate measurement was achieved by removing a huge amount of interference caused by spatter, arc light and plasma to extract the true weld pool contour. This paper introduces a closed convex active contour (CCAC) model derived from the active contour model (snake model), which is a more robust high-level vision method than the traditional low-level vision methods. We made an improvement by integrating an active contour with the information that the weld pool contour is almost a closed convex curve. An effective thresholding method and an improved greedy algorithm are also given to complement the CCAC model. These influences can be effectively removed by using the CCAC model to acquire and measure the weld pool contour accurately and relatively fast. (paper)

  18. A Plasma Control and Gas Protection System for Laser Welding of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    A prototype shield gas box with different plasma control nozzles have been investigated for laser welding of stainless steel (AISI 316). Different gases for plasma control and gas protection of the weld seam have been used. The gas types, welding speed and gas flows show the impact on process...... stability and protection against oxidation. Also oxidation related to special conditions at the starting edge has been investigated. The interaction between coaxial and plasma gas flow show that the coaxial flow widens the band in which the plasma gas flow suppresses the metal plasma. In this band the welds...... are oxide free. With 2.7 kW power welds have been performed at 4000 mm/min with Ar / He (70%/30%) as coaxial, plasma and shield gas....

  19. The development of a quality prediction system for aluminum laser welding to measure plasma intensity using photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ji Young [Technical Research Center, Hyundai Steel Company, Dangjin (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Yong Ho [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando (United States); Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Lightweight metals have been used to manufacture the body panels of cars to reduce the weight of car bodies. Typically, aluminum sheets are welded together, with a focus on weld quality assurance. A weld quality prediction system for the laser welding of aluminum was developed in this research to maximize welding production. The behavior of the plasma was also analyzed, dependent on various welding conditions. The light intensity of the plasma was altered with heat input and wire feed rate conditions, and the strength of the weld and sensor signals correlated closely for this heat input condition. Using these characteristics, a new algorithm and program were developed to evaluate the weld quality. The design involves a combinatory algorithm using a neural network model for the prediction of tensile strength from measured signals and a fuzzy multi-feature pattern recognition algorithm for the weld quality classification to improve predictability of the system.

  20. The development of a quality prediction system for aluminum laser welding to measure plasma intensity using photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ji Young; Sohn, Yong Ho; Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight metals have been used to manufacture the body panels of cars to reduce the weight of car bodies. Typically, aluminum sheets are welded together, with a focus on weld quality assurance. A weld quality prediction system for the laser welding of aluminum was developed in this research to maximize welding production. The behavior of the plasma was also analyzed, dependent on various welding conditions. The light intensity of the plasma was altered with heat input and wire feed rate conditions, and the strength of the weld and sensor signals correlated closely for this heat input condition. Using these characteristics, a new algorithm and program were developed to evaluate the weld quality. The design involves a combinatory algorithm using a neural network model for the prediction of tensile strength from measured signals and a fuzzy multi-feature pattern recognition algorithm for the weld quality classification to improve predictability of the system

  1. Direct welding of glass and metal by 1  kHz femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Cheng, Guanghua

    2015-10-20

    In the welding process between similar or dissimilar materials, inserting an intermediate layer and pressure assistance are usually thought to be necessary. In this paper, the direct welding between alumina-silicate glass and metal (aluminum, copper, and steel), under exposure from 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses without any auxiliary processes, is demonstrated. The micron/nanometer-sized metal particles induced by laser ablation were considered to act as the adhesive in the welding process. The welding parameters were optimized by varying the pulse energy and the translation velocity of the sample. The shear joining strength characterized by a shear force testing equipment was as high as 2.34 MPa. This direct bonding technology has potential for applications in medical devices, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  2. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-19

    A method is described for welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads. 7 figs.

  3. Effects of process variables on characteristics of Nd:YAG laser welds of Inconel 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    This report described a basic study of the pulse shaping effects on weld dimension and weld discontinuities in the continuous seam welds of STS 310S using Nd:YAG laser. Further, laser weldability tests for STS 310S and Inconel 600 was carried out. Pulse shapes used in this experiment were general type, which has been applied generally in laser material processing, ramped-up type (3 steps) and ramped-down type (3 steps). The pulse energy was constant regardless of types of pulse shape. The penetration of laser welds became deeper as the pulse width was longer and the peak power was increased. The pulse of ramped-up type was most effective for deep penetration compared with others. With regard to the laser weldability and reduction of weld discontinuities such as porosity and hot cracking, the general type pulse was the worst and the ramped-down type pulse was the best among 3 types of pulse shape studied in this investigation. (author). 36 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Microstructure Evolution and Selective Corrosion Resistance in Underwater Multi-pass 2101 Duplex Stainless Steel Welding Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Shi, Yonghua; Shen, Xiaoqin; Wang, Zhongmin

    2018-05-01

    A recently developed promising material, 2101 lean duplex stainless steel, represents an alternative to 304 austenite stainless steel. In this work, multi-pass 2101 weld joints were fabricated using the flux-cored arc welding method in a hyperbaric chamber. The pressure varied from 0 to 0.75 MPa. The evolution of the welding process and microstructure was investigated. γ 2 formation in the reheated zones of the WM and HAZ was not uniform. The closer the reheated zone is to the subsequent heat source, the greater the γ 2 formation in the reheated zone. Sufficient primary austenite transformation inhibited Cr2N precipitation and the subsequent intragranular γ 2 formation in the reheated weld passes of the 0.45 MPa weld metal. The localized corrosion resistance of each zone of the 0.45 MPa DSS joint was measured using non-destructive double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. The localized corrosion was induced by γ 2 and Cr2N. The root region of the 0.45 MPa weld metal underwent two subsequent welding thermal cycles, which induced increased γ 2 formation and lower resistance to corrosion because of the decreased pitting resistance value of γ 2. The correlation between microstructure evolution and the distribution of selective corrosion was determined.

  5. The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,

  6. Characterization of laser welds in Al-10 wt.%Si coated ferritic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Jong Pan; Park, Tae Jun; Kim, Jeong Kil; Uhm, Sang Ho; Woo, In Su; Lee, Jong Sub; Park, Bong Gyu; Kang, Chung Yun

    2011-01-01

    409L stainless steel hot-dipped with Al-10 wt.%Si was welded using CO 2 laser and the microstructure and hardness of the weld were investigated. When the specimen was welded with laser power of 5 kW and welding speed of 5 m/min, full-penetrated sound weld was obtained. With that specimen, the relationship between the microstructure and hardness of the weld was examined. The hardness of the weld was the highest in the fusion zone (FZ) and decreased to the base metal (BM) via heat affected zone (HAZ). The hardness of the HAZ near bond line was also higher than that near the base metal. The maximum hardness in the fusion zone could be explained by the existence of the precipitates, that is, TiN, Ti(C,N), Al 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 + TiN mixed compounds with the size of 500 nm, and solution strengthening due to the elements Al and Si dissolved from the coating layer to the fusion zone. There were subgrains within the HAZ and more in the area near the bond line. In addition, fine TiC particles with the size under 50 nm was precipitated in the sub-grain boundaries. The formation of sub-grain boundaries and the particles precipitated in the boundaries might contributed to the high hardness in the HAZ.

  7. Laser Welding Characterization of Kovar and Stainless Steel Alloys as Suitable Materials for Components of Photonic Devices Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhali, M. M. A.; Zainal, Saktioto J.; Munajat, Y.; Jalil, A.; Rahman, R.

    2010-01-01

    The weldability of Kovar and stainless steel alloys by Nd:YAG laser beam is studied through changing of some laser beam parameters. It has been found that there is a suitable interaction of the pulsed laser beam of low power laser pulse with both the two alloys. The change of thermophysical properties with absorbed energy from the laser pulse is discussed in this paper which reports the suitability of both Kovar and stainless steel 304 as the base materials for photonic devices packaging. We used laser weld system (LW4000S from Newport) which employs Nd:YAG laser system with two simultaneous beams output for packaging 980 nm high power laser module. Results of changing both laser spot weld width and penetration depth with changing both the pulse peak power density, pulse energy and pulse duration show that there are good linear relationships between laser pulse energy or peak power density and pulse duration with laser spot weld dimensions( both laser spot weld width and penetration depth). Therefore we concluded that there should be an optimization for both the pulse peak power and pulse duration to give a suitable aspect ratio (laser spot width to penetration depth) for achieving the desired welds with suitable penetration depth and small spot width. This is to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) which affects the sensitive optical components. An optimum value of the power density in the order of 10 5 w/cm 2 found to be suitable to induce melting in the welded joints without vaporization. The desired ratio can also be optimized by changing the focus position on the target material as illustrated from our measurements. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the temperature distribution during the laser pulse heating and predict the penetration depth inside the material. Samples have been investigated using SEM with EDS. The metallographic measurements on the weld spot show a suitable weld yield with reasonable weld width to depth ratio.

  8. Development of laser cutting/welding system for remote maintenance of ITER manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Hiroto; Tsuchiya, Kazuyuki; Awano, Toshihiko [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    A remote pipe cutting/welding system using a YAG laser was designed and fabricated for the maintenance of the main structural parts of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), and a mock-up test carried out. The functions of this system are to cut 100A x Sch 40 pipes of SUS316L by internal access, to adjust the core gap between the as-cut pipe and new pipe, and to weld the pipes automatically. The core gap of the pipes could be decreased within the proper welding conditions by the mock-up test, and sound beads were obtained. (author)

  9. Requirements to gap widths and clamping for CO2 laser butt welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Juhl, Thomas Winther

    1999-01-01

    In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent...... is inversely related to the welding speed. Also larger laser power leads to bigger allowable gap widths. The focal point position, though, has little influence on the maximum allowable gap width.During analysis X-ray photos show no interior porosity in the weld seam. Other methods have been applied to measure...... responses from variations in welding parameters.The table below lists the results of the study, showing the maximum allowable gap widths and some corresponding welding parameters.Maximum allowable Gap Width; Welding Speed; Laser Power:0.10 mm2 m/min2, 2.6 kW0.15 mm1 m/min2 kW0.20 mm1 m/min2.6 kW0.30 mm0.5 m...

  10. Gap Width Study and Fixture Design in Laser Butt-Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    .5-2.0 m/min, the laser power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely......This paper discusses some practical consideration for design of a mechanical fixture, which enables to accurately measure the width of a gap between two stainless steel workpieces and to steadfastly clamp the workpieces for butt-welding with a high power CO2 laser.With such a fixture, a series...... of butt-welding experiment is successfully carried out in order to find the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0...

  11. Improvement of bonding properties of laser transmission welded, dissimilar thermoplastics by plasma surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Sooriyapiragasam, S.; Behm, H.; Dahlmann, R. [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), RWTH Aachen University, Pontstrasse 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Compared to different welding methods such as ultrasonic welding, laser transmission welding is a relatively new technology to join thermoplastic parts. The most significant advantages over other methods are the contactless energy input which can be controlled very precisely and the low mechanical loads on the welded parts. Therefore, laser transmission welding is used in various areas of application, for example in medical technology or for assembling headlights in the automotive sector. However, there are several challenges in welding dissimilar thermoplastics. This may be due to different melting points on the one hand and different polarities on the other hand. So far these problems are faced with the intermediate layer technique. In this process a layer bonding together the two components is placed between the components. This means that an additional step in the production is needed to apply the extra layer. To avoid this additional step, different ways of joining dissimilar thermoplastics are investigated. In this regard, the improvement in the weldability of the dissimilar thermoplastics polyamide 6 (PA 6) and polypropylene (PP) by means of plasma surface modification and contour welding is examined. To evaluate the influence of the plasma surface modification process on the subsequent welding process of the two dissimilar materials, the treatment time as well as the storage time between treatment and welding are varied. The treatment time in pulsed micro wave excited oxygen plasmas with an electron density of about 1x10{sup 17} m{sup −3} is varied from 0.5 s to 120 s and the time between treatment and welding is varied from a few minutes up to a week. As reference, parts being made of the same polymer (PP and PA 6) are welded and tested. For the evaluation of the results of the welding experiments, short-time tensile tests are used to determine the bond strength. Without plasma treatment the described combination of PA 6/PP cannot be welded with

  12. Improvement of bonding properties of laser transmission welded, dissimilar thermoplastics by plasma surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Sooriyapiragasam, S.; Behm, H.; Dahlmann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to different welding methods such as ultrasonic welding, laser transmission welding is a relatively new technology to join thermoplastic parts. The most significant advantages over other methods are the contactless energy input which can be controlled very precisely and the low mechanical loads on the welded parts. Therefore, laser transmission welding is used in various areas of application, for example in medical technology or for assembling headlights in the automotive sector. However, there are several challenges in welding dissimilar thermoplastics. This may be due to different melting points on the one hand and different polarities on the other hand. So far these problems are faced with the intermediate layer technique. In this process a layer bonding together the two components is placed between the components. This means that an additional step in the production is needed to apply the extra layer. To avoid this additional step, different ways of joining dissimilar thermoplastics are investigated. In this regard, the improvement in the weldability of the dissimilar thermoplastics polyamide 6 (PA 6) and polypropylene (PP) by means of plasma surface modification and contour welding is examined. To evaluate the influence of the plasma surface modification process on the subsequent welding process of the two dissimilar materials, the treatment time as well as the storage time between treatment and welding are varied. The treatment time in pulsed micro wave excited oxygen plasmas with an electron density of about 1x10 17 m −3 is varied from 0.5 s to 120 s and the time between treatment and welding is varied from a few minutes up to a week. As reference, parts being made of the same polymer (PP and PA 6) are welded and tested. For the evaluation of the results of the welding experiments, short-time tensile tests are used to determine the bond strength. Without plasma treatment the described combination of PA 6/PP cannot be welded with sufficient bond

  13. Dynamic modelling, identification and simulation of industrial robots – for off-line programming of robotised laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiboer, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Robotised laser welding is an innovative joining technique which is increasingly finding applications, especially in the automotive industry. In order to reduce the time needed to prepare and programthe laser welding robot, off-line programming systems are used. The off-line programming systems

  14. Temper-bead repair-welding of neutron-irradiated reactor (pressure) vessel by low-heat-input TIG and YAG laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kiyotomo; Ozawa, Masayoshi; Kamo, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Weldability in neutron-irradiated low alloy steel for reactor (pressure) vessel has been studied by temper-bead repair-welding of low-heat-input TIG and YAG laser welding. A low alloy steel and its weld, and stainless steel clad and nickel (Ni)-based alloy clad were irradiated in a materials test reactor (LVR-15, Czech Republic) up to 1.4 x 10 24 n/m 2 (>1 MeV) at 290degC, which approximately corresponds to the maximum neutron fluence of 60-year-operation plants' vessels. The He concentration in the irradiated specimens was estimated to be up to 12.9 appm. The repair-welding was carried out by TIG and YAG laser welding at a heat input from 0.06 to 0.86 MJ/m. The mechanical tests of tensile, impact, side bend and hardness were carried out after the repair-welding. Cracks were not observed in the irradiated low alloy steel and its weld by temper-bead repair-welding. Small porosities were formed in the first and second layers of the repair-welds of low alloy steel (base metal). However, only a few porosities were found in the repair-welds of the weld of low alloy steel. From the results of mechanical tests, the repair-welding could be done in the irradiated weld of low alloy steel containing a He concentration up to 12.9 appm, although repair-welding could be done in base metal of low alloy steel containing up to only 1.7 appmHe. On the other hand, cracks occurred in the heat affected zones of stainless steel and Ni-based alloy clads by repair-welding, except by YAG laser repair-welding at a heat input of 0.06 MJ/m in stainless steel clad containing 1.7 appmHe. Based on these results, the determination processes were proposed for optimum parameters of repair-welding of low alloy steel and clad used for reactor (pressure) vessel. (author)

  15. The research of PSD location method in micro laser welding fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong; Dong, Hua

    2010-11-01

    In the field of micro laser welding, besides the special requirement in the parameter of lasers, the locating in welding points accurately is very important. The article adopt position sensitive detector (PSD) as hard core, combine optic system, electric circuits and PC and software processing, confirm the location of welding points. The signal detection circuits adopt the special integrate circuit H-2476 to process weak signal. It is an integrated circuit for high-speed, high-sensitivity optical range finding, which has stronger noiseproof feature, combine digital filter arithmetic, carry out repair the any non-ideal factors, increasing the measure precision. The amplifier adopt programmable amplifier LTC6915. The system adapt two dimension stepping motor drive the workbench, computer and corresponding software processing, make sure the location of spot weld. According to different workpieces to design the clamps. The system on-line detect PSD 's output signal in the moving processing. At the workbench moves in the X direction, the filaments offset is detected dynamic. Analyze the X axes moving sampling signal direction could be estimate the Y axes moving direction, and regulate the Y axes moving values. The workbench driver adopt A3979, it is a stepping motor driver with insert transducer and operate easily. It adapts the requirement of location in micro laser welding fields, real-time control to adjust by computer. It can be content up 20 μm's laser micro welding requirement on the whole. Using laser powder cladding technology achieve inter-penetration welding of high quality and reliability.

  16. Disk Laser Welding of Car Body Zinc Coated Steel Sheets / Spawanie Laserem Dyskowym Blach Ze Stali Karoseryjnej Ocynkowanej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous laser welding of 0.8 mm thick butt joints of car body electro-galvanized steel sheet DC04 was investigated. The Yb:YAG disk laser TruDisk 3302 with the beam spot diameter of 200 μm was used. The effect of laser welding parameters and technological conditions on weld shape, penetration depth, process stability, microstructure and mechanical performance was determined. It was found that the laser beam spot focused on the top surface of a butt joint tends to pass through the gap, especially in the low range of heat input and high welding speed. All test welds were welded at a keyhole mode, and the weld metal was free of porosity. Thus, the keyhole laser welding of zinc coated steel sheets in butt configuration provides excellent conditions to escape for zinc vapours, with no risk of porosity. Microstructure, microhardness and mechanical performance of the butt joints depend on laser welding conditions thus cooling rate and cooling times. The shortest cooling time t8/5 was calculated for 0.29 s.

  17. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woong Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  18. Thin-sheet zinc-coated and carbon steels laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peças, P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research on CO2 laser welding of thin-sheet carbon steels (zinccoated and uncoated, at several thicknesses combinations. Laser welding has an high potential to be applied on sub-assemblies welding before forming to the automotive industry-tailored blanks. The welding process is studied through the analysis of parameters optimization, metallurgical quality and induced distortions by the welding process. The clamping system and the gas protection system developed are fully described. These systems allow the minimization of common thin-sheet laser welding defects like misalignement, and zinc-coated laser welding defects like porous and zinc volatilization. The laser welding quality is accessed by DIN 8563 standard, and by tensile, microhardness and corrosion tests.

    Este artigo descreve os resultados da investigação da soldadura laser de CO2 de chapa fina de acó carbono (simples e galvanizado, em diferentes combinações de espessura. A soldadura laser é um processo de elevado potencial no fabrico de tailored-blanks (sub-conjuntos para posterior enformação, constituidos por varias partes de diferentes materiais e espessuras para a indústria automóvel. São analisados os aspectos de optimização paramétrica, de qualidade metalúrgica da junta soldada e das deformações resultantes da soldadura. São descritos os mecanismos desenvolvidos de fixação das chapas e protecção gasosa, por forma a minimizar os defeitos típicos na soldadura laser de chapa fina como o desalinhamento e da soldadura laser de chapa galvanizada como os poros e a volatilização do zinco. Por fim apresentam-se resultados da avaliação da qualidade da soldadura do ponto de vista qualitativo através da norma DIN 8563, e do pontos de vista quantitativo através de ensaios de tracção, dureza e corrosão.

  19. Correlation of Weld Appearance with Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 2024-T4 Aluminum Alloy Welded by Fiber Laser with Filler Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Fei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two typical cross-section of welds, including nail shape and near X shape, are obtained in the process of fiber laser welding 2024-T4 Al alloy with filler wire. The correlations of the two weld appearances and other elements (such as microstructure, microhardness, and joint's tensile properties were analyzed. The results show that the weld with near X shape cross-section during the welding process is more stable than that with nail shape cross-section, and the welding spatter of the former is smaller than that of the latter. The microstructure of the weld zone is columnar grains and equiaxed grains, the columnar grains are formed near the fusion line and growing along the vertical direction of the fusion line, the equiaxed grains are distributed in the center of the weld zone. The secondary dendrite of the grains in the center of the weld with nail shape cross-section grows better, and gradually forms to equiaxed dendrite, while the grains size of the weld with near X shape cross-section is relatively finer, exhibiting equiaxed cellular grain. Compared with the joint with nail shape cross-section of the weld, the joint with near X shape cross-section of the weld have some different characteristics, the precipitation strengthening phase θ(Al2Cu content in weld zone of the latter is more than that of the former, the average microhardness value of the weld zone of the latter is higher than that of the former, the softening phenomenon of heat affect zone (HAZ of the latter is weaker than that of the former, and the joint's tensile strength and plasticity of the latter are lower than that of the former slightly.

  20. Vision and spectroscopic sensing for joint tracing in narrow gap laser butt welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Morgan; Sikström, Fredrik; Christiansson, Anna-Karin; Ancona, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The automated laser beam butt welding process is sensitive to positioning the laser beam with respect to the joint because a small offset may result in detrimental lack of sidewall fusion. This problem is even more pronounced in case of narrow gap butt welding, where most of the commercial automatic joint tracing systems fail to detect the exact position and size of the gap. In this work, a dual vision and spectroscopic sensing approach is proposed to trace narrow gap butt joints during laser welding. The system consists of a camera with suitable illumination and matched optical filters and a fast miniature spectrometer. An image processing algorithm of the camera recordings has been developed in order to estimate the laser spot position relative to the joint position. The spectral emissions from the laser induced plasma plume have been acquired by the spectrometer, and based on the measurements of the intensities of selected lines of the spectrum, the electron temperature signal has been calculated and correlated to variations of process conditions. The individual performances of these two systems have been experimentally investigated and evaluated offline by data from several welding experiments, where artificial abrupt as well as gradual deviations of the laser beam out of the joint were produced. Results indicate that a combination of the information provided by the vision and spectroscopic systems is beneficial for development of a hybrid sensing system for joint tracing.

  1. In situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of chemical compositions in stainless steels during tungsten inert gas welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparli, Ugur Alp; Jacobsen, Lars; Griesche, Axel; Michalik, Katarzyna; Mory, David; Kannengiesser, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was combined with a bead-on-plate Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process for the in situ measurement of chemical compositions in austenitic stainless steels during welding. Monitoring the weld pool's chemical composition allows governing the weld pool solidification behavior, and thus enables the reduction of susceptibility to weld defects. Conventional inspection methods for weld seams (e.g. ultrasonic inspection) cannot be performed during the welding process. The analysis system also allows in situ study of the correlation between the occurrence of weld defects and changes in the chemical composition in the weld pool or in the two-phase region where solid and liquid phase coexist. First experiments showed that both the shielding Ar gas and the welding arc plasma have a significant effect on the selected Cr II, Ni II and Mn II characteristic emissions, namely an artificial increase of intensity values via unspecific emission in the spectra. In situ investigations showed that this artificial intensity increase reached a maximum in presence of weld plume. Moreover, an explicit decay has been observed with the termination of the welding plume due to infrared radiation during sample cooling. Furthermore, LIBS can be used after welding to map element distribution. For austenitic stainless steels, Mn accumulations on both sides of the weld could be detected between the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the base material.

  2. Effect of laser welding on the titanium ceramic tensile bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Galo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium reacts strongly with elements, mainly oxygen at high temperature. The high temperature of titanium laser welding modifies the surface, and may interfere on the metal-ceramic tensile bond strength. OBJECTIVE: The influence of laser welding on the titanium-ceramic bonding has not yet been established. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of laser welding applied to commercially pure titanium (CpTi substructure on the bond strength of commercial ceramic. The influence of airborne particle abrasion (Al2O3 conditions was also studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty CpTi cylindrical rods (3 mm x 60 mm were cast and divided into 2 groups: with laser welding (L and without laser welding (WL. Each group was divided in 4 subgroups, according to the size of the particles used in airborne particle abrasion: A - Al2O3 (250 µm; B - Al2O3 (180 µm; C - Al2O3 (110 µm; D - Al2O3 (50 µm. Ceramic rings were fused around the CpTi rods. Specimens were invested and their tensile strength was measured at fracture with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min and 200 kgf load cell. Statistical analysis was carried out with analysis of variance and compared using the independent t test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were found among all subgroups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest bond strength means were recorded in subgroups WLC (52.62 MPa and LD (24.02 MPa, respectively. CONCLUSION: Airborne particle abrasion yielded significantly lower bond strength as the Al2O3 particle size decreased. Mechanical retention decreased in the laser-welded specimens, i.e. the metal-ceramic tensile bond strength was lower.

  3. Microstructure Characterization of Fiber Laser Welds of S690QL High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoming; Xu, Peiquan; Lu, Fenggui; Gong, Hongying; Cui, Haichao; Liu, Chuangen

    2018-02-01

    The use of fiber laser welding to join S690QL steels has attracted interest in the field of construction and assembly. Herein, 13-mm-thick S690QL welded joints were obtained without filler materials using the fiber laser. The as-welded microstructures and the impact energies of the joints were characterized and measured using electron microscopy in conjunction with high-resolution transmission electron images, X-ray diffraction, and impact tests. The results indicated that a single-sided welding technique could be used to join S690QL steels up to a thickness of 12 mm (fail to fuse the joint in the root) when the laser power is equal to 12 kW (scan speed 1 m/min). Double-side welding technique allows better weld penetration and better control of heat distribution. Observation of the samples showed that the fusion zone exhibited bainitic and martensitic microstructures with increased amounts of martensites (Ms) compared with the base materials. Also, the grains in the fusion zone increased in coarseness as the heat input was increased. The fusion zone exhibited increased hardness (397 HV0.2) while exhibiting a simultaneous decrease in the impact toughness. The maximum impact energy value of 26 J was obtained from the single-side-welded sample, which is greater than those obtained from the double-side-welded samples (maximum of 18 J). Many more dislocations and plastic deformations were found in the fusion zone than the heat-affected zone in the joint, which hardened the joints and lowered the impact toughness. The microstructures characterized by FTEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer also exhibited laths of M, as well as stacking faults and dislocations featuring high-density, interfacial structure ledges that occur between the high-angle grain boundaries and the M and bainite.

  4. Effect of post-weld heat treatments on strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Shan, Jiguo; Wang, Chunxu; Tian, Zhiling

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates here the strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam under different approaches of three post-weld heat treatments, i.e. aging (A), solutionizing+aging (SA) and homogenizing+solutionizing+aging (HSA). The microstructures of the weld metals with A and SA processes both comprised of finely dispersive Ni 3 (Ti, Mo) precipitates, small martensite lath and reverted austenite along the grain boundary. However, in the weld metal with HSA process, it exhibited the same Ni 3 (Ti, Mo) precipitate with the large martensite lath and the absence of reverted austenite. The ultimate tensile strength and static toughness of the welded joint with HSA process were 1350.6 MPa and 63.8 MJ m −3 , respectively. The static toughness has been remarkably improved from 71% to 91% of the applied parent metal compared with that of the welded joint with A process. The present study underscores that the Ni 3 (Ti, Mo) precipitate and martensite are significant to ensure the high strength of welded joints. Due to its inconsistent deformation with the matrix of martensite, the reverted austenite has a notable influence on the toughness of welded joints. It shows that the post-weld heat treatments of HSA process can influence the mechanical behavior of welded joints by eliminating the reverted austenite.

  5. Effect of post-weld heat treatments on strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [Laser Processing Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shan, Jiguo, E-mail: shanjg@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laser Processing Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Professing Technology, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Chunxu; Tian, Zhiling [Institute for Special Steel, Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-04-29

    This paper elucidates here the strength and toughness behavior of T-250 maraging steel welded by laser beam under different approaches of three post-weld heat treatments, i.e. aging (A), solutionizing+aging (SA) and homogenizing+solutionizing+aging (HSA). The microstructures of the weld metals with A and SA processes both comprised of finely dispersive Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitates, small martensite lath and reverted austenite along the grain boundary. However, in the weld metal with HSA process, it exhibited the same Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitate with the large martensite lath and the absence of reverted austenite. The ultimate tensile strength and static toughness of the welded joint with HSA process were 1350.6 MPa and 63.8 MJ m{sup −3}, respectively. The static toughness has been remarkably improved from 71% to 91% of the applied parent metal compared with that of the welded joint with A process. The present study underscores that the Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Mo) precipitate and martensite are significant to ensure the high strength of welded joints. Due to its inconsistent deformation with the matrix of martensite, the reverted austenite has a notable influence on the toughness of welded joints. It shows that the post-weld heat treatments of HSA process can influence the mechanical behavior of welded joints by eliminating the reverted austenite.

  6. Experimental design approach to the process parameter optimization for laser welding of martensitic stainless steels in a constrained overlap configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. M. A.; Romoli, L.; Fiaschi, M.; Dini, G.; Sarri, F.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental design approach to process parameter optimization for the laser welding of martensitic AISI 416 and AISI 440FSe stainless steels in a constrained overlap configuration in which outer shell was 0.55 mm thick. To determine the optimal laser-welding parameters, a set of mathematical models were developed relating welding parameters to each of the weld characteristics. These were validated both statistically and experimentally. The quality criteria set for the weld to determine optimal parameters were the minimization of weld width and the maximization of weld penetration depth, resistance length and shearing force. Laser power and welding speed in the range 855-930 W and 4.50-4.65 m/min, respectively, with a fiber diameter of 300 μm were identified as the optimal set of process parameters. However, the laser power and welding speed can be reduced to 800-840 W and increased to 4.75-5.37 m/min, respectively, to obtain stronger and better welds.

  7. Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of Laser Welded DP590 Dual-Phase Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaojie; Yang, Shanglei; Liu, Haobo; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Wang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, cold-rolled DP590 dual-phase steel sheets with 1.5 mm thickness were butt-welded by a fiber laser, and the evolution and effect on microhardness, tensile property and fatigue property of the welded joint microstructure were studied. The results showed that the base metal is composed of ferrite and martensite, with the martensite dispersed in the ferrite matrix in an island manner. The microstructure of the weld zone was lath-shaped martensite that can be refined further by increasing the welding speed, while the heat-affected zone was composed of ferrite and tempered martensite. The microhardness increased with increasing welding speed, and the hardness reached its highest value—393.8 HV—when the welding speed was 5 m/min. Static tensile fracture of the welded joints always occurred in the base metal, and the elongation at break was more than 16%. The conditional fatigue limits of the base metal and the weld joints were 354.2 and 233.6 MPa, respectively, under tension-tension fatigue tests with a stress rate of 0.1. After observation of the fatigue fracture morphology, it was evident that the fatigue crack of the base metal had sprouted into the surface pits and that its expansion would be accelerated under the action of a secondary crack. The fatigue source of the welded joint was generated in the weld zone and expanded along the martensite, forming a large number of fatigue striations. Transient breaking, which occurred in the heat-affected zone of the joint as a result of the formation of a large number of dimples, reflected the obvious characteristics of ductile fracture.

  8. An investigation on capability of hybrid Nd:YAG laser-TIG welding technology for AA2198 Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Amir Hosein; Moradi, Mahmoud; Goodarzi, Massoud; Colucci, Pietro; Maletta, Carmine

    2017-09-01

    This paper surveys the capability of the hybrid laser-arc welding in comparison with lone laser welding for AA2198 aluminum alloy experimentally. In the present research, a continuous Nd:YAG laser with a maximum power of 2000 W and a 350 A electric arc were used as two combined welding heat sources. In addition to the lone laser welding experiments, two strategies were examined for hybrid welding; the first one was low laser power (100 W) accompanied by high arc energy, and the second one was high laser power (2000 W) with low arc energy. Welding speed and arc current varied in the experiments. The influence of heat input on weld pool geometry was surveyed. The macrosection, microhardness profile and microstructure of the welded joints were studied and compared. The results indicated that in lone laser welding, conduction mode occurred and keyhole was not formed even in low welding speeds and thus the penetration depth was so low. It was also found that the second approach (high laser power accompanied with low arc energy) is superior to the first one (low laser power accompanied with high arc energy) in hybrid laser-arc welding of Al2198, since lower heat input was needed for full penetration weld and as a result a smaller HAZ was created.

  9. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osoba, L.O. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Ding, R.G. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ojo, O.A., E-mail: ojo@cc.umanitoba.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti-Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of {gamma}-{gamma}' eutectic in {gamma}' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO{sub 2} laser beam joining technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  10. Morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints in GH909 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunming; Cai, Yuanzheng; Hu, Chongjing; Zhang, Xiong; Yan, Fei; Hu, Xiyuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2017-05-15

    The experimental laser welding of GH909 alloy was conducted in this study. The morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy diffraction spectroscopy, and other techniques. Results revealed that the microstructure of the welded joints mainly consisted of tiny cellular structures, dendritic structures, and equiaxed crystals. Pores appeared in the interdendritic regions because of the insufficient local feeding of molten metal during solidification. Nb segregation in the heat-affected zone caused liquation cracking, whereas C segregation further induced the formation of carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries during the welding thermal cycle. The instability of the keyhole significantly promoted the escape of the metal vapor/plasma from the hole; as a result, porosity defects formed in the weld. The average tensile strength of the test joints was 756 MPa, which is 93.1 % of that of the base metal. The average microhardness of the weld zone (250 HV) was higher than that of the GH909 alloy substrate (208 HV), peaking at 267 HV. Microcracks appeared along the grain boundaries, proving that the grain boundaries were the weakest areas in the joint.

  11. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osoba, L.O.; Ding, R.G.; Ojo, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti–Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of γ–γ' eutectic in γ' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: ► A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO 2 laser beam joining technique. ► Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. ► Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. ► Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  12. 3D Multiphysical Modelling of Fluid Dynamics and Mass Transfer in Laser Welding of Dissimilar Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhou Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional multiphysical transient model was developed to investigate keyhole formation, weld pool dynamics, and mass transfer in laser welding of dissimilar materials. The coupling of heat transfer, fluid flow, keyhole free surface evolution, and solute diffusion between dissimilar metals was simulated. The adaptive heat source model was used to trace the change of keyhole shape, and the Rayleigh scattering of the laser beam was considered. The keyhole wall was calculated using the fluid volume equation, primarily considering the recoil pressure induced by metal evaporation, surface tension, and hydrostatic pressure. Fluid flow, diffusion, and keyhole formation were considered simultaneously in mass transport processes. Welding experiments of 304L stainless steel and industrial pure titanium TA2 were performed to verify the simulation results. It is shown that spatters are shaped during the welding process. The thickness of the intermetallic reaction layer between the two metals and the diffusion of elements in the weld are calculated, which are important criteria for welding quality. The simulation results correspond well with the experimental results.

  13. The porosity formation mechanism in the laser-MIG hybrid welded joint of Invar alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Gao, Qiyu; Gu, Cheng; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jicheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-10-01

    The porosity formation mechanism in the laser-metal inter gas (MIG) multi-layer hybrid welded (HW) joint of 19.05 mm thick Invar alloy is investigated. The microstructure characteristics and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are analyzed. The phase identification was conducted by the X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Experimental results show that the generation of porosity is caused by the relatively low laser power in the root pass and low current in the cover pass. It is also indicated that the microstructures of the welded joints are mainly observed to be columnar crystal and equiaxial crystal, which are closely related to the porosity formation. The EDS results show that oxygen content is significantly high in the inner wall of the porosity. The XRD results indicate that the BM and the WB of laser-MIG HW all are composed of Fe0.64Ni0.36 and γ-(Fe,Ni). When the weld pool is cooled quickly, [NiO] [FeO] and [MnO] are formed that react on C to generate CO/CO2 gases. The porosity of laser-MIG HW for Invar alloy is oxygen pore. The root source of metallurgy porosity formation is that the dissolved gases are hard to escape sufficiently and thus exist in the weld pool. Furthermore, 99.99% pure Argon is recommended as protective gas in the laser-MIG HW of Invar alloy.

  14. Study of CW Nd-Yag laser welding of Zn-coated steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, Remy; Coste, Frederic; Goebels, Dominique; Kielwasser, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    The welding of Zn-coated steel thin sheets is a great challenge for the automotive industry. Previous studies have defined the main physical processes involved. For non-controlled conditions, the zinc vapour expelled from the interface of the two sheets violently expands inside the keyhole and expels the melt pool. When using CO 2 lasers, we have previously shown that an elongated laser spot produces an elongated keyhole, which is efficient for suppressing this effect. We have adopted a similar approach for CW Nd : Yag laser welding and we observe that an elongated spot is not necessary for achieving good weld seams. Several diagnostics were used in order to understand these interesting results. High-speed video camera visualizations of the top and the bottom of the keyhole during the process show the dynamics of the keyhole hydrodynamic behaviour. It appears that the role of the reflected beam on the front keyhole wall for generating a characteristic rear wall deformation is crucial for an efficient stabilization of the process. Our dynamic keyhole modelling, which includes ray tracing, totally confirms this interpretation and explains the results for very different experimental conditions (effect of welding speed, laser intensity, variable sheet thickness, laser beam intensity distribution) that will be presented

  15. Modeling and application of plasma charge current in deep penetration laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Chen, Wuzhu; Jiang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Tian, Zhiling

    2003-01-01

    Plasma charge current distribution during deep penetration CO 2 laser welding was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The laser-induced plasma above the workpiece surface expands up to the nozzle, driven by the particle concentration gradient, forming an electric potential between the workpiece and the nozzle due to the large difference between the diffusion velocities of the ions and the electrons. The plasma-induced current obtained by electrically connecting the nozzle and the workpiece can be increased by adding a negative external voltage. For a fixed set of welding conditions, the plasma charge current increases with the external voltage to a saturation value. The plasma charge current decreases as the nozzle-to-workpiece distance increases. Therefore, closed-loop control of the nozzle-to-workpiece distance for laser welding can be based on the linear relationship between the plasma charge current and the distance. In addition, the amount of plasma above the keyhole can be reduced by a transverse magnetic field, which reduces the attenuation of the incident laser power by the plasma so as to increase the laser welding thermal efficiency

  16. Microstructure-properties correlation in fiber laser welding of dual-phase and HSLA steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D.C., E-mail: dcsaha@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Westerbaan, D.; Nayak, S.S. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Biro, E. [ArcelorMittal Global Research, 1390 Burlington Street East, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3J5 (Canada); Gerlich, A.P.; Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Similar and dissimilar welds of dual-phase (DP) and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels were made by fiber laser welding (FLW). The welds were characterized with respect to microstructure, micro- and nano-hardness, and tensile properties. The fusion zone (FZ) in the DP welds consisted of fully martensitic structure; whereas HSLA and dissimilar weld FZ microstructure were mixture of martensite and bainite. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed bainite structures containing bainitic ferrite laths with intralath and interlath cementite. Precipitation of single variant carbides inside the bainitic ferrite laths were confirmed by measuring the interplanar spacing. The cooling rate in the FZ, estimated using Rosenthal equation, and continuous-cooling-transformation diagrams corroborated the microstructure formed. Nanoindentation was used to verify the hardness of these individual microconstituents, since a much lower nano-hardness for bainite (4.11 GPa) was observed compared to martensite (6.57 GPa) phase. Tensile failure occurred in the tempered area of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in the DP steel welded, which was confirmed by typical cup-like dimple fracture; likewise failure in the HSLA base metal, which occurred in dissimilar and HSLA welds, indicated distinctive dimple and shear dimple ductile morphology.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded Ultra-high Strength Chromium Steel with Martensitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Janzen, Vitalij; Lindner, Stefan; Wagener, Rainer

    A new class of steels is going to be introduced into sheet manufacturing. Stainless ferritic and martensitic steels open up opportunities for sheet metal fabrication including hot stamping. A strength of up to 2 GPa at a fracture strain of 15% can be attained. Welding of these materials became apparently a challenge. Energy-reduced welding methods with in-situ heat treatment are required in order to ensure the delicate and complex heat control. Laser beam welding is the joining technique of choice to supply minimum heat input to the fusion process and to apply an efficient heat control. For two application cases, production of tailored blanks in as-rolled condition and welding in assembly in hot stamped conditions, welding processes have been developed. The welding suitability is shown in metallurgical investigations of the welds. Crash tests based on the KSII concept as well as fatigue tests prove the applicability of the joining method. For the case of assembly also joining with deep drawing and manganese boron steel was taken into consideration. The strength of the joint is determined by the weaker partner but can benefit from its ductility.

  18. The Light Plane Calibration Method of the Laser Welding Vision Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. G.; Wu, M. H.; Jia, W. P.

    2018-03-01

    According to the aerospace and automobile industry, the sheet steels are the very important parts. In the recent years, laser welding technique had been used to weld the sheet steel part. The seam width between the two parts is usually less than 0.1mm. Because the error of the fixture fixed can’t be eliminated, the welding parts quality can be greatly affected. In order to improve the welding quality, the line structured light is employed in the vision monitoring system to plan the welding path before welding. In order to improve the weld precision, the vision system is located on Z axis of the computer numerical control (CNC) tool. The planar pattern is placed on the X-Y plane of the CNC tool, and the structured light is projected on the planar pattern. The vision system stay at three different positions along the Z axis of the CNC tool, and the camera shoot the image of the planar pattern at every position. Using the calculated the sub-pixel center line of the structure light, the world coordinate of the center light line can be calculated. Thus, the structured light plane can be calculated by fitting the structured light line. Experiment result shows the effective of the proposed method.

  19. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry.

  20. One-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, it demonstrated one-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three fused silica substrates in the optical- and non-optical-contact regimes by focusing 1030-nm laser pulses at the middle of the second substrate. Focusing laser pulses within the second glass in optical-contact and non-optical-contact samples induces permanent internal structural modification, leading to the three glass substrates bonding together simultaneously. The bonding mechanism is based on the internal modification of glass, and this mechanism is different from that of ordinary glass welding at the interface. Welding-spot size is affected by not only the gap distance (ablation effect) and heat transmission, but also by gravity through examining the sizes of the welding spots on the four contact welding surfaces. The maximum bonding strength of the lower interface (56.2 MPa) in the optical-contact regime is more than double that (27.6 MPa) in the non-optical-contact regime.

  1. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry

  2. A comparative evaluation of microstructural and mechanical behavior of fiber laser beam and tungsten inert gas dissimilar ultra high strength steel welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiteerth R. Joshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different welding processes on the mechanical properties and the corresponding variation in the microstructural features have been investigated for the dissimilar weldments of 18% Ni maraging steel 250 and AISI 4130 steel. The weld joints are realized through two different fusion welding processes, tungsten inert arc welding (TIG and laser beam welding (LBW, in this study. The dissimilar steel welds were characterized through optical microstructures, microhardness survey across the weldment and evaluation of tensile properties. The fiber laser beam welds have demonstrated superior mechanical properties and reduced heat affected zone as compared to the TIG weldments.

  3. Investigation of residual stress in laser welding between carbon steel AISI 1010 and stainless AISI 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirim, Denilson de Camargo

    2011-01-01

    The dissimilar materials union has the residual stress formation as one of the most critical problems, which occurs mainly because these materials have both different thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivities. In this study, it was investigated the laser welding technique between steels, AISI 1010 and AISI 304. The materials were joined by butt autogenous welding with a continuous Nd:YAG laser. The main objective was to identify the welding parameters influence by the residual stresses analysis in the heat affected zone (HAZ). It was executed a factorial design with three-factor at two levels with a replica, which were varied power, welding speed and focal position of the laser beam. Residual stress measurements by the diffraction of X-rays were performed on the sample surface, to study their variation as a function of the parameters investigated. The blind hole method was also used to evaluate the residual stress along the samples depth, up to depth of 1mm. Besides residual stress measurement, weld seams were evaluated by optical and scanned electron microscopy, which were aimed to determine the weld geometry and changes in the microstructure. It was also made Vickers hardness measurements to evaluate the extent of HAZ. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the union were performed tensile and fatigue test. The MINITAB 15 software was used to analyze the residual stresses obtained by the blind hole method at different depths of the HAZ. It was also used statistical regression based on both the influences different and the combination of this input factors, in the residual stress of union. The results indicate that the models can satisfactorily predict the responses and provide users a guide to better define the welding parameters. (author)

  4. Influence of heat treatments for laser welded semi solid metal cast A356 alloy on the fracture mode of tensile specimens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kunene, G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available were then butt laser welded. It was found that the pre-weld as cast, T4 and post-weld T4 heat treated specimens fractured in the base metal. However, the pre-weld T6 heat treated specimens were found to have fractured in the heat affected zone (HAZ)...

  5. Development and application of high-precision laser welding technology for manufacturing Ti alloy frames of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Leem, B. C.; Shin, J. S.; Lee, D. H.

    1999-12-01

    The research and development efforts of the high precision laser welding technology for manufacturing titanium alloy frames of glasses. For this purpose, laser welding device with the high beam quality is designed and fabricated, which consists of a optical fiber transmission part, a welding monitoring part and a welding controller. The welding nozzle and holding fixtures for manufacturing titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses. Titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses to be developed were experimentally manufactured by utilizing the laser welding using the optical fiber of GI 400 μm. As a result, the seam welding with the bead width of 0.3 mm or less and the weld penetration of 0.3-0.4mm could be accomplished. The fundamental technology was established through design of welding jigs with a variety of configurations and adequate welding conditions. Also, for the purpose to enable the companies participating in this project to commercialize the developed technology acceleratedly, a training program for the engineers belonging to such companies was conducted along with the technology transfer through joint experiments with the engineers. (author)

  6. High-power Laser Welding of Thick Steel-aluminum Dissimilar Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a worldwide reduction of CO2-emissions is indispensable to avoid global warming. Besides the automotive sector, lightweight construction is also of high interest for the maritime industry in order to minimize CO2-emissions. Using aluminum, the weight of ships can be reduced, ensuring lower fuel consumption. Therefore, hybrid joints of steel and aluminum are of great interest to the maritime industry. In order to provide an efficient lap joining process, high-power laser welding of thick steel plates (S355, t = 5 mm) and aluminum plates (EN AW-6082, t = 8 mm) is investigated. As the weld seam quality greatly depends on the amount of intermetallic phases within the joint, optimized process parameters and control are crucial. Using high-power laser welding, a tensile strength of 10 kN was achieved. Based on metallographic analysis, hardness tests, and tensile tests the potential of this joining method is presented.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation on under-water friction stir welding of armour grade AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Sabari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is a promising welding process that can join age hardenable aluminium alloys with high joint efficiency. However, the thermal cycles experienced by the material to be joined during FSW resulted in the deterioration of mechanical properties due to the coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates in the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ and heat affected zone (HAZ. Under water friction stir welding (UWFSW is a variant of FSW process which can maintain low heat input as well as constant heat input along the weld line. The heat conduction and dissipation during UWFSW controls the width of TMAZ and HAZ and also improves the joint properties. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints made by FSW and UWFSW processes. Finite element analysis has been used to estimate the temperature distribution and width of TMAZ region in both the joints and the results have been compared with experimental results and subsequently correlated with mechanical properties.

  8. Low temperature heat treatments of AA5754-Ti6Al4V dissimilar laser welds: Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, P.; D'Ostuni, S.; Casalino, G.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the effects of the post welding heat treatments (PWHT) performed at 350 °C and 450 °C on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of AA5754 and Ti6Al4V dissimilar laser welds. The microstructure and tensile properties of the welds before and after low temperature treatment were analyzed. The off-set welding technique was applied to limit the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds during the welding process. The laser beam was directed onto the titanium side at a small distance from the aluminum edge. The keyhole formed and the full penetration was reached in the titanium side of the weld. Thereafter, the aluminum side melted as the heat that formed the keyhole transferred from the titanium fused zone. Two different energy lines (32 J/mm and 76 J/mm) were used. In this manner, a fused and a heat affected zones was revealed on both sides of the weld. Several intermetallic compounds formed in the intermetallic layer between the two metals. The thickness and the composition of the intermetallic layer depended on the welding parameters and the post welding heat treatment. The hardness and tensile properties of the welds before and after the post welding heat treatment were measured and analyzed.

  9. Characteristics of plasma plume in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Hu, Ming; Guo, Lianbo; Wang, Zemin, E-mail: zmwang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Spectroscopic properties of fiber laser induced Al plasma plume are measured. • The plume is usually a metal vapor dominated weakly ionized plasma. • The plume is a strongly ionized plasma after laser power is higher than 5 kW. • Plasma shielding effect must be considered after laser power reaches 5 kW. • Plasma shielding effect is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. - Abstract: To understand the laser–matter interaction in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloys, the effects of laser power on the characteristics of fiber laser induced plasma plume were studied by emission spectroscopic analysis firstly. The plasma characteristic parameters including electron temperature, electron density, ionization degree, and inverse bremsstrahlung linear absorption coefficient were computed according to the spectral data. It was found that the laser power of 5 kW is a turning point. After the laser power reaches 5 kW, the plume changes from a metal vapor dominated weakly ionized plasma to a strongly ionized plasma. The corresponding phenomena are the dramatic increase of the value of characteristic parameters and the appearance of strong plasma shielding effect. The calculation of effective laser power density demonstrated that the plasma shielding effect is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. The finding suggested the plasma shielding effect must be considered in fiber laser welding of aluminum alloys, rather than is ignored as claimed in previous view.

  10. Lightweight solar array blanket tooling, laser welding and cover process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A two phase technology investigation was performed to demonstrate effective methods for integrating 50 micrometer thin solar cells into ultralightweight module designs. During the first phase, innovative tooling was developed which allows lightweight blankets to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment with acceptable yields. During the second phase, the tooling was improved and the feasibility of laser processing of lightweight arrays was confirmed. The development of the cell/interconnect registration tool and interconnect bonding by laser welding is described.

  11. Diffractive optics for reduction of hot cracking in pulsed mode Nd:YAG laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olesen, Søren; Roos, Sven-Olov

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the susceptibility to hot cracking in pulsed mode laser welding of austenitic stainless steel, an optical system for reduction of the cooling rate is sought developed. Based on intensive numerical simulations, an optical system producing three focused spots is made. In a number...

  12. THE FORMATION OF BIMETALLIC CONNECTION IN WELDER DEPOSITION UNDER LASER WELDING WITH THE FILLER WIRE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Yelistratov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical and technological features of welding deposition in a robotic unit with a semiconductor laser are analyzed. The prospects of using beam with low energy density in the spot heating for applying metallic layers using filler wire are shown. 

  13. Finding Optimum Focal Point Position with Neural Networks in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    CO2 lasers are increasingly being utilized for quality welding in production. Considering the high equipment cost, the start-up time and set-up time should be minimized. Ideally the parameters should be set up and optimized more or less automatically. In this article neural networks are designed...

  14. Process control of stainless steel laser welding using an optical spectroscopie sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Sibillano, T.; Rizzi, D.; Ancona, A.

    2011-01-01

    The in-process monitoring and real-time control of the penetration depth during laser welding is evaluated. An optical collimator collects the optical emission for measurement with a fast spectrometer. The sensor data are used to calculate the electron temperature and subsequently to determine the

  15. Sensitization of Laser-beam Welded Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Rajendran, Kousika Dhasanur; Lindner, Stefan

    Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are an attractive alternative in vehicle production due to their inherent corrosion resistance. By the opportunity of press hardening, their strength can be increased to up to 2000 MPa, making them competitors for unalloyed ultra-high strength steels. Welding, nevertheless, requires special care, especially when it comes to joining of high strength heat treated materials. With an adopted in-line heat treatment of the welds in as-rolled as well as press hardened condition, materials with sufficient fatigue strength and acceptable structural behavior can be produced. Because of microstructural transformations in the base material such as grain coarsening and forced carbide precipitation, the corrosion resistance of the weld zone may be locally impaired. Typically the material in the heat-affected zone becomes sensitive to intergranular cracking in the form of knife-edge corrosion besides the fusion line. The current study comprises of two text scenarios. By an alternating climate test, general response in a corroding environment is screened. In order to understand the corrosion mechanisms and to localize the sensitive zones, sensitisation tests were undertaken. Furthermore, the applicability of a standard test according to ASTM 763-83 was examined. It was found that the alternative climate test does not reveal any corrosion effects. Testing by the oxalic acid test revealed clearly the effect of welding, weld heat treatment and state of thermal processing. Also application of the standard which originally suited for testing ferritic stainless steels could have been justified.

  16. Microscopic characterization of collagen modifications induced by low-temperature diode-laser welding of corneal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, Paolo; Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca; Pini, Roberto

    2007-08-01

    Laser welding of corneal tissue that employs diode lasers (810 nm) at low power densities (12-20 W/cm(2)) in association with Indocyanine Green staining of the wound is a technique proposed as an alternative to conventional suturing procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses, the structural modifications induced in laser-welded corneal stroma. Experiments were carried out in 20 freshly enucleated pig eyes. A 3.5 mm in length full-thickness cut was produced in the cornea, and was then closed by laser welding. Birefringence modifications in samples stained with picrosirius red dye were analyzed by polarized LM to assess heat damage. TEM analysis was performed on ultra-thin slices, contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, in order to assess organization and size of type I collagen fibrils after laser welding. LM evidenced bridges of collagen bundles between the wound edges, with a loss of regular lamellar organization at the welded site. Polarized LM indicated that birefringence properties were mostly preserved after laser treatment. TEM examinations revealed the presence of quasi-ordered groups of fibrils across the wound edges preserving their interfibrillar spacing. These fibrils appeared morphologically comparable to those in the control tissue, indicating that type I collagen was not denatured during the diode laser corneal welding. The preservation of substantially intact, undenatured collagen fibrils in laser-welded corneal wounds supported the thermodynamic studies that we carried out recently, which indicated temperatures below 66 degrees C at the weld site under laser irradiation. This observation enabled us to hypothesize that the mechanism, proposed in the literature, of unwinding of collagen triple helixes followed by fibrils "interdigitation" is not likely to occur in the welding process that we set up for the corneal suturing.

  17. The effect of laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behavior of friction stir welded aluminum alloy 2219

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengchong; Zhao, Yong; Zou, Jiasheng; Yan, Keng; Liu, Chuan

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the electrochemical properties and microstructure of friction stir welds to understand the correlation between their properties and processing. Friction stir welding is a promising solid-state joining process for high-strength aluminum alloys (AA). Although friction stir welding (FSW) eliminates the problems of fusion welding due to the fact that it is performed below Tm, it causes severe plastic deformation in the material. Some AA welded by FSW exhibit relatively poor corrosion resistance. In this research, the corrosion resistance of such welds was enhanced through laser surface melting. A friction stir weld of AA 2219 was laser melted. The melt depth and microstructure were observed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The melt zone exhibited epitaxially grown columnar grains. The redistribution of elemental composition was analyzed using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The anticorrosion properties of both laser-melted and original welds were studied in aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicated a noticeable increase in the pitting corrosion resistance after the laser treatment on the surface. The repassivation potential was nobler than the corrosion potential after the laser treatment, confirming that the resistance to pitting growth improved.

  18. Investigation of the vapour-plasma plume in the welding of titanium by high-power ytterbium fibre laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovskiy, D P; Petrovskii, V N; Uspenskiy, S A [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-31

    The vapour-plasma plume produced in the welding of 6-mm thick VT-23 titanium alloy plates by ytterbium fibre laser radiation of up to 10 kW power is studied in the protective Ar gas medium. High-speed video filming of the vapour-plasma plume is used to visualise the processes occurring during laser welding. The coefficient of inverse bremsstrahlung by the welding plasma plume is calculated from the data of the spectrometric study. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  19. Fabrication of rectangular cross-sectional microchannels on PMMA with a CO2 laser and underwater fabricated copper mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-09-01

    CO2 lasers are commonly used for fabricating polymer based microfluidic devices. Despite several key advantages like low cost, time effectiveness, easy to operate and no requirement of clean room facility, CO2 lasers suffer from few disadvantages like thermal bulging, improper dimensional control, difficulty to produce microchannels of other than Gaussian cross sectional shapes and inclined surface walls. Many microfluidic devices require square or rectangular cross-sections which are difficult to produce using normal CO2 laser procedures. In this work, a thin copper sheet of 40 μm was used as a mask above the PMMA (Polymethyl-methacrylate) substrate while fabricating the microchannels utilizing the raster scanning feature of the CO2 lasers. Microchannels with different width dimensions were fabricated utilizing a CO2 laser in with mask and without-mask conditions. A comparison of both the fabricating process has been made. It was found that microchannels with U shape cross section and rectangular cross-section can efficiently be produced using the with mask technique. In addition to this, this technique can provide perfect dimensional control and better surface quality of the microchannel walls. Such a microchannel fabrication process do not require any post-processing. The fabrication of mask using a nanosecond fiber laser has been discussed in details. An underwater laser fabrication method was adopted to overcome heat related defects in mask preparation. Overall, the technique was found to be easy to adopt and significant improvements were observed in microchannel fabrication.

  20. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Earl; And Others

    The curriculum guide for welding instruction contains 16 units presented in six sections. Each unit is divided into the following areas, each of which is color coded: terminal objectives, specific objectives, suggested activities, and instructional materials; information sheet; transparency masters; assignment sheet; test; and test answers. The…