WorldWideScience

Sample records for underused simple solution

  1. Solutions to emergency department 'boarding' and crowding are underused and may need to be legislated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Elaine; Kocher, Keith; McClelland, Mark; Pines, Jesse; Hwang, Ula; Rathlev, Niels; Asplin, Brent; Trueger, N Seth; Weber, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    The practice of keeping admitted patients on stretchers in hospital emergency department hallways for hours or days, called "boarding," causes emergency department crowding and can be harmful to patients. Boarding increases patients' morbidity, lengths of hospital stay, and mortality. Strategies that optimize bed management reduce boarding by improving the efficiency of hospital patient flow, but these strategies are grossly underused. Convincing hospital leaders of the value of such solutions, and educating patients to advocate for such changes, may promote improvements. If these strategies do not work, legislation may be required to effect meaningful change.

  2. Simple de Sitter solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, Eva

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable de Sitter (dS) minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four-dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, Kaluza Klein (KK), and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential

  3. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-05

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider.

  4. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  5. A simple solution to type specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection......Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...

  6. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection......Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...

  7. Simple improvements of a simple solution for inverting resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.R.J. van der Laag

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we address some simple improvements of the algorithm of Rouveirol and Puget [1989] for inverting resolution. Their approach is based on automatic change of representation called flattening and unflattening of clauses in a logic program. This enables a simple implementation

  8. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  9. A simple solution for complicated pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sudish C; Okereke, Ikenna; Mason, David P; Rice, Thomas W

    2006-09-01

    Complicated pleural effusions are difficult to manage with conventional strategies. In this study, we review the safety, efficacy, and durability of PleurX catheters (Denver Biomedical, Golden, CO) for managing complicated pleural effusions and describe a patient population who might benefit. From July 1999 to February 2003, 63 PleurX catheters were placed in 58 symptomatic patients (an additional five had bilateral catheters) to manage complicated pleural effusions. Patients selected for catheter placement tended to have poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group < or =2) or had failed standard therapies. Of the 63 catheters, 52 (83%) were placed because of malignant complicated pleural effusions. A registry of patients was constructed, and data were obtained from review of medical records. Nonparametric estimates of freedom from reintervention and overall survival were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method. Catheter-related complications were noted in four of 58 patients (7%) and included one each of pneumothorax, seroma, empyema, and pain syndrome. Freedom from reintervention for effusion management was 95%. Of the patients, 86% (50 of 58) experienced dyspnea relief. There were no procedure-related mortalities. Catheters remained functional up to 330 days, and four of 63 (6%) required one-time thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator. PleurX catheters are safe, effective, and durable solutions for complicated pleural effusions and seem to provide an attractive alternative for patients who have few other palliative options. We consider the catheters as first-line therapy for these patients.

  10. Simple quantification of ultrasonic intensity using aqueous solution of phenolphthalein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, L; Kojima, Y; Koda, S; Nomura, H

    2001-01-01

    Aqueous phenolphthalein solution under sonication was investigated for use as a chemical dosimeter. The fading time of aqueous phenolphthalein solution under sonication depended on the concentration of phenolphthalein and the pH values of solutions. The fading time was correlated to the ultrasonic intensity in a reaction vessel that is estimated on the basis of decomposition of porphyrin. The relation between the fading time and the ultrasonic intensity for different frequencies is expressed by a single curve. From these results, it is indicated that aqueous solutions of phenolphthalein is useful for simple quantification of ultrasonic intensity for practical use, and one can regard it as one of the ultrasonic intensity indicators.

  11. Precise asymptotic behavior of solutions to damped simple pendulum equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Shibata

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the simple pendulum equation $$displaylines{ -u''(t + epsilon f(u'(t = lambdasin u(t, quad t in I:=(-1, 1,cr u(t > 0, quad t in I, quad u(pm 1 = 0, }$$ where $0 < epsilon le 1$, $lambda > 0$, and the friction term is either $f(y = pm|y|$ or $f(y = -y$. Note that when $f(y = -y$ and $epsilon = 1$, we have well known original damped simple pendulum equation. To understand the dependance of solutions, to the damped simple pendulum equation with $lambda gg 1$, upon the term $f(u'(t$, we present asymptotic formulas for the maximum norm of the solutions. Also we present an asymptotic formula for the time at which maximum occurs, for the case $f(u = -u$.

  12. Asymptotic shape of solutions to the perturbed simple pendulum problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Shibata

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the positive solution of the perturbed simple pendulum problem $$ u''(r + frac{N-1}{r}u'(r - g(u(t + lambda sin u(r = 0, $$ with $0 < r < R$, $ u'(0 = u(R = 0$. To understand well the shape of the solution $u_lambda$ when $lambda gg 1$, we establish the leading and second terms of $Vert u_lambdaVert_q$ ($1 le q < infty$ with the estimate of third term as $lambda o infty$. We also obtain the asymptotic formula for $u_lambda'(R$ as $lambda o infty$.

  13. Simple Machines Forum, a Solution for Dialogue Optimization between Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura SÎNGIORZAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We developed an instrument which can ensure a quick and easy dialogue between the physicians of the Oncology Institute and family physicians. The platform we chose was Simple Machines Forum (abbreviated as SMF, a free Internet forum (BBS - Bulletin Board System application. The purpose of this article is not to detail the software platform, but to emphasize the facilities and advantages of using this solution in the medical community.

  14. Simple electrolyte solutions: Comparison of DRISM and molecular dynamics results for alkali halide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, In Suk; Luchko, Tyler; Case, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the dielectrically consistent reference interaction site model (DRISM) of molecular solvation, we have calculated structural and thermodynamic information of alkali-halide salts in aqueous solution, as a function of salt concentration. The impact of varying the closure relation used with DRISM is investigated using the partial series expansion of order-n (PSE-n) family of closures, which includes the commonly used hypernetted-chain equation (HNC) and Kovalenko-Hirata closures. Results are compared to explicit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, using the same force fields, and to experiment. The mean activity coefficients of ions predicted by DRISM agree well with experimental values at concentrations below 0.5 m, especially when using the HNC closure. As individual ion activities (and the corresponding solvation free energies) are not known from experiment, only DRISM and MD results are directly compared and found to have reasonably good agreement. The activity of water directly estimated from DRISM is nearly consistent with values derived from the DRISM ion activities and the Gibbs-Duhem equation, but the changes in the computed pressure as a function of salt concentration dominate these comparisons. Good agreement with experiment is obtained if these pressure changes are ignored. Radial distribution functions of NaCl solution at three concentrations were compared between DRISM and MD simulations. DRISM shows comparable water distribution around the cation, but water structures around the anion deviate from the MD results; this may also be related to the high pressure of the system. Despite some problems, DRISM-PSE-n is an effective tool for investigating thermodynamic properties of simple electrolytes. PMID:23387564

  15. Nonperturbative Time Dependent Solution of a Simple Ionization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Costin, Rodica D.; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a non-perturbative solution of the Schrödinger equation {iψ_t(t,x)=-ψ_{xx}(t,x)-2(1 +α sinω t) δ(x)ψ(t,x)} , written in units in which \\hbar=2m=1, describing the ionization of a model atom by a parametric oscillating potential. This model has been studied extensively by many authors, including us. It has surprisingly many features in common with those observed in the ionization of real atoms and emission by solids, subjected to microwave or laser radiation. Here we use new mathematical methods to go beyond previous investigations and to provide a complete and rigorous analysis of this system. We obtain the Borel-resummed transseries (multi-instanton expansion) valid for all values of α, ω, t for the wave function, ionization probability, and energy distribution of the emitted electrons, the latter not studied previously for this model. We show that for large t and small α the energy distribution has sharp peaks at energies which are multiples of ω, corresponding to photon capture. We obtain small α expansions that converge for all t, unlike those of standard perturbation theory. We expect that our analysis will serve as a basis for treating more realistic systems revealing a form of universality in different emission processes.

  16. The stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs: Exact analytical solutions for simple topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, K.; Rakhmanov, S.; Matrasulov, D.; Susanto, H.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs with simple topologies. Exact analytical solutions are obtained for different vertex boundary conditions. It is shown that the method can be extended for tree and other simple graph topologies. Applications of the obtained results to branched planar Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with tricrystal boundaries are discussed.

  17. Underuse of controller medications in Egyptian asthmatic children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All studied patients were submitted to careful history taking, proper medical examination and subsequent sharing, with their parents, in filling a previously designated Arabic asthma interview format concerning the disease course, medications, parents' beliefs about asthma, and causes of underuse. Results: Of 460 children ...

  18. Polarographic behaviour and determination of selenite and tellurite in simple solutions or in a binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The polarographic behaviour of simple solutions of selenite and tellurite in 1 M ammonium salts of formate, acetate, tartrate, oxalate, and benzoate solutions in absence and in presence of Triton X-100 as a maximum suppressor and a temperature of 25 O C has been investigated. Schemes for the mechanism of reductions occuring at the DME have been deduced. A method for analytical determination of selenite and tellurite in simple solutions as well as in a binary mixture in the presence of 4-14 . 10 -3 % Triton X-100 is reported. (author)

  19. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V. [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marx prosp. 20, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u{sup (n)}, n= 1, Horizontal-Ellipsis , N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov {partial_derivative}-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u{sup (n)} and calculated by {partial_derivative}-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schroedinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u{sup (n)}. It is shown that the sums u=u{sup (k{sub 1})}+...+u{sup (k{sub m})}, 1 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To k{sub 1} < k{sub 2} < Horizontal-Ellipsis < k{sub m} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To N of arbitrary subsets of these solutions are also exact solutions of VN equation. The presented exact solutions include as superpositions of special line solitons and also superpositions of plane wave type singular periodic solutions. By construction these exact solutions represent also new exact transparent potentials of 2D stationary Schroedinger equation and can serve as model potentials for electrons in planar structures of modern electronics.

  20. The stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs: Exact analytical solutions for simple topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabirov, K.; Rakhmanov, S.; Matrasulov, D.; Susanto, H.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs with simple topologies. The vertex boundary conditions are provided by flux conservation and matching of derivatives at the star graph vertex. Exact analytical solutions are obtained. It is shown that the method can be extended for tree and other simple graph topologies. Applications of the obtained results to branched planar Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with tricrystal boundaries are discussed.

  1. Analytical solution for the electrical properties of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with simple vanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.

    1982-01-01

    Although the SUPERFISH program is used for calculating the design parameters of an RFQ structure with complex vanes, an analytical solution for electrical properties of an RFQ with simple vanes provides insight into the parametric behavior of these more complicated resonators. The fields in an inclined plane wave guide with proper boundary conditions match those in one quadrant of an RFQ. The principle of duality is used to exploit the solutions to a radial transmission line in solving the field equations. Calculated are the frequency equation, frequency sensitivity factors, electric field, magnetic field, stored energy (U), power dissipation, and quality factor

  2. Simple Characterization of Betalain Compound From RED Pitaya (Hylocereus Polyrhizus) Peel Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Faridah, Anni; Syukri, Daimon; Holinesti, Rahmi

    2015-01-01

    The peel of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is often regarded as a waste hence. While the red pitaya peel contain betalain pigment which is useful as a natural colourant for functional food and can be applied to food products. The aim of this study was to simple characterization of betalain compound from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel. The extraction method employed the use of distilled water, since betalain peel is water soluble. The compound of betalain in the solution was deter...

  3. On flux integrals for generalized Melvin solution related to simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchuk, V.D.

    2017-01-01

    A generalized Melvin solution for an arbitrary simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra G is considered. The solution contains a metric, n Abelian 2-forms and n scalar fields, where n is the rank of G. It is governed by a set of n moduli functions H s (z) obeying n ordinary differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. It was conjectured earlier that these functions should be polynomials - the so-called fluxbrane polynomials. These polynomials depend upon integration constants q s , s = 1,.., n. In the case when the conjecture on the polynomial structure for the Lie algebra G is satisfied, it is proved that 2-form flux integrals Φ s over a proper 2d submanifold are finite and obey the relations q s Φ s = 4πn s h s , where the h s > 0 are certain constants (related to dilatonic coupling vectors) and the n s are powers of the polynomials, which are components of a twice dual Weyl vector in the basis of simple (co-)roots, s = 1,.., n. The main relations of the paper are valid for a solution corresponding to a finite-dimensional semi-simple Lie algebra G. Examples of polynomials and fluxes for the Lie algebras A 1 , A 2 , A 3 , C 2 , G 2 and A 1 + A 1 are presented. (orig.)

  4. A simple method for the deposition of nanostructured tellurium synthesized in ammonia solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Gutiérrez-Lazos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we report a highly adherent, and uniform deposition of nanostructured tellurium. The deposition of the nanostructured tellurium was realized by the dripping of a modified solution of NaHTe based on the dissolution of NaBH4 and tellurium powder in an aqueous solution of NH4OH. This method allowed the relatively simple manipulation of tellurium nanostructures under laboratory ambient, without requiring the use of organic stabilizers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was realized on a powder sample obtained by the reaction between H2Te and aqueous solution of NH4OH. TEM analysis indicated that tellurium nanorods and Y-type nanostructures are grown from tellurium nanoparticles, such as in a hydrothermal system. Then, the nanoparticles serve as seeds for the growth of more extended tellurium nanostructures. Electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that depositions have the hexagonal structure of tellurium highly oriented on (101 direction.

  5. The simple solutions concept: a useful approach to estimate deviation from ideality in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorel, C.; Pacary, V.

    2010-01-01

    The solvent extraction systems devoted to uranium purification from crude ore to spent fuel involve concentrated solutions in which deviation from ideality can not be neglected. The Simple Solution Concept based on the behaviour of isopiestic solutions has been applied to quantify the activity coefficients of metals and acids in the aqueous phase in equilibrium with the organic phase. This approach has been validated on various solvent extraction systems such as trialkylphosphates, malonamides or acidic extracting agents both on batch experiments and counter-current tests. Moreover, this concept has been successfully used to estimate the aqueous density which is useful to quantify the variation of volume and to assess critical parameters such as the number density of nuclides. (author)

  6. Under-Use of Body Energy and Over-Use of External Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    by overeating and under-use of the body energy, due to increased use of mechanized and energy consuming assistance for transport and other daily tasks. This connects to the other problem, namely these countries’ excessive use of fossil fuels and other environmentally harmful forms of nature’s external energy....... This paper illuminates the options for integrated solutions to the two problems by making more use of body energy as a means to reduce the use of nature’s external energy. First is listed a human’s body energy used for various tasks and occupations, showing that a person’s use of external energy is and order......, achieved by healthy extra human efforts. Also, the paper will suggest ways to integrate energy saving policies with health policies for organizing and designing cities and houses to be “healthy inconvenient”, encouraging or pushing people to use their body in their daily doings. This is an enormous...

  7. A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, D M

    1982-05-01

    A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-buffered Ca solutions is described. This method is useful for calibration of Ca macro- and microelectrodes to low free [Ca] and should improve the reliability of calculated free [Ca] in more complex solutions. Briefly, free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions is measured with a Ca electrode, bound Ca is calculated, and Scatchard and double-reciprocal plots are resolved for the total [EGTA] and the apparent Ca-EGTA association constant (K'Ca) in the solutions used. The free [Ca] is then recalculated using the determined parameters, giving a more accurate knowledge of the free [Ca] in these solutions and providing an accurate calibration curve for the Ca electrode. These solutions can then be used to calibrate other Ca electrodes (e.g., Ca microelectrodes) or the calibrated Ca electrode can be used to measure free [Ca] in solutions containing multiple metal ligands. This method allows determination of free [Ca], K'Ca, and total [EGTA] in the actual solutions used regardless of pH, temperature, or ionic strength. It does not require accurate knowledge of K'Ca or EGTA purity and circumvents many potential errors due to assumption of binding parameters. K'Ca was found to be 2.45 +/- 0.04 X 10(6) M-1 in 100 mM KCl, 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, and 1 mM EGTA at pH 7.00 and 23 degrees C. Total [EGTA] varied with supplier but was always less than quoted.

  8. On flux integrals for generalized Melvin solution related to simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchuk, V.D. [VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    A generalized Melvin solution for an arbitrary simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra G is considered. The solution contains a metric, n Abelian 2-forms and n scalar fields, where n is the rank of G. It is governed by a set of n moduli functions H{sub s}(z) obeying n ordinary differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. It was conjectured earlier that these functions should be polynomials - the so-called fluxbrane polynomials. These polynomials depend upon integration constants q{sub s}, s = 1,.., n. In the case when the conjecture on the polynomial structure for the Lie algebra G is satisfied, it is proved that 2-form flux integrals Φ{sup s} over a proper 2d submanifold are finite and obey the relations q{sub s} Φ{sup s} = 4πn{sub s}h{sub s}, where the h{sub s} > 0 are certain constants (related to dilatonic coupling vectors) and the n{sub s} are powers of the polynomials, which are components of a twice dual Weyl vector in the basis of simple (co-)roots, s = 1,.., n. The main relations of the paper are valid for a solution corresponding to a finite-dimensional semi-simple Lie algebra G. Examples of polynomials and fluxes for the Lie algebras A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, A{sub 3}, C{sub 2}, G{sub 2} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 1} are presented. (orig.)

  9. Simple solution-processed CuOX as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Chunpeng; Bao, Xichang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning; Tang, Jianguo; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO X hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO X as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO X anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO X was the composite of CuO and Cu 2 O. The CuO X modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO X layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO X films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC 61 BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO X anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO X layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC 71 BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO X device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO X film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs

  10. A Rapid and Simple TLC-Densitometric Method for Assay of Clobetasol Propionate in Topical Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolowy, Malgorzata; Kozik, Violetta; Bak, Andrzej; Jampilek, Josef; Barbusinski, Krzysztof; Thomas, Maciej; Pyka-Pajak, Alina

    2017-11-03

    A rapid, simple to use and low-cost thin-layer chromatographic procedure in normal phase system with densitometric detection at 246 nm was carefully validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines for assay of clobetasol propionate in topical solution containing clobetasol propionate in quantity 0.50 mg/mL. The adopted thin-layer chromatographic (TLC)-densitometric procedure could effectively separate clobetasol propionate from its related compound, namely clobetasol. It is linear for clobetasol propionate in the range of 0.188 ÷ 5 µg/spot. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) value is 0.061 and 0.186 µg/spot, respectively. Accuracy of proposed procedure was evaluated by recovery test. The mean recovery of studied clobetasol propionate ranges from 98.7 to 101.0%. The coefficient of variation (CV, %) obtained during intra-day and inter-day studies, which was less than 2% (0.40 ÷ 1.17%), confirms the precision of described method. The assay value of clobetasol propionate is consistent with the pharmacopoeial requirements. In conclusion, it can be suitable as a simple and economic procedure for routine quality control laboratories of clobetasol propionate in topical solution.

  11. An Approximate Solution to the Equation of Motion for Large-Angle Oscillations of the Simple Pendulum with Initial Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    An analytic approximation of the solution to the differential equation describing the oscillations of a simple pendulum at large angles and with initial velocity is discussed. In the derivation, a sinusoidal approximation has been applied, and an analytic formula for the large-angle period of the simple pendulum is obtained, which also includes…

  12. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-08-17

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data in the literature and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximations they are based on. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models need to be utilized.

  13. One-dimensional transport: A simple and exact solution for phase disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hui Khoon; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2013-08-01

    Disordered systems have grown in importance in the past decades, with similar phenomena manifesting themselves in many different physical systems. Because of the difficulty of the topic, theoretical progress has mostly emerged from numerical studies or analytical approximations. Here, we provide an exact, analytical solution to the problem of uniform phase disorder in a system of identical scatterers arranged with varying separations along a line. Relying on a relationship with Legendre functions, we demonstrate a simple approach to computing statistics of the transmission probability (or the conductance, in the language of electronic transport) and its reciprocal (or the resistance). Our formalism also gives the probability distribution of the conductance, which reveals features missing from previous approaches to the problem.

  14. A simple model for predicting solute concentration in agricultural tile lines shortly after application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Steenhuis

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tile drainage lines have been implicated as a source of pesticide contamination of surface waters. Field experiments were conducted and a simple model was developed to examine preferential transport of applied chemicals to agricultural tile lines. The conceptual model consists of two linear reservoirs, one near the soil surface and one near the tile drain. The connection between the two reservoirs is via preferential flow paths with very little interaction with the soil matrix. The model assumes that only part of the field contributes solutes to the tile drain. The model was evaluated with data from the field experiments in which chloride, 2,4-D, and atrazine concentrations were measured on eight tile-drained plots that were irrigated twice. Atrazine was applied two months prior to the experiment, 2,4-D was sprayed just before the first irrigation, and chloride before the second irrigation. All three chemicals were found in the tile effluent shortly after the rainfall began. Generally, the concentration increased with increased flow rates and decreased exponentially after the rainfall ceased. Although the simple model could simulate the observed chloride concentration patterns in the tile outflow for six of the eight plots, strict validation was not possible because of the difficulty with independent measurement of the data needed for a preferential flow model applied to field conditions. The results show that, to simulate pesticide concentration in tile lines, methods that can measure field averaged preferential flow characteristics need to be developed.

  15. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  16. Technology in rural transportation. Simple solution #5, traveler information using fax machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This application was identified as a promising rural Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) solution under a project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the ENTERPRISE program. This summary describes the solution as well as o...

  17. Technology in rural transportation. Simple solution #14, public service weather radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This application was identified as a promising rural Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) solution under a project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the ENTERPRISE program. This summary describes the solution as well as o...

  18. Simple thermodynamic model of the extension of solid solution of Cu-Mo alloys processed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: claudio.aguilar@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica y de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile); Rojas, P.A. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Av. Los Carrera 01567, Quilpue (Chile); Ordonez, Stella [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. L. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rios, R. [Instituto de Materiales y Procesos Termomecanicos, Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingenieria, Universidad Austral de Chile, General Lagos 2086, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Extension of solid solution in Cu-Mo systems achieved by mechanical alloying. {yields} Simple thermodynamic model to explain extension of solid solution of Mo in Cu. {yields} Model gives results that are consistent with the solubility limit extension reported in other works. - Abstract: The objective of this work is proposing a simple thermodynamic model to explain the increase in the solubility limit of the powders of the Cu-Mo systems or other binary systems processed by mechanical alloying. In the regular solution model, the effects of crystalline defects, such as; dislocations and grain boundary produced during milling were introduced. The model gives results that are consistent with the solubility limit extension reported in other works for the Cu-Cr, Cu-Nb and Cu-Fe systems processed by mechanical alloying.

  19. Proposing buffer zones and simple technical solutions for safeguarding river water quality and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podimata, M. V.; Bekri, E. S.; Yannopoulos, P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Alfeios River Basin (ARB) constitutes one of the major hydrologic basins (≈3650km2) of Peloponnisos peninsula in Southern Greece. It is drained by Alfeios River and its tributaries, such as Lousios, Ladhon, Erymanthos, Kladheos, Selinous etc. The present manuscript takes a closer look at the importance of tributary basins and focuses on Erymanthos sub-basin that covers about 360 km2. Erymanthos River springs from Erymanthos Mountain that reaches altitudes of 2200 m and discharges 10 m3/sec, approximately, during the winter period, presenting a sound decrease from half to about an order of magnitude during summertime. Two factors stand out as reasons to select Erymanthos sub-basin as a case study. First, the sub-basin presents a significant variety of ecosystems and comprises a very important river system, since Erymanthos Tributary satisfies, among other uses, drinking water supply for a great majority of citizens in the region. Second, authors' experience of the study area in Research Program Pythagoras II, funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Operational Program for Educational and Vocational Training II (EPEAEK II) of Greece, offers a basis for better understanding of the real problems in the area. Erymanthos watershed, in fact, faces a lot of pressures, in several levels, provoked by human activities and Erymanthos Tributary is vulnerable to pollution. Recognizing the importance of clean water for healthy people, a developing economy, and a sustainable environment, the challenge of the present paper is elaborating human-induced pressures in the study area, analyzing their effects, estimating pollution factors and proposing integrated solutions/tools and a number of methodologies/initiatives used to overcome the problem of contaminating water supply in a catchment that lacks of wastewater treatment and disposal systems. The preservation of a good ecological status in Erymanthos River is not only a necessity for achieving the goals of EU Water

  20. Reasons for underuse of recommended therapies for colorectal and lung cancer in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Mary Beth; Keating, Nancy L; Lamont, Elizabeth B; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have documented low rates of effective cancer therapies, particularly in older or minority populations. However, little is known about why effective therapies are underused in these populations. The authors examined medical records of 584 patients with cancer diagnosed or treated in Department of Veterans Affairs facilities to assess reasons for lack of 1) surgery for stage I/II nonsmall cell lung cancer, 2) surgery for stage I/II/III rectal cancer, 3) adjuvant radiation therapy for stage II/III rectal cancer, and 4) adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. They also assessed differences in reasons for underuse by patient age and race. Across the 4 guideline-recommended treatments, 92% to 99% of eligible patients were referred to the appropriate cancer specialist; however, therapy was recommended in only 74% to 92% of eligible cases. Poor health was cited in the medical record as the reason for lack of therapy in 15% to 61% of underuse cases; patient refusal explained 26% to 58% of underuse cases. African American patients were more likely to refuse surgery. Older patients were more likely to refuse treatments. Recommendation against therapy was a primary factor in underuse of effective therapies in older and sicker patients. Patients' refusal of therapy contributed to age and racial disparities in care. Improved data on the effectiveness of cancer therapies in community populations and interventions aimed at improved communication of known risks and benefits of therapy to cancer patients could be effective tools to reduce underuse and lingering disparities in care. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  1. Under-use of body energy and over-use of external energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norgard, Jorgen Stig [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The world's affluent countries, such as the EU, are facing two severe problems with long-term consequences. One problem is the epidemic-like increase in adverse health effects, which are related to the increasing wealth, primarily appearing as obesity and its associated diseases. This is caused by overeating and under-use of the body energy, due to increased use of mechanized and energy consuming assistance for transport and other daily tasks. This connects to the other problem, namely these countries' excessive use of fossil fuels and other environmentally harmful forms of nature's external energy. This paper illuminates the options for integrated solutions to the two problems by making more use of body energy as a means to reduce the use of nature's external energy. First is listed a human's body energy used for various tasks and occupations, showing that a person's use of external energy is an order of magnitude higher, which can be expressed by the scores of 'energy slaves' each citizen utilizes. An extra health driven physical effort by humans seems to have negligible direct impact on energy consumption. The paper will, however, indicate examples of significant indirect savings of external energy, achieved by healthy extra human efforts. Also, the paper will suggest ways to integrate energy saving policies with health policies for organizing and designing cities and houses to be 'healthy inconvenient', encouraging or pushing people to use their body in their daily doings. This is an enormous challenge to the conventional way of thinking among architects, engineers, planners, as well as individuals in general.

  2. A simple relation for the concentration dependence of osmotic pressure and depletion thickness in polymer solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, G.J.; Skvortsov, A.M.; Tuinier, R.

    2007-01-01

    We propose simple expressions II/IIo = 1 + and (omega/omega(ex))(3 alpha-1) and (delta(0)/delta)(2) = 1 + (omega/omega(ex))(2 alpha) for the osmotic pressure II and the depletion thickness 6 as a function of the polymer concentration omega. Here, IIo and delta 0 correspond to the dilute limit, and

  3. A simple model for electrical charge in globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes in solution

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a model for calculating the net and effective electrical charge of globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes such as proteins and DNA, given the concentration of monovalent salt and pH in solution. The calculation is based on a numerical solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a finite element discretized continuum approach. The model simultaneously addresses the phenomena of charge regulation and renormalization, both of which underpin the electrostat...

  4. Unmet demands for health care among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Indications for underuse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, Catharina E.; Rupp, Ines; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Triemstra, Mattanja; Dinant, Huibert J.; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of unmet health care demands among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to determine if these unmet demands indicate underuse. Methods. A total of 679 patients with RA participated in a questionnaire survey and clinical examination. Unmet health care demands

  5. Levers for addressing medical underuse and overuse: achieving high-value health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaug, Adam G; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Lavis, John N; Brownlee, Shannon; Schmidt, Harald; Nagpal, Somil; Littlejohns, Peter; Srivastava, Divya; Tunis, Sean; Saini, Vikas

    2017-07-08

    The preceding papers in this Series have outlined how underuse and overuse of health-care services occur within a complex system of health-care production, with a multiplicity of causes. Because poor care is ubiquitous and has considerable consequences for the health and wellbeing of billions of people around the world, remedying this problem is a morally and politically urgent task. Universal health coverage is a key step towards achieving the right care. Therefore, full consideration of potential levers of change must include an upstream perspective-ie, an understanding of the system-level factors that drive overuse and underuse, as well as the various incentives at work during a clinical encounter. One example of a system-level factor is the allocation of resources (eg, hospital beds and clinicians) to meet the needs of a local population to minimise underuse or overuse. Another example is priority setting using tools such as health technology assessment to guide the optimum diffusion of safe, effective, and cost-effective health-care services. In this Series paper we investigate a range of levers for eliminating medical underuse and overuse. Some levers could operate effectively (and be politically viable) across many different health and political systems (eg, increase patient activation with decision support) whereas other levers must be tailored to local contexts (eg, basing coverage decisions on a particular cost-effectiveness ratio). Ideally, policies must move beyond the purely incremental; that is, policies that merely tinker at the policy edges after underuse or overuse arises. In this regard, efforts to increase public awareness, mobilisation, and empowerment hold promise as universal methods to reset all other contexts and thereby enhance all other efforts to promote the right care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple model for electrical charge in globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present a model for calculating the net and effective electrical charge of globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes such as proteins and DNA, given the concentration of monovalent salt and pH in solution. The calculation is based on a numerical solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a finite element discretized continuum approach. The model simultaneously addresses the phenomena of charge regulation and renormalization, both of which underpin the electrostatics of biomolecules in solution. We show that while charge regulation addresses the true electrical charge of a molecule arising from the acid-base equilibria of its ionizable groups, charge renormalization finds relevance in the context of a molecule's interaction with another charged entity. Writing this electrostatic interaction free energy in terms of a local electrical potential, we obtain an "interaction charge" for the molecule which we demonstrate agrees closely with the "effective charge" discussed in charge renormalization and counterion-condensation theories. The predictions of this model agree well with direct high-precision measurements of effective electrical charge of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acids and disordered proteins in solution, without tunable parameters. Including the effective interior dielectric constant for compactly folded molecules as a tunable parameter, the model captures measurements of effective charge as well as published trends of pKa shifts in globular proteins. Our results suggest a straightforward general framework to model electrostatics in biomolecules in solution. In offering a platform that directly links theory and experiment, these calculations could foster a systematic understanding of the interrelationship between molecular 3D structure and conformation, electrical charge and electrostatic interactions in solution. The model could find particular relevance in situations where molecular crystal structures are not available or

  7. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  8. A Simple Low-Cost Device for Temperature Control in Nonisothermic Chemical Kinetics in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes use of an operative procedure (for studying chemical reactions in solution by nonisothermic methods) employing an electronic device that is inexpensive and easy to build and that gives excellent results. A diagram of the temperature controller in operation and a circuit diagram for the motor are included. (JN)

  9. Creep buckling: an experiment, an 'exact' solution and some simple thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, P.; Anderson, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents attempts to analyse and understand a carefully conducted creep buckling experiment. The analysis was conducted using the ABAQUS Finite Element Code coupled to a number of plausible creep laws. The results show good agreement between ABAQUS runs and experimental deflections but it is difficult to reproduce the early loads. A simple model of buckling analysis for n-power creep laws is derived as an aid to understanding the development of the deflections for non-linear creep laws. In particular, the model suggests why deflections develop so rapidly and how the creep deflection development relates to the elastic behaviour. (author)

  10. Solute transport along a single fracture in a porous rock: a simple analytical solution and its extension for modeling velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars; Shahkarami, Pirouz; Meng, Shuo; Moreno, Luis

    2018-02-01

    A simple and robust solution is developed for the problem of solute transport along a single fracture in a porous rock. The solution is referred to as the solution to the single-flow-path model and takes the form of a convolution of two functions. The first function is the probability density function of residence-time distribution of a conservative solute in the fracture-only system as if the rock matrix is impermeable. The second function is the response of the fracture-matrix system to the input source when Fickian-type dispersion is completely neglected; thus, the effects of Fickian-type dispersion and matrix diffusion have been decoupled. It is also found that the solution can be understood in a way in line with the concept of velocity dispersion in fractured rocks. The solution is therefore extended into more general cases to also account for velocity variation between the channels. This leads to a development of the multi-channel model followed by detailed statistical descriptions of channel properties and sensitivity analysis of the model upon changes in the model key parameters. The simulation results obtained by the multi-channel model in this study fairly well agree with what is often observed in field experiments—i.e. the unchanged Peclet number with distance, which cannot be predicted by the classical advection-dispersion equation. In light of the findings from the aforementioned analysis, it is suggested that forced-gradient experiments can result in considerably different estimates of dispersivity compared to what can be found in natural-gradient systems for typical channel widths.

  11. Strong coupling effects during X-pulse CPMG experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin systems: artifacts and a simple solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallurupalli, Pramodh; Scott, Lincoln; Williamson, James R.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2007-01-01

    Simulation and experiment have been used to establish that significant artifacts can be generated in X-pulse CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments recorded on heteronuclear ABX spin-systems, such as 13 C i - 13 C j - 1 H, where 13 C i and 13 C j are strongly coupled. A qualitative explanation of the origin of these artifacts is presented along with a simple method to significantly reduce them. An application to the measurement of 1 H CPMG relaxation dispersion profiles in an HIV-2 TAR RNA molecule where all ribose sugars are protonated at the 2' position, deuterated at all other sugar positions and 13 C labeled at all sugar carbons is presented to illustrate the problems that strong 13 C- 13 C coupling introduces and a simple solution is proposed

  12. A simple computational for the analysis of 2-D solute migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Heldio Pereira

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary model for the simulation of 2-D migration patterns is presented. This computer model adopts a novel approach to the solution of the advection-dispersion equation in two dimensions through finite differences. The soil column is divided into a number of thin columns. The 1-D advection-dispersion equation is applied in the direction of flow and, using the same time increment, the 1-D diffusion equation is applied perpendicularly to the flow. The results thus obtained were compared to those of two migration experiments with two different soils. (author)

  13. A simple solution for reducing artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivas, M. [Department of Radiology (Yorkshire Deanery-East), Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: aprilsreenivas@hotmail.com; Lowry, M. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Gibbs, P. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Pickles, M. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Turnbull, L.W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    The quality of imaging obtained at high magnetic field strengths can be degraded by various artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects, which leads to loss of signal. Various methods have been described and used to improve the quality of the image affected by such artefacts. In this article, we describe the construction and use of a simple solution that can be used to diminish artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical imaging at 3 T field strength and thereby improve the diagnostic quality of the images obtained.

  14. A simple solution for reducing artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, M.; Lowry, M.; Gibbs, P.; Pickles, M.; Turnbull, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of imaging obtained at high magnetic field strengths can be degraded by various artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects, which leads to loss of signal. Various methods have been described and used to improve the quality of the image affected by such artefacts. In this article, we describe the construction and use of a simple solution that can be used to diminish artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical imaging at 3 T field strength and thereby improve the diagnostic quality of the images obtained

  15. Computationally simple, analytic, closed form solution of the Coulomb self-interaction problem in Kohn Sham density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonis, Antonios; Daene, Markus W.; Nicholson, Don M.; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and tested in terms of atomic calculations an exact, analytic and computationally simple procedure for determining the functional derivative of the exchange energy with respect to the density in the implementation of the Kohn Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT), providing an analytic, closed-form solution of the self-interaction problem in KS-DFT. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through ground-state calculations of the exchange potential and energy for atomic He and Be atoms, and comparisons with experiment and the results obtained within the optimized effective potential (OEP) method.

  16. Comparison of peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acidic salt buffers and simple acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, James C; Russell, Joseph J; Underwood, Tim; Boughtflower, Robert; McCalley, David V

    2014-06-20

    The retention and peak shape of neutral, basic and acidic solutes was studied on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases that showed both strong and weak ionic retention characteristics, using aqueous-acetonitrile mobile phases containing either formic acid (FA), ammonium formate (AF) or phosphoric acid (PA). The effect of organic solvent concentration on the results was also studied. Peak shape was good for neutrals under most mobile phase conditions. However, peak shapes for ionised solutes, particularly for basic compounds, were considerably worse in FA than AF. Even neutral compounds showed deterioration in performance with FA when the mobile phase water concentration was reduced. The poor performance in FA cannot be entirely attributed to the negative impact of ionic retention on ionised silanols on the underlying silica base materials, as results using PA at lower pH (where their ionisation is suppressed) were inferior to those in AF. Besides the moderating influence of the salt cation on ionic retention, it is likely that salt buffers improve peak shape due to the increased ionic strength of the mobile phase and its impact on the formation of the water layer on the column surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang, Chunpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tang, Jianguo [Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Yang, Renqiang, E-mail: yangrq@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO{sub X} as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO{sub X} was the composite of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O. The CuO{sub X} modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO{sub X} layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO{sub X} films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO{sub X} layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC{sub 71}BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO{sub X} device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO{sub X} film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs.

  18. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Solution-processable carboxylate-capped CuO nanoparticles obtained by a simple solventless method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estruga, Marc [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Chemistry (Spain); Roig, Anna; Domingo, Concepcion [CSIC, Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (Spain); Ayllon, Jose A., E-mail: joseantonio.ayllon@uab.es [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Chemistry (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Carboxylate-capped CuO nanoparticles were obtained via a simple solventless route, based on the thermal decomposition at 120 Degree-Sign C of solid precursors. The reaction mixture consisted of copper acetate monohydrate, acting as the CuO precursor, and different organic carboxylic acids (lauric, phenylvaleric or 3,6,9-trioxadecanoic acid) used as the capping agent. The proposed method, in good agreement with environmentally friendly practices, produced dry nanoparticles, thereby totally eliminating the need of washing, filtration, or other downstream steps. Transmission electron micrographs show crystalline roughly spherical CuO nanoparticles with average diameters between 3.1 and 5.5 nm depending on the capping ligand. The laurate-capped CuO nanoparticles showed a paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature, while a weak ferromagnetic component was detected at low temperature (<40 K). It was also proved that the chemical structure of the carboxylic acid tail enabled the straightforward dispersibility of nanoparticles in common solvents and assisted in the deposition of the material as thin films.

  20. Viscoelasticity and nonlinear simple shear flow behavior of an entangled asymmetric exact comb polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, F.

    2016-03-31

    We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.

  1. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baul, Upayan, E-mail: upayanb@imsc.res.in; Anishetty, Ramesh, E-mail: ramesha@imsc.res.in; Vemparala, Satyavani, E-mail: vani@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep, E-mail: jmpkanth@gmail.com [Vectra LLC, Mount Road, Chennai 600006 (India)

    2016-03-14

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  2. Simplified bionic solutions: a simple bio-inspired vehicle collision detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartbauer, Manfred

    2017-02-15

    Modern cars are equipped with both active and passive sensor systems that can detect potential collisions. In contrast, locusts avoid collisions solely by responding to certain visual cues that are associated with object looming. In neurophysiological experiments, I investigated the possibility that the 'collision-detector neurons' of locusts respond to impending collisions in films recorded with dashboard cameras of fast driving cars. In a complementary modelling approach, I developed a simple algorithm to reproduce the neuronal response that was recorded during object approach. Instead of applying elaborate algorithms that factored in object recognition and optic flow discrimination, I tested the hypothesis that motion detection restricted to a 'danger zone', in which frontal collisions on the motorways are most likely, is sufficient to estimate the risk of a collision. Furthermore, I investigated whether local motion vectors, obtained from the differential excitation of simulated direction-selective networks, could be used to predict evasive steering maneuvers and prevent undesired responses to motion artifacts. The results of the study demonstrate that the risk of impending collisions in real traffic scenes is mirrored in the excitation of the collision-detecting neuron (DCMD) of locusts. The modelling approach was able to reproduce this neuronal response even when the vehicle was driving at high speeds and image resolution was low (about 200  ×  100 pixels). Furthermore, evasive maneuvers that involved changing the steering direction and steering force could be planned by comparing the differences in the overall excitation levels of the simulated right and left direction-selective networks. Additionally, it was possible to suppress undesired responses of the algorithm to translatory movements, camera shake and ground shadows by evaluating local motion vectors. These estimated collision risk values and evasive steering vectors could be used as input

  3. Temperature dependent DC electrical conductivity studies of ZnO nanoparticle thick films prepared by simple solution combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveen, C. S., E-mail: jayanna60@gmail.com; Jayanna, H. S., E-mail: jayanna60@gmail.com; Lamani, Ashok R., E-mail: jayanna60@gmail.com; Rajeeva, M. P., E-mail: jayanna60@gmail.com [Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta- 577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanoparticles of different size were prepared by varying the molar ratio of glycine and zinc nitrate hexahydrate as fuel and oxidizer (F/O = 0.8, 1.11, 1.7) by simple solution combustion method. Powder samples were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer, Scanning electron microscope (SEM). DC electrical conductivity measurements at room temperature and in the temperature range of 313-673K were carried out for the prepared thick films and it was found to increase with increase of temperature which confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. Activation energies were calculated and it was found that, F/O molar ratio 1.7 has low E{sub AL} (Low temperature activation energy) and high E{sub AH} (High temperature activation energy) compared to other samples.

  4. Analytical solution to DGLAP integro-differential equation in a simple toy-model with a fixed gauge coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gustavo; Concepcion Univ.; Cvetic, Gorazd; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kondrashuk, Igor; Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    We consider a simple model for QCD dynamics in which DGLAP integro-differential equation may be solved analytically. This is a gauge model which possesses dominant evolution of gauge boson (gluon) distribution and in which the gauge coupling does not run. This may be N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory with softly broken supersymmetry, other finite supersymmetric gauge theory with lower level of supersymmetry, or topological Chern-Simons field theories. We maintain only one term in the splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution and solve DGLAP analytically for this simplified splitting function. The solution is found by use of the Cauchy integral formula. The solution restricts form of the unintegrated gluon distribution as function of transfer momentum and of Bjorken x. Then we consider an almost realistic splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution as an input to DGLAP equation and solve it by the same method which we have developed to solve DGLAP equation for the toy-model. We study a result obtained for the realistic gluon distribution and find a singular Bessel-like behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=0 and a smooth behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=1.

  5. Analytical solution to DGLAP integro-differential equation in a simple toy-model with a fixed gauge coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Gustavo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Cvetic, Gorazd [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Matematica Aplicada; Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Fisica de Altas Energias; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Talca Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Matematica y Fisica

    2016-11-15

    We consider a simple model for QCD dynamics in which DGLAP integro-differential equation may be solved analytically. This is a gauge model which possesses dominant evolution of gauge boson (gluon) distribution and in which the gauge coupling does not run. This may be N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory with softly broken supersymmetry, other finite supersymmetric gauge theory with lower level of supersymmetry, or topological Chern-Simons field theories. We maintain only one term in the splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution and solve DGLAP analytically for this simplified splitting function. The solution is found by use of the Cauchy integral formula. The solution restricts form of the unintegrated gluon distribution as function of transfer momentum and of Bjorken x. Then we consider an almost realistic splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution as an input to DGLAP equation and solve it by the same method which we have developed to solve DGLAP equation for the toy-model. We study a result obtained for the realistic gluon distribution and find a singular Bessel-like behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=0 and a smooth behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=1.

  6. Simple solution-combustion synthesis of Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites with highly electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Ni, Yonghong; Zhai, Muheng

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal and its oxide composite nanomaterials are attracting increasing research interest due to their superior properties and extensive applications in many fields. In this paper, Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites were successfully synthesized in one step via a simple solution-combustion route, employing NiCl2 as the Ni source, oxygen in the atmosphere as the oxygen source, and ethanol as the solvent. The final product was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), (high resolution) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM), and Raman spectra. N2 gas sorption-desorption experiments uncovered that the BET surface area of Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites reached 161.9 m2 g-1, far higher than 34.2 m2 g-1 of Ni-NiO. The electrochemical measurement showed that the as-produced Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites presented better catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of methanol than Ni-NiO and NiO, which provides a new catalyst selection for the electro-oxidation of methanol.

  7. Wetting behavior of nonpolar nanotubes in simple dipolar liquids for varying nanotube diameter and solute-solvent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Malay Kumar; Chandra, Amalendu

    2015-01-21

    Atomistic simulations of model nonpolar nanotubes in a Stockmayer liquid are carried out for varying nanotube diameter and nanotube-solvent interactions to investigate solvophobic interactions in generic dipolar solvents. We have considered model armchair type single-walled nonpolar nanotubes with increasing radii from (5,5) to (12,12). The interactions between solute and solvent molecules are modeled by the well-known Lennard-Jones and repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen potentials. We have investigated the density profiles and microscopic arrangement of Stockmayer molecules, orientational profiles of their dipole vectors, time dependence of their occupation, and also the translational and rotational motion of solvent molecules in confined environments of the cylindrical nanopores and also in their external peripheral regions. The present results of structural and dynamical properties of Stockmayer molecules inside and near atomistically rough nonpolar surfaces including their wetting and dewetting behavior for varying interactions provide a more generic picture of solvophobic effects experienced by simple dipolar liquids without any specific interactions such as hydrogen bonds.

  8. Hospices' enrollment policies may contribute to underuse of hospice care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge Carlson, Melissa D; Barry, Colleen L; Cherlin, Emily J; McCorkle, Ruth; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2012-12-01

    Hospice use in the United States is growing, but little is known about barriers that terminally ill patients may face when trying to access hospice care. This article reports the results of the first national survey of the enrollment policies of 591 US hospices. The survey revealed that 78 percent of hospices had at least one enrollment policy that may restrict access to care for patients with potentially high-cost medical care needs, such as chemotherapy or total parenteral nutrition. Smaller hospices, for-profit hospices, and hospices in certain regions of the country consistently reported more limited enrollment policies. We observe that hospice providers' own enrollment decisions may be an important contributor to previously observed underuse of hospice by patients and families. Policy changes that should be considered include increasing the Medicare hospice per diem rate for patients with complex needs, which could enable more hospices to expand enrollment.

  9. Hospices’ Enrollment Policies May Contribute to Underuse of Hospice Care In the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARLSON, MELISSA D. ALDRIDGE; BARRY, COLLEEN L.; CHERLIN, EMILY J.; MCCORKLE, RUTH; BRADLEY, ELIZABETH H.

    2013-01-01

    Hospice use in the United States is growing, but little is known about barriers that terminally ill patients may face when trying to access hospice care. This article reports the results of the first national survey of the enrollment policies of 591 US hospices. The survey revealed that 78 percent of hospices had at least one enrollment policy that may restrict access to care for patients with potentially high-cost medical care needs, such as chemotherapy or total parenteral nutrition. Smaller hospices, for-profit hospices, and hospices in certain regions of the country consistently reported more limited enrollment policies. We observe that hospice providers’ own enrollment decisions may be an important contributor to previously observed underuse of hospice by patients and families. Policy changes that should be considered include increasing the Medicare hospice per diem rate for patients with complex needs, which could enable more hospices to expand enrollment. PMID:23213153

  10. Spirometry is underused in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wai Cho; Fu, Sau Nga; Tai, Emily Lai-bun; Yeung, Yiu Cheong; Kwong, Kwok Chu; Chang, Yui; Tam, Cheuk Ming; Yiu, Yuk Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry is important in the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet it is a common clinical observation that it is underused though the extent is unclear. This survey aims to examine the use of spirometry in the diagnosis and management of COPD patients in a district in Hong Kong. It is a cross-sectional survey involving four clinic settings: hospital-based respiratory specialist clinic, hospital-based mixed medical specialist clinic, general outpatient clinic (primary care), and tuberculosis and chest clinic. Thirty physician-diagnosed COPD patients were randomly selected from each of the four clinic groups. All of them had a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity ratio less than 0.70 and had been followed up at the participating clinic for at least 6 months for COPD treatment. Of 126 patients who underwent spirometry, six (4.8%) did not have COPD. Of the 120 COPD patients, there were 111 males and mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 was 46.2% predicted. Only 22 patients (18.3%) had spirometry done during diagnostic workup, and 64 patients (53.3%) had spirometry done ever. The only independent factor predicting spirometry done ever was absence of old pulmonary tuberculosis and follow-up at respiratory specialist clinic. Age, sex, smoking status, comorbidities, duration of COPD, percentage predicted FEV1, body mass index, 6-minute walking distance, and Medical Research Council dyspnea score were not predictive. We conclude that spirometry is underused in general but especially by nonrespiratory physicians and family physicians in the management of COPD patients. More effort at educating the medical community is urgently needed. PMID:24009418

  11. Simple systems abroad coupled to hight-tech solutions : MexiCultura: cooperation between Holland and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van P.; Elings, A.

    2015-01-01

    Doing business with Mexican entrepreneurs is high on the wish list of Dutch companies. That’s not so simple when you’re used to building high-tech greenhouses. Yet the local growers want to improve their current methods of production. The Dutch can be of service by offering knowledge about simple

  12. Underuse and underreporting of smoking cessation for smokers with a new urologic cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Liam C; Dai, Jessica C; Holt, Sarah K; Bassett, Jeffrey C; Wright, Jonathan L; Gore, John L

    2015-12-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) or upper urinary tract (UCUT) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are smoking-related genitourinary (GU) malignancies. A new diagnosis of smoking-related GU cancer is an opportunity when smoking cessation interventions may have increased effectiveness. Underuse or underreporting of cessation tools in this setting represents potential for quality improvement. We estimated the use of smoking cessation in new smoking-related GU cancer visits based on billing claims. From MarketScan data, over 34 million enrollees aged 18 to 65 years, calendar years 2007 to 2011, were screened for billing codes for index UCB/UCUT or RCC and tobacco use disorder. Qualifying individuals were assessed for claims-based pharmacologic or counseling smoking cessation interventions in the 12 months following diagnosis using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with smoking cessation intervention. From over 111,453 incident cancers, 5,777 smokers with tobacco-related GU malignancy were identified by billing claims (40% UCB, 46% RCC, 4.2% UCUT, and 9.8% multiple cancers). Claims for intervention were rare (5.3%). Among intervention recipients, 240 (80%) had UCB and 92% had claims for either counseling or medications, only 8% had both. Most claims-based interventions (61%) were within 3 months after GU cancer diagnosis. On multivariable analysis UCB was associated increased odds of claims-based intervention (odds ratio [OR] = 6.27; 95% CI: 4.57-8.60) compared with UCUT and RCC. Other significant factors included more comorbidities (Charlson score = 1, OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.06-2.13; Charlson score≥2, OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.19-3.02 compared with Charlson score = 0) and diagnosis in the latter half of the study period (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.67 compared with earlier years). Although a new diagnosis of a smoking

  13. Parathyroidectomy is underused in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Irene; Schneider, David F; Leverson, Glen; Foley, David; Sippel, Rebecca; Chen, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroidectomy (PTX) is the only curative treatment for tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3HPT). With the introduction of calcimimetics (cinacalcet), PTX can sometimes be delayed or avoided. The purpose of this study was to determine the current incidence of utilization of PTX in patients with posttransplant 3HPT with the advent of cinacalcet. We evaluated renal transplant patients between January 1, 2004, and June 30, 2012, with a minimum of 24 months follow-up who had persistent allograft function. Patients with an increased serum level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) at 1 year after successful renal transplantation with normocalcemia or hypercalcemia were defined as having 3HPT. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to determine factors associated with undergoing PTX. We identified 618 patients with 3HPT, only 41 (6.6%) of whom underwent PTX. Patients with higher levels of serum calcium (P < .001) and PTH (P = .002) posttransplant were more likely to be referred for PTX. Importantly, those who underwent PTX had serum calcium and PTH values distributed more closely to the normal range on most recent follow-up. PTX was not associated with rejection (P = .400) or with worsened allograft function (P = .163). PTX seems to be underused in patients with 3HPT at our institution. PTX is associated with high cure rates, improved serum calcium and PTH levels, and is not associated with rejection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studying Equilibrium in the Chemical Reaction between Ferric and Iodide Ions in Solution Using a Simple and Inexpensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…

  15. Dementia correlates with anticoagulation underuse in older patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Ettorre, Evaristo; Chiriac, Iulia Maria

    2017-09-01

    Stroke prevention in older atrial fibrillation (AF) patients remains a challenge. This study aimed to investigate whether a dementia diagnosis is an independent correlate of lower prescription rate of oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) in a sample of older AF patients. Cross-sectional retrospective study. Consecutive older community-dwelling AF patients referred for a comprehensive geriatric assessment, were considered. Evaluation of physical, social and mental health, and administration of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) and Barthel Index were performed. Dementia cases were ascertained by consensus of 2 experienced geriatricians. Dementia severity was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). 316 AF patients (ages 74.7±7.0years, 55.7% women) with high stroke risk (77.5% had a CHA 2 DS 2 VASC score ≥3), low bleeding and falling risk, and no neuropsychiatric/behavioral symptoms, were included. 60.1% were prescribed with OAT. Among patients with dementia (n=86, 27.2%), 22.0% received inadequate antithrombotic prophylaxis (i.e. antiplatelet) and 38.5% no treatment. Proportion of those receiving inadequate or no prophylaxis increased at increasing CDR score. By multiple regression models, either dementia (yes vs no), OR=1.33, 95%CI=1.11-1.46, pdementia severity (CDR>1), OR=2.38, 95%CI=2.19-2.60, pDementia might be associated with underuse of OAT in older AF patients even in the absence of established contraindications. Future studies are needed to assess the real dimension of the problem and clinician's barriers to prescribing OAT in demented patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. [Elevated serum aldosterone levels in dialysis patients: Are we underusing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Velasco, S; Gutierrez, C; Gonzalez Villalba, M J; Heras, M; Molina, A; Callejas, R; Rodríguez, A; Calle, L; Lopes, V

    Serum aldosteronelevels (SA) are a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk in the general population. To analyze SA levels in dialysis patients and its relationship with characteristics of dialysis; comorbidity; blood pressure and the use of blocking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system agents (BSRAA). We determined SA in 102 patients: 81 on hemodialysis (HD) and 21 on peritoneal dialysis. Mean age 71.4±12 years; 54.9% male; 29.4% diabetics. Mean time on dialysis 59.3±67 months. In 44 HD patients plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured. Mean SA was 72.6±114.9ng/dl (normal range 1.17-23.6ng/dl). A total of 57.8% of patients had above normal levels which were not related to dialysis characteristics or comorbidity. Only 21% of patients with heart failure and 19.2% with ischemic heart disease used BSRAA. A number of 25 patients treated with BSRAA had significantly lower levels of SA. There was an inverse correlation between AS and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and direct with PRA. The logistic regression analysis conducted to find SA levels above the median associated factors showed that SBP was the only independent risk variable in the overall population (OR 0.97; P=.022); in the 44 patients in whom PRA was determined this was the only independent risk factor (OR 2.24; P=.012). A high percentage of dialysis patients have elevated levels of SA that are associated to diminished SBP and activated PRA and not to dialysis characteristics. In patients with a history of heart disease we underuse BSRAA. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A simple and fast determination of microgram thorium in organic solution containing several hundreds times amount of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Duanzhi; Cao Benhong; Yang Jinfeng

    1991-01-01

    Using spectrophotometric method, microgram thorium in 30% TBP-kerosene system containing large amount of uranium was successfully determined after one-step back-extraction with hydrochloric acid. The recovery of thorium is more than 98%, and the separation factor α U/Th is over 1 x 10 3 . Being reliable, simple and fast, the recommended method has been used in the research on spent fuel reprocessing and is expected applicable to other neutral phosphate extraction systems such as TOPO and DMHMP

  18. Underuse of Anticoagulation in Older Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and CHADS2 Score ≥ 2: Are We Doing Better Since the Marketing of Direct Oral Anticoagulants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrard, Séverine; Vandenabeele, Caroline; Marien, Sophie; Boland, Benoit; Dalleur, Olivia

    2017-11-01

    Our objectives were to (1) describe the evolution of the underuse of anticoagulants in older people with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a CHADS 2 score ≥ 2 since direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were introduced to the market and (2) describe factors associated with this underuse. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study including geriatric patients admitted during the pre-DOAC (2008-2011) and post-DOAC (2013-2015) periods in an academic hospital in Belgium. Five inclusion criteria were met: age ≥ 75 years, diagnosis of AF, indication for anticoagulation (CHADS 2 score ≥ 2), risk of functional decline (Identification of Seniors At Risk [ISAR] score ≥ 2), and comprehensive geriatric assessment. The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelets at home before admission was recorded. Risks of stroke and bleeding were calculated using CHADS 2 and HEMORR 2 HAGES scores, respectively. Three different logistic regression models were performed to describe the evolution of and factors associated with the underuse of anticoagulants after DOAC marketing. Anticoagulant underuse, present in 209 of 614 (34%) geriatric patients with AF, was lower in patients with a history of stroke (28.5%) or congestive heart failure (26.9%) but higher in those receiving antiplatelets (56.2%) and in older individuals. Anticoagulant underuse decreased significantly from the pre-DOAC (37.3%) to the post-DOAC (29.7%) era, as shown by two analyses using propensity scores. In older patients with AF, anticoagulant underuse was mainly associated with antiplatelet use. Anticoagulant underuse and antiplatelet use have both decreased since DOAC marketing. Underuse of anticoagulants was still a concern for three in ten geriatric patients with AF at high risk of stroke (CHADS 2 score ≥ 2).

  19. Effect of growth parameters on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by simple solution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anjana

    2017-05-01

    ZnO, a wide band gap semiconductor is of significant interest for a range of practical applications. One of the highly attractive features of ZnO is to grow variety of nanostructures by using low-cost techniques. In this paper, we report deposition of ZnO nanostructure rod-arrays (NRA) via low-temperature, solution-based deposition techniques such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) and microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition (MACBD). A detailed study of film deposition parameters such as variation in concentration of precursors and deposition temperature has been carried out. Compositional and structural study of the films has been done by X-ray Diffractometer to know the phase and purity of the final product. Morphological study of these structures has been carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optical study such as transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the films has been carried out as a function of growth parameters.

  20. Controllable synthesis of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures by a simple low-temperature aqueous solution route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hongxia, E-mail: luhx@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhao Yunlong; Yu Xiujun; Chen Deliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang Liwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Xu Hongliang; Yang Daoyuan; Wang Hailong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang Rui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management, Zhengzhou 450005 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Spindle-like ZnO nanostructures were successfully synthesized through direct precipitation of zinc acetate aqueous solution at 60 deg. C. Phase structure, morphology and microstructure of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA, FTIR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Result showed that hexagonal wurtzite structure ZnO nanostructures with about 100 nm in diameter and 100-200 nm in length were obtained. HMTA acted as a soft template in the process and played an important role in the formation of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures. Meanwhile, different morphologies were also obtained by altering synthetic temperature, additional agents and the ratios of Zn{sup 2+}/OH{sup -}. Possible mechanism for the variations of morphology with synthesis parameters was also discussed in this paper.

  1. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  2. Concentrated Solutions of Single-Chain Nanoparticles: A Simple Model for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins under Crowding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Angel J; Lo Verso, Federica; Arbe, Arantxa; Pomposo, José A; Colmenero, Juan

    2016-03-03

    By means of large-scale computer simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we investigate solutions of single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs), covering the whole concentration range from infinite dilution to melt density. The analysis of the conformational properties of the SCNPs reveals that these synthetic nano-objects share basic ingredients with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), as topological polydispersity, generally sparse conformations, and locally compact domains. We investigate the role of the architecture of the SCNPs in their collapse behavior under macromolecular crowding. Unlike in the case of linear macromolecules, which experience the usual transition from self-avoiding to Gaussian random-walk conformations, crowding leads to collapsed conformations of SCNPs resembling those of crumpled globules. This behavior is already found at volume fractions (about 30%) that are characteristic of crowding in cellular environments. The simulation results are confirmed by the SANS experiments. Our results for SCNPs--a model system free of specific interactions--propose a general scenario for the effect of steric crowding on IDPs: collapse from sparse conformations at high dilution to crumpled globular conformations in cell environments.

  3. Solution-Phase Conversion of Bulk Metal Oxides to Metal Chalcogenides Using a Simple Thiol-Amine Solvent Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carrie L; Webber, David H; Schueller, Emily C; Brutchey, Richard L

    2015-07-13

    A thiol-amine solvent mixture is used to dissolve ten inexpensive bulk oxides (Cu2O, ZnO, GeO2, As2O3, Ag2O, CdO, SnO, Sb2O3, PbO, and Bi2O3) under ambient conditions. Dissolved oxides can be converted to the corresponding sulfides using the thiol as the sulfur source, while selenides and tellurides can be accessed upon mixing with a stoichiometric amount of dissolved selenium or tellurium. The practicality of this method is illustrated by solution depositing Sb2Se3 thin films from compound inks of dissolved Sb2O3 and selenium that give high photoelectrochemical current response. The direct band gap of the resulting material can be tuned from 1.2-1.6 eV by modulating the ink formulation to give compositionally controlled Sb2Se(3-x)S(x) alloys. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A Simple Microsoft Excel Method to Predict Antibiotic Outbreaks and Underutilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglis, Cristina; Rhodes, Nathaniel J; Avedissian, Sean N; Zembower, Teresa R; Postelnick, Michael; Wunderink, Richard G; Sutton, Sarah H; Scheetz, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Benchmarking strategies are needed to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics. We have adapted a simple regressive method in Microsoft Excel that is easily implementable and creates predictive indices. This method trends consumption over time and can identify periods of over- and underuse at the hospital level. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:860-862.

  5. Synthesis of nanowires, nanorods and nanoparticles of ZnO through modulating the ratio of water to methanol by using a mild and simple solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hualan; Li Zhuang

    2005-01-01

    ZnO nanowires, nanorods and nanoparticles through modulating the ratio of water to methanol have been synthesized by using a mild and simple solution method. The as-prepared ZnO nanostructures have been characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With the increase of the ratio of water to methanol, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures varied form denser nanowires, to sparse nanowires, to nanorods, and then to nanoparticles. The ratio of water to methanol is supposed to play an important role in the formation of ZnO nanostructures. The mechanism of formation is related to the chemical potential, which is simply proportional to their surface ratio

  6. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if pre- served) used twice daily may help. • Cold compresses help itchy eyes due to allergies. Warm compresses work best for dry eye symptoms of burning and sand-gravel sensations. • Anticipate times of the day, week or month ...

  7. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day, use non-preserved preparations. If your vision is blurred with artificial tear use, try a less viscous preparation. • Try ointments or gels at bedtime by first applying them only to the eyelids and lashes. If that ... vision, some individuals may not like using it. • Sleep ...

  8. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  9. Preparative solution crystallization fractionation: a simple and rapid fractionation method for the chemical composition separation of complex ethylene-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruthazhekatt, Sadiqali; Pasch, Harald

    2014-05-01

    complex EPC was achieved by prep SCF in TCB. On the other hand, SCF fractionation in xylene provides a soluble fraction that is perfectly amorphous as has been shown by DSC and CRYSTAF. Based on these results, the present SCF approach and an updated method of the combination of prep SCF-HT-SGIC hold significant promise for the fractionation and characterization of similar complex EPCs in a simple way within a short analysis time, by using significantly smaller amounts of solvent compared to the previously reported, rather time-consuming, prep TREF-HT-SGIC combination. No similarly selective solution crystallization fractionations in preparative scale have been reported before.

  10. Non-dimensional characterization of the friction stir/spot welding process using a simple Couette flow model part I: Constant property Bingham plastic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Gregory A.; Langerman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A simplified model for the material flow created during a friction stir/spot welding process has been developed using a boundary driven cylindrical Couette flow model with a specified heat flux at the inner cylinder for a Bingham plastic material. Non-dimensionalization of the constant property governing equations identified three parameters that influence the velocity and temperature fields. Analytic solutions to these equations are presented and some representative results from a parametric study (parameters chosen and varied over ranges expected for the welding of a wide variety of metals) are discussed. The results also provide an expression for the critical radius (location of vanishing material velocity) as functions of the relevant non-dimensional parameters. A final study was conducted in which values for the non-dimensional heat flux parameter were chosen to produce peak dimensional temperatures on the order of 80% of the melting temperature for a typical 2000 series aluminum. Under these conditions it was discovered that the ratio of the maximum rate of shear work within the material (viscous dissipation) to the rate of energy input at the boundary due to frictional heating, ranged from about 0.0005% for the lowest pin tool rotation rate, to about 1.3% for the highest tool rotation rate studied. Curve fits to previous Gleeble data taken for a number of aluminum alloys provide reasonable justification for the Bingham plastic constitutive model, and although these fits indicate a strong temperature dependence for critical flow stress and viscosity, this work provides a simple tool for more sophisticated model validation. Part II of this study will present numerical solutions for velocity and temperature fields resulting from the non-linear coupling of the momentum and energy equations created by temperature dependent transport properties

  11. A Simple, Low-cost, and Robust System to Measure the Volume of Hydrogen Evolved by Chemical Reactions with Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Paul; Dann, Sandie; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Adcock, Paul; Foster, Simon

    2016-08-17

    There is a growing research interest in the development of portable systems which can deliver hydrogen on-demand to proton exchange membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells. Researchers seeking to develop such systems require a method of measuring the generated hydrogen. Herein, we describe a simple, low-cost, and robust method to measure the hydrogen generated from the reaction of solids with aqueous solutions. The reactions are conducted in a conventional one-necked round-bottomed flask placed in a temperature controlled water bath. The hydrogen generated from the reaction in the flask is channeled through tubing into a water-filled inverted measuring cylinder. The water displaced from the measuring cylinder by the incoming gas is diverted into a beaker on a balance. The balance is connected to a computer, and the change in the mass reading of the balance over time is recorded using data collection and spreadsheet software programs. The data can then be approximately corrected for water vapor using the method described herein, and parameters such as the total hydrogen yield, the hydrogen generation rate, and the induction period can also be deduced. The size of the measuring cylinder and the resolution of the balance can be changed to adapt the setup to different hydrogen volumes and flow rates.

  12. Redirection of client/server relationship of X Window system as a simple, low-cost, departmental picture archiving and communication system solution for nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, F L; Baune, D A; Christian, P E

    1994-08-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) offer significant advantages over current film-management techniques. However, PACS are complex and expensive, factors that have limited their entry into the radiology and nuclear medicine communities. We present a simple, low-cost PACS solution that allows viewing of images from different computer systems by redirection of the X Window system. In this technique, multiple copies of the imaging software are remotely opened from generic UNIX workstations interfaced to the main computer system via Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol over Ethernet. The X Window system that provides the windowing system for the main computer is redirected to the workstations' displays. With this technique, viewing and processing of images on a remote station is virtually identical to working at the main computer's console. The technique requires that the commercial imaging system's hardware, operating system, and imaging software support multiuser multitasking and the execution of multiple copies of its imaging software, and that they use X Windows as the graphical system. Advantages of the technique include low cost, ease of maintenance, ease of interconnecting different types of computers, the capacity to view images regardless of file format, and the capacity to both view and process images. The latter is a necessity for modalities such as nuclear medicine. A disadvantage of the technique is that the number of nodes that can be supported is limited.

  13. An imprecise probability approach for the detection of over and underused taxonomic groups with the Campania (Italy) and the Sierra Popoluca (Mexico) medicinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerle, Caroline S; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Leonti, Marco

    2012-06-26

    We use the IDM model to test for over- and underuse of plant taxa as source for medicine. In contrast to the Bayes approach, which only considers the uncertainty around the data of medicinal plant surveys, the IDM model also takes the uncertainty around the inventory of the flora into account, which is used for the comparison between medicinal and local floras. Statistical analysis of the medicinal flora of Campania (Italy) and of the medicinal flora used by the Sierra Popoluca (Mexico) was performed with the IDM model and the Bayes approach. For Campania 423 medicinal plants and 2237 vascular plant species and for the Sierra Popoluca 605 medicinal plants and 2317 vascular plant species were considered. The IDM model (s=4) indicates for Campania the Lamiaceae and Rosaceae as overused, and the Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Orchidaceae as underused. Among the Popoluca the Asteraceae and Piperaceae turn out to be overused, while Cyperaceae, Poaceae, and Orchidaceae are underused. In comparison with the Bayes approach, the IDM approach indicates fewer families as over- or underused. The IDM model leads to more conservative results compared to the Bayes approach. Only relatively few taxa are indicated as over- or underused. The larger the families (n(j)'s) are, the more similar do the results of the two approaches turn out. In contrast to the Bayes approach, small taxa with most or all species used as medicine (e.g., n(j)=2, x(j)=2) tend not to be indicated as overused with the IDM model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe 2 O 4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe 2 O 4 , MgFe 2 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe 2 O 4 and ZnFe 2 O 4 show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline MFe 2 O 4 powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ► Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ► This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ► XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ► The maximum M s of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe 2 O 4 . - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe 2 O 4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac) 3 , M(acac) 3 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe 2 O 4 and CoFe 2 O 4 samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe 2 O 4 and MgFe 2 O 4 samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe 2 O 4 sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe 2 O 4 , MnFe 2 O 4 and MgFe 2 O 4 samples, whereas the samples of NiFe 2 O 4 and ZnFe 2 O 4 exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior

  15. Excavation multiple up drafting tunnels in coastal mountains: A simple solution to resist against the severe drought in sub tropical zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daei, Mohammad Ali; Daei, Manizheh; Daei, Bijan

    2017-04-01

    At many sub tropical places in the globe, including the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, there is continuously a tremendous amount of steam in the air, but it fails to transform to cloud because of the surrounding overheated lands. Reduction in precipitation in these regions has been extraordinary in recent years. The most probable reason is the global warming phenomena. Many dried forest remains, in these regions are referring to much more precipitations not long ago. All around the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea, Arab sea, and red sea there are enough steam to produce good precipitation nearly year round. The main missed requirement in this zone is the coldness. This fact can be well understand from a narrow green strip in Dhofar which is indebted to a cold oceanic stream that approaches to local shore during four months yearly. This natural cold stream helps a better condensation of water vapor and more precipitation but only in a narrow mountainous land. Based on this natural phenomenon, we hypothesize a different design to cool the water vapor with the same result. Prevention of close contact between the water vapors and hot lands by shooting the steam directly into the atmosphere may help to produce more cloud and rain. Making multiple vertical tunnels in mountains for upright conducting of humid air into the atmosphere can be a solution. Fortunately there are a few high mountain ranges alongside of the coastline in south part of Iran. So excavation of drafting tunnels in these mountains seems reasonable. These structures act passively, but for long term do their work without consuming energy, and making pollution. These earth tubes in some aspects resemble to Kariz, another innovative structure which invented by ancient Iranians, thousands of years ago in order to extract water from dry lands in deserts. Up drafting earth channels can be supposed as a wide vertical kariz which conduct water vapor into the atmosphere from the hot land near a warm sea, something

  16. Quantitative methods in ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology: considering the overall flora--hypothesis testing for over- and underused plant families with the Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerle, Caroline S; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Leonti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    We introduce and explain the advantages of the Bayesian approach and exemplify the method with an analysis of the medicinal flora of Campania, Italy. The Bayesian approach is a new method, which allows to compare medicinal floras with the overall flora of a given area and to investigate over- and underused plant families. In contrast to previously used methods (regression analysis and binomial method) it considers the inherent uncertainty around the analyzed data. The medicinal flora with 423 species was compiled based on nine studies on local medicinal plant use in Campania. The total flora comprises 2237 species belonging to 128 families. Statistical analysis was performed with the Bayesian method and the binomial method. An approximated χ(2)-test was used to analyze the relationship between use categories and higher taxonomic groups. Among the larger plant families we find the Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, and Malvaceae, to be overused in the local medicine of Campania and the Orchidaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Fabaceae to be underused compared to the overall flora. Furthermore, do specific medicinal uses tend to be correlated with taxonomic plant groups. For example, are the Monocots heavily used for urological complaints. Testing for over- and underused taxonomic groups of a flora with the Bayesian method is easy to adopt and can readily be calculated in excel spreadsheets using the excel function Inverse beta (INV.BETA). In contrast to the binomial method the presented method is also suitable for small datasets. With larger datasets the two methods tend to converge. However, results are generally more conservative with the Bayesian method pointing out fewer families as over- or underused. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  18. The pH of very dilute solutions of strong acids – a calculation for a medical or biomedical class involving the application of simple numerical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Michael Barling

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the solution to a calculationof the pH of a very dilute solution of a strong acid orbase, taking into account the effect of the hydroniumor hydroxyl ions generated from the ionisation of thestrong acid or base on the ionisation of water, as asecond very weak acid. To be solved successfully, thiscalculation involves the concepts of conservation ofcharge, pH and the application of the general solutionto a quadratic equation. Such an exercise involves theapplication of skills...

  19. Simple method for preparation of secondary amides of phosphorylacetic acids and their use for actinide extraction and sorption from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyushin, O.I.; Sharova, E.V.; Odinets, I.L.; Lenevich, S.V.; Mastruykova, T.A.; Morgalyuk, V.P.; Tananaev, I.G.; Pribylova, G.V.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    An effective method of synthesis of secondary alkylamides of phosphorylacetic acids (APA), based on amidation of ethyl esters of phosphorylacetic acids with primary aliphatic amines, was developed. Extraction of americium(III) complexes with APA solutions in dichloroethane and uranium(VI) sorption by sorbents with non-covalently fixed APA from nitric acid solutions were studied. In the course of americium(III) extraction there is no correlation between Am III distribution factor and APA structure, whereas during uranium(VI) sorption a dependence of U VI extraction degree on the complexing agent structure is observed [ru

  20. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  2. Using remote sensing and GIS in addressing the future decisions regarding underused urban spaces; Hajj sites in Mecca as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayman; Roca, Josep

    2017-10-01

    The term Underused Urban Spaces (UUS) refers to spaces within urban areas that have become unused, or that are being used to a lesser degree than they could or should be such as former industrial zones, abandoned facilities or buildings and Expo or Olympic Games cities. The Islamic pilgrimage sites known as Hajj sites (HS) are considered form of the UUS concept as they are used lesser degree than they should be. However, the emergence of such spaces has therefore encouraged researchers, urban planner, social and local authorities to discuses about the appropriate decision regarding their future towards conversion or alternatively using those spaces in order to achieve positive social, economic and environmental benefits, according to Pagano and Bowman (2000), UUS can be a powerful tool for governments and investors to use during the urban growth (UG) of their cities. Since, remote sensing and GIS technologies are used recently to study and analyze the UG of cities; the main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the efficiency of those technologies in addressing the future decisions regarding the underused status of Hajj sites in relation to UG of the city of Mecca. Tow classified land cover maps of Mecca for two years (1998 and 2013), in addition to entropy index and multiple regression analyses were utilized in order to quantify the relationship between HS and Mecca UG. The results showed that the urban growth of Mecca has increased by approximately 56%, and almost 32% of that increased were around HS in on hand, and on the other hand the entropy and the regression analysis showed that there is 51% probability that the future growth to be also around HS. These findings will better addressing the future decisions regarding the underused status of HS, simultaneously revel that the use of RS and GIS was highly effective to be adopted within similar cases of UUS.

  3. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  4. Radiology clinical synopsis: a simple solution for obtaining an adequate clinical history for the accurate reporting of imaging studies on patients in intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Mervyn D.; Alam, Khurshaid

    2005-01-01

    Lack of clinical history on radiology requisitions is a universal problem. We describe a simple Web-based system that readily provides radiology-relevant clinical history to the radiologist reading radiographs of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Along with the relevant history, which includes primary and secondary diagnoses, disease progression and complications, the system provides the patient's name, record number and hospital location. This information is immediately available to reporting radiologists. New clinical information is immediately entered on-line by the radiologists as they are reviewing images. After patient discharge, the data are stored and immediately available if the patient is readmitted. The system has been in routine clinical use in our hospital for nearly 2 years. (orig.)

  5. Simple and mixed complexes of copper(II) with 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and amino acids: Characterization in solution and potential biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarlata, Carmelo; Arena, Giuseppe; Bonomo, Raffaele P; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Tabbì, Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Copper(II) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) and two 8-HQ derivatives, namely clioquinol (CQ) and 5,7-dichloro-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]quinolin-8-ol (PBT2), were investigated in organic and, where feasible, in aqueous solutions. This class of compounds is of particular interest in neurological disorders since they may act as metal-protein attenuating compounds and may help redistributing metal ions and restoring intracellular metal reserves, which are often perturbed in neurological patients. Several techniques, like potentiometry, UV-Vis absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), cyclic voltammetry and electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), were used to obtain information on both the formation of copper(II) complexes in solution as well as on the structure of their species. Multi-wavelength treatment of UV-Vis data clearly indicated the formation of both [Cu(PBT2)] + and [Cu(PBT2) 2 ] species; the speciation was also supported by ESI-MS data. The EPR results showed that the mono- and bis-copper(II) complexes with PBT2 have square-based pyramidal structures while the bis-copper (II) complexes with CQ or 8-HQ have square-planar o pseudo-octahedral geometries. The formation of copper(II) ternary complexes with 8-HQ, CQ and PBT2 and some selected neurotransmitters (glycine, glutamate and histidine) is also reported. Except for the copper(II) ternary complex with PBT2 and His, almost all ternary complexes have molecular geometries, which are not different from those of the bis-complexes. Interestingly the ternary copper(II) complexes, containing CQ, 8-HQ and PBT2 and glycine, glutamate or histidine turned out to be more soluble in aqueous solution than their binary complexes with parent 8-HQ derivatives; the copper(II) complexes can also be reduced more easily than their parent bis-complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple addition of silica to an alkane solution of Wilkinson WMe6 or Schrock W alkylidyne complex give active complex for saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Callens, Emmanuel

    2015-08-24

    Addition of PDA silica to a solution of the Wilkinson WMe6 as well as the Schrock W neopentilidyne tris neopentyl complex catalyzes linear or cyclic alkanes to produce respectively a distribution of linear alkanes from methane up to triacontane or a mixture of cyclic and macrocyclic hydrocarbons. This single catalytic system transforms also linear α-olefins into higher and lower homologues via isomerization/metathesis mechanism (ISOMET). This complex is also efficient towards functionalized olefins. Unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) are converted into diesters corresponding to self-metathesis products.

  7. Simple Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and international public. The exhibition Simple Interactions. Sound Art from Japan presents works by 9 Japanese artists at the Museum of Contemporary Art Roskilde. The exhibition mixes installations, performances and documentations, all of which examine how simple interactions can create complex systems...... and patterns. Works and performances by the following artists are presented: Yuji DOGANE - Yukio FUJIMOTO - Atsuhiro ITO - Soichiro MIHARA - Atsushi NISHIJIMA - Jio SHIMIZU - Toshiya TSUNODA - Tetsuya UMEDA - Miki YUI The book presents texts by Minoru HATANAKa; Takashi KOJIMA, Rune SØCHTING and the editors...

  8. A Simple Surfactant-Free Solution Phase Synthesis of Flower-like In2S3 Hierarchitectures and their Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengaraj Selvaraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like In2S3 hierarchical nanostructures were successfully prepared via a facile solution-phase route, using thiacetamide as both sulfur source and capping agent. Our experimental results demonstrated that the morphology of these In2S3 nanostructures can be easily modified by changing the ratio of In(NO33/thiacetamide. With the ratio increasing from 1:1.5 to 1:6, the In2S3 crystals exhibited flower-like morphology of varying size. XRD and HRTEM of the flowers revealed the cubic structure of In2S3; morphological studies examined by SEM and TEM showed that the synthesized In2S3 nanostructure was a flower-like hierarchitecture assembled from nanoscale flakes. XPS and EDX analysis confirmed the stoichiometry of In2S3 nanoflowers. The optical properties were investigated by UV-vis DRS, which indicated that the In2S3 nanoflower samples possess a band gap from 1.90 to 1.97 eV. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity studies revealed that the prepared In2S3 nanoflowers exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance, degrading rapidly the aqueous methylene blue dye solution under visible light irradiation. These results suggest that In2S3 nanoflowers will be a promising candidate for a photocatalyst working under the visible light range.

  9. Optical properties of β-Ga2O3 nanorods synthesized by a simple and cost-effective method using egg white solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumying, Santi; Labauyai, Sarawut; Chareonboon, Wirat; Phokha, Sumalin; Maensiri, Santi

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optical properties of gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) nanorods synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and environment-friendly method using gallium(III) nitrate hydrate and freshly extracted egg white (ovalbumin) in an aqueous medium. The extracted egg white acted as a matrix for the entrapment of gallium ions to generate a gelled precursor. The structure of the prepared samples was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy to confirm the formation of β-Ga2O3 with a monoclinic structure after calcination of the precursor in air at 750, 850, and 950 °C for 3 h. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the morphology and formation of nanorods with different sizes and shapes in the samples, resulting from the effect of the calcination temperature. All the samples showed a strong UV absorption with the band gap in the range of 3.87-3.97 eV. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of all the samples also showed a strong UV emission. The UV emission results were discussed based on the basis of charge recombination.

  10. In-house-made capillary electrophoresis instruments coupled with contactless conductivity detection as a simple and inexpensive solution for water analysis: a case study in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hong Anh; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Kim Diem Mai; Hauser, Peter C; Pham, Hung Viet; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2015-11-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the determination of various ionic species in different water matrices is discussed in this study. The approach is based on the employment of in-house-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instruments with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D), which can be realized even when only a modest financial budget and limited expertise are available. Advantageous features and considerations of these instruments are detailed following their pilot deployment in Vietnam. Different categories of ionic species, namely major inorganic cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and NH4(+)) and major inorganic anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), SO4(2-), and phosphate), in different water matrices in Vietnam were determined using these in-house fabricated instruments. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (As(iii)), which is the most abundant form of arsenic in reducing groundwater, was determined by CE-C(4)D. The effect of some interfering ions in groundwater on the analytical performance was investigated and is highlighted. The results from in-house-made CE-C(4)D-instruments were cross-checked with those obtained using the standard methods (AAS, AES, UV and IC), with correlation coefficients r(2) ≥ 0.9 and deviations from the referenced results less than 15%.

  11. Formation and properties of viscoelastic masses made from kafirin by a process of simple coacervation from solution in glacial acetic acid using water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Mohammed S M; Oguntoyinbo, Segun I; Taylor, Janet; Taylor, John R N

    2018-01-15

    Stable viscoelastic masses have been formed from kafirin in a mainly aqueous system. Kafirin was dissolved in glacial acetic acid (GAA) and simple coacervation was performed by rapid addition of 15°C water under low shear. Kafirin precipitated out as a network of hydrated fibrils which could be hand-kneaded into a viscoelastic mass. These could be formed from a very wide range of kafirins, including those where β- or γ-subclass expression was suppressed. Kafirin composition influenced the appearance of the masses but did not fundamentally affect stress-relaxation behaviour. Fresh kafirin masses exhibited similar elasticity and viscous flow balance to gluten. They maintained functionality when stored for several days at 10°C but their elastic component increased. FTIR showed that when kafirin was dissolved in GAA its α-helical conformation increased substantially. Dissociation of the kafirin molecules in GAA, assuming a α-helical conformation may have enhanced water binding, enabling viscoelastic mass formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "Ride-on" technique and other simple and logical solutions to counter most common complications of silicone implants in augmentation rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil S Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmentation rhinoplasty can be carried out using a wide range of materials including autologous bone and/or cartilage as well as alloplasts. Use of biologic bone and cartilage grafts results in lower infection rates, but they are associated with long-term resorption and donor-site morbidity. Alloplastic materials, in particular silicone, have been associated in literature with extrusion, necrosis of the tip, mobility and deviation or displacement of the implant, immobile nasal tip and infection. However, they have the advantages of being readily available and easy to reshape with no requirement for harvesting autografts. Aim: To overcome these problems associated with silicone implants for which the authors have devised a novel technique, the "rideon technique". Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 11 patients over a period of 4 years. The authors have devised a simple technique to fix the silicone implant and retain it in place. Restricting the implant to only dorsum avoided common complications related to the silicone implant. Results: The authors have used this technique in 11 patients with encouraging results. Follow-up ranged from 12 months to 36 months during which patients were assessed for implant mobility, implant extrusion and tip necrosis. There was no incidence of above mentioned complications in these patients. Conclusion: The "rideon technique" provides excellent stability to silicone implants and restricting the implant only to dorsum not only eliminates chances of tip necrosis and thus implant extrusion but also maintains natural shape, feel and mobility of the tip.

  13. Complex caring needs without simple solutions: the experience of interprofessional collaboration among staff caring for older persons with multimorbidity at home care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anne; Broberger, Eva; Petersson, Pia

    2017-06-01

    Older persons with multimorbidity being cared for at home often have complex needs which cannot be met by one single caregiver. Interprofessional collaboration is therefore considered necessary if care is to be organised according to the needs of the older person. To achieve coherent health care, municipalities and county councils need to develop their collaboration. The aim of this study was to illustrate how various professionals belonging to homemaker services, home care services in municipality and hospital-based home care services experience collaboration in caring for older persons with multimorbidity. A hermeneutic approach was used. Eleven informants participated in the study and were individually interviewed. The findings show that collaboration between players comprises various types of experiences which influence not only the staff who are involved in collaboration but also the outcome of the collaboration itself. The informants' experience of collaboration was defined by distrust and trust and by insecurity and security. To focus on patients' needs and to develop the collaboration further, it was important for informants to take the relations into account and have a reflective and questioning approach. This attitude resulted in a feeling of trust and security, and a flexible and critical approach without boundary drawings between basic and specialised care. Complex situations cannot be solved with simple models. Instead, a flexible approach appears necessary with focus shifting from structures to interpersonal relations and interactions. Therefore, the different professionals have to work as a transprofessional team where close interactions, flexibility and improvisation are keys to success. The transprofessional team approach is suggested to have the potential to take the competence of all staff into account when high-quality home health care to older persons with multimorbidity is to be provided by multiple caregivers. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring

  14. Heat capacity effects associated with the hydrophobic hydration and interaction of simple solutes: a detailed structural and energetical analysis based on molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschek, Dietmar

    2004-06-08

    We examine the SPCE [H. J. C. Berendsen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6269 (1987)] and TIP5P [M. W. Mahoney and W. L. Jorgensen, J. Chem. Phys 112, 8910 (2000)] water models using a temperature series of molecular-dynamics simulations in order to study heat-capacity effects associated with the hydrophobic hydration and interaction of xenon particles. The temperature interval between 275 and 375 K along the 0.1-MPa isobar is studied. For all investigated models and state points we calculate the excess chemical potential for xenon employing the Widom particle insertion technique. The solvation enthalpy and excess heat capacity is obtained from the temperature dependence of the chemical potentials and, alternatively, directly by Ewald summation, as well as a reaction field based method. All three methods provide consistent results. In addition, the reaction field technique allows a separation of the solvation enthalpy into solute/solvent and solvent/solvent parts. We find that the solvent/solvent contribution to the excess heat capacity is dominating, being about one order of magnitude larger than the solute/solvent part. This observation is attributed to the enlarged heat capacity of the water molecules in the hydration shell. A detailed spatial analysis of the heat capacity of the water molecules around a pair of xenon particles at different separations reveals that even more enhanced heat capacity of the water located in the bisector plane between two adjacent xenon atoms is responsible for the maximum of the heat capacity found for the desolvation barrier distance, recently reported by Shimizu and Chan [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2083 (2001)]. The about 60% enlarged heat capacity of water in the concave part of the joint xenon-xenon hydration shell is the result of a counterplay of strengthened hydrogen bonds and an enhanced breaking of hydrogen bonds with increasing temperature. Differences between the two models with respect to the heat capacity in the xenon

  15. New and vintage solutions to enhance the plasma metabolome coverage by LC-ESI-MS untargeted metabolomics: the not-so-simple process of method performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipani, Sara; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Jáuregui, Olga; Llorach, Rafael; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-03-03

    Although LC-MS untargeted metabolomics continues to expand into exiting research domains, methodological issues have not been solved yet by the definition of unbiased, standardized and globally accepted analytical protocols. In the present study, the response of the plasma metabolome coverage to specific methodological choices of the sample preparation (two SPE technologies, three sample-to-solvent dilution ratios) and the LC-ESI-MS data acquisition steps of the metabolomics workflow (four RP columns, four elution solvent combinations, two solvent quality grades, postcolumn modification of the mobile phase) was investigated in a pragmatic and decision tree-like performance evaluation strategy. Quality control samples, reference plasma and human plasma from a real nutrimetabolomic study were used for intermethod comparisons. Uni- and multivariate data analysis approaches were independently applied. The highest method performance was obtained by combining the plasma hybrid extraction with the highest solvent proportion during sample preparation, the use of a RP column compatible with 100% aqueous polar phase (Atlantis T3), and the ESI enhancement by using UHPLC-MS purity grade methanol as both organic phase and postcolumn modifier. Results led to the following considerations: submit plasma samples to hybrid extraction for removal of interfering components to minimize the major sample-dependent matrix effects; avoid solvent evaporation following sample extraction if loss in detection and peak shape distortion of early eluting metabolites are not noticed; opt for a RP column for superior retention of highly polar species when analysis fractionation is not feasible; use ultrahigh quality grade solvents and "vintage" analytical tricks such as postcolumn organic enrichment of the mobile phase to enhance ESI efficiency. The final proposed protocol offers an example of how novel and old-fashioned analytical solutions may fruitfully cohabit in untargeted metabolomics

  16. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment, Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Environmental Impact Assessment dataset current as of 2001. Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial...

  18. A Simple Demonstration Model of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device constructed from a wire screen, a large beaker, beans, and oats is described. It provides a simple and effective visual model of the phenomenon of osmosis and, by extension, the origin of other colligative properties of solutions.

  19. Tailored telephone counselling to increase participation of underusers in a population-based colorectal cancer-screening programme with faecal occult blood test: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, B; Broc, G; Sauleau, E A; Gendre, I; Gana, K; Perrin, P

    2017-02-01

    Despite the involvement of general practitioners, the mailing of several recall letters and of the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) kit, the uptake remains insufficient in the French colorectal cancer-screening programme. Some studies have demonstrated a greater efficacy of tailored telephone counselling over usual care, untailored invitation mailing and FOBT kit mailing. We evaluated the feasibility and the effectiveness of telephone counselling on participation in the population-based FOBT colorectal cancer-screening programme implemented in Alsace (France). Underusers were randomized into a control group with untailored invitation and FOBT kit mailing (n=19,756) and two intervention groups for either a computer-assisted telephone interview (n=9367), system for tailored promotion of colorectal cancer screening, or a telephone-based motivational interview (n=9374). Only 5691 (19.9%) people were actually counseled, so that there was no difference in participation between the intervention groups taken together (13.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [13.5-14.4]) and the control group (13.9%, 95% CI [13.4-14.4]) (P=1.0) in intent-to-treat analysis. However, in per-protocol analysis, participation was significantly higher in the two intervention groups than in the control group (12.9%, 95% CI [12.6-13.2]) (Pinvitation and FOBT kit mailing on participation of underusers in an organized population-based colorectal cancer screening programme. A greater efficacy of telephone counselling, around twice that of invitation and FOBT kit mailing, was observed only in people who could actually be counseled, without difference between computer-assisted telephone interview and motivational interview. However, technical failures hampered telephone counselling, so that there was no difference in intent-to-treat analysis. The rate of technical success of telephone interviews should be evaluated, and enhanced if insufficient, before implementation of telephone counselling in population

  20. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  1. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  2. A Plea for a Simple Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a criticism of the classical speech act theory (Austin, Searle). In contrast to this theory, which operates with four to five types of basic illocutionary acts, I will argue for just one type: the assertive. Assertives are speech acts which can make locutions (propositions) true...

  3. Tree planting: not a simple solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; William J. Libby

    1991-01-01

    There's no doubt about it. Planting trees has caught the attention of the American public. In his 1990 State of the Union address, President Bush proposed planting a billion Fees annually for the next ten years. Inspired by the potential for trees to reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate global climate change, tree-planting programs such as Treepeople and Global...

  4. A simple analytic solution for tachyon condensation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erler, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 3 (2010), s. 705-709 ISSN 0040-5779 Grant - others:EUROHORC(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.748, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h22568xk246j1781/

  5. A simple analytic solution for Tachyon condensation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erler, T.; Schnabl, Martin

    -, č. 10 (2009), 066/1-066/35 ISSN 1126-6708 Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : string field theory * Tachyon condensation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.019, year: 2009 http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.0979

  6. Underuse of Methotrexate in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A National Analysis of Prescribing Practices in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Melanie K; Mikuls, Ted R; Cohen, Stanley B; Thorne, J Carter; O'Dell, James R

    2017-06-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the anchor drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to its effectiveness, tolerability, and cost. This study examines MTX prescribing practices in the US from 2009 to 2014. Symphony Health Solutions, which covers 274 million patients in the US, was used to identify patients diagnosed with RA who were naive to MTX in 2009 and 2012. Data were collected, including medication use and doses, demographics, and medical comorbidities. Of the patients who had 5-year followup data available, oral MTX was started in 35,640 in 2009, and 44% continued taking this dose during the followup. Of the 20,041 patients who changed therapy during the study period, 87% had the addition of or switched to a biologic agent, while 13% were changed from oral to subcutaneous (SC) MTX. The mean oral dose prior to the start of a biologic agent was 15.3 ± 5 mg/week. A comparison of 2009 with 2012 showed a modest increase in the mean dose of oral MTX from 15.3 mg/week to 15.9 mg/week, as well as a small but statistically significant (P < 0.0001) increase in the use of SC MTX after failure of oral MTX from 13% to 16% of patients. MTX is underutilized in the treatment of RA with suboptimal dosing, inadequate duration of therapy, and failure to use SC administration. The comparison of MTX use between the 2009 and the 2012 cohorts demonstrates only a marginal increase in the dose of oral MTX and the use of SC MTX. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi, E-mail: santimaensiri@gmail.com [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ► Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ► This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ► XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ► The maximum M{sub s} of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac){sub 3}, M(acac){sub 3} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples, whereas the

  8. Underuse of Radiation Therapy After Breast Conservation Surgery in Puerto Rico: A Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry–Health Insurance Linkage Database Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Chance

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify rates of postoperative radiation therapy (RT after breast conservation surgery (BCS in women with stage I or II invasive breast cancer treated in Puerto Rico and to examine the sociodemographic and health services characteristics associated with variations in receipt of RT. Methods: The Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry–Health Insurance Linkage Database was used to identify patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2008 and 2012 in Puerto Rico. Claims codes identified the type of surgery and the use of RT. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent association between sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Results: Among women who received BCS as their primary definitive treatment, 64% received adjuvant RT. Significant predictors of RT after BCS included enrollment in Medicare (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46 to 3.13; P ≤ .01 and dual eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.27; P 2.0 cm and ≤ 5.0 cm (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.93; P = .02 and those with tumor size > 5.0 cm (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.92; P = .03 were found to be significantly less likely to receive RT. Conclusion: Underuse of RT after BCS was identified in Puerto Rico. Patients enrolled in Medicare and those who were dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare were more likely to receive RT after BCS compared with patients with Medicaid alone. There were geographic variations in the receipt of RT on the island.

  9. A simple formulation and solution to the replacement problem: a practical tool to assess the economic cow value, the value of a new pregnancy, and the cost of a pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2012-08-01

    This study contributes to the research literature by providing a new formulation for the cow replacement problem, and it also contributes to the Extension deliverables by providing a user-friendly decision support system tool that would more likely be adopted and applied for practical decision making. The cow value, its related values of a new pregnancy and a pregnancy loss, and their associated replacement policies determine profitability in dairy farming. One objective of this study was to present a simple, interactive, dynamic, and robust formulation of the cow value and the replacement problem, including expectancy of the future production of the cow and the genetic gain of the replacement. The proven hypothesis of this study was that all the above requirements could be achieved by using a Markov chain algorithm. The Markov chain model allowed (1) calculation of a forward expected value of a studied cow and its replacement; (2) use of a single model (the Markov chain) to calculate both the replacement policies and the herd statistics; (3) use of a predefined, preestablished farm reproductive replacement policy; (4) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of the expected future performance of a cow; (5) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of genetic gain with a replacement; and (6) use of a simple spreadsheet or an online system to implement the decision support system. Results clearly demonstrated that the decision policies found with the Markov chain model were consistent with more complex dynamic programming models. The final user-friendly decision support tool is available at http://dairymgt.info/ → Tools → The Economic Value of a Dairy Cow. This tool calculates the cow value instantaneously and is highly interactive, dynamic, and robust. When a Wisconsin dairy farm was studied using the model, the solution policy called for replacing nonpregnant cows 11 mo after calving or months in milk (MIM) if in the first lactation and 9 MIM if in later lactations. The

  10. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  11. A Simple Preparation Method for Diphosphoimidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.

    1964-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of diphosphoimidazole is presented that involves direct phosphorylation of imidazole by phosphorus oxychloride in alkaline aqueous solution. Details are given on the use of diphosphoimidazole in preparing sodium phosphoramidate and certain phosphorylated amino...

  12. Stochastic Programming with Simple Integer Recourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louveaux, François V.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic integer programs are notoriously difficult. Very few properties are known and solution algorithms are very scarce. In this paper, we introduce the class of stochastic programs with simple integer recourse, a natural extension of the simple recourse case extensively studied in stochastic

  13. Growth of Highly Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ Films from a Simple Propionate-Based Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Torres, Pol; Tang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Intensive investigations have been conducted to develop epitaxial oxide thin films with superior electromagnetic performance by low-cost chemical solution deposition routes. In this paper, a novel propionate-based precursor solution without involving any other additive was proposed and employed...

  14. Simple waves in Hertzian chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, B Edward; Calvo, David

    2012-06-01

    The discrete system of equations for a chain consisting of a large number of spheres interacting via the Hertz force of index 3/2 in strain is examined in the very long wavelength limit, yielding an effective medium description. The resulting continuum second-order equation of motion possesses a subset of simple waves obeying a first-order equation of reduced index 5/4. These simple waves appear not to have examined before. For a given initial strain, the simple wave solution prescribes initial sphere centroid velocities. Together the initial strain and velocities are used in the second-order discrete system. Results for shock wave development compare very well between the second-order discrete system (minus physically valid oscillations) and the reduced first-order equation. A second-order simulation of colliding waves examines the ability of waves to pass through each other, with a phase advance accruing during the collision process. An arbitrary initial condition is shown to evolve toward a universal similarity solution proportional to (x/t)(4). A closed-form solution is given including the complete history of the waveform, shock location, and amplitude.

  15. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  16. A simple template-free synthesis of nanoporous ZnS-In2S3-Ag2S solid solutions for highly efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxuan; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Chao; Sun, Jingxue

    2009-04-21

    Nanoporous ZnS-In(2)S(3)-Ag(2)S solid solutions synthesized by a facile template-free method showed relatively high activities for photocatalytic H(2) evolution under visible-light irradiation (lambda >400 nm) even in the absence of co-catalysts.

  17. Simple inflationary quintessential model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry, we present a non-geodesically past complete model of our Universe without the big bang singularity at finite cosmic time, describing its evolution starting from its early inflationary era up to the present accelerating phase. We found that a hydrodynamical fluid with nonlinear equation of state could result in such scenario, which after the end of this inflationary stage, suffers a sudden phase transition and enters into the stiff matter dominated era, and the Universe becomes reheated due to a huge amount of particle production. Finally, it asymptotically enters into the de Sitter phase concluding the present accelerated expansion. Using the reconstruction technique, we also show that this background provides an extremely simple inflationary quintessential potential whose inflationary part is given by the well-known 1-dimensional Higgs potential, i.e., a double well inflationary potential, and the quintessential one by an exponential potential that leads to a deflationary regime after this inflation, and it can depict the current cosmic acceleration at late times. Moreover the Higgs potential leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which fit well with the latest Planck estimations. Further, we compared our viable potential with some known inflationary quintessential potential, which shows that our quintessential model, that is, the Higgs potential combined with the exponential one, is an improved version of them because it contains an analytic solution that allows us to perform all analytic calculations. Finally, we have shown that the introduction of a nonzero cosmological constant simplifies the potential considerably with an analytic behavior of the background which again permits us to evaluate all the quantities analytically.

  18. Simple InCl3 Doped PEDOT:PSS and UV-Ozone Treatment Strategy: External Quantum Efficiency up to 21% for Solution-Processed Organic Light-Emitting Devices with a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Xie, Guohua; Gong, Shaolong; Huang, Manli; Luo, Jiajia; Yang, Chuluo

    2017-10-04

    A low-cost and easy-process scheme for solution-processed organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) was provided to overcome the flaws of poly(styrene sulfonic acid)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene) (PEDOT:PSS) together with the indium tin oxide anode. The modified PEDOT:PSS with higher work function (5.66 eV) and more efficient hole injecting ability was obtained by simply mixing the aqueous PEDOT:PSS with InCl 3 and then consecutive ultraviolet-ozone treatment. The simply structured and solution-processed OLEDs with our modified PEDOT:PSS achieved a very high external quantum efficiency of 21.0% using a classic thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter, 2,4,5,6-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-1,3-dicyanobenzene. The origin of this great promotion was explored through photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy, from which we inferred that InCl 3 itself, the losing of insulting PSS outer shell, and transformation to quinoid structure of PEDOT chains accounted for this improvement. Our modification method of PEDOT:PSS is beneficial for promoting solution-processed organic semiconducting devices.

  19. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  20. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  1. Simple waves in quasilinear hyperbolic systems. Part 1. Theory of simple waves and simple states. Examples of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A.M.; Zelazny, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new method of construction of solutions to nonlinear, nonelliptic systems of partial differential equations and especially nonhomogeneous ones is presented. These equations have been considered from the point of view of integral elements. The connections between the structure of the set of integral elements and the posssibility of a construction of special classes of solutions have been studied. These classes consist of what is called simple waves and k-waves (for homogeneous systems). They provide us with a possibility for a selection of simple integral elements from the set of all integral elements. Analysis has been performed using differential forms and Cartan theory of system in involution. The problem has been reduced to examining Pfaff forms. The Cauchy problem for Pfaff systems has been formulated and solved using the Riemann function. Some remarks concerning the notion of Baecklund transformations for the case of k-waves have been formulated. It is shown that in contrast to simple wave, the simple state has no gradient catastrophy. The presented technique of constructing the solutions in the form of simple states has been illustrated by the examples of Korteweg de Vries and four-dimensional Klein-Gordon, Sine-Gordon and Liouville equations. It has been shown that the known soliton equations are closely connected with the elliptical functions and especially with the P-Weierstrass functions. (author)

  2. A simple route to synthesize conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole nanocomposite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties and their performance for removal of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hasan; Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizar; Ali, Mohammad Azgar; Minami, Hideto; Tauer, Klaus; Gafur, Mohammad Abdul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubor

    2016-08-01

    A combination of maghemite polypyrrole (PPy/γ-Fe2O3) and stimuli-responsive properties in the same hydrogel microspheres is expected to enhance their application potential in various fields such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biosensors, biomedical applications and removal of heavy metals from waste water, catalysis etc. In this investigation a simple two step process is used to prepare conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole (PPy) composite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties. Poly(styrene-methacrylic acid-N-isopropylacrylamide-polyethelene glycol methacrylate) or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles are first prepared by soap-free precipitation copolymerization. The copolymer hydrogel particles exhibited both temperature- and pH-responsive volume phase transition. Conductive P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite hydrogel particles are then prepared by seeded chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles using FeCl3 as a oxidant and p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA) as a dopant. In the reaction system FeCl3 functioned as a source of Fe(III) for the formation of γ-Fe2O3. This reaction also requires the initial presence of Fe(II) provided by the addition of FeCl2. The size and size distribution, surface structure, and morphology of the prepared conductive composite hydrogel particles are confirmed by FTIR, electron micrographs, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The performance of nanocomposite hydrogel particles has been evaluated for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr) ions from water.

  3. A simple solution-phase approach to synthesize high quality ternary AgInSe2 and band gap tunable quaternary AgIn(S1-xSe x)2 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Tianyu

    2014-01-01

    A facile solution-phase route for the preparation of AgInSe2 nanocrystals was developed by using silver nitrate, indium stearate, and oleylamine-selenium (OAm-Se) as precursors. The evolution process of the AgInSe2 nanocrystals is discussed in detail and different reaction conditions all have a great impact on the growth and morphology of the nanocrystals. Alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals with controlled composition across the entire range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was also successfully prepared by modulating the S/Se reactant mole ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm that the alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals are homogeneous. The UV-vis absorption spectra revealed that the band gap energies of the alloyed AgIn(S1-xSex)2 nanocrystals could be continuously tuned by increasing the Se content. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  4. A simple route to synthesize conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole nanocomposite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties and their performance for removal of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Hasan, E-mail: samarhass@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizar; Ali, Mohammad Azgar [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Minami, Hideto [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tauer, Klaus [Max Planck Institute of Colloid and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg, 14476 Golm (Germany); Gafur, Mohammad Abdul [Pilot Plant and Process Development Centre, BCSIR, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubor [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-08-15

    A combination of maghemite polypyrrole (PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and stimuli-responsive properties in the same hydrogel microspheres is expected to enhance their application potential in various fields such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biosensors, biomedical applications and removal of heavy metals from waste water, catalysis etc. In this investigation a simple two step process is used to prepare conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole (PPy) composite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties. Poly(styrene-methacrylic acid-N-isopropylacrylamide-polyethelene glycol methacrylate) or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles are first prepared by soap-free precipitation copolymerization. The copolymer hydrogel particles exhibited both temperature- and pH-responsive volume phase transition. Conductive P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles are then prepared by seeded chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles using FeCl{sub 3} as a oxidant and p-toluene sulfonic acid ( p-TSA) as a dopant. In the reaction system FeCl{sub 3} functioned as a source of Fe(III) for the formation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This reaction also requires the initial presence of Fe(II) provided by the addition of FeCl{sub 2}. The size and size distribution, surface structure, and morphology of the prepared conductive composite hydrogel particles are confirmed by FTIR, electron micrographs, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The performance of nanocomposite hydrogel particles has been evaluated for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr) ions from water. - Highlights: • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel particles were prepared. • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles were prepared. • Oxidative polymerization of pyrrole and precipitation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3

  5. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  6. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  7. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  8. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  9. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  10. Working with Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  11. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  12. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  13. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  14. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  15. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  16. Siemens IT solutions for power sector. PROFIT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  17. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  18. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  19. Working with simple machines

    OpenAIRE

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that students can evaluate their usefulness as machines.

  20. The simple complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zalesny, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  1. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  2. A simple convex optimization problem with many applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for the solution of a simple convex optimization problem. This problem is a generalization of several other optimization problems which have applications to resource allocation, optimal capacity expansion, and vehicle scheduling. The algorithm is based...

  3. Applied statistics in ecology: common pitfalls and simple solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Ashley Steel; Maureen C. Kennedy; Patrick G. Cunningham; John S. Stanovick

    2013-01-01

    The most common statistical pitfalls in ecological research are those associated with data exploration, the logic of sampling and design, and the interpretation of statistical results. Although one can find published errors in calculations, the majority of statistical pitfalls result from incorrect logic or interpretation despite correct numerical calculations. There...

  4. Lower Wages: The Simple Solution to Youth Unemployment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Moira

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the debate over whether lowering youth wages would materially help the young unemployed to find jobs. The author sets out some of the theoretical and factual background to the debate, and gives references to the few serious inquiries made in the last three or four years. (CT)

  5. Plant Biodiversity and Malnutrition: Simple Solutions to Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the difficulty of precisely identifying optimal diets, diversity provides an intrinsic buffer against uncertainties posed by lack of knowledge and by environmental change. Plant biodiversity offers useful perspectives on a number of issues of contemporary scientific and public health importance including, micronutrient ...

  6. A Simple Web Platform Solution for M-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin MUNTEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the role of educational platforms is more than obvious, thanks to websites and modern platforms like Microsoft SharePoint designed for e-learning. We consider that the next generation of learning platforms will be m-learning platforms. These kind of platforms offer first of all mobility for the potential users of PDAs, pocket PCs, smart phones and other modern mobile devices, discovered and developed in last years. One of the most important aspect of these manners of e-learning is the display mode. Classic systems like personal computers have a bigger screen, modern portable devices have a few inches screens and the problem is to adapt the structure of websites and platforms for pocket PC screens and in the same time to develop the capability to produce same experience and usefulness to all users.

  7. Simple Hybrid Scaling-Free CORDIC Solution for FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Moroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC is an effective method that is used in digital signal processing applications for computing various trigonometric, hyperbolic, linear, and transcendental functions. This paper presents the theoretical basis and practical implementation of circular (sine-cosine CORDIC-based generator. Synthesis results of this generator based on Altera Stratix III FPGA (EP3SL340F1517C2 using Quartus II version 9.0 show that the proposed hybrid FPGA architecture significantly reduces latency (42% reduction with a small area overhead, compared to the conventional version. The proposed algorithm has been simulated for sine and cosine function evaluation, and it has been verified that the accuracy is comparable with conventional algorithm.

  8. Water and Aqueous Solutions: Simple Non-Speculative Model Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbeda, Ivo; Jirsák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 44 (2011), s. 19689-19703 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802; GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : molecular modeling of water * separation * perturbation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  9. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (bppv) — a simple solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    standing the symptomatology, the diagnostic Dix-Hallpike test and the treatment options. BPPV is .... a peripheral lesion, are as follows: • The patient must be symptomatic during the test. BENIGN POSITIONAL VERTIGO. May 2004 Vol.22 No.5 CME 261. Fig. 1. Ampulla (a .... legs over the side of the couch and at the same ...

  10. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems--MOOCs as a Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is critical of the implementation of massive open online courses (MOOCs) by institutions seeking the deep student learning often found in general education learning outcomes. Customized student interaction with an expert in the field is rendered impossible by the scale of mooc enrollment. Concerns are also raised about the economic…

  11. Fuzzy logic: A "simple" solution for complexities in neurosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godil, Saniya Siraj; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Enam, Syed Ather; Qidwai, Uvais

    2011-02-26

    Fuzzy logic is a multi-valued logic which is similar to human thinking and interpretation. It has the potential of combining human heuristics into computer-assisted decision making, which is applicable to individual patients as it takes into account all the factors and complexities of individuals. Fuzzy logic has been applied in all disciplines of medicine in some form and recently its applicability in neurosciences has also gained momentum. This review focuses on the use of this concept in various branches of neurosciences including basic neuroscience, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology. The applicability of fuzzy logic is not limited to research related to neuroanatomy, imaging nerve fibers and understanding neurophysiology, but it is also a sensitive and specific tool for interpretation of EEGs, EMGs and MRIs and an effective controller device in intensive care units. It has been used for risk stratification of stroke, diagnosis of different psychiatric illnesses and even planning neurosurgical procedures. In the future, fuzzy logic has the potential of becoming the basis of all clinical decision making and our understanding of neurosciences.

  12. Plant Biodiversity and Malnutrition: Simple Solutions to Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. A Simple Solution for Programming of a Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Laurean

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to actuate, programming and control of a Robotic arm based on a monomobil telescopic planetary gear and a DC motor. Experimental model of robot was designed and manufactured at the Faculty of Engineering from Sibiu, (Patent no. 112418 CI6.B25J 18/02. The DC motor as actuator rotates a reel. The wires on the reel will produce a linear displacement of telescopic modules. The command of the DC motor is realized by a programmable logic controller. The outputs of the programmable logic controller are connected in a "H" bridge. The rotation of the reel in one direction or another has the effect of lengthening or shortening the robotic arm. The value of robotic arm length is monitored by an optical incremental encoder. The value of displacement will correspond to number of steps from an up/down counter.

  14. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  15. ASP made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  16. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    -divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross...

  17. Dimensional analysis made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own. (paper)

  18. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  19. Simple and surgical exodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBowes, Linda J

    2005-07-01

    Preemptive and postoperative pain management is part of patient care when performing extractions. Simple extractions can become complicated when tooth roots are fractured. Adequate lighting,magnification, and surgical techniques are important when per-forming surgical (complicated) extractions. Radiographs should be taken before extractions and also during the procedure to assist with difficult extractions. Adequate flap design and bone removal are necessary when performing surgical extractions. Complications, including ocular trauma, jaw fracture, and soft tissue trauma, are avoided or minimized with proper patient selection and technique.

  20. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  1. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

  2. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2017-04-01

    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  3. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  4. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  5. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  6. Business Intelligence Integrated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristescu Marian Pompiliu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Business Intelligence solution concerns the simple, real-time access to complete information about the business shown in a relevant format of the report, graphic or dashboard type in order help the taking of strategic decisions regarding the direction in which the company goes. Business Intelligence does not produce data, but uses the data produced by the company’s applications. BI solutions extract their data from ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, CRM (Customer Relationship Management, HCM (Human Capital Management, and Retail, eCommerce or other databases used in the company.

  7. Simple substrates for complex cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex cognitive tasks present a range of computational and algorithmic challenges for neural accounts of both learning and inference. In particular, it is extremely hard to solve them using the sort of simple policies that have been extensively studied as solutions to elementary Markov decision problems. There has thus been recent interest in architectures for the instantiation and even learning of policies that are formally more complicated than these, involving operations such as gated working memory. However, the focus of these ideas and methods has largely been on what might best be considered as automatized, routine or, in the sense of animal conditioning, habitual, performance. Thus, they have yet to provide a route towards understanding the workings of rule-based control, which is critical for cognitively sophisticated competence. Here, we review a recent suggestion for a uniform architecture for habitual and rule-based execution, discuss some of the habitual mechanisms that underpin the use of rules, and consider a statistical relationship between rules and habits.

  8. Simple model for molecular scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nirav; Ticknor, Christopher; Hazzard, Kaden

    2017-04-01

    The collisions of ultracold molecules are qualitatively different from the collisions of ultracold atoms due to the high density of bimolecular resonances near the collision energy. We present results from a simple N-channel scattering model with square-well channel potentials and constant channel couplings (inside the well) designed to reproduce essential features of chaotic molecular scattering. The potential depths and channel splittings are tuned to reproduce the appropriate density of states for the short-range bimolecular collision complex (BCC), which affords a direct comparison of the resulting level-spacing distribution to that expected from random matrix theory (RMT), namely the so-called Wigner surmise. The density of states also sets the scale for the rate of dissociation from the BCC to free molecules, as approximated by transition state theory (TST). Our model affords a semi-analytic solution for the scattering amplitude in the open channel, and a determinantal equation for the eigenenergies of the short-ranged BCC. It is likely the simplest finite-ranged scattering model that can be compared to expectations from the approximations of RMT, and TST. The validity of these approximations has implications for the many-channel Hubbard model recently developed. This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY-1125915.

  9. IP Chemo for Ovarian Cancer is Underused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of intraperitoneal chemotherapy, along with intravenous chemotherapy, improves survival in some women with advanced ovarian cancer, but its use in clinical practice has been limited, according to a new study.

  10. Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenosi, M

    2011-11-01

    Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.

  11. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-10-01

    Qualitatively, entropy is simple. What it is, why it is useful in understanding the behavior of macro systems or of molecular systems is easy to state: Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. The conventional q in qrev/T is the energy dispersed to or from a substance or a system. On a molecular basis, entropy increase means that a system changes from having fewer accessible microstates to having a larger number of accessible microstates. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. The foregoing in no way denies the subtlety or the difficulty presented by entropy in thermodynamics—to first-year students or to professionals. However, as an aid to beginners in their quantitative study of thermodynamics, the qualitative conclusions in this article give students the advantage of a clear bird’s-eye view of why entropy increases in a wide variety of basic cases: a substance going from 0 K to T, phase change, gas expansion, mixing of ideal gases or liquids, colligative effects, and the Gibbs equation. See Letter re: this article.

  12. Quasispecies made simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J J Bull

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  13. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  14. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  15. Viscosity Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  16. Solute segregation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.; Okamoto, P.R.; Lam, N.Q.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiation at elevated temperature induces redistribution of the elements in alloys on a microstructural level. This phenomenon is caused by differences in the coupling of the various alloy constituents to the radiation-induced defect fluxes. A simple model of the segregation process based on coupled reaction-rate and diffusion equations is discussed. The model gives a good description of the experimentally observed consequences of radiation-induced segregation, including enrichment or depletion of solute elements near defect sinks such as surfaces, voids and dislocations; precipitation of second phases in solid solutions; precipitate redistribution in two-phase alloys; and effects of defect-production rates on void-swelling rates in alloys with minor solute additions

  17. Una historia muy simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Mazzini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voy a contarles una historia muy simple. Probablemente no les parecerá nada espe- cial y no quiero robarles tiempo, así que voy a tratar de hacerlo lo más rápido posible. Me inscribí en psicología porque eso hizo mi mejor amiga. Éramos compañeras desde jardín de infantes y siempre la seguí en todo. En tercer año de facultad conoció a su novio y continuó sus estudios en otro país; por primera vez no podía seguirla. Cuando rendí todos los exámenes, el profesor me preguntó si estaba interesada en hacer mi tesis sobre el perfil psicológico de los participantes de reality shows. Accedí para no tener que pensar en otro tema, aunque no veía mucho la televisión porque me pasaba las noches entre los libros de estudio. Enseguida me di cuenta de que, evidentemente, el profesor había firmado un contrato con la emisora: a él lo empleaban y y yo era la que iba a tener que trabajar, pero no me importaba. La tesis de licenciatura no es más que eso y hay que hacerla. Yo evaluaba los candidatos y elegía a los participantes que vivirían juntos duran- te algunos meses. Como hacían el programa con una licencia extranjera y ya sabían qué le interesaba a la audiencia, yo tenía preparados los rasgos de los perfiles psicológicos que en ese aislamiento colectivo no resultan bien. Tuve que elegir gente variada, pero dentro de la media; nunca nada verdaderamente especial. Cuando me gradué, tuve las noches libres: de pronto tenía mucho más tiempo y podía haber visto el programa, pero ya había terminado. Pero oí que había sido todo un éxito y que sobre todo a los chicos les había encantado el reality y los participantes elegidos.

  18. Brainmining emotive lateral solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Scaltsas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BrainMining is a theory of creative thinking that shows how we should exploit the mind’s spontaneous natural disposition to use old solutions to address new problems – our Anchoring Cognitive Bias. BrainMining develops a simple and straightforward method to transform recalcitrant problems into types of problems which we have solved before, and then apply an old type of solution to them. The transformation makes the thinking lateral by matching up disparate types of problem and solution. It emphasises the role of emotive judgements that the agent makes, when she discerns whether a change of the values or the emotions and feelings in a situation, which would expand the space of solutions available for the problem at hand, would be acceptable or appropriate in the situation. A lateral solution for an intractable problem is thus spontaneously brainmined from the agent’s old solutions, to solve a transformed version of the intractable problem, possibly involving changes in the value system or the emotional profile of the situation, which the agent judges, emotively, will be acceptable, and even appropriate in the circumstances.

  19. Three Spreadsheet Models Of A Simple Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives three spreadsheet models of simple pendulum motion. In two of them, the graph of the pendulum angle is drawn upon the exact integral solution using numeric integration – the simpler model only uses spreadsheet functions, the general model uses a VBA program. The period results directly from the calculations. In the third model, the period is calculated first using the power series formula. The graph of the pendulum angle is drawn afterwards using Euler’s method of solving differential equations. The error in gravity acceleration if calculated upon the standard cosine approximate formula instead of the exact one is graphed.

  20. Crystal nucleation in simple and complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, David W

    2003-03-15

    The application of density-functional methods from statistical mechanics to the nucleation of crystals from the melt is described. Simple fluids such as metals, with sizes comparable with the range of their attractive forces, are compared with complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions and proteins dissolved in solution. A different mechanism for crystal nucleation is proposed in the latter case, in which density (concentration) changes before periodic crystalline order appears. This leads to a theoretical foundation for empirical observations on the 'crystallization window' in protein crystallization. Comparisons are made with the results of computer simulation via molecular dynamics.

  1. Universal Solutions of Quantum Dynamical Yang-Baxter Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Daniel; Ragoucy, E; Roche, P; Roche, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    We construct a universal trigonometric solution of the Gervais-Neveu-Felder equation in the case of finite dimensional simple Lie algebras and finite dimensional contragredient simple Lie superalgebras.

  2. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  3. Multipolar Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2012-01-01

    A class of exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations is presented which contains infinite sets of gravitoelectric, gravitomagnetic and electromagnetic multipole moments. The multipolar structure of the solutions indicates that they can be used to describe the exterior gravitational field of an arbitrarily rotating mass distribution endowed with an electromagnetic field. The presence of gravitational multipoles completely changes the structure of the spacetime because of the appearance...

  4. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  5. Dynamic mental number line in simple arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaodan; Liu, Jie; Li, Dawei; Liu, Hang; Cui, Jiaxin; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-05-01

    Studies have found that spatial-numerical associations could extend to arithmetic. Addition leads to rightward shift in spatial attention while subtraction leads to leftward shift (e.g., Knops et al. 2009; McCrink et al. 2007; Pinhas & Fischer 2008), which is consistent with the hypothesis of static mental number line (MNL) for arithmetic. The current investigation tested the hypothesis of dynamic mental number line which was shaped by the relative magnitudes of two operands in simple arithmetic. Horizontal and vertical electrooculograms (HEOG and VEOG) during simple arithmetic were recorded. Results showed that the direction of eye movements was dependent on the relative magnitudes of two operands. Subtraction was associated with larger rightward eye movements than addition (Experiment 1), and smaller-operand-first addition (e.g., 2+9) was associated with larger rightward eye movement than larger-operand-first addition (e.g., 9+2) only when the difference of two operands was large (Experiment 2). The results suggest that the direction of the mental number line could be dynamic during simple arithmetic, and that the eyes move along the dynamic mental number line to search for solutions.

  6. SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.

  7. The importance of simple microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, S

    2000-08-01

    A case of severe neonatal anaemia, the cause of which was found to be severe fetomaternal haemorrhage is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by simple microscopic examination of the maternal blood using the technique of acid elution, the Kleihauer-Betke test. In the differential diagnosis of anaemia of a newborn, the diagnosis of fetomaternal haemorrhage must be considered and the simple Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed on the maternal blood as soon as possible.

  8. Siemens IT solutions for power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  9. Polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich [Bremen, DE; Miller, Kevin Michael [West Dundee, IL

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  10. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  11. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  12. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in various areas of natural science. Thus, many effective and powerful methods have been established and improved. In this study, we establish exact solutions of the time fractional biological population model equation and nonlinearfractional Klein–Gordon equation by using the modified simple equation method.

  13. A simple and optimal ancestry labeling scheme for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2015-01-01

    We present a lg n + 2 lg lg n + 3 ancestry labeling scheme for trees. The problem was first presented by Kannan et al. [STOC 88’] along with a simple 2 lg n solution. Motivated by applications to XML files, the label size was improved incrementally over the course of more than 20 years by a series...

  14. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 1. The modified simple equation method for ... Nonlinear fractional differential equations are encountered in various fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, engineering and in numerous other applications. Exact solutions of these equations play a ...

  15. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-10-08

    Oct 8, 2005 ... A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate ...

  16. Comparison of simple and chelated amberlite IR-120 for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the efficiency of simple and chelating Amberlite IR-120 with α-nitroso β-naphthol (IR-αNβN) and with 8-hydroxy quinoline (IR-8HQ) has been compared for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The chelation was confirmed using different characterization techniques like SEM, TGA and FTIR.

  17. Equivalent instances of the simple plant location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlMohammad, Bader F.; Goldengorin, Boris; Ghosh, Diptesh; Sierksma, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we deal with a pseudo-Boolean representation of the simple plant location problem. We define instances of this problem that are equivalent, in the sense that each feasible solution has the same goal function value in all such instances. We further define a collection of polytopes whose

  18. Simple chemical preparation of CuS nanowhiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puspitasari, Indra; Gujar, T.P.; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2007-01-01

    In this research article, we present the results concerning the characterization of copper sulfide nanowhiskers fabricated by a simple and cost effective chemical deposition method from aqueous solution. The chemically deposited copper sulfide nanowhiskers were investigated for their structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical characterizations

  19. Simple machines made simple a teacher resource manual

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Ralph E St

    1993-01-01

    This book allows you to present scientific principles and simple mechanics through hands-on cooperative learning activities. Using inexpensive materials (e.g., tape, paper clips), students build simple machines-such as levers, pulleys, spring scales, gears, wheels and axles, windmills, and wedges-that demonstrate how things work. Activities have easy-to-locate materials lists, time requirements, and step-by-step directions (usually illustrated) on presentation. Ideas for bulletin boards, learning centers, and computer-assisted instruction are an added bonus.

  20. SimpleETL: ETL Processing by Simple Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Thomsen, Christian; Torp, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    where an organization upon request must delete all data about an individual. Another requirement is when facts are updated retrospectively. In this paper, we present the general framework SimpleETL which is currently used for Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processing in a company with such requirements....... SimpleETL automatically handles all database interactions such as creating fact tables, dimensions, and foreign keys. The framework also has features for handling version management of facts and implements four different methods for handling deleted facts. The framework enables, e.g., data scientists...

  1. A class of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, L.; Kugler, M.

    1980-09-01

    We investigate a class of solutions of the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. The symmetry of this class prescribes a natural set of gauge invariant degrees of freedom. Using these degrees of freedom we obtain a simple set of equations which enables us to find all the solutions belonging to the class under discussion. (Author)

  2. Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low—compared to high—math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less—a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. PMID:29140499

  3. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Special relativity as a simple geometry problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Rodrigo de; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the 'rest system' are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental effects of standard relativistic kinematics, namely time dilation, length contraction and relativity of simultaneity. Moreover, it also provides an immediate image of other important and more subtle aspects, often passed by in relativity courses, such as the conventionality of simultaneity thesis, possible non-invariance of the one-way speed of light and compatibility between the Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein-Minkowski philosophies. The geometric scheme so constructed constitutes a powerful tool to clearly illustrate both traditional and not-so-traditional aspects of special relativity teaching

  5. Multiple equilibria in a simple elastocapillary system

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, Michele

    2012-09-28

    We consider the elastocapillary interaction of a liquid drop placed between two elastic beams, which are both clamped at one end to a rigid substrate. This is a simple model system relevant to the problem of surface-tension-induced collapse of flexible micro-channels that has been observed in the manufacture of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). We determine the conditions under which the beams remain separated, touch at a point, or stick along a portion of their length. Surprisingly, we show that in many circumstances multiple equilibrium states are possible. We develop a lubrication-type model for the flow of liquid out of equilibrium and thereby investigate the stability of the multiple equilibria. We demonstrate that for given material properties two stable equilibria may exist, and show via numerical solutions of the dynamic model that it is the initial state of the system that determines which stable equilibrium is ultimately reached. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  6. Robotic assisted simple prostatectomy: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Randy; Hampton, Lance J; Vartolomei, Mihai D; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Porpiglia, Francesco; Autorino, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    Robotic assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) represents a minimally invasive evolution of traditional open simple prostatectomy for the surgical treatment of severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) because of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Aim of the present review is to summarize the most recent evidence on this novel procedure, and to better define its current role in the surgical armamentarium for the treatment of BPE. Several studies demonstrated that RASP can be safely and effectively performed in centers with sufficient expertise. The procedure can duplicate its open counterpart with the advantage of lower perioperative morbidity, and ultimately faster patient recovery. Overall, the status of RASP seems to be well beyond that of an 'investigational' procedure, and guidelines should be amended accordingly.Nevertheless, it remains to be determined what the place of the RASP procedure in the surgical armamentarium for the treatment of symptomatic BPE will be. Over the most recent years, few comparative studies have been reported, allowing in part to draw some conclusions. RASP seems to be attractive when compared with open simple prostatectomy as it can offer less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. However, its advantages over transurethral enucleation techniques - such as HoLEP - remain unclear. There are some specific indications, such as the presence of concomitant bladder diverticula or stones, for example, where a robotic approach could represent an appealing solution. Ultimately, further research should look at a cost analysis to determine which technique can be more cost effective. Last, the issue of the learning curve for the different procedures for symptomatic BPE remain to be further scrutinized. RASP offers potential advantages over other available techniques for the treatment of large prostate glands. In centers, wherever a solid robotic program is already in place, this procedure is likely to be increasingly implemented.

  7. Simple Echoes and Subtle Reverberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2010-01-01

    Reverberation within an enclosed space can be viewed as a superposition of a large number of simple echoes. The echoes that make up the sound of reverberation fall neatly into two categories, relatively loud and sparse early reflections, and relatively soft and dense late reflections. Ways in which readily available music production software can…

  8. Simple Machines in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  9. Curious Consequences of Simple Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. Curious Consequences of Simple Sequences. A K Mallik. General Article Volume 12 Issue 1 January 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. A K Mallik1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India.

  10. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  11. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  12. Model pseudopotential in simple metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, K.N.; Sharma, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    The model potential proposed by Sharma and Srivastava has been used to study the various properties of simple metals. New core radii have also been reported corresponding to three dielectric functions. For most metals, the model potential successfully describes the atomic properties. (author)

  13. The 'simple' general dental anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient who receives dental treatment under general anaesthesia is usually a child, one with special needs, or one who requires an extensive dental procedure. The term 'simple' general dental anaesthetic is therefore a misnomer. The concept of procedural sedation for dentistry is beyond the scope of this article. It.

  14. HEMATOLOGIC CHANGES FOLLOWING SIMPLE EXODONTIA,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematologic studies were carried out on 90 systemically healthy, young adult males, some of whom underwent a simple exodontic experience. In one...after exodontia . In the 4-hour study significant changes following extraction were noted for white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, hematocrit

  15. Investigating student understanding of simple harmonic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somroob, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate students’ understanding and develop instructional material on a topic of simple harmonic motion. Participants were 60 students taking a course on vibrations and wave and 46 students taking a course on Physics 2 and 28 students taking a course on Fundamental Physics 2 on the 2nd semester of an academic year 2016. A 16-question conceptual test and tutorial activities had been developed from previous research findings and evaluated by three physics experts in teaching mechanics before using in a real classroom. Data collection included both qualitative and quantitative methods. Item analysis and whole-test analysis were determined from student responses in the conceptual test. As results, most students had misconceptions about restoring force and they had problems connecting mathematical solutions to real motions, especially phase angle. Moreover, they had problems with interpreting mechanical energy from graphs and diagrams of the motion. These results were used to develop effective instructional materials to enhance student abilities in understanding simple harmonic motion in term of multiple representations.

  16. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  17. Hydrophobic solvation of nonspherical solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, L.R.; Chandler, D.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of hydrophobic effects presented by Pratt and Chandler is generalized to include nonpolar solutes which are distinctly aspherical. The theory is used to study the solvation of simple aspherical hydrocarbon solutes in liquid water. The radial solvation of each component of diatomiclike solutes is studied as a function of their separation, or bond length. From these results it is found that when the bond length is large enough that one water molecule can fit between the apolar pair, the radial solvation of each is the same as that when the bond length approaches infinity. The solvation of the various sites of the homologous series methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane is also studied, and effects of the geometrical structure of the solutes on their solvation is discussed

  18. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  19. A Simple Decontamination Approach Using Hydrogen ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal article To evaluate the use of relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) for the inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores within an indoor environment. Methods and Results: Laboratory-scale decontamination tests were conducted using bacterial spores of both B. anthracis Ames and Bacillus atrophaeus inoculated onto several types of materials. Pilot-scale tests were also conducted using a larger chamber furnished as an indoor office. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) humidifiers filled with aqueous solutions of 3% or 8% hydrogen peroxide were used to generate the HPV inside the mock office. The spores were exposed to the HPV for periods ranging from 8 hours up to one week. Conclusions: Four to seven day exposures to low levels of HPV (average air concentrations of approximately 5-10 parts per million) were effective in inactivating B. anthracis spores on multiple materials. The HPV can be generated with COTS humidifiers and household H2O2 solutions. With the exception of one test/material, B. atrophaeus spores were equally or more resistant to HPV inactivation compared to those from B. anthracis Ames. Significance and Impact of Study: This simple and effective decontamination method is another option that could be widely applied in the event of a B. anthracis spore release.

  20. Hybrid Solution for Integrated Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad DIACONITA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated applications are complex solutions, whose complexity are determined by the economic processes they implement, the amount of data employed (millions of records grouped in hundreds of tables, databases, hundreds of GB and the number of users. Service oriented architecture (SOA, is now the most talked-about integration solution in mainstream journals, addressing both simple applications, for a department but also at enterprise level. SOA can refer to software architecture or to a way of standardizing the technical architecture of an enterprise and it shows its value when operating in several distinct and heterogeneous environments.

  1. Perturbed dark and singular optical solitons in polarization preserving fibers by modified simple equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Emrullah; Yıldırım, Yakup; Zhou, Qin; Moshokoa, Seithuti P.; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Triki, Houria; Biswas, Anjan; Belic, Milivoj

    2017-11-01

    This paper obtains optical soliton solution to perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger's equation by modified simple equation method. There are four types of nonlinear fibers studied in this paper. They are Anti-cubic law, Quadratic-cubic law, Cubic-quintic-septic law and Triple-power law. Dark and singular soliton solutions are derived. Additional solutions such as singular periodic solutions also fall out of the integration scheme.

  2. Solution Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  3. Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-01

    This document is a guide for users of the Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool. The Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool has been developed by Amphos 21 to determine the solubility limits of some radionuclides and it has been especially designed for Performance Assessment exercises. The development of this tool has been promoted by the necessity expressed by SKB of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits in an agile and relatively fast manner. Its development started in 2005 and since then, it has been improved until the current version. This document describes the accurate and preliminary study following expert criteria that has been used to select the simplified aqueous speciation and solid phase system included in the tool. This report also gives the basic instructions to use this tool and to interpret its results. Finally, this document also reports the different validation tests and sensitivity analyses that have been done during the verification process

  4. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  5. Simple and Realistic Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...... to generate data even for large database schemas with complex inter- and intra table relationships. The model also makes it possible to generate data with very accurate characteristics....

  6. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  7. Development of simple neutron counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, S.; Hirota, K.

    2014-01-01

    Position sensitive neutron detectors are used for neutron scattering, neutron imaging, and neutron radiography. Developments in neutron detectors are mainly focused on spatial resolution and high counting rate in these fields. After the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, many simple radiation counters are now marketed in Japan and are useful for estimating the radiation level. However, no simple, equivalent device exists for neutron measurements. In this work, we have developed simple neutron counters (LiM counter and HeM counter) with the following features. In the LiM counter, a 6 Li glass scintillator is employed as a neutron converter for a large dynamic range. A silicon photon MPPC (multi-pixel photon counter) detector is used separately for photon counting, thus reducing the size of the device. In the HeM counter, a 3 He neutron detector is employed. Both counters employ a pulse-height analysis function for ensuring reliable data and display the pulse-height distribution on a graphical liquid crystal display (G-LCD). The LiM counter can be used for about 6 h using a battery, operating at 264 mA and 5.1 V. (author)

  8. A Simple Explanation of Complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The topics of solution thermodynamics, activity coefficients, and complex formation are introduced through computational exercises and sample applications. The presentation is designed to be accessible to freshmen in a chemical engineering computations course. The MOSCED model is simplified to explain complex formation in terms of hydrogen…

  9. Simple statistical methods for software engineering data and patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pandian, C Ravindranath

    2015-01-01

    Although there are countless books on statistics, few are dedicated to the application of statistical methods to software engineering. Simple Statistical Methods for Software Engineering: Data and Patterns fills that void. Instead of delving into overly complex statistics, the book details simpler solutions that are just as effective and connect with the intuition of problem solvers.Sharing valuable insights into software engineering problems and solutions, the book not only explains the required statistical methods, but also provides many examples, review questions, and case studies that prov

  10. A simple model for the nuclear unintegrated gluon distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betemps, M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Conjunto Agrotecnico Visconde da Graca, CAVG, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Machado, M.V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    The solution of non-linear evolution equations for dense nuclear gluon density has been suggested as one of the relevant mechanisms of pA and AA collisions at collider energies. Here we study a simple parameterization for the unintegrated gluon distribution using the knowledge of asymptotic solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, describing high-energy QCD in the presence of saturation effects. A satisfactory description of nuclear shadowing at small x is obtained and it allows us to understand the qualitative behavior shown by the data. (orig.)

  11. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond S. Ingebrigtsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS. This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r^{-n} pair potentials with n=18,6,4, Lennard-Jones (LJ models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture, the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be

  12. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r-n pair potentials with n=18,6,4), Lennard-Jones (LJ) models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture), the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be characterized in three quite

  13. Modelling of damping forces occuring in simple MEMS systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Urbanowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A certain damping force occurs in the micro-mechanical systems referred as MEMS. At the design stage of such systems, these forces must be accurately estimated. As shown in this work, in all systems operating at low frequencies, most important force is the one associated with the flotation of air film from the volume between two parallel operating movable MEMS plates. This force can be accurately estimated by analytical methods known from the literature. The paper presents analytical solutions that are frequently used in practice for simple plates. Also some simple simulations, using all described analytical solutions compared with the results of specialized program called Comsol Multyphysics, are shown. Presented research demonstrate the effectiveness of numerical software.[b]Keywords[/b]: MEMS, damping forces, Reynolds equation, modelling, simulation

  14. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  15. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  16. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  17. Computer electronics made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdillon, J F B

    1975-01-01

    Computer Electronics: Made Simple Computerbooks presents the basics of computer electronics and explains how a microprocessor works. Various types of PROMs, static RAMs, dynamic RAMs, floppy disks, and hard disks are considered, along with microprocessor support devices made by Intel, Motorola and Zilog. Bit slice logic and some AMD bit slice products are also described. Comprised of 14 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of hardware design, followed by a discussion on the basic building blocks of hardware (NAND, NOR, AND, OR, NOT, XOR); tools and equipment that

  18. Systems analysis made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Antill, Lyn

    1980-01-01

    Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification

  19. Solar distillation between a simple and double-glazing

    OpenAIRE

    KHECHEKHOUCHE, Abderrahmane; BENHAOUA, Boubaker; DRISS, Zied

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The south-east region of Algeria suffers from a great socio-economic problem that affects a large population. Faced with the unavailability of drinking water, solar distillation; which appears to be a suitable and inexpensive solution; was adopted by local researchers. Improving the productivity of a solar greenhouse distiller is the subject of several researches in the world. As it is well known, distiller with simple glazing is wildly studied but unfortunately has feeble effici...

  20. Acti-Glide: a simple method of applying compression hosiery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Sylvie

    2005-05-01

    Compression hosiery is often worn to help prevent aching legs and swollen ankles, to prevent ulceration, to treat venous ulceration or to treat varicose veins. However, patients and nurses may experience problems applying hosiery and this can lead to non-concordance in patients and possibly reluctance from nurses to use compression hosiery. A simple solution to applying firm hosiery is Acti-Glide from Activa Healthcare.

  1. Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.

  2. Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.

  3. SPORTS - a simple non-linear thermalhydraulic stability code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1986-01-01

    A simple code, called SPORTS, has been developed for two-phase stability studies. A novel method of solution of the finite difference equations was deviced and incorporated, and many of the approximations that are common in other stability codes are avoided. SPORTS is believed to be accurate and efficient, as small and large time-steps are permitted, and hence suitable for micro-computers. (orig.)

  4. A simple technique for estimating EUVE sky survey exposure times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A simple way to estimate accumulated exposure time over the celestial sphere for a scanning telescope in earth orbit is described. Primary constraints on observation time, such as earth blockage, solar occultation, and passage through the South Atlantic Anomaly, are modeled using relatively straightforward, mainly closed-form geometrical solutions. The resulting algorithm is implemented on a desktop microcomputer. Though not rigorously precise, the algorithm is sufficient for conducting preliminary mission design studies for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).

  5. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  6. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  7. Solution electrospinning of particle-composite fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Fojan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a simple and fast way to produce nano- and microfibers. By applying high voltage to a droplet of solution or polymer melt, fibre mats can be produced. These mats are porous in the micrometre domain, and have a high surface area to volume ratio.......Electrospinning is a simple and fast way to produce nano- and microfibers. By applying high voltage to a droplet of solution or polymer melt, fibre mats can be produced. These mats are porous in the micrometre domain, and have a high surface area to volume ratio....

  8. iPad Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin; Learning, MSL Made Simple

    2010-01-01

    The new iPad is sleek, powerful, and most importantly, it's much more than just a big iPhone. Your iPad is can be used for reading, surfing the web, emailing, watching TV/Movies, getting work done, and much more. And with the upcoming wave of iPad apps, the possibilities are endless. iPad X Made Simple clarifies all of the key features on the iPad, introduces what's new, and also reveals dozens of time-saving shortcuts and techniques. The book has over 1,000 screen shots that are carefully annotated with step-by-step instructions. * Clear instructions on how to set up and use the iPad * Illust

  9. The simple approach to deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.O.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a simple top hat plume model in conjunction with the principle of source depletion facilitates an analytical treatment of the deposition problem. With such a model, explicit formulae for downwind deposition amounts and ground level atmospheric concentrations are given. The method has the advantage of allowing estimates of the most unfavorable parameter combinations for, say, the maximum deposition that can occur at a given distance from the source. With regard to the land contamination problem, where an area is defined as 'contaminated' when the amount of deposited material is greater than some minimum value, estimates of, for example, the maximum area contaminated and the maximum amount of contamination deposited will also be given

  10. Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Smith, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available [1- 3 H](-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and α-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml -1 for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml -1 for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label. (author)

  11. Simple scheme for gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple scheme for constructing models that achieve successful gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to our previous work [H. Murayama and Y. Nomura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 151803 (2007)] that proposed drastically simplified models using metastable vacua of supersymmetry breaking in vectorlike theories, we show there are many other successful models using various types of supersymmetry-breaking mechanisms that rely on enhanced low-energy U(1) R symmetries. In models where supersymmetry is broken by elementary singlets, one needs to assume U(1) R violating effects are accidentally small, while in models where composite fields break supersymmetry, emergence of approximate low-energy U(1) R symmetries can be understood simply on dimensional grounds. Even though the scheme still requires somewhat small parameters to sufficiently suppress gravity mediation, we discuss their possible origins due to dimensional transmutation. The scheme accommodates a wide range of the gravitino mass to avoid cosmological problems

  12. Simple radiography by Imaging Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Shigeru; Koyama, Motoko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Insitute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Photo-stimulable phosphor is a material which emits luminescence by incitement of light. As useful photo-stimulable phosphor, alkali halide, like BaFBr: Eu, II - VI compound, like SrS: Eu and oxide, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Care reported at present. Imaging Plate is a popular name of products, which is composed of thin layer of the phosphor fixed plastic plate. Photo-stimulable luminescence of Imaging Plate is emitted by scanning with narrow beam of incitement light. The light of luminescence is separated from incitement light by filter and it`s intensity is measured. The intensity of luminescence is proportional to absorbed dose of Imaging Plate from incident radiation. The map of luminescence intensity makes radiation image like radiograph taken by X-ray film. Reusability and usability of digital image are another advantage. The problem to solve of Imaging Plate are less resolution than X-ray film, expensive reading instrument and fading, which means decrease of luminescence intensity depend on elapse time after irradiation. High sensitivity of Imaging Plate makes possible of simple radiography by small radiation source. In Japanese law, sealed radioisotopes source less than 3.7 MBq can use without permission and register. If radiograph can be taken by sealed source less than 3.7 MBq, application of radiography is widely developed. So we try to take radiographs of some objects using Imaging Plate and sealed radioisotope sources under 3.7 MBq. As the result, useful radiographs are taken under conditions that exposure time is more than a few hours and distance between the source and the Plate is less than 30 cm. Quality of the image is poor than general radiograph by large radiation source. But the simple radiography taken by small source is of great value. (J.P.N.)

  13. Global Study of the Simple Pendulum by the Homotopy Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, A.; Reartes, W.; Torresi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Techniques are developed to find all periodic solutions in the simple pendulum by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM). This involves the solution of the equations of motion in two different coordinate representations. Expressions are obtained for the cycles and periods of oscillations with a high degree of accuracy in the whole range of…

  14. A simple method for validation and verification of pipettes mounted on automated liquid handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Frøslev, Tobias G

    2011-01-01

    are freely available. In conclusion, we have set up a simple, inexpensive, and fast solution for the continuous validation of ALHs used for accredited work according to the ISO 17025 standard. The method is easy to use for aqueous solutions but requires a spectrophotometer that can read microtiter plates....

  15. How Long is my Toilet Roll?--A Simple Exercise in Mathematical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The simple question of how much paper is left on my toilet roll is studied from a mathematical modelling perspective. As is typical with applied mathematics, models of increasing complexity are introduced and solved. Solutions produced at each step are compared with the solution from the previous step. This process exposes students to the typical…

  16. The Double-Well Potential in Quantum Mechanics: A Simple, Numerically Exact Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, V.; Marsiglio, F.

    2012-01-01

    The double-well potential is arguably one of the most important potentials in quantum mechanics, because the solution contains the notion of a state as a linear superposition of "classical" states, a concept which has become very important in quantum information theory. It is therefore desirable to have solutions to simple double-well potentials…

  17. Simple snoring: not quite so simple after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Vincent; Ellis, Jason G; Wilson, Janet A; Coulter, Cheryl; Barclay, Nicola L

    2014-12-01

    Simple snoring (SS), in the absence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), is a common problem, yet our understanding of its causes and consequences is incomplete. Our understanding is blurred by the lack of consistency in the definition of snoring, methods of assessment, and degree of concomitant complaints. Further, it remains contentious whether SS is independently associated with daytime sleepiness, or adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Regardless of this lack of clarity, it is likely that SS exists on one end of a continuum, with OSA at its polar end. This possibility highlights the necessity of considering an otherwise 'annoying' complaint, as a serious risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnoea, and consequent poor health outcomes. In this review, we: 1) highlight variation in prevalence estimates of snoring; 2) review the literature surrounding the distinctions between SS, upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) and OSA; 3) present the risk factors for SS, in as far as it is distinguishable from UARS and OSA; and 4) describe common correlates of snoring, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. College Aptitude Test Simple Checker (Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake G. Maggay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All enrolees of the Cagayan State University are required to take the College Aptitude Test (CAT. The CAT result serves as a basis for recommendation and admission to a specific course or field of specialization, thus, result must be accurate. The study a imed to develop a computerized College Aptitude Test (CAT Simple Checker of Cagayan State University – Lasam Campus to facilitate and to reduce the time of the guidance counsellor in checking many aptitude test papers as well as to ensure accuracy of resu lt. It followed the framework of Design Science Research in Information Systems which consists of six steps such as problem identification and motivation, definition of objectives for a solution based on the identified problem, design and development of th e system, demonstration of the system to the guidance counsellor, evaluation of the system’s functionality and impact and communication which involves documentation and publication. A combination of Visual Basic 6 as the programming language and SQL Server 2005 as the Database Management System (DBMS were used in the development of the system. As a result, the system provides support to the guidance counsellor in performing the assigned tasks by reducing the time consumed in checking aptitude test papers t hat makes the guidance counsellor more effective, efficient and productive.

  19. ZeroMQ: Messaging Made Simple

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2007, ZeroMQ has defined a new product category of thin, fast, open source message transports. This little library has now grown into a large, vibrant community of projects tied together with standard protocols and APIs. Applications, written in any language, talk to each other over TCP, multicast, or inproc transports, using a single socket-based API, and a set of "patterns" (pub-sub, request-reply, dealer-router, pipeline). ZeroMQ handles message framing, batching, and I/O, but ignores aspects like serialization and persistence. By focussing on the essentials, and acting as a toolkit rather than a pre-packaged solution, ZeroMQ turns the complex problem of distributed computing into a relatively simple recipe. About the speaker Pieter Hintjens is a writer, programmer, and public speaker who has spent decades building large software systems, organizations, and businesses. He designed the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) in 2006 for JPMorganChase and left ...

  20. Squid – a simple bioinformatics grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Miranda Antonio B

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is a widely used genetic research tool for analysis of similarity between nucleotide and protein sequences. This paper presents a software application entitled "Squid" that makes use of grid technology. The current version, as an example, is configured for BLAST applications, but adaptation for other computing intensive repetitive tasks can be easily accomplished in the open source version. This enables the allocation of remote resources to perform distributed computing, making large BLAST queries viable without the need of high-end computers. Results Most distributed computing / grid solutions have complex installation procedures requiring a computer specialist, or have limitations regarding operating systems. Squid is a multi-platform, open-source program designed to "keep things simple" while offering high-end computing power for large scale applications. Squid also has an efficient fault tolerance and crash recovery system against data loss, being able to re-route jobs upon node failure and recover even if the master machine fails. Our results show that a Squid application, working with N nodes and proper network resources, can process BLAST queries almost N times faster than if working with only one computer. Conclusion Squid offers high-end computing, even for the non-specialist, and is freely available at the project web site. Its open-source and binary Windows distributions contain detailed instructions and a "plug-n-play" instalation containing a pre-configured example.

  1. General solution of linear vector supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Alberto; Maggiore, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We give the general solution of the Ward identity for the linear vector supersymmetry which characterizes all topological models. Such a solution, whose expression is quite compact and simple, greatly simplifies the study of theories displaying a supersymmetric algebraic structure, reducing to a few lines the proof of their possible finiteness. In particular, the cohomology technology, usually involved for the quantum extension of these theories, is completely bypassed. The case of Chern-Simons theory is taken as an example

  2. A simple but usually fast branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. To guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the Lagrangean...... subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much faster and more robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....

  3. Two Simple Models for Fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jaren Quinn

    Recent developments in fracking have enable the recovery of oil and gas from tight shale reservoirs. These developments have also made fracking one of the most controversial environmental issues in the United States. Despite the growing controversy surrounding fracking, there is relatively little publicly available research. This dissertation introduces two simple models for fracking that were developed using techniques from non-linear and statistical physics. The first model assumes that the volume of induced fractures must be equal to the volume of injected fluid. For simplicity, these fractures are assumed to form a spherically symmetric damage region around the borehole. The predicted volumes of water necessary to create a damage region with a given radius are in good agreement with reported values. The second model is a modification of invasion percolation which was previously introduced to model water flooding. The reservoir rock is represented by a regular lattice of local traps that contain oil and/or gas separated by rock barriers. The barriers are assumed to be highly heterogeneous and are assigned random strengths. Fluid is injected from a central site and the weakest rock barrier breaks allowing fluid to flow into the adjacent site. The process repeats with the weakest barrier breaking and fluid flowing to an adjacent site each time step. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out to obtain statistical properties of the growing fracture network. The network was found to be fractal with fractal dimensions differing slightly from the accepted values for traditional percolation. Additionally, the network follows Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga branching statistics which have been used to characterize river networks. As with other percolation models, the growth of the network occurs in bursts. These bursts follow a power-law size distribution similar to observed microseismic events. Reservoir stress anisotropy is incorporated into the model by assigning

  4. On \\omega-categorical simple theories

    OpenAIRE

    Palacin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we shall prove that countable \\omega-categorical simple CM-trivial theories and countable \\omega-categorical simple theories with strong stable forking are low. In addition, we observe that simple theories of bounded finite weight are low.

  5. Simple model for dice loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Jan; Richter, Peter H.

    2010-03-01

    Dice tossing is commonly believed to be random. However, throwing a fair cube is a dissipative process that is well described by deterministic classical mechanics. In Nagler and Richter (2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 036207; featured in 2008 Nature 455 434), we proposed a simplified model to analyze the origin of the pseudorandomness: a barbell with two masses at its tips with only two final outcomes. In order to keep things simple, we focused on the symmetrical case of equal masses. Here, we complete the picture by considering the general asymmetric case of unequal masses. We show how, depending on the initial conditions, dissipation during bounces, and mass asymmetry, the degree of unpredictability varies. Our analysis reveals, for the simplest possible non-trivial dice throwing model, the effect of dice loading. A surprising consequence of dynamical resonances is that an experienced player may benefit sometimes more from an unloaded than from a loaded barbell. In addition, we investigate the influence of loading on the symmetry breaking process causing one mass to come to rest earlier than the others.

  6. Elliptic Hypergeometric Solutions to Elliptic Difference Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse P. Magnus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how to define difference equations on particular lattices {x_n}, n in Z, made of values of an elliptic function at a sequence of arguments in arithmetic progression (elliptic lattice. Solutions to special difference equations have remarkable simple interpolatory expansions. Only linear difference equations of first order are considered here.

  7. Elliptic Hypergeometric Solutions to Elliptic Difference Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Alphonse P.

    2009-03-01

    It is shown how to define difference equations on particular lattices {xn}, n Î Z, made of values of an elliptic function at a sequence of arguments in arithmetic progression (elliptic lattice). Solutions to special difference equations have remarkable simple interpolatory expansions. Only linear difference equations of first order are considered here.

  8. Quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Koç, R; Tuetuencueler, H

    2002-01-01

    A method is suggested to obtain the quasi exact solution of the Rabi Hamiltonian. It is conceptually simple and can be easily extended to other systems. The analytical expressions are obtained for eigenstates and eigenvalues in terms of orthogonal polynomials. It is also demonstrated that the Rabi system, in a particular case, coincides with the quasi exactly solvable Poeschl-Teller potential.

  9. Challenging mathematical problems with elementary solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Yaglom, A M

    1987-01-01

    Volume I of a two-part series, this book features a broad spectrum of 100 challenging problems related to probability theory and combinatorial analysis. The problems, most of which can be solved with elementary mathematics, range from relatively simple to extremely difficult. Suitable for students, teachers, and any lover of mathematics. Complete solutions.

  10. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies can yield the fact that the value-added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted. (author)

  11. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted

  12. The Krafft temperature of surfactant solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Jelena Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our main motivation to revisit the solution properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is related to the clear requirement for better control of the adsorption parameters to form uniform self-assembled monolayers on muscovite mica substrates. To readily monitor the temporal evolution of structural details in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, we realized a rather simple conductivity experiment. Conductivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature, to look closer into the Krafft temperature behavior of this surfactant. We measured the electrical conductivity of different concentrations of aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, below and above the critical micells concentration.

  13. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  14. Generating static perfect-fluid solutions of Einstein's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Hernando; Toktarbay, Saken

    2015-05-01

    We present a method for generating exact interior solutions of Einstein's equations in the case of static and axially symmetric perfect-fluid spacetimes. The method is based upon a transformation that involves the metric functions as well as the density and pressure of the seed solution. In the limiting vacuum case, it reduces to the Zipoy-Voorhees transformation that can be used to generate metrics with multipole moments. All the metric functions of the new solution can be calculated explicitly from the seed solution in a simple manner. The physical properties of the resulting new solutions are shown to be completely different from those of the seed solution.

  15. Qualitative Observations Concerning Packing Densities for Liquids, Solutions, and Random Assemblies of Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duer, W. C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses comparisons of packing densities derived from known molar volume data of liquids and solutions. Suggests further studies for using assemblies of spheres as models for simple liquids and solutions. (MLH)

  16. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  17. Simple Ion Transfer at Liquid|Liquid Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Sanchez Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects related to the charge transfer reactions occurring at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES are described. The particular topics to be discussed involve simple ion transfer. Focus is given on theoretical approaches, numerical simulations, and experimental methodologies. Concerning the theoretical procedures, different computational simulations related to simple ion transfer are reviewed. The main conclusions drawn from the most accepted models are described and analyzed in regard to their relevance for explaining different aspects of ion transfer. We describe numerical simulations implementing different approaches for solving the differential equations associated with the mass transport and charge transfer. These numerical simulations are correlated with selected experimental results; their usefulness in designing new experiments is summarized. Finally, many practical applications can be envisaged regarding the determination of physicochemical properties, electroanalysis, drug lipophilicity, and phase-transfer catalysis.

  18. A simple model for straggling evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J W; Tai, H; Tripathi, R K

    2002-01-01

    Simple straggling models had largely been abandoned in favor of Monte Carlo simulations of straggling which are accurate but time consuming, limiting their application in practice. The difficulty of simple analytic models is the failure to give accurate values past 85% of the particle range. A simple model is derived herein based on a second order approximation upon which rapid analysis tools are developed for improved understanding of material charged particle transmission properties.

  19. Simple model for the dynamics towards metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, P.H.E.; Keskin, M.; Bodegom, E.

    1986-01-01

    Circumstances under which a quenched system will freeze in a metastable state are studied in simple systems with long-range order. The model used is the time-dependent pair approximation, based on the most probable path (MPP) method. The time dependence of the solution is shown by means of flow diagrams. The fixed points and other features of the differential equations in time are independent of the choice of the rate constants. It is explained qualitatively how the system behaves under varying descending temperatures: the role of the initial conditions, the dependence on the quenching rate, and the response to precooling

  20. Simple signaling games of sexual selection (Grafen's revisited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Pierre; Hamelin, Frédéric M

    2014-12-01

    We investigate several versions of a simple game of sexual selection, to explore the role of secondary sexual characters (the "handicap paradox") with the tools of signaling theory. Our models admit closed form solutions. They are very much inspired by Grafen's (J Theor Biol 144:517-546, 1990a; J Theor Biol 144:473-516, 1990b) seminal companion papers. By merging and simplifying his two approaches, we identify a not so minor artifact in the seminal study. We propose an alternative model to start with Grafen's sexual selection theory, with several similarities with Getty (Anim Behav 56:127-130, 1998).

  1. Simple Planar Truss (Linear, Nonlinear and Stochastic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydrýšek Karel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a simple planar and statically determinate pin-connected truss. It demonstrates the processes and methods of derivations and solutions according to 1st and 2nd order theories. The article applies linear and nonlinear approaches and their simplifications via a Maclaurin series. Programming connected with the stochastic Simulation-Based Reliability Method (i.e. the direct Monte Carlo approach is used to conduct a probabilistic reliability assessment (i.e. a calculation of the probability that plastic deformation will occur in members of the truss.

  2. Simple Model for Describing and Estimating Wind Turbine Dynamic Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    a method that can be characterised as the blade element momentum method plus a dynamic equation for the induction factor. This method then needs calculations along the blade for a number of sections including numerical solution of equations. This is numerical demanding. The simplest models amounts...... model suggested here places itself in between the most complex and the most simple both in accuracy, numerical demands and physical appeal. The suggested models behavior is demonstrated by simulation and the usefulness for extended Kalman filtering is assessed both via simulated data and real full scale...

  3. A simple model for low energy ion-solid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerzadeh, S.; Selvakumar, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple analytical model for ion-solid interactions, suitable for low energy beam depositions, is reported. An approximation for the nuclear stopping power is used to obtain the analytic solution for the deposited energy in the solid. The ratio of the deposited energy in the bulk to the energy deposited in the surface yields a ceiling for the beam energy above which more defects are generated in the bulk resulting in defective films. The numerical evaluations agree with the existing results in the literature. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Simple Models Create Steep Learning Curves in Academic Design Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard; Dam, Torben; Le Goffic, Virginie Corinne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an easily adaptable, very learning-efficient and solution-oriented design studio method: ‘the simple model method’. On a practical level it solves well known problems that occur when teaching design studios. On a theoretical level it suggests a ‘third way’ of bridging design...... theory positions normally regarded as mutually incompatible. The method is the result of years of ‘trial and error’ design studio teaching at the University of Copenhagen, triangulated with academic design theory research. Research based design studio teaching poses a fundamental pedagogical challenge...

  5. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic pathway of 14 C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14 CO 2 . This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14 C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14 CO 2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites [fr

  6. Geometric characteristics of the solitonic solution in the case of finite density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhunussova, Zhanat; Dosmagulova, Karlygash

    2015-09-01

    Some exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations are widely investigated both mathematical and physical points of view. Physically interesting solution as solitonic is well known. Also solitonic solution have simple behavior in bumping and are stable. There are various methods for searching of these exact solutions.

  7. Solving the AKNS Hierarchy by Its Bilinear Form: Generalized Double Wronskian Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fumei; Sun Yepeng; Cai Fuqing; Chen Dengyuan

    2008-01-01

    Through the Wronskian technique, a simple and direct proof is presented that the AKNS hierarchy in the bilinear form has generalized double Wronskian solutions. Moreover, by using a unified way, soliton solutions, rational solutions, Matveev solutions and complexitons in double Wronskian form for it are constructed.

  8. A simple way to incorporate kinetic effects into migration assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami

    1991-01-01

    The necessity of including adsorption kinetics into migration model in addition to static K d approach has been pointed out. One of the important factors which cause the kinetic effects is the diffusion controlled adsorption of radionuclides to geologic materials. The phenomena have been usually modeled by Fickian diffusion model. However, if the model was applied to actual inhomogeneous systems, the correspondent numerical schemes will consume enormous CPU time. The present study introduce a simple model to simulate diffusion controlled adsorption of nuclides to geologic materials. The model consists of first-order kinetics combined with instantaneous adsorption term. The first-order rate parameters were interpreted using mobile-immobile zone concepts and were theoretically related with several intrinsic parameters including: diffusion coefficients in immobile solution zones, solid phase geometry, and porosity. Using the first-order kinetics in conjunction with physical transport terms, solution for inhomogeneous fields will be obtained much easier. (author)

  9. A simple route to prepare stable hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingchao; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu

    2009-07-01

    A simple ultrasound assisted precipitation method with addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is proposed to prepare stable hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles suspension from the mixture of Ca(H2PO4)2 solution and Ca(OH)2 solution. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, HRTEM and particle size, and zeta potential analyzer. TEM observation shows that the suspension is composed of 10-20 nm × 20-50 nm short rod-like and 10-30 nm similar spherical HAP nanoparticles. The number-averaged particle size of stable suspension is about 30 nm between 11.6 and 110.5 nm and the zeta potential is -60.9 mV. The increase of stability of HAP nanoparticles suspension mainly depends on the electrostatic effect and steric effect of GAGs. The HAP nanoparticles can be easily transported into the cancer cells and exhibit good potential as gene or drug carrier system.

  10. A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of high-power, relativistic diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl, E-mail: cekdahl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of a relativistic electron diode is presented. The approximation is accurate from non-relativistic through relativistic electron energies. Although it is empirically developed, it has many of the fundamental properties of the exact diode solutions. The approximation is simple enough to be remembered and worked on almost any pocket calculator, so it has proven to be quite useful on the laboratory floor.

  11. A Simple Heat of Crystallization Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nevers, Noel

    1991-01-01

    A demonstration used in a heat and material balances class that explains how a reusable heat pack works is described. An initial homework problem or exam question is provided with its solution. A discussion of the solution is included. (KR)

  12. On timelike supersymmetric solutions of gauged minimal 5-dimensional supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimento, Samuele; Ortín, Tomás

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the timelike supersymmetric solutions of minimal gauged 5-dimensional supergravity for the case in which the Kähler base manifold admits a holomorphic isometry and depends on two real functions satisfying a simple second-order differential equation. Using this general form of the base space, the equations satisfied by the building blocks of the solutions become of, at most, fourth degree and can be solved by simple polynomic ansatzs. In this way we construct two 3-parameter families of solutions that contain almost all the timelike supersymmetric solutions of this theory with one angular momentum known so far and a few more: the (singular) supersymmetric Reissner-Nordström-AdS solutions, the three exact supersymmetric solutions describing the three near-horizon geometries found by Gutowski and Reall, three 1-parameter asymptotically-AdS5 black-hole solutions with those three near-horizon geometries (Gutowski and Reall's black hole being one of them), three generalizations of the Gödel universe and a few potentially homogenous solutions. A key rôle in finding these solutions is played by our ability to write AdS5's Kähler base space ( {\\overline{CP}}^2 or SU(1, 2)/U(2)) is three different, yet simple, forms associated to three different isometries. Furthermore, our ansatz for the Kähler metric also allows us to study the dimensional compactification of the theory and its solutions in a systematic way.

  13. Analytical solutions for one-dimensional advection–dispersion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present simple analytical solutions for the unsteady advection–dispersion equations describing the pollutant concentration (, ) in one dimension. The solutions are obtained by using Laplace transformation technique. In this study we divided the river into two regions ≤ 0 and ≥0 and the origin at = 0.

  14. The functional variable method for finding exact solutions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified. Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled. KdV system. This method is extremely simple ...

  15. Iterative Approximate Solutions of Kinetic Equations for Reversible Enzyme Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshnaw, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study kinetic models of reversible enzyme reactions and compare two techniques for analytic approximate solutions of the model. Analytic approximate solutions of non-linear reaction equations for reversible enzyme reactions are calculated using the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and the Simple Iteration Method (SIM). The results of the approximations are similar. The Matlab programs are included in appendices.

  16. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  17. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  18. (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, they were washed 3 to 4 times with sterile distilled water and inoculated aseptically on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium free hormones. Single nodes resulted from seedlings cultured as explants. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers used produced different ...

  19. Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…

  20. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  1. Simple heat conduction model with phase change for reactor fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.L.; Ishii, M.; Grolmes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A simple conduction model with phase change has been developed for the transient analysis of a reactor fuel pin based on average properties and lumped parameter techniques. Using the predetermined average overall heat transfer coefficient across a fuel pin in the steady-state period, the average transient fuel and clad temperatures can be formulated analytically. For loss-of-flow at constant power, the start of melting and complete melting for both the fuel and clad can be estimated with considerable accuracy. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a simple useful tool to obtain the general information about fuel and clad leading into the cooling transients. At present, the formulation is being employed for cladding motion and cladding blockage formation in the subassembly of a reactor core. The solution of the simple conduction model for the incipient melting time and the complete melting time of the clad in both R-5 and L-2 test fuel pins was compared with the numerical solution obtained from the SAS code, and the agreement between both solutions is excellent. For the R-5 test case, the analytical solution of the simple conduction model for the complete melting times for both clad and fuel was further compared with numerical solution calculated from THTB code at various axial position of the fuel pin. The comparison shows good agreement. The present lumped parameter model for a fuel pin has been developed to be used in an analysis of multichannel clad motions in a loss-of-flow accident

  2. Flotation separation of hafnium(IV) from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.M.; Narick, C.N.; Cohen, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for the separation of hafnium from aqueous solutions was investigated using sup(175+181)Hf tracer. Cationic hafnium complex ions were floated from dilute acid solutions with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and anionic hafnium complexes were floated from basic and oxalic acid solutions with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTMAB). The conditions necessary for quantitative recovery of the metal and mechanisms of flotation are described. (author)

  3. Automated addition of Chelex solution to tubes containing trace items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from trace items for forensic genetic DNA typing using a manual Chelex based extraction protocol requires addition of Chelex solution to sample tubes containing trace items. Automated of addition of Chelex solution may be hampered by high viscosity of the solution and fast...... sedimentation rate of the Chelex beads. Here, we present a simple method that can be used on an Eppendorf epMotion liquid handler resolving these issues...

  4. Robust and efficient solution procedures for association models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    Equations of state that incorporate the Wertheim association expression are more difficult to apply than conventional pressure explicit equations, because the association term is implicit and requires solution for an internal set of composition variables. In this work, we analyze the convergence ...... behavior of different solution methods and demonstrate how a simple and efficient, yet globally convergent, procedure for the solution of the equation of state can be formulated....

  5. Exact interior solutions in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook; Bhar, Piyali [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ritabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Sceince and Technology Shibpur, Howrah, West Bengal (India); Usmani, A.A. [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-04-15

    We provide a new class of exact solutions for the interior in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime. The solutions obtained for the perfect fluid model both with and without cosmological constant (Λ) are found to be regular and singularity free. It assumes very simple analytical forms that help us to study the various physical properties of the configuration. Solutions without Λ are found to be physically acceptable. (orig.)

  6. A Streamlined Approach to Solving Simple and Complex Kinetic Systems Analytically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraos, John

    1999-11-01

    The use of Laplace transforms and integration techniques for the solution of simultaneous differential equations is demonstrated for obtaining the analytical solutions of simple and complex kinetic systems well known to students of the chemical sciences. These techniques learned in core first- and second-year mathematics courses provide a firm grounding in students' ability to understand the derivation of various rate expressions, and illustrate the value of cross-disciplinary approaches to education between the chemical and mathematical sciences.

  7. Simple Extraction and Molecular Weight Characterization of Fucoidan From Indonesian Sargassum SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Junaidi, Lukman

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan is a complex polysaccharide compounds found in brown algae. Fucoidan exhibits various biological properties for disease prevention. There are various methods used to extract fucoidan from brown algae, such as using ethanol, acetone, HCl and microwave. This research aims to extract and characterize fucoidan from Sargassum sp. using simple methods with the variables on extracting solutions, temperature and time of extraction. Extraction solution used were water and HCl. Ttemperature us...

  8. How long is my toilet roll? - a simple exercise in mathematical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter R.

    2013-09-01

    The simple question of how much paper is left on my toilet roll is studied from a mathematical modelling perspective. As is typical with applied mathematics, models of increasing complexity are introduced and solved. Solutions produced at each step are compared with the solution from the previous step. This process exposes students to the typical stages of mathematical modelling via an example from everyday life. Two activities are suggested for students to complete, as well as several extensions to stimulate class discussion.

  9. Exact solutions for nonlinear foam drainage equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, E. M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the modified simple equation method, the exp-function method, the soliton ansatz method, the Riccati equation expansion method and the ( G^' }/G)-expansion method are used to construct exact solutions with parameters of the nonlinear foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions and the trigonometric function solutions are derived from the exact solutions. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methods are efficient techniques for analytic treatments of a wide variety of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. We compare our results together with each other yielding from these integration tools. Also, our results have been compared with the well-known results of others.

  10. Simple bone cysts of two brothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    17-year-old and 14-year-old brothers were referred for evaluation of the cystic lesions on the mandibular anterior area with no symptoms. Neither their mother nor the brothers could recall any past trauma to those areas. Panoramic and intraoral radiographs revealed moderately defined cystic lesions on their mandibular anterior areas. Biopsies on both lesions revealed simple bone cysts. Hereditary cause or familial history of simple bone cysts could not be found in literature review. This case may have been a coincidence. However, further investigation is needed to find the cause of simple bone cysts occurring in patients those are closely related.

  11. Simple bone cysts of two brothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik

    2008-01-01

    17-year-old and 14-year-old brothers were referred for evaluation of the cystic lesions on the mandibular anterior area with no symptoms. Neither their mother nor the brothers could recall any past trauma to those areas. Panoramic and intraoral radiographs revealed moderately defined cystic lesions on their mandibular anterior areas. Biopsies on both lesions revealed simple bone cysts. Hereditary cause or familial history of simple bone cysts could not be found in literature review. This case may have been a coincidence. However, further investigation is needed to find the cause of simple bone cysts occurring in patients those are closely related.

  12. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  13. Mechanistic mathematical models: An underused platform for HPV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Marc D; Gravitt, Patti E; Myers, Evan R

    2017-06-01

    Health economic modeling has become an invaluable methodology for the design and evaluation of clinical and public health interventions against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases. At the same time, relatively little attention has been paid to a different yet complementary class of models, namely that of mechanistic mathematical models. The primary focus of mechanistic mathematical models is to better understand the intricate biologic mechanisms and dynamics of disease. Inspired by a long and successful history of mechanistic modeling in other biomedical fields, we highlight several areas of HPV research where mechanistic models have the potential to advance the field. We argue that by building quantitative bridges between biologic mechanism and population level data, mechanistic mathematical models provide a unique platform to enable collaborations between experimentalists who collect data at different physical scales of the HPV infection process. Through such collaborations, mechanistic mathematical models can accelerate and enhance the investigation of HPV and related diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Hypothermia after cardiac arrest--underused method that saves lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Ivan; Peklić, Marina; Gasparović, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest causes ischemia and lesion of all organ systems, but the central nervous system is the most vulnerable. It is known that only few minutes of hypoperfusion and ischemia can cause irreversible damage to the brain which is the major frustration of reanimatology. Results of clinical trials suggest positive effects of hypothermia on survival and neurological recovery which led to including this method to Guidelines for resuscitation as a recommended standard method in post-resuscitation period for patients who have not regained consciousness. Methods for induction and maintenance of hypothermia are numerous and various, basically divided into invasive and non-invasive, each with its own advantages and disadvantages which are described in this paper. Despite recognised positive effects of mild therapeutic hypothermia after resuscitation from cardiac arrest, the method is not fully implemented as a standard method in post-resuscitation period.

  15. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  16. Simple tangible language elements for young children

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, researchers have proposed simple tangible language elements for very young children to use when constructing programmes. The equivalent Turtle Talk instructions are given for comparison. Two examples of the tangible language code...

  17. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  18. A simple low-cost cryogenic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.V.; Bartram, C.P.

    1977-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive cryogenic temperature controller is described. Temperatures from 78 K to 300 K are maintained to 0.1 K. A novel feature, using a power transistor for the heating element, is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  20. A simple device for embalming cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, S; Balasubramanyam, V; Thomas, I M

    1998-01-01

    A simple design of a mobile embalming unit is presented that offers better quality embalming and is fairly economical. The technique is faster and consistently more reliable than the conventional gravity aided embalming.

  1. Simple shear of deformable square objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagus, Susan H.; Lan, Labao

    2003-12-01

    Finite element models of square objects in a contrasting matrix in simple shear show that the objects deform to a variety of shapes. For a range of viscosity contrasts, we catalogue the changing shapes and orientations of objects in progressive simple shear. At moderate simple shear ( γ=1.5), the shapes are virtually indistinguishable from those in equivalent pure shear models with the same bulk strain ( RS=4), examined in a previous study. In theory, differences would be expected, especially for very stiff objects or at very large strain. In all our simple shear models, relatively competent square objects become asymmetric barrel shapes with concave shortened edges, similar to some types of boudin. Incompetent objects develop shapes surprisingly similar to mica fish described in mylonites.

  2. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  3. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  4. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Górniewicz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  5. Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górniewicz Lech

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.

  6. Population and size distribution of solute-rich mesospecies within mesostructured aqueous amino acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawor-Baczynska, Anna; Moore, Barry D; Lee, Han Seung; McCormick, Alon V; Sefcik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of highly soluble substances such as small amino acids are usually assumed to be essentially homogenous systems with some degree of short range local structuring due to specific interactions on the sub-nanometre scale (e.g. molecular clusters, hydration shells), usually not exceeding several solute molecules. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies have indicated the presence of much larger supramolecular assemblies or mesospecies in solutions of small organic and inorganic molecules as well as proteins. We investigated both supersaturated and undersaturated aqueous solutions of two simple amino acids (glycine and DL-alanine) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Brownian Microscopy/Nanoparticles Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Colloidal scale mesospecies (nanodroplets) were previously reported in supersaturated solutions of these amino acids and were implicated as intermediate species on non-classical crystallization pathways. Surprisingly, we have found that the mesospecies are also present in significant numbers in undersaturated solutions even when the solute concentration is well below the solid-liquid equilibrium concentration (saturation limit). Thus, mesopecies can be observed with mean diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm and a size distribution that broadens towards larger size with increasing solute concentration. We note that the mesospecies are not a separate phase and the system is better described as a thermodynamically stable mesostructured liquid containing solute-rich domains dispersed within bulk solute solution. At a given temperature, solute molecules in such a mesostructured liquid phase are subject to equilibrium distribution between solute-rich mesospecies and the surrounding bulk solution.

  7. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  8. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.

    1983-01-01

    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  9. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients wer...

  10. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  11. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  12. Liquid scintillation solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid scintillation solution is described which includes (1) a scintillation solvent (toluene and xylene), (2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO and Butyl PBD), (3) a secondary scintillation solute (POPOP and Dimethyl POPOP), (4) a plurality of substantially different surfactants and (5) a filter dissolving and/or transparentizing agent. 8 claims

  13. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  14. Multivariate statistics exercises and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    The authors present tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis by means of exercises and their solutions. The first part is devoted to graphical techniques. The second part deals with multivariate random variables and presents the derivation of estimators and tests for various practical situations. The last part introduces a wide variety of exercises in applied multivariate data analysis. The book demonstrates the application of simple calculus and basic multivariate methods in real life situations. It contains altogether more than 250 solved exercises which can assist a university teacher in setting up a modern multivariate analysis course. All computer-based exercises are available in the R language. All R codes and data sets may be downloaded via the quantlet download center  www.quantlet.org or via the Springer webpage. For interactive display of low-dimensional projections of a multivariate data set, we recommend GGobi.

  15. Fire, ice, water, and dirt: A simple climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, John

    2017-07-01

    A simple paleoclimate model was developed as a modeling exercise. The model is a lumped parameter system consisting of an ocean (water), land (dirt), glacier, and sea ice (ice) and driven by the sun (fire). In comparison with other such models, its uniqueness lies in its relative simplicity yet yielding good results. For nominal values of parameters, the system is very sensitive to small changes in the parameters, yielding equilibrium, steady oscillations, and catastrophes such as freezing or boiling oceans. However, stable solutions can be found, especially naturally oscillating solutions. For nominally realistic conditions, natural periods of order 100kyrs are obtained, and chaos ensues if the Milankovitch orbital forcing is applied. An analysis of a truncated system shows that the naturally oscillating solution is a limit cycle with the characteristics of a relaxation oscillation in the two major dependent variables, the ocean temperature and the glacier ice extent. The key to getting oscillations is having the effective emissivity decreasing with temperature and, at the same time, the effective ocean albedo decreases with increasing glacier extent. Results of the original model compare favorably to the proxy data for ice mass variation, but not for temperature variation. However, modifications to the effective emissivity and albedo can be made to yield much more realistic results. The primary conclusion is that the opinion of Saltzman [Clim. Dyn. 5, 67-78 (1990)] is plausible that the external Milankovitch orbital forcing is not sufficient to explain the dominant 100kyr period in the data.

  16. Fire, ice, water, and dirt: A simple climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, John

    2017-07-01

    A simple paleoclimate model was developed as a modeling exercise. The model is a lumped parameter system consisting of an ocean (water), land (dirt), glacier, and sea ice (ice) and driven by the sun (fire). In comparison with other such models, its uniqueness lies in its relative simplicity yet yielding good results. For nominal values of parameters, the system is very sensitive to small changes in the parameters, yielding equilibrium, steady oscillations, and catastrophes such as freezing or boiling oceans. However, stable solutions can be found, especially naturally oscillating solutions. For nominally realistic conditions, natural periods of order 100kyrs are obtained, and chaos ensues if the Milankovitch orbital forcing is applied. An analysis of a truncated system shows that the naturally oscillating solution is a limit cycle with the characteristics of a relaxation oscillation in the two major dependent variables, the ocean temperature and the glacier ice extent. The key to getting oscillations is having the effective emissivity decreasing with temperature and, at the same time, the effective ocean albedo decreases with increasing glacier extent. Results of the original model compare favorably to the proxy data for ice mass variation, but not for temperature variation. However, modifications to the effective emissivity and albedo can be made to yield much more realistic results. The primary conclusion is that the opinion of Saltzman [Clim. Dyn. 5, 67-78 (1990)] is plausible that the external Milankovitch orbital forcing is not sufficient to explain the dominant 100kyr period in the data.

  17. Structures of Malcev Bialgebras on a simple non-Lie Malcev algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Lie bialgebras were introduced by Drinfeld in studying the solutions to the classical Yang-Baxter equation. The definition of a bialgebra in the sense of Drinfeld (D-bialgebra), related with any variety of algebras, was given by Zhelyabin. In this work, we consider Malcev bialgebras. We describe all structures of a Malcev bialgebra on a simple non-Lie Malcev algebra.

  18. A simple and effective method to encapsulate tobacco mesophyll protoplasts to maintain cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lei

    2015-01-01

    • It is very convenient to change or collect the solution without mechanically disturbing the protoplasts. This simple and effective silica sol–gel/alginate two-step immobilization of protoplasts in Transwell has great potential for applications in genetic transformation, metabolite production, and migration assays.

  19. The spring balance: a simple monitoring system for fluid overload during hysteroscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankum, W. M.; Vonk, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid overload may arise during hysteroscopic surgery, caused by absorption of fluid used to distend the uterus. Continuous monitoring of the fluid balance is required to prevent this serious complication. Commercial equipment does not serve this purpose adequately. We describe a simple solution. We

  20. Lorentz Trial Function for the Hydrogen Atom: A Simple, Elegant Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The quantum semester of a typical two-semester physical chemistry course is divided into two parts. The initial focus is on quantum mechanics and simple model systems for which the Schrodinger equation can be solved in closed form, but it then shifts in the second half to atoms and molecules, for which no closed solutions exist. The underlying…

  1. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  2. 2 development of a simple amino-modified silica-based colorimetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    of science. This paper reports the development of a simple amino-modified colorimetric sensor using silica gel modified with (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APS) for the qualitative detection of Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions in an effort to demonstrate the concept of ligand field strength and imbue interest in research in the ...

  3. Simple Entropic Derivation of a Generalized Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Stutzer

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A straightforward derivation of the celebrated Black-Scholes Option Pricing model is obtained by solution of a simple constrained minimization of relative entropy. The derivation leads to a natural generalization of it, which is consistent with some evidence from stock index option markets.

  4. A simple dual ascent algorithm for the multilevel facility location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; Kern, Walter

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple dual ascent method for the multilevel facility location problem which finds a solution within $6$ times the optimum for the uncapacitated case and within $12$ times the optimum for the capacitated one. The algorithm is deterministic and based on the primal-dual technique.

  5. Ions, solutes and solvents, oh my!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Daniel David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Modern methods in ab initio quantum mechanics have become efficient and accurate enough to study many gas-phase systems. However, chemists often work in the solution phase. The presence of solvent molecules has been shown to affect reaction mechanisms1, lower reaction energy barriers2, participate in energy transfer with the solute3 and change the physical properties of the solute4. These effects would be overlooked in simple gas phase calculations. Careful study of specific solvents and solutes must be done in order to fully understand the chemistry of the solution phase. Water is a key solvent in chemical and biological applications. The properties of an individual water molecule (a monomer) and the behavior of thousands of molecules (bulk solution) are well known for many solvents. Much is also understood about aqueous microsolvation (small clusters containing ten water molecules or fewer) and the solvation characteristics when bulk water is chosen to solvate a solute. However, much less is known about how these properties behave as the cluster size transitions from the microsolvated cluster size to the bulk. This thesis will focus on species solvated with water clusters that are large enough to exhibit the properties of the bulk but small enough to consist of fewer than one hundred solvent molecules. New methods to study such systems will also be presented.

  6. On numerical solution of Burgers' equation by homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the Homotopy Analysis Method (shortly HAM) for obtaining the numerical solution of the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation. The initial approximation can be freely chosen with possible unknown constants which can be determined by imposing the boundary and initial conditions. Convergence of the solution and effects for the method is discussed. The comparison of the HAM results with the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and the results of [E.N. Aksan, Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 884; S. Kutluay, A. Esen, Int. J. Comput. Math. 81 (2004) 1433; S. Abbasbandy, M.T. Darvishi, Appl. Math. Comput. 163 (2005) 1265] are made. The results reveal that HAM is very simple and effective. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter h, which provides us with a simple way to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical and some numerical solutions

  7. Comment on the Exterior Solutions and Their Geometry in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    We study series of stationary solutions with asymptotic flatness properties in the Einstein-Maxwell-free scalar system because they are locally equivalent to the exterior solutions in some class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. First, we classify spherical exterior solutions into two types of solutions, an apparently black hole type solution and an apparently worm hole type solution. The solutions contain three parameters, and we clarify their physical significance. Second, we reduce the field equations for the axisymmetric exterior solutions. We find that the reduced equations are partially the same as the Ernst equations. As simple examples, we derive new series of static, axisymmetric exterior solutions, which correspond to Voorhees's solutions. We then establish a non-trivial relation between the spherical exterior solutions and our new solutions. Finally, since null geodesics have conformally invariant properties, we study the local geometry of the exterior solutions by using the optical scalar equations and find some anomalous behavior of the null geodesics.

  8. Multipolar Force Fields and Their Effects on Solvent Dynamics around Simple Solutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sofie; Bereau, Tristan; Meuwly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The performance of multipole (MTP) and point charge (PC) force fields in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of condensed-phase systems for both equilibrium and dynamical quantities is compared. MTP electrostatics provides an improved description of the anisotropic electrostatic potential...

  9. Fractures around a previous fixation of proximal femur. A simple solution to a complex problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manuel Bidolegui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of hip fractures in the elderly growth with the increase in life expectancy. Therefore meet with a femur fractured, distal to a previously  implant fixation used in intertrochanteric femur fractures as dynamic hip screw or fixed angle plate, is not an uncommon scenario despite year mortality of hip fracture of 30 to 50%. Given this situation, we used a retrograde intramedullary nail associated with extracting screws percutaneously prior implant. We present 8 cases in patients with an average age of 85.6 years, 5 female and 3 male with a time from the proximal femur fixation to the  new fracture average 3.5 years. Will we track 36 months and we evaluated postoperative mobility and pain getting a consolidation of the fracture in all cases. We found this technique effective; capable of achieving stable fixation without adding morbidity due to the possibility of overlapping two implants decreasing the possibility of potential new interimplantes fracture.

  10. Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company: simple projects, big solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Eckhardt, Moacir; da Motta, Giordano Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The posture, a good organization and the proper layout of the environment and workplaces have a positive influence on the income of an employee. To develop the work it is used a methodology that addressed the study phases of the theory involving the subject, description of the current situation, preparation of conceptions, choice of design, implementation and reporting of results. Through the project of "Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company" there was an intervention in these reported aspects providing improvements in the office, regarding ergonomic, layout, workplace and lighting issues, bringing welfare to the official, with the intent to improve its performance within the company and facilitating its actions, as the company's customer service. The results provided improvements in layout, in the workplace and especially in comfort for the human resources that perform their activities.

  11. Simple multipurpose apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2016-01-01

    students of chemical engineering program at University of Southern Denmark. The exercises included solubility measurement and cooling crystallization of salicylic acid from five different organic solvents and extraction of artemisinin from the leaves of the plant Artemisia annua by using different solvents...

  12. Numerical Solution of the Contact Problem. Application to a Simple Model of the Human Hip Joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, M.; Kestřánek, Zdeněk

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 63, 1/3 (1995), s. 439-447 ISSN 0377-0427. [Modelling'94. Prague, 29.08.1994-02.09.1994] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA308/95/0304 Grant - others:COPERNICUS(XE) 94-00820 Keywords : contact problem * finite element method * mathematical programming Impact factor: 0.373, year: 1995

  13. Cost-effective and simple solutions for environmental pollution problems by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem and has increased significantly with industrialization, urbanization and population growth and is effecting quality of our air, land and water resources. Pollutants include heavy metals, organic toxic and reactive compounds and toxic gases. Major problems in environmental pollution are monitoring and remediation. Now pollutants include such wide range of elements, compounds and gases and normally one needs a whole range of costly analytical techniques to analyse all the pollutants which only very few institutes can afford to purchased. Equipment for electro analytical techniques are much cheaper than most of the other analytical techniques and are also sensitive and accurate for the analysis of nearly the whole range of pollutants including heavy metal. organic reactive compounds, inorganic elements and compounds and toxic gases. application of electrochemical methods for the analysis of different pollutants are reviewed. after monitoring, remediation in the most important aspect of environmental pollution control. Best way could be to treat the pollutants from different industries in such a way that either these are removed from the waste or converted in to non-toxic compounds before their release into the environment. Among all the other treatment methods, electrochemical methods of utilizing the electron as a clean chemical regent are very attractive. Electrodes in electrochemical reactors are abundantly use for the removal and recycling of toxic metals like Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and Zn from the industrial waste after electrodeposition. Electrochemical reactors are also being used for electro oxidation of cyanides and other toxic organic compounds into non-toxic species. Such reactors can, in principal, be applied to any environmental pollution problem where the pollutant can either be electro-reduced or oxidized. Different types of electrochemical reactors are discussed, with a view, of their envisaged used for remediation of environmental pollution. (author)

  14. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  15. "Cotton nail cast": a simple solution for mild and painful lateral and distal nail embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Daniela; De Anda Juárez, Mariana; Ávalos, Verónica Fonte; Martínez, Gisela Reyes; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith

    2015-03-01

    Onychocryptosis is one of the most common painful nail conditions. Conservative treatment may take a long time to obtain effective results. The purpose of this study is to show the effectiveness of a conservative treatment of ingrown nails that shows rapid results. Patients with painful Stage 1 to 2 onychocryptosis who were not candidates or refused surgery were treated with the cotton cast. The severity and cause of onychocryptosis was clinically evaluated during a 2-month period. A questionnaire was applied to all patients to evaluate pain, final treatment, and possible complications. All patients noticed results in less than 72 hours. Pain subsided in less than 24 hours in half of the patients and before 72 hours in 100% of the patients without the need of other treatments. The use of the cast prevented surgery and the accompanying morbidities in most of the patients (80%). The "cotton nail cast" is an effective conservative method for mild nail embedding. It is easy to apply, inexpensive, relieves pain rapidly, and avoids surgery in most patients.

  16. Fibromyalgia and Disability Adjudication: No Simple Solutions to a Complex Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Harth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjudication of disability claims related to fibromyalgia (FM syndrome can be a challenging and complex process. A commentary published in the current issue of Pain Research & Management makes suggestions for improvement. The authors of the commentary contend that: previously and currently used criteria for the diagnosis of FM are irrelevant to clinical practice; the opinions of family physicians should supersede those of experts; there is little evidence that trauma can cause FM; no formal instruments are necessary to assess disability; and many FM patients on or applying for disability are exaggerating or malingering, and tests of symptoms validity should be used to identify malingerers.

  17. Open cascades as simple solutions to providing ultrasensitivity and adaptation in cellular signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Li, Yongfeng; Pomerening, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Cell signaling is achieved predominantly by reversible phosphorylation–dephosphorylation reaction cascades. Up until now, circuits conferring adaptation have all required the presence of a cascade with some type of closed topology: negative-feedback loop with a buffering node, or incoherent feed-forward loop with a proportioner node. In this paper—using Goldbeter and Koshland-type expressions—we propose a differential equation model to describe a generic, open signaling cascade that elicits an adaptation response. This is accomplished by coupling N phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycles unidirectionally, without any explicit feedback loops. Using this model, we show that as the length of the cascade grows, the steady states of the downstream cycles reach a limiting value. In other words, our model indicates that there are a minimum number of cycles required to achieve a maximum in sensitivity and amplitude in the response of a signaling cascade. We also describe for the first time that the phenomenon of ultrasensitivity can be further subdivided into three sub-regimes, separated by sharp stimulus threshold values: OFF, OFF-ON-OFF, and ON. In the OFF-ON-OFF regime, an interesting property emerges. In the presence of a basal amount of activity, the temporal evolution of early cycles yields damped peak responses. On the other hand, the downstream cycles switch rapidly to a higher activity state for an extended period of time, prior to settling to an OFF state (OFF-ON-OFF). This response arises from the changing dynamics between a feed-forward activation module and dephosphorylation reactions. In conclusion, our model gives the new perspective that open signaling cascades embedded in complex biochemical circuits may possess the ability to show a switch-like adaptation response, without the need for any explicit feedback circuitry

  18. Open cascades as simple solutions to providing ultrasensitivity and adaptation in cellular signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Li, Yongfeng; Pomerening, Joseph R.

    2011-08-01

    Cell signaling is achieved predominantly by reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reaction cascades. Up until now, circuits conferring adaptation have all required the presence of a cascade with some type of closed topology: negative-feedback loop with a buffering node, or incoherent feed-forward loop with a proportioner node. In this paper—using Goldbeter and Koshland-type expressions—we propose a differential equation model to describe a generic, open signaling cascade that elicits an adaptation response. This is accomplished by coupling N phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles unidirectionally, without any explicit feedback loops. Using this model, we show that as the length of the cascade grows, the steady states of the downstream cycles reach a limiting value. In other words, our model indicates that there are a minimum number of cycles required to achieve a maximum in sensitivity and amplitude in the response of a signaling cascade. We also describe for the first time that the phenomenon of ultrasensitivity can be further subdivided into three sub-regimes, separated by sharp stimulus threshold values: OFF, OFF-ON-OFF, and ON. In the OFF-ON-OFF regime, an interesting property emerges. In the presence of a basal amount of activity, the temporal evolution of early cycles yields damped peak responses. On the other hand, the downstream cycles switch rapidly to a higher activity state for an extended period of time, prior to settling to an OFF state (OFF-ON-OFF). This response arises from the changing dynamics between a feed-forward activation module and dephosphorylation reactions. In conclusion, our model gives the new perspective that open signaling cascades embedded in complex biochemical circuits may possess the ability to show a switch-like adaptation response, without the need for any explicit feedback circuitry.

  19. The internal combustion engine; a simple solution for pollution from petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The internal combustion (IC) engine is an indirect cause of groundwater and soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons. Leaking underground storage tank systems that are used to store and distribute fuel for automobiles are a major cause of environmental degradation. That same IC engine which has indirectly caused the pollution is an excellent tool for cleaning up environmental contamination from petroleum releases. An extremely flexible clean-up system using an IC engine was designed, constructed and operated to recover free product, treat contaminated soil and remediate groundwater pollution. The treatment system uses the IC engine for vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, spray aeration and incineration. The IC engine is an excellent incinerator. The petroleum vapors are burned in the IC engine with a supplemental propane fuel. The engine drives a power-takeoff unit and provides energy for an air compressor, water pump, electrical generation and other accessories. Using waste to energy methods multiple techniques are being used in combination with different treatment technologies to optimize the remediation. As the remediation progresses the treatment system can be modified to use additional techniques. Another benefit that is directly associated with the IC engine is the presence of excess heat which is helpful in northern climates. The excess heat has many uses including spray aeration and enhanced biological remediation. The IC engine has several limitations and requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the contamination. As with all environmental remediation, a proper understanding of the Hydrogeological System is critical. When properly applied the IC engine has many advantages over other methods of remediation for petroleum hydrocarbons

  20. Sorption of Radionuclides to Building Materials and its Removal Using Simple Wash Solutions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data corresponding to the figures in the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Kaminski, M., C. Mertz, L. Ortega, and N. Kivenas....

  1. Microstructural Fluids and Simple Fluids at Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlinska, Ewa Z.

    1992-09-01

    In the first part of this work the self-assembly structure of three amphiphilic Systems is studied using various experimental techniques. After a general introduction given in Chapter 2, the theoretical and practical aspects of the experimental methods are outlined in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. In Chapter 5 the nature of spontaneously formed aggregates in the binary DDAOH/water system is explored quantitatively by classical and dynamic light scattering as well as electron microscopy. It is shown that these solutions self-assemble into dilute monodisperse unilamellar vesicles in equilibrium with micelles. The experimental data are explained in terms of a model in which most of the micelles are confined to the interior of the vesicles, indicating the existence of a supra-self-assembly mechanism. In Chapter 6 the phase diagram of binary didodecyldimethylammonium acetate/ water system is studied using classical and dynamic light scattering and electrical conductivity measurements. These data are supplemented by SANS studies in the region of high surfactant concentration. The existence of a dilute vesicular phase is demonstrated at concentrations below 0.005 surfactant volume fraction. With increased concentration of surfactant the isotropic sponge (L3) phase and lamellar phase are observed separated by a two phase region. Analysis of the light scattering results indicates the existence of a second order phase transition between the asymmetric and symmetric sponge phase. In the sponge phase region SANS data are consistent with the membrane thickness of 25 A and electrical conductivity results are in agreement with theoretical predictions for charge carriers scattering on large oblate objects. For surfactant concentrations larger than 0.03 volume fraction a mixture of L3 and lamellar phase is observed. In Chapter 7 the thermodynamic consequences of the structure of ternary DDAB/water/cyclohexane system in the microemulsion region (L2) and cubic phase region are

  2. Proteins in solution: Fractal surfaces in solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tscheliessnig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the surface of a protein in solution, as well of the interface between protein and 'bulk solution', is introduced. The experimental technique of small angle X-ray and neutron scattering is introduced and described briefly. Molecular dynamics simulation, as an appropriate computational tool for studying the hydration shell of proteins, is also discussed. The concept of protein surfaces with fractal dimensions is elaborated. We finish by exposing an experimental (using small angle X-ray scattering and a computer simulation case study, which are meant as demonstrations of the possibilities we have at hand for investigating the delicate interfaces that connect (and divide protein molecules and the neighboring electrolyte solution.

  3. The Design of SimpleITK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Christopher Lowekamp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SimpleITK is a new interface to the Insight Segmentation andRegistration Toolkit (ITK designed to facilitate rapid prototyping, educationand scientific activities, via high level programminglanguages. ITK is a templated C++ library of image processingalgorithms and frameworks for biomedical and other applications, andit was designed to be generic, flexible and extensible. Initially, ITKprovided a direct wrapping interface to languages such as Python andTcl through the WrapITK system. Unlike WrapITK, which exposed ITK'scomplex templated interface, SimpleITK was designed to provide an easyto use and simplified interface to ITK's algorithms. It includesprocedural methods, hides ITK's demand driven pipeline, and provides atemplate-less layer. Also SimpleITK provides practical conveniencessuch as binary distribution packages and overloaded operators. Ouruser-friendly design goals dictated a departure from the directinterface wrapping approach of WrapITK, towards a new facadeclass structure that only exposes the required functionality, hidingITK's extensive template use. Internally SimpleITK utilizes a manualdescription of each filter with code-generation and advanced C++meta-programming to provide the higher-level interface, bringing thecapabilities of ITK to a wider audience. SimpleITK is licensed asopen source software under the Apache License Version 2.0 and more informationabout downloading it can be found at http://www.simpleitk.org.

  4. Solution mining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    A solution mining process which may be used for uranium, thorium, vanadium, copper, nickel, molybdenum, rhenium, and selenium is claimed. During a first injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years, a leaching solution is injected through at least one well into the formation to solubilize the mineral values and form a pregnant liquor. This liquor is recovered through another well. The leaching solution contains sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, carbonic acid, an alkali metal carbonate, an alkali metal bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate. Subsequently during a first production-only phase of between about 2 weeks and one year, injection of the leaching solution is suspended but pregnant liquor is still recovered. This stage is followed by a second injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years and a second production-only phase. The mineral values are separated from the pregnant liquor to form a barren liquor. The leaching agent is introduced into this liquor, and the solution is recycled. In a second claim for the solution mining of uranium, dilute carbonic acid is used as the leaching solution. The solution has a pH less than 7 and a bicarbonate ion concentration between about 380 ppm and 1000 ppm. The injection-and-production phase lasts between one and two years and the production only phase takes between one and four months. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the barren liquor to form a dilute carbonic acid solution and the solution is recycled

  5. Clinical neurophysiological evaluation for simple motor tics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattamon Panyakaew

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of neurophysiological evaluation to distinguish simple motor tics and functional myoclonus. Methods: Careful clinical assessments, multichannel surface EMG, and EEG-EMG jerk-locked back-averaging were performed. Results: Urge to move and ability to voluntarily suppress the movement were reported. EMG bursts showed variable duration and triphasic pattern of the antagonist muscles mimicking voluntary movements. Only the late component of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP2 was present prior to the involuntary movement onset. Conclusion: Combination of the isolated late BP, premonitory urge, and suppressibility leads to the diagnosis of simple motor tics rather than functional myoclonus. Significance: The physiological approach in addition to careful clinical assessment is helpful to support the diagnosis of tic. Keywords: Simple motor tics, Functional movement disorders, EEG–EMG jerk-locked back-averaging

  6. Rogue waves and rational solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaqilao,

    2013-01-01

    A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rogue waves and rational solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation is proposed. It turns out that many rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation are obtained. Some features of rogue waves and rational solutions are graphically discussed. -- Highlights: •A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rational solutions to the NEE is proposed. •Some rogue waves and rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-D NEE are obtained. •Some features of rogue waves are graphically discussed

  7. Simple model of stacking-fault energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Jacobsen, Lærke Wedel

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the energetics of stacking faults in fcc metals is constructed. The model contains third-nearest-neighbor pairwise interactions and a term involving the fourth moment of the electronic density of states. The model is in excellent agreement with recently published local-density ......A simple model for the energetics of stacking faults in fcc metals is constructed. The model contains third-nearest-neighbor pairwise interactions and a term involving the fourth moment of the electronic density of states. The model is in excellent agreement with recently published local...

  8. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  9. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... the windows). A number of light indicators allowed understanding and describing the geometry of daylight in the space in a very detailed and thorough manner. The inclusion of the daylight factor, horizontal illuminance, luminance distribution, cylindrical illuminance, the Daylight Glare Index, vertical...

  10. Monosodium glutamate for simple photometric iron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.

    2018-01-01

    Simple photometric method for iron analysis using monosodium glutamate (MSG) was proposed. The method could be used as an alternative method, which was technically simple, economic, quantitative, readily available, scientifically sound and environmental friendly. Rapid reaction of iron (III) with glutamate in sodium chloride-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH 2) to form red-brown complex was served as a basis in the photometric determination, which obeyed the range of iron (III) concentration 1.6 – 80 µg/ml. This method could be applied to determine iron concentration in soil with satisfactory results (accuracy and precision) compared to other photometric and atomic absorption spectrometry results.

  11. Solutions to Organizational Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Peihong, Xie

    Organizations face all kinds of paradoxical problems. There exist various solutions to organizational paradoxes. We develop a typology that lists nine possible logical approaches to understanding the relationship between paradoxical opposites, out of which we identify five types of solutions...... to organizational paradox. Four of the five solutions are explicitly associated with four prominent philosophies. We show the relevance of the five solutions to the real world by applying our scheme to understand different solutions to the generic strategy paradox. Finally, we address the question whether...... there is a superior solution and point out the paradox of paradox resolving, namely, paradoxes cannot be resolved once for all and we have to live with them....

  12. Solution deposition assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  13. Liquid scintillation solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a liquid scintillation solution which contains 1) a scintillation solvent (toluol), 2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO), 3) a secondary scintillation solute (dimethyl POPOP), 4) several surfactants (iso-octyl-phenol polyethoxy-ethanol and sodium di-hexyl sulfosuccinate) essentially different from one another and 5) a filter resolution and/or transparent-making agent (cyclic ether, especially tetrahydrofuran). (HP) [de

  14. Theory of quasi-Chaplygin unstable media and evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, S.K.; Trubnikov, B.A.; Institut Atomnoi Energii, Moscow, USSR)

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional ideal gas with negative compressibility described by quasi-Chaplygin equations is discussed. Its reduction to a Laplace equation is shown, and an evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions is summarized. Three extremely simple spontaneous solutions are obtained along with multidimensional self-similar solutions. The Buneman instability in a plasma is considered as an example. 17 references

  15. Simple regular black hole with logarithmic entropy correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Duran, Nicolas; Vargas, Andres F.; Hoyos-Restrepo, Paulina; Bargueno, Pedro [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota, Distrito Capital (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    A simple regular black hole solution satisfying the weak energy condition is obtained within Einstein-non-linear electrodynamics theory. We have computed the thermodynamic properties of this black hole by a careful analysis of the horizons and we have found that the usual Bekenstein-Hawking entropy gets corrected by a logarithmic term. Therefore, in this sense our model realises some quantum gravity predictions which add this kind of correction to the black hole entropy. In particular, we have established some similitudes between our model and a quadratic generalised uncertainty principle. This similitude has been confirmed by the existence of a remnant, which prevents complete evaporation, in agreement with the quadratic generalised uncertainty principle case. (orig.)

  16. A Simple Model of the Variability of Soil Depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil depth tends to vary from a few centimeters to several meters, depending on many natural and environmental factors. We hypothesize that the cumulative effect of these factors on soil depth, which is chiefly dependent on the process of biogeochemical weathering, is particularly affected by soil porewater (i.e., solute transport and infiltration from the land surface. Taking into account evidence for a non-Gaussian distribution of rock weathering rates, we propose a simple mathematical model to describe the relationship between soil depth and infiltration flux. The model was tested using several areas in mostly semi-arid climate zones. The application of this model demonstrates the use of fundamental principles of physics to quantify the coupled effects of the five principal soil-forming factors of Dokuchaev.

  17. Behaviour of ion velocity distributions for a simple collision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Maurice, J.-P.; Schunk, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the ion velocity distributions for a weakly ionized plasma subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. An exact solution to Boltzmann's equation has been obtained by replacing the Boltzmann collision integral with a simple relaxation model. At altitudes above about 150 km, where the ion collision frequency is much less than the ion cyclotron frequency, the ion distribution takes the shape of a torus in velocity space for electric fields greater than 40 mV/m. This shape persists for one to two hours after application of the electric field. At altitudes where the ion collision and cyclotron frequencies are approximately equal (about 120 km), the ion velocity distribution is shaped like a bean for large electric field strengths. This bean-shaped distribution persists throughout the lifetime of ionospheric electric fields. These highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions may have an appreciable affect on the interpretation of ion temperature measurements.

  18. The curvature calculation mechanism based on simple cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyang; Fan, Xingyu; Song, Aiqi

    2017-07-20

    A conclusion has not yet been reached on how exactly the human visual system detects curvature. This paper demonstrates how orientation-selective simple cells can be used to construct curvature-detecting neural units. Through fixed arrangements, multiple plurality cells were constructed to simulate curvature cells with a proportional output to their curvature. In addition, this paper offers a solution to the problem of narrow detection range under fixed resolution by selecting an output value under multiple resolution. Curvature cells can be treated as concrete models of an end-stopped mechanism, and they can be used to further understand "curvature-selective" characteristics and to explain basic psychophysical findings and perceptual phenomena in current studies.

  19. A simple regularization method for stable analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chu-Li; Dou, Fang-Fang; Feng, Xiao-Li; Qian, Zhi

    2008-12-01

    The problems of analytic continuation are frequently encountered in many practical applications. These problems are well known to be severely ill-posed and therefore several regularization methods have been suggested for solving them. In this paper we consider the problem of analytic continuation of the analytic function f(z) = f(x + iy) on a strip domain \\Omega=\\{z=x+iy\\in {\\bb C}|x\\in{\\bb R},|y|\\leq y_0\\} , where the data are given only on the line y = 0. We use a very simple and convenient method—the Fourier regularization method to solve this problem. Some sharp error estimates between the exact solution and its approximation are given and numerical examples show the method works effectively. The project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10671085, 10571079 and 10726017).

  20. A simple gel electrophoresis method for separating polyhedral gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Hye Jin

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a simple approach to separate differently shaped and sized polyhedral gold nanoparticles (NPs) within colloidal solutions via gel electrophoresis is described. Gel running parameters for separating efficiently gold NPs including gel composition, added surfactant types and applied voltage were investigated. The plasmonic properties and physical structure of the separated NPs extracted from the gel matrix were then investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry respectively. Data analysis revealed that gel electrophoresis conditions of a 1.5 % agarose gel with 0.1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant under an applied voltage of 100 V resulted in the selective isolation of ~ 50 nm polyhedral shaped gold nanoparticles. Further efforts are underway to apply the method to purify biomolecule-conjugated polyhedral Au NPs that can be readily used for NP-enhanced biosensing platforms.

  1. Molecular thermodynamics using fluctuation solution theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela

    Properties of chemicals and their mutual phase equilibria are critical variables in process design. Reliable estimates of relevant equilibrium properties, from thermodynamic models, can form the basis of good decision making in the development phase of a process design, especially when access...... to relevant experimental data is limited. This thesis addresses the issue of generating and using simple thermodynamic models within a rigorous statistical mechanical framework, the so-called fluctuation solution theory, from which relations connecting properties and phase equilibria can be obtained....... The framework relates thermodynamic variables to molecular pair correlation functions of liquid mixtures. In this thesis, application of the framework is illustrated using two approaches: 1. Solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvent systems are determined from fluctuation solution theory application...

  2. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  3. PERVASIVE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocsana Tonis (Bucea-Manea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The utility of BI solutions is accepted all over the world in the modern organizations. However, the BI solutions do not offer a constant feedback in line with the organizational activities. In this context, there have been developed pervasive BI solutions which are present at different levels of the organization, so that employees can observe only what is most relevant to their day-to-day tasks. They are organized in vertical silos, with clearly identified performance and expectations. The paper emphasizes the role of pervasive BI solutions in reaching the key performance indicators of the modern organizations, more important in the context of crisis.

  4. Analytical solution and simplified analysis of coupled parent-daughter steady-state transport with multirate mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Haggerty

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, a steady-state analytical solution of concentrations of a parent solute reacting to a daughter solute, both of which are undergoing transport and multirate mass transfer, is presented. Although the governing equations are complicated, the resulting solution can be expressed in simple terms. A function of the ratio of concentrations, In (daughter...

  5. Global solutions of 1 + 1 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloesch, T.

    1997-03-01

    A classification of all global solutions for generalized 2D dilaton gravity models (with Lorentzian signature) including generalizations with non-trivial torsion is presented. After reviewing several coordinate systems (and - as a by-product - finding global coordinates for the Reissner-Nordstroem solution), the equations of motion are solved locally. The maximally extended universal covering solutions are then constructed by applying a simple gluing procedure to the Eddington-Finkelstein coordinate patches. This is demonstrated at a few examples, and some subtleties concerning the concept of Penrose diagrams are pointed out. The multiply connected solutions are obtained from the simply connected ones by factorization by discrete symmetry subgroups. It will be found that for generic models maximally extended solutions on noncompact surfaces of arbitrary genus with an arbitrary non-zero number of holes can be obtained. Furthermore, we determine all discrete and continuous parameters labeling these factor solutions and specify their geometrical interpretation. Remarks on a few cases not covered by the above approach and some pathological examples conclude the work. (author)

  6. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  7. Optimizing Opto-mechanical Performance Using Simple Tools and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajci, Tom

    2009-05-01

    You just purchased a modest setup for your observatory - perhaps a mass produced Schmidt-Cassegrain on a German equatorial mount. However, optically and mechanically it's not performing as well as you would like. What can you do? Some simple assessments and repairs may make all the difference. Assessments can be as easy as visual inspection of various mount components, such as the tripod, where gaps between components reduce stiffness or allow unexpected shifts when loads change. Some assessments are only slightly more involved. Main mirror flop can be evaluated by aligning the main telescope and finder on a bright star and then slewing to various parts of the sky. Pointing differences between the two will be readily apparent if this problem exists. Most mid-level mounts use worm drives, but often excessive spacing between worm and worm gear produces large, and unnecessary amounts of backlash. Visual inspection of your dovetail mounting system may leave doubts in your mind as to adequate stiffness. Imaging through the entire night may show you that your aluminum tube telescope causes excessive focus shift as temperature drops. Over time, your Schmidt-Cassegrain corrector plate may no longer be securely held by its retaining ring, and the same may apply to the secondary mirror cell. Repairs for these problems are often not difficult if you're mechanically inclined. Gaps in mount components can be eliminated with shims. Combating mirror flop may be the most difficult task. This can involve re-gluing the main mirror and bolting the main mirror cell in a fixed position. Corrector plate and secondary mirror cells can be improved with setscrews and shims - implementing sound kinematic principles. Worm gear spacing can often be adjusted with simple tools. This brief paper can't possibly cover all problems and solutions, but it can give you the proper mindset to looking at your system with a critical eye and implementing simple, inexpensive fixes. You may be pleasantly

  8. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time. The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal. But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the…

  9. A simple method for complex eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon, CNRS, UMR 6091, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon, CNRS, UMR 6091, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-11-05

    A simple iterative method is described for finding the eigenvalues of a general square complex matrix. Several numerical examples involving complex symmetric matrices are treated. In particular, it is found that a naive matrix calculation without complex rotation produces resonant state energies in accord with those given by the recently introduced naive complex hypervirial perturbation theory. (letter to the editor)

  10. Modelling of the simple pendulum Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palka L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - work focuses on the design of the simulation embedded in remote experiment “Simple pendulum” built on the Internet School Experimental System (ISES. This platform is intended for wide educational purposes at schools and universities in order to provide the suitable measuring environment for students using conventional computing resources Informatics.

  11. LIQUEN SIMPLE CRÓNICO VULVAR UNILATERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lema C,Rodrigo; Ricci A,Paolo; Solà D,Vicente; Contreras M,Luis

    2006-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de liquen simple crónico vulvar izquierdo, en una paciente con diagnóstico psiquiátrico de trastorno bipolar, tratado repetidamente como micosis. Se realizó biopsia que confirmó el diagnóstico y se trató exitosamente con antihistamínicos orales y corticoides tópicos

  12. Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1977-01-01

    A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...

  13. Geometric classification of simple graph algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Adam Peder Wie

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by Franks’ classification of irreducible shifts of finite type, we provide a short list of allowed moves on graphs that preserve the stable isomorphism class of the associated C ∗ -algebras. We show that if two graphs have stably isomorphic and simple unital algebras then we can use...

  14. A Simple Model of Self-Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a simple model that describes individuals' self-assessments of their abilities. We assume that individuals learn about their abilities from appraisals of others and experience. Our model predicts that if communication is imperfect, then (i) appraisals of others tend to be too

  15. A simple model of self-assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.; Swank, O.H.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a simple model that describes individuals' self-assessments of their abilities. We assume that individuals learn about their abilities from appraisals of others and experience. Our model predicts that if communication is imperfect, then (i) appraisals of others tend to be too positive and

  16. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  17. Most pressurized elements are not simple cubic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik; Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2008), s. 10-11 ISSN 0031-9228 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 147; GA AV ČR IAA1041302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : electronic structure * simple cubic structure * phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2008

  18. A SIMPLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TRACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of vanadium using thionin as a chromogenic reagent. The proposed method is based on the reaction of vanadium(V) with potassium iodide in acid medium to liberate iodine, which bleaches the violet colour of ...

  19. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  20. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  1. Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En

  2. From Complex to Simple: Interdisciplinary Stochastic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, D. A.; Zamora, G.; Mazilu, I.

    2012-01-01

    We present two simple, one-dimensional, stochastic models that lead to a qualitative understanding of very complex systems from biology, nanoscience and social sciences. The first model explains the complicated dynamics of microtubules, stochastic cellular highways. Using the theory of random walks in one dimension, we find analytical expressions…

  3. A simple dead-reckoning navigational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, B. F.; Mastin, W. C.; Broussard, P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Simple navigation system is designed for vehicles operating in remote locations where it is not feasible to transport extensive equipment. System consists of four main components: directional gyrocompass to establish inertial direction; odometer to measure distance; signal processor to combine measured distance and direction; and sun compass to determine initial direction.

  4. Using Simple Machines to Leverage Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotger, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    What would your students say if you told them they could lift you off the ground using a block and a board? Using a simple machine, they'll find out they can, and they'll learn about work, energy, and motion in the process! In addition, this integrated lesson gives students the opportunity to investigate variables while practicing measurement…

  5. A Simple View of Writing in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the Chinese written composition development of elementary-grade students in relation to the simple view of writing. Measures of nonverbal reasoning ability, component skills of transcription (stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency), oral language (definitional skill, oral narrative skills, and…

  6. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  7. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 2. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding networks: Synthesis and crystal structures of [MII(opda)2(NO3)2] (M = Zn and Cd; opda = orthophenylenediamine). Sabbani Supriya. Full Papers Volume 121 Issue 2 March 2009 pp 137-143 ...

  8. Teaching Alveolar Ventilation with Simple, Inexpensive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    When teaching and learning about alveolar ventilation with our class of 300 first-year medical students, we use four simple, inexpensive "models." The models, which encourage research-oriented learning and help our students to understand complex ideas, are distributed to the students before class. The students anticipate something new every day,…

  9. A simple and inexpensive fish tagging method

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori, J.K.; Attipoe, F.Y.; Abban, E.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many developing countries, availability of suitable tags for use in genetics and aquaculture research has been a problem as they are often expensive and have to be imported from other countries. A simple and inexpensive method used by scientists in Ghana that can be tried and improved by others is described in this article.

  10. A simple design rule for overlap joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    For toughened and flexible adhesives it is found that a simple prediction model for overlap joints can be used to calculate the ultimate strength for the static load case. The absolute maximum strength for a lap joint is when the whole of the adhesive layer is at the shear yield strength. An

  11. Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numbers AF369029, AF332093, AF440570) were down- loaded from GenBank. The sizes of these genomes are. 292,967 bp ... determined. Keywords. shrimp; white spot syndrome virus (WSSV); simple sequence repeats (SSRs); compositional bias; genetic distance. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 86, No. 1, April 2007. 69 ...

  12. Air: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students explore air and its properties. Some of the topics discussed include alternative energy, bacteria, carbon dioxide, motion, weather, and flight. Experiments include: blowing a balloon up in a bottle; seeing air in water; making a lunch-bag kite, weather vanes, and paper glider;…

  13. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  14. Simple algebraic data types for C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Muller, Henk L.

    Adt is a simple tool in the spirit of Lex and Yacc that makes monomorphic algebraic data types, polymorphic built-in types like the list and an efficient form of pattern matching available in C programs. C programs built with ADTs typically use NULL pointers only to indicate don't care values, and

  15. Making Simple Folk Instruments for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Dallas

    1980-01-01

    Instructions are provided for making these simple musical instruments from inexpensive materials: an Indian bull-roarer; bottle chimes; a ham can guitar; flower pot, box, and steel drums; a xylophone; a musical sawhorse; rattles; a melody box; and a box thumb harp. (SJL)

  16. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  17. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Variations on a Simple Dice Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Joe

    2018-01-01

    I begin my introductory astronomy course with a unit on critical thinking that focuses on, among other things, the differences between the "scientific method" as frequently presented in textbooks and actual scientific practice. One particular classroom activity uses a simple dice game to simulate observation of a natural phenomenon and…

  19. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  20. Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, H.

    2002-01-01

    By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.

  1. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    J. Biosci. 32(1), January 2007. The list of microsatellite rich as well as poor regions in the five mycobacterial genomes. Local GC%. Repeat rich(+)/. Repeat poor(-). Total ORFs. Number of ... Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes. VATTIPALLY .... heat shock protein (grpE) (15839737), heat shock protein (dnaJ) ...

  2. Fourier Spectroscopy: A Simple Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelfke, William C.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a simple method of analysis in which the student can integrate, point by point, any interferogram to obtain its Fourier transform. The manual technique requires no special equipment and is based on relationships that most undergraduate physics students can derive from the Fourier integral equations. (Author/MLH)

  3. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  4. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  5. A simple urine test for sulfonamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Filho, Juvenal; de Souza, José Maria

    1983-01-01

    The lack of a simple and reliable test for sulfonamides has created a problem because of the increasing use of these drugs in the chemotherapy of malaria. This paper describes a modification of the Bratton-Marshall technique, for which the reagents are easily obtainable and which can be carried out in simply equipped primary health care laboratories. PMID:6601540

  6. A simple urine test for sulfonamides

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida-Filho, Juvenal; de Souza, José Maria

    1983-01-01

    The lack of a simple and reliable test for sulfonamides has created a problem because of the increasing use of these drugs in the chemotherapy of malaria. This paper describes a modification of the Bratton-Marshall technique, for which the reagents are easily obtainable and which can be carried out in simply equipped primary health care laboratories.

  7. Simple Numerical Model of Laminated Glass Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zemanová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple Finite Element model aimed at efficient simulation of layered glass units. The approach is based on considering the independent kinematics of each layer, tied together via Lagrange multipliers. Validation and verification of the resulting model against independent data demonstrate its accuracy, showing its potential for generalization towards more complex problems. 

  8. Simple luminosity normalization of greenness, yellowness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 4. Simple luminosity normalization of greenness, yellowness and redness/greenness for comparison of leaf spectral profiles in multi-temporally acquired remote sensing images. Ryoichi Doi. Articles Volume 37 Issue 4 September 2012 pp 723-730 ...

  9. Energy: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students can learn about the properties of energy. These experiments include making a kitchen "volcano," a soda-pop "cannon," and a puffed-rice "scooter." Topics include: energy and work, fossil fuels, solar energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, sound energy,…

  10. A Simple and Efficient Kinetic Spanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Gudmundsson, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and simple (1+ε)-spanner of size O(nε2) for a set of n points in the plane, which can be maintained efficiently as the points move. Assuming the trajectories of the points can be described by polynomials whose degrees are at most s, the number of topological changes to the spanner...

  11. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements

  12. Simple atoms: QED tests and fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Study of simple atoms can be performed theoretically and experimentally with a high accuracy and a comparison of theory and experiment provide us with several high precision tests of bound state QED. Theory cannot actually leads to a figure to compare with experiment, but it only can present some measurable quantities in terms of fundamental and auxiliary constants. That offers an opportunity to obtain new accurate values of some fundamental constants. Theory of simple atoms is based on Quantum electrodynamics but also involves an essential part of nuclear and particle physics. A significant part of experiments are related to high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Present status of the precision physics of simple atoms is presented in detail. We overview a comparison of the theory of such atoms, bound state QED, and the experiment. In particular, we consider the hyperfine structure in light atoms and the g-factor of a bound electron in hydrogen-like ions at low and medium Z. We discuss a project on optical measurement of of 2s hyperfine interval in atomic hydrogen. We also pay attention to determination of the fundamental constants from study of simple atoms. The constants under consideration includes alpha, electron-to-proton mass ratio and electron-to-muon mass ratio

  13. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm

  14. A simple model for indentation creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginder, Ryan S.; Nix, William D.; Pharr, George M.

    2018-03-01

    A simple model for indentation creep is developed that allows one to directly convert creep parameters measured in indentation tests to those observed in uniaxial tests through simple closed-form relationships. The model is based on the expansion of a spherical cavity in a power law creeping material modified to account for indentation loading in a manner similar to that developed by Johnson for elastic-plastic indentation (Johnson, 1970). Although only approximate in nature, the simple mathematical form of the new model makes it useful for general estimation purposes or in the development of other deformation models in which a simple closed-form expression for the indentation creep rate is desirable. Comparison to a more rigorous analysis which uses finite element simulation for numerical evaluation shows that the new model predicts uniaxial creep rates within a factor of 2.5, and usually much better than this, for materials creeping with stress exponents in the range 1 ≤ n ≤ 7. The predictive capabilities of the model are evaluated by comparing it to the more rigorous analysis and several sets of experimental data in which both the indentation and uniaxial creep behavior have been measured independently.

  15. Lumbar Puncture for First Simple Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics consensus statement recommendations regarding lumbar puncture for infants 6-18 months of age with a first simple febrile seizure was investigated by a retrospective review of 704 infants evaluated in the pediatric emergency medicine division at Children’s Hospital Boston, MA, Oct 1995-Oct 2006.

  16. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...

  17. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  18. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  19. Inversion of e-simple Block Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 400, - (2005), s. 231-241 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : matrix inversion * M-matrix * unipathic graph * e-simple graph Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.590, year: 2005

  20. Characteristics and Properties of a Simple Linear Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple linear regression model is one of the pillars of classic econometrics. Despite the passage of time, it continues to raise interest both from the theoretical side as well as from the application side. One of the many fundamental questions in the model concerns determining derivative characteristics and studying the properties existing in their scope, referring to the first of these aspects. The literature of the subject provides several classic solutions in that regard. In the paper, a completely new design is proposed, based on the direct application of variance and its properties, resulting from the non-correlation of certain estimators with the mean, within the scope of which some fundamental dependencies of the model characteristics are obtained in a much more compact manner. The apparatus allows for a simple and uniform demonstration of multiple dependencies and fundamental properties in the model, and it does it in an intuitive manner. The results were obtained in a classic, traditional area, where everything, as it might seem, has already been thoroughly studied and discovered.

  1. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Muradore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of robotic surgery within the operating rooms has significantly improved the quality of many surgical procedures. Recently, the research on medical robotic systems focused on increasing the level of autonomy in order to give them the possibility to carry out simple surgical actions autonomously. This paper reports on the development of technologies for introducing automation within the surgical workflow. The results have been obtained during the ongoing FP7 European funded project Intelligent Surgical Robotics (I-SUR. The main goal of the project is to demonstrate that autonomous robotic surgical systems can carry out simple surgical tasks effectively and without major intervention by surgeons. To fulfil this goal, we have developed innovative solutions (both in terms of technologies and algorithms for the following aspects: fabrication of soft organ models starting from CT images, surgical planning and execution of movement of robot arms in contact with a deformable environment, designing a surgical interface minimizing the cognitive load of the surgeon supervising the actions, intra-operative sensing and reasoning to detect normal transitions and unexpected events. All these technologies have been integrated using a component-based software architecture to control a novel robot designed to perform the surgical actions under study. In this work we provide an overview of our system and report on preliminary results of the automatic execution of needle insertion for the cryoablation of kidney tumours.

  2. A simple theory of motor protein kinetics and energetics. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, H

    2000-01-10

    A three-state stochastic model of motor protein [Qian, Biophys. Chem. 67 (1997) pp. 263-267] is further developed to illustrate the relationship between the external load on an individual motor protein in aqueous solution with various ATP concentrations and its steady-state velocity. A wide variety of dynamic motor behavior are obtained from this simple model. For the particular case of free-load translocation being the most unfavorable step within the hydrolysis cycle, the load-velocity curve is quasi-linear, V/Vmax = (cF/Fmax-c)/(1-c), in contrast to the hyperbolic relationship proposed by A.V. Hill for macroscopic muscle. Significant deviation from the linearity is expected when the velocity is less than 10% of its maximal (free-load) value--a situation under which the processivity of motor diminishes and experimental observations are less certain. We then investigate the dependence of load-velocity curve on ATP (ADP) concentration. It is shown that the free load Vmax exhibits a Michaelis-Menten like behavior, and the isometric Fmax increases linearly with ln([ATP]/[ADP]). However, the quasi-linear region is independent of the ATP concentration, yielding an apparently ATP-independent maximal force below the true isometric force. Finally, the heat production as a function of ATP concentration and external load are calculated. In simple terms and solved with elementary algebra, the present model provides an integrated picture of biochemical kinetics and mechanical energetics of motor proteins.

  3. Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.

  4. Solute-solute interactions in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debashis; Murray, Ryan; Collins, Gary S., E-mail: collins@wsu.edu [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Zacate, Matthew O. [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Experiments were carried out on highly ordered GdAl{sub 2} samples containing extremely dilute mole fractions of{sup 111}In/Cd probe-atom solutes (about 10{sup −11}), intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} having mole fractions of order 0-10{sup −2}, and doped with Ag solutes at mole fractions of order 10{sup −2}. Three types of defect interactions were investigated. (1) Quadrupole interactions caused by Ag-solute atoms neighboring{sup 111}In/Cd solute probe atoms were detected using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Three complexes of pairs of In-probes and Ag-solutes occupying neighboring positions on Gd- and Al-sublattices were identified by comparing site fractions in Gd-poor and Gd-rich GdAl{sub 2}(Ag) samples and from the symmetry of the quadrupole interactions. Interaction enthalpies between solute-atom pairs were determined from temperature dependences of observed site fractions. Repulsive interactions were observed for close-neighbor complexes In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Gd} and In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Al} pairs, whereas a slightly attractive interaction was observed for In{sub Al}+Ag{sub Al}. Interaction enthalpies were all small, in the range ±0.15 eV. (2) Quadrupole interactions caused by intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} neighboring In{sub Gd} probes were also detected and site fractions measured as a function of temperature, as in previous work on samples not doped with Ag-solutes [Temperature- and composition-driven changes in site occupation of solutes in Gd{sub 1+3x}Al{sub 2−3x}, Zacate and Collins (Phys. Rev. B69, 174202 (1))]. However, the effective binding enthalpy between In{sub Gd} probe and Al{sub Gd} antisite was found to change sign from -0.12 eV (attractive interaction) in undoped samples to + 0.24 eV (repulsive) in Ag-doped samples. This may be attributed to an attractive interaction between Al{sub Gd} antisite atoms and Ag-dopants that competes with the attractive interaction between In{sub Gd} and Al{sub Gd

  5. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  6. The procedural egalitarian solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  7. The Procedural Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  8. Bolting multicenter solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bossard, Guillaume [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2017-01-30

    We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.

  9. Cryo-mesh: a simple alternative cryopreservation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnekotter, B; Bunn, E; Mancera, R L

    The continued development of new cryopreservation protocols has improved post-cryogenic success rates for a wide variety of plant species. Methods like the cryo-plate have proven beneficial in simplifying the cryopreservation procedure. This study assessed the practicality of a stainless steel mesh strip (cryo-mesh) for cryopreserving shoot tips from Anigozanthos viridis. Shoot tips of A. viridis (Kangaroo Paw) were precultured on 0.4 M sucrose medium for 48 h. Precultured shoot tips were coated in a 2% alginate solution and placed onto the cryo-mesh (a 25 x 7 mm, 0.4 mm aperture, 0.224 mm diameter wire stainless steel mesh strip). The alginate was set for 20 min in a loading solution containing 100 mM CaCl2, anchoring the shoot tips to the cryo-mesh. The cryo-mesh was then transferred to PVS2 on ice for 20, 30 or 40 min prior to plunging the cryo-mesh into liquid nitrogen. The cryo-mesh protocol was compared to the droplet-vitrification protocol. A maximum of 83% post-cryogenic regeneration was achieved with the cryo-mesh when exposed to PVS2 for 30 min. No significant difference in post-cryogenic regeneration was observed between the cryo-mesh and droplet-vitrification protocols. Anigozanthos viridis shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved utilising the new cryo-mesh. The cryo-mesh thus provides a simple and successful alternative for cryopreservation.

  10. Radiation transport benchmarks for simple geometries with void regions using the spherical harmonics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, an international cooperation on the 3D radiation transport benchmarks for simple geometries with void region was performed under the leadership of E. Sartori of OECD/NEA. There were contributions from eight institutions, where 6 contributions were by the discrete ordinate method and only two were by the spherical harmonics method. The 3D spherical harmonics program FFT3 by the finite Fourier transformation method has been improved for this presentation, and benchmark solutions for the 2D and 3D simple geometries with void region by the FFT2 and FFT3 are given showing fairly good accuracy. (authors)

  11. Simple equation method for nonlinear partial differential equations and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher A. Nofal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the exact solution of the some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs such as, Kodomtsev–Petviashvili (KP equation, the (2 + 1-dimensional breaking soliton equation and the modified generalized Vakhnenko equation by using the simple equation method. In the simple equation method the trial condition is the Bernoulli equation or the Riccati equation. It has been shown that the method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear wave equations in mathematical physics and engineering problems.

  12. Simple correlation equations for optimum design of annular fins with uniform thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanturk, Cihat

    2005-01-01

    Simple correlation equations for optimum design of annular fins with uniform cross section are obtained in the present work. The fin volume is fixed to obtain the dimensionless geometrical parameters of the fin with maximum heat transfer rates. The optimum radii ratio of an annular fin which maximizes the heat transfer rate has been found as a function of Biot number and the fin volume. The data from the present solutions is correlated for a suitable range of Biot number and the fin volume. The simple correlation equations presented in this work can assist for thermal design engineers for optimum design of annular fins of uniform thickness

  13. On the nuclear energy generation rate in a simple analytic stellar model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    For a shperically symmetric star in quasi-static equilibrium a simple analytic stellar model is presented. The common technique of integration theory of special functions for treating a special solution of the equations of stellar structure is described. As an example the sun can be considered as a fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium. The total net rate of nuclear energy generation, which is equal to the luminosity of the star, is evaluated analytically for a linear density distribution assumed for a simple stellar model. For several analytic representations of the nuclear energy generation rate the luminosity function is evaluated for the presented stellar model in closed form

  14. On timelike supersymmetric solutions of gauged minimal 5-dimensional supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, Samuele; Ortín, Tomás [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,C/Nicolás Cabrera, 13-15, C.University Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-04

    We analyze the timelike supersymmetric solutions of minimal gauged 5-dimensional supergravity for the case in which the Kähler base manifold admits a holomorphic isometry and depends on two real functions satisfying a simple second-order differential equation. Using this general form of the base space, the equations satisfied by the building blocks of the solutions become of, at most, fourth degree and can be solved by simple polynomic ansatzs. In this way we construct two 3-parameter families of solutions that contain almost all the timelike supersymmetric solutions of this theory with one angular momentum known so far and a few more: the (singular) supersymmetric Reissner-Nordström-AdS solutions, the three exact supersymmetric solutions describing the three near-horizon geometries found by Gutowski and Reall, three 1-parameter asymptotically-AdS{sub 5} black-hole solutions with those three near-horizon geometries (Gutowski and Reall’s black hole being one of them), three generalizations of the Gödel universe and a few potentially homogenous solutions. A key rôle in finding these solutions is played by our ability to write AdS{sub 5}’s Kähler base space ( (ℂℙ)-bar {sup 2} or SU(1,2)/U(2)) is three different, yet simple, forms associated to three different isometries. Furthermore, our ansatz for the Kähler metric also allows us to study the dimensional compactification of the theory and its solutions in a systematic way.

  15. Explicit solutions of Fisher's equation with three zeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. K. Abur-Robb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Explicit traveling wave solutions of Fisher's equation with three simple zeros ut=uxx+u(1−u(u−a, a∈(0,1, are obtained for the wave speeds C=±2(12−a suggested by pure analytic considerations. Two types of solutions are obtained: one type is of a permanent wave form whereas the other is not.

  16. Solutions to higher hamiltonians in the Toda hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.; Londe, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    We present a method for constructing the general solution to higher hamiltonians of the Toda hierarchies of integrable models associated to a simple Lie group G. The method depends on some special properties of the representations of the Lie algebra of G and it constitutes a generalization of the method used to construct the solutions of the Toda Molecula models. The SL(3) and SL(4) cases are discussed in detail. (author) [pt

  17. γ-Irradiation-induced radiolysis of inulin in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyba, I.A.; Revina, A.A.; Shostenko, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Radiochemical transformations of inulin in aqueous solutions, in air, in the presence of inert gases, helium, nitrogen and in nitrous oxide exposed to various doses of 60 Co γ-irradiation were investigated. It was shown that interactions in inulin with OH radicals are principally responsible for radiolytic decomposition of inulin. The data on radiolysis of more simple model systems were used to make available decomposition spectra of γ-irradiated aerated aqueous solution of inulin. 9 refs., 6 figs

  18. Simple and double microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus with chitosan using spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela A. Flores-Belmont

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus that had been simple or double spray dried using chitosan to cause microencapsulation and which had been exposed to model gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the study also determined the physicochemical properties of the powder containing the microencapsulated probiotic.Chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:15 or 1:25 solutions were inoculated with 1012 cfu mL-1 of L. acidophilus, for simple microencapsulation. The different solutions were dried using a spray dryer with an inlet air temperature of 130°C and a solution flux of 4.8 g min-1. A two-step process was used for the double microencapsulation. In the first step, the probiotic was added to a gelatin-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then spray dried; for the second step, the microencapsulated probiotic was added to a chitosan-inulin or chitosan-maltodextrin (1:25 solution and then it was spray dried again.With the simple microencapsulated probiotic, a microbial reduction of 7 log cycles was obtained. With the double microencapsulated probiotic only 3 log reductions were achieved. The double microencapsulated probiotic thus demonstrated greater resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The powders produced were shown to have water activity values of 0.176 - 0.261 at 25 °C and moisture content of 0.8 – 1.0%, which are characteristic of spray dried products. The bulk density was significantly (p < 0.05 lower (300 kg m-3 for simple than for double (400 kg m-3 microencapsulated probiotic powders. Solubility and dispersibility of the powder microcapsules were better at lower pH values.Double microencapsulation using a process of spray drying is therefore recommended for probiotics, thus exploiting chitosan’s insolubility in water, which can be applied for the of development food products.

  19. Simple approach to study biomolecule adsorption in polymeric microfluidic channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubala, Vladimir, E-mail: V.Gubala@kent.ac.uk [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Central Avenue, Anson 120, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom); Siegrist, Jonathan; Monaghan, Ruairi; O' Reilly, Brian; Gandhiraman, Ram Prasad [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Daniels, Stephen [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Williams, David E. [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Ducree, Jens [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple tool to assess biomolecule adsorption onto the surfaces of microchannels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development for dilution by surface-adsorption based depletion of protein samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can easily be done using a readily available apparatus like a spin-coater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment tool is facile and quantitative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Straightforward comparison of different surface chemistries. - Abstract: Herein a simple analytical method is presented for the characterization of biomolecule adsorption on cyclo olefin polymer (COP, trade name: Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign }) substrates which are widely used in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. These Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign} substrates do not possess native functional groups for specific reactions with biomolecules. Therefore, depending on the application, such substrates must be functionalized by surface chemistry methods to either enhance or suppress biomolecular adsorption. This work demonstrates a microfluidic method for evaluating the adsorption of antibodies and oligonucleotides surfaces. The method uses centrifugal microfluidic flow-through chips and can easily be implemented using common equipment such as a spin coater. The working principle is very simple. The user adds 40 L of the solution containing the sample to the starting side of a microfluidic channel, where it is moved through by centrifugal force. Some molecules are adsorbed in the channel. The sample is then collected at the other end in a small reservoir and the biomolecule concentration is measured. As a pilot application, we characterized the adsorption of goat anti-human IgG and a 20-mer DNA on Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign }, and on three types of functionalized Zeonor: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified surface with mainly positive charge, negatively charged surface with immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA), and

  20. A Simple Kuramoto-like Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhuwei; Mertens, David

    2015-03-01

    The toy model for spontaneous collective synchronization is the Kuramoto model, a model of nonlinear coupled phase oscillators. Although it is a popular theoretical tool, the Kuramoto model is too simple to accurately characterize the dynamics of any experimental collection of oscillators. In this talk, we present a simple electronic oscillator design similar to the Wien bridge design of Temirbayev et al. Although the oscillator is not strictly modeled by the Kuramoto model, it can be quantitatively modeled by a more generic phase oscillator model. The coefficients governing the oscillator's behavior can be directly extracted from the voltage time series of the oscillator. We find that, in practice, only a handful of coefficients are necessary to quantitatively describe the behavior of the oscillators, making precise theory tractable. Dickinson Woodside Student-Faculty Research Fund.

  1. Simple spherical ablative-implosion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, F.J.; Steele, J.T.; Larsen, J.T.

    1980-06-23

    A simple model of the ablative implosion of a high-aspect-ratio (shell radius to shell thickness ratio) spherical shell is described. The model is similar in spirit to Rosenbluth's snowplow model. The scaling of the implosion time was determined in terms of the ablation pressure and the shell parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and shell density, and compared these to complete hydrodynamic code calculations. The energy transfer efficiency from ablation pressure to shell implosion kinetic energy was examined and found to be very efficient. It may be possible to attach a simple heat-transport calculation to our implosion model to describe the laser-driven ablation-implosion process. The model may be useful for determining other energy driven (e.g., ion beam) implosion scaling.

  2. A computational description of simple mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron, Pier-Olivier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simple mediation analysis is an increasingly popular statistical analysis in psychology and in other social sciences. However, there is very few detailed account of the computations within the model. Articles are more often focusing on explaining mediation analysis conceptually rather than mathematically. Thus, the purpose of the current paper is to introduce the computational modelling within simple mediation analysis accompanied with examples with R. Firstly, mediation analysis will be described. Then, the method to simulate data in R (with standardized coefficients will be presented. Finally, the bootstrap method, the Sobel test and the Baron and Kenny test all used to evaluate mediation (i.e., indirect effect will be developed. The R code to implement the computation presented is offered as well as a script to carry a power analysis and a complete example.

  3. A simple model for the nuclear unintegrated gluon distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betemps, Marcos Andre [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Conjunto Agrotecnico Visconde da Graca; Machado, Magno Valerio Trindade [UNIPAMPA - Universidade Federal do Pampa, Bage, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2009-07-01

    Full text. The knowledge of the QCD dynamics at high energies is essential in understanding the hadronic interactions studied at current (HERA, Tevatron) and future (LHC) accelerators. In the physics of saturation the relevant observable is the forward scattering amplitude of a quark-antiquark dipole on a target. It enters several processes at high energy like deep inelastic scattering (DIS), photoproduction and hadron-hadron scattering. Its quantum evolution has recently been the object of many studies. The Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation valid in the large N{sub c} limit and in the mean field approximation provides a tool to study the rapidity behavior of the gluon distribution in a large momentum range including the saturation region where the effects of gluon recombination, taken into account in the non-linear term, become important. The main features of analytical solutions of BK have been used to parametrize the unintegrated gluon distribution, {phi}(k; Y ), which is the Fourier-transform of dipole-target amplitude. The knowledge of the corresponding nuclear unintegrated gluon distribution is indeed crucial. It is the basic object required to calculate physical observables in the k{sub T} factorized picture employed by the gluon saturation models. The solution of non-linear evolution equations for dense nuclear gluon density has been suggested as one of the relevant mechanisms of pA and AA collisions at collider energies. Here we study a simple parameterization for the unintegrated gluon distribution using the knowledge of asymptotic solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, describing high-energy QCD in the presence of saturation effects. A satisfactory description of nuclear shadowing at small-x is obtained and it allows us to understand the qualitative behavior shown by data. (author)

  4. Simple CARS measurement point traversing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckbreth, A. C.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1985-05-01

    The present simple optical scheme employing fixed field lenses permits large measurement point translations for small changes in the separation of Galilean telescopes. For the case of an intensity-dependent process, such as CARS, these translations are accomplished at a constant focusing solid angle, thereby yielding constant focal zone intensity. This will eliminate any signal variation with position which is implicitly due to measurement location.

  5. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  6. Simple techniques for optimal smile modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Rafi

    2008-05-01

    Orthodontics is no longer a treatment modality for moderate or severe malocclusion. Patients of all age groups seek help in tooth repositioning. Esthetic demands are extremely high and clinicians need to be more creative and more open to alternative techniques that will suit the demand for invisible treatment, at reasonable costs, maximum accuracy, and with relative comfort. A few simple techniques are described for very common orthodontic problems.

  7. kFOIL: Learning simple relational kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Niels; Passerini, Andrea; De Raedt, Luc; Frasconi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A novel and simple combination of inductive logic programming with kernel methods is presented. The kFOIL algorithm integrates the well-known inductive logic programming system FOIL with kernel methods. The feature space is constructed by leveraging FOIL search for a set of relevant clauses. The search is driven by the performance obtained by a support vector machine based on the resulting kernel. In this way, kFOIL implements a dynamic propositionalization approach. Both classification an...

  8. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser

  9. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2006-10-07

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser.

  10. Adaptation in simple and complex fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Kavita; Krug, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    This is an introductory review of deterministic mutation-selection models for asexual populations (i.e., quasispecies theory) and related topics. First, the basic concepts of fitness, mutations, and sequence space are introduced. Different types of mutation-selection dynamics are defined and their relation to problems of statistical physics are outlined. Then the stationary population distribution in simple, single peak fitness landscapes is discussed at length, with particular emphasis on th...

  11. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart,Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed.

  12. Entropy estimates for simple random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of determining the maximum entropy of a discrete random field on a lattice subject to certain local constraints on symbol configurations. The results are expected to be of interest in the analysis of digitized images and two dimensional codes. We shall present some examples...... of binary and ternary fields with simple constraints. Exact results on the entropies are known only in a few cases, but we shall present close bounds and estimates that are computationally efficient...

  13. Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.; ,

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  14. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  15. On Casimir elements of simple Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Houari, M.

    1996-08-01

    In this letter, we recall briefly the generalized Casimir elements of a finite dimensional Lie algebra. We specify those of orders two and three: when the Lie algebra is simple (even semisimple), we begin by normalizing the former (the quadratic), and then we study some actions of the latter (the cubic). In particular, we introduce a graphical formalism, translating rigorously the tensorial calculus. This allows us to prove the main theorem in a graphic theoretic manner. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  16. A simple furnace for neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, F.P.; Bennett, C.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    A simple yet effective high temperature furnace for heating crystals or powder specimens for neutron diffraction studies on a theta/2theta diffractometer is described. The furnace can maintain samples at temperatures up to 1573 K, in air, with a stability of +- 4 K for periods of many hours. Specimen temperature is uniform within 12 K, or much less with the use of a silica sleeve. (Auth.)

  17. Radon in buildings: a simple detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, N.

    1989-01-01

    Natural background radiation inside buildings can be studied using this simple detection method. Contaminated dust particles adhere readily to a membrane made of soft toilet paper placed across the collection pipe of a vacuum cleaner. Indirect evidence for the abundance of radon in the air can be inferred from measuring the radon daughters on the membrane using a Geiger-Muller tube. Experimental results are presented and discussed. (UK)

  18. Simple Synthesis Method for Alumina Nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Damian; Florentina Cziple; Adina Segneanu; Ioan Grozescu

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the human population steady increase, expansion of urban areas, excessive industrialization including in agriculture, caused not only decrease to depletion of non-renewable resources, a rapid deterioration of the environment with negative impact on water quality, soil productivity and of course quality of life in general. This paper aims to prepare size controlled nanoparticles of aluminum oxide using a simple synthesis method. The morphology and dimensions of n...

  19. A simple mechanism for complex social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Parkinson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of cooperation is a paradox because natural selection should favor exploitative individuals that avoid paying their fair share of any costs. Such conflict between the self-interests of cooperating individuals often results in the evolution of complex, opponent-specific, social strategies and counterstrategies. However, the genetic and biological mechanisms underlying complex social strategies, and therefore the evolution of cooperative behavior, are largely unknown. To address this dearth of empirical data, we combine mathematical modeling, molecular genetic, and developmental approaches to test whether variation in the production of and response to social signals is sufficient to generate the complex partner-specific social success seen in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Firstly, we find that the simple model of production of and response to social signals can generate the sort of apparent complex changes in social behavior seen in this system, without the need for partner recognition. Secondly, measurements of signal production and response in a mutant with a change in a single gene that leads to a shift in social behavior provide support for this model. Finally, these simple measurements of social signaling can also explain complex patterns of variation in social behavior generated by the natural genetic diversity found in isolates collected from the wild. Our studies therefore demonstrate a novel and elegantly simple underlying mechanistic basis for natural variation in complex social strategies in D. discoideum. More generally, they suggest that simple rules governing interactions between individuals can be sufficient to generate a diverse array of outcomes that appear complex and unpredictable when those rules are unknown.

  20. Professional Hadoop solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lublinsky, Boris; Yakubovich, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    The go-to guidebook for deploying Big Data solutions with Hadoop Today's enterprise architects need to understand how the Hadoop frameworks and APIs fit together, and how they can be integrated to deliver real-world solutions. This book is a practical, detailed guide to building and implementing those solutions, with code-level instruction in the popular Wrox tradition. It covers storing data with HDFS and Hbase, processing data with MapReduce, and automating data processing with Oozie. Hadoop security, running Hadoop with Amazon Web Services, best practices, and automating Hadoop processes i