WorldWideScience

Sample records for undertaking key comparisons

  1. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  2. Public Undertakings and Imputability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    exercised by the State, imputability to the State, and the State’s fulfilment of the Market Economy Investor Principle. Furthermore, it is examined whether, in the absence of imputability, public undertakings’ market behaviour is subject to the Market Economy Investor Principle, and it is concluded...... that this is not the case. Lastly, it is discussed whether other legal instruments, namely competition law, public procurement law, or the Transparency Directive, regulate public undertakings’ market behaviour. It is found that those rules are not sufficient to mend the gap created by the imputability requirement. Legal......In this article, the issue of impuability to the State of public undertakings’ decision-making is analysed and discussed in the context of the DSBFirst case. DSBFirst is owned by the independent public undertaking DSB and the private undertaking FirstGroup plc and won the contracts in the 2008...

  3. A comparison of classroom and online asynchronous problem-based learning for students undertaking statistics training as part of a Public Health Masters degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Verstegen, D M L; Tan, F E S; O'Connor, S J

    2013-05-01

    This case-study compared traditional, face-to-face classroom-based teaching with asynchronous online learning and teaching methods in two sets of students undertaking a problem-based learning module in the multilevel and exploratory factor analysis of longitudinal data as part of a Masters degree in Public Health at Maastricht University. Students were allocated to one of the two study variants on the basis of their enrolment status as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students (n = 11) followed the classroom-based variant and part-time students (n = 12) followed the online asynchronous variant which included video recorded lectures and a series of asynchronous online group or individual SPSS activities with synchronous tutor feedback. A validated student motivation questionnaire was administered to both groups of students at the start of the study and a second questionnaire was administered at the end of the module. This elicited data about student satisfaction with the module content, teaching and learning methods, and tutor feedback. The module coordinator and problem-based learning tutor were also interviewed about their experience of delivering the experimental online variant and asked to evaluate its success in relation to student attainment of the module's learning outcomes. Student examination results were also compared between the two groups. Asynchronous online teaching and learning methods proved to be an acceptable alternative to classroom-based teaching for both students and staff. Educational outcomes were similar for both groups, but importantly, there was no evidence that the asynchronous online delivery of module content disadvantaged part-time students in comparison to their full-time counterparts.

  4. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K12: The determination of creatinine in serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; Phinney, Curtis P.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Heo, Gwi Suk; Henrion, Andre; O'Conner, Gavin; Schimmel, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    A Key Comparison on the determination of creatinine in human serum organized by the Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance (CCQM) was carried out in 2001. To address the measurement traceability needs of the clinical chemistry community, the CCQM is undertaking Key Comparisons to document the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) that provide measurement services in this area. This Key Comparison, along with two others recently completed, CCQM-K6 and CCQM-K11, determination of total cholesterol and glucose, respectively, in serum, will provide a basis for evaluating the capabilities of NMIs for the determination of well-defined, organic substances of similar molecular weights and concentrations in human serum. Participants in CCQM-K12 included: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [USA], Coordinating Laboratory; Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) [EU]; Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) [S Korea]; Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (LGC) [UK]; and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [Germany]. Two frozen human serum materials were analyzed by each of the participants using either ID-GC/MS-based methods (three laboratories) or ID-LC/MS-based methods (two laboratories). Agreement of results among the participants was excellent, in accordance with the agreement found in a pilot study (CCQM-P9) for creatinine in serum. The resulting Key Comparison Reference Values had expanded uncertainties of less than 1% for both materials. In conclusion, five NMIs have demonstrated their ability to make reference measurements of creatinine in serum using isotope dilution-based methods that, when executed properly, provide measurements that are precise, accurate and SI traceable. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer

  5. KEY COMPARISON: Final report, on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert; Morillo Gomez, Pilar; Sánchez Blaya, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    As part of the on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone mole fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. Jet Joint Undertaking. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The scientific, technical, experimental and theoretical investigations related to JET tokamak are presented. The JET Joint Undertaking, Volume 2, includes papers presented at: the 15th European Conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating, the 15th Symposium on fusion technology, the 12th IAEA Conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research, the 8th Topical Meeting on technology of fusion. Moreover, the following topics, concerning JET, are discussed: experience with wall materials, plasma performance, high power ion cyclotron resonance heating, plasma boundary, results and prospects for fusion, preparation for D-T operation, active gas handling system and remote handling equipment

  7. KEY COMPARISON: International Comparison CCQM-K15: Emission level of CF4 and SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seog; Moon, Dong Min; Kato, Kenji; Konopelko, Leonid A.; Kustikov, Yury A.; Guenther, Franklin R.; Rhodrick, George

    2006-01-01

    CF4 and SF6 are the global warming chemicals that are used in semiconductor companies. In the Kyoto protocol on climate change in 1997, those chemicals were included in the items for which quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments were required. Accordingly for the measurement of these gases, it is necessary that measurement results are accurate and traceable, in particular because of the fact that CF4 and SF6 are global warming source gases. This part of the project focuses on a comparison of measurement capability for measuring CF4 and SF6 at emission level. This key comparison will cover the comparability of the gas CRMs at the emission level (10 × 10-6 mol/mol 100 mmol/mol in nitrogen or air) of the following chemicals: CF4, C2F6, CHF3, SF6 and NF3. There is good agreement between the results of the key comparison participants in this comparison for both CF4 and SF6. The results for CF4 agree within 0.5% relative, and for SF6 they agree within 0.1% relative. Even though the concentration is as low as 100 µmol/mol, the comparability between participants on gravimetric preparation plus comparison analysis is excellent for the laboratories that are participating in this key comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM.

  8. The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--chapter 1: Key ethical requirements and progress toward the definition of an international regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Flanagan, Enda B; Pierson, Richard N; Sykes, Megan; Vanderpool, Harold Y

    2009-01-01

    The outstanding results recently obtained in islet xenotransplantation suggest that porcine islet clinical trials may soon be scientifically appropriate. Before the initiation of such clinical studies, however, it is essential that a series of key ethical and regulatory conditions are satisfied. As far as ethics is concerned, the fundamental requirements have been previously reported in a position paper of the Ethics Committee of the International Xenotransplantation Association. These include aspects related to the selection of adequately informed, appropriate recipients; animal breeding and welfare; safety issues and the need for a favorable risk/benefit assessment based on strong efficacy data in relevant xenotransplantation studies in the primate. As most diabetic patients are not at risk of short-term mortality without islet transplantation, only a small subset of patients could currently be considered for any type of islet transplant. However, there are potential advantages to xenotransplantation that could result in a favorable benefit-over-harm determination for islet xenotransplantation in this subpopulation and ultimately in a broader population of diabetic patients. With regard to regulatory aspects, the key concepts underlying the development of the regulatory models in existence in the United States, Europe and New Zealand are discussed. Each of these models provides an example of a well-defined regulatory approach to ensure the initiation of well-regulated and ethically acceptable clinical islet xenotransplantation trials. At this stage, it becomes apparent that only a well-coordinated international effort such as that initiated by the World Health Organization, aimed at harmonizing xenotransplantation procedures according to the highest ethical and regulatory standards on a global scale, will enable the initiation of clinical xenotransplantation trials under the best auspices for its success and minimize any risk of failure.

  9. Using an undertaker's data to assess changing patterns of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key informant interviews were done to support the undertaker's data and determine how families bear the burden of burying deceased relatives. Despite a disproportionate increase in deaths in certain age categories and evidence of worsening poverty, funerals remain large and elaborate affairs. Keywords: AIDS, burial ...

  10. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on the key comparison EUROMET.BIPM.EM-K10.a: Comparison of Josephson array voltage standards by using a portable Josephson transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Ralf; Katkov, Alexander S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this comparison was to compare Josephson voltage standards by using the new VNIIM portable Josephson standard voltage (PJVS) as travelling standard. The comparison was carried out under the auspices of EUROMET (Project 723) from September 2003 to May 2004. It was aimed to link more laboratories organized in EUROMET. In addition, the comparison provides a link between EUROMET, COOMET and the BIPM. Twelve national metrology institutes and the BIPM participated, with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Braunschweig, Germany) acting as pilot laboratory. The PJVS was accompanied and operated by a VNIIM specialist. The technical protocol requested to measure a 1 V fixed output voltage at an output resistance of 4 Ω, while measurements at 1.2 kΩ output resistance were optional. The comparisons were performed in a similar way to the new so-called 'option B' bilateral comparisons carried out by the BIPM; the NMIs had to use their own null detector, polarity switch and measurement procedure to measure the output voltage of the PJVS. This method of comparison is more closely related to standard electronic voltage reference (e.g. Zener) measurements but without the limitation to their noise. During all comparisons the PJVS was connected to the same time base as that used by the laboratory Josephson voltage standard. The results demonstrate that the idea of using a portable quantum standard based on a programmable Josephson array as a travelling standard is a powerful tool to achieve equivalence between institutes quickly and at a very good level of uncertainty. Several institutes achieved a relative uncertainty clearly better than one part in 109 at a 95% level of confidence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the

  11. Final report, ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII (December 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Sanchez, Carmen; Morillo Gomez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings Management: A Case Study. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... It concludes that the current accounting systems such as financial accounting, cost accounting and reporting systems are not suitable for the effective and efficient management.

  13. JET joint undertaking. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. After an introductive part on the controlled nuclear fusion research and an historical survey of the JET project, are presented: the JET joint undertaking (members of council and committee...) with its administration (finance, personnel, external relations), and the scientific and technical department with its divisions for systems (experimental, magnet, plasma, assembly, power supplies, control and data acquisition, and site and building). In appendix is described the Euratom fusion research programme

  14. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K100: Analysis of copper in ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Kakoulides, Elias; Zhu, Yanbei; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Rienitz, Olaf; Saxby, David; Phukphatthanachai, Pranee; Yafa, Charun; Labarraque, Guillaume; Cankur, Oktay; Can, Süleyman Z.; Konopelko, Leonid A.; Kustikov, Yu A.; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Marques Rodrigues, Janaina; Fonseca Sarmanho, Gabriel; Fortunato de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson; dos Reis, Lindomar Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The increase in renewable sources in the energy matrix of the countries is an effort to reduce dependency on crude oil and the environmental impacts associated with its use. In order to help overcome the lack of widely accepted quality standards for fuel ethanol and to guarantee its competitiveness in the international trade market, the NMIs have been working to develop certified reference materials for bio-fuels and measurement methods. Inorganic impurities such as Cu, Na and Fe may be present in the fuel ethanol and their presence is associated with corrosion and the formation of oxide deposits in some engine parts. The key comparison CCQM-K100 was carried out under the auspices of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) and the coordination of the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The objective of this key comparison was to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for the determination of Cu in fuel ethanol. Ten NMIs participated in this exercise and most of them used the isotopic dilution method for determining the amount of Cu. The median was chosen as key comparison reference value (KCRV). The assigned KCRV for the Cu content was 0.3589 µg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.0014 µg/g. In general, there is a good agreement among the participants' results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. THE CCAUV.A-K3 KEY COMPARISON OF PRESSURE RECIPROCITY CALIBRATION OF LS2P MICROPHONES: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Rasmussen, Knud; Nielsen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The CCAUV.A-K3 Key Comparison has involved 15 countries organized in two loops with two common laboratories, CENAM and DPLA. The measurements took place in 2003. This is the first CCAUV key comparison organized with more than one loop, and therefore the analysis of the results required a more ela...

  16. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K81: Chloramphenicol in pig muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Joachim; Henrion, Andre; Gowik, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM-K81 'Chloramphenicol in pig muscle', was coordinated by BVL and PTB in 2009/2010. Six NMIs/DIs participated in this comparison. Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic which can in principle be used for the treatment of humans and animals. Its use for the treatment of food-producing animals is, however, forbidden worldwide in many countries due to potential severe side effects. The key comparison was the follow-up to the successful pilot study 'CCQM-P90: chloramphenicol in milk'. With this key comparison it was intended to demonstrate the capability of NMIs/DIs to analyse traces of CAP in food at concentration levels resulting from legal requirements for food control. Additionally, the quality of this kind of analysis with respect to compliance with legal requirements for food control methods and the international comparability of measurements should be evaluated in general. The study was classified as a 'track C' study (studies in emerging areas of global interest). For the study incurred lyophilised pig muscle material containing CAP (at a mass-fraction level around the maximum allowable level for import for a number of countries) has been produced as a candidate reference material by BVL and IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, JRC of the European Commission). Animal treatment and slaughtering of the animal to gain incurred muscle material as well as pre-testing of the CAP content was done at the BVL. The IRMM did further processing of the material and testing of homogeneity and stability. Participants were invited to assign the mass fraction of free CAP in the comparison sample. CCQM-K81 demonstrated successfully the capability of the participating laboratories to assign chloramphenicol values in tissue down to residue levels of around 0.3 ng/g (referring to the

  17. A Theoretical and Experimental Comparison of One Time Pad Cryptography using Key and Plaintext Insertion and Transposition (KPIT and Key Coloumnar Transposition (KCT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryo Utomo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One Time Pad (OTP is a cryptographic algorithm that is quite easy to be implemented. This algorithm works by converting plaintext and key into decimal then converting into binary number and calculating Exclusive-OR logic. In this paper, the authors try to make the comparison of OTP cryptography using KPI and KCT so that the ciphertext will be generated more difficult to be known. In the Key and Plaintext Insertion (KPI Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by adding the key insertion in the plaintext that has been splitted. Meanwhile in the Key Coloumnar Transposition (KCT Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by dividing the key into some parts in matrix of rows and coloumns. Implementation of the algorithms using PHP programming language.

  18. Consensus building for interlaboratory studies, key comparisons, and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Amanda; Lafarge, Thomas; Possolo, Antonio; Toman, Blaza

    2017-06-01

    Interlaboratory studies in measurement science, including key comparisons, and meta-analyses in several fields, including medicine, serve to intercompare measurement results obtained independently, and typically produce a consensus value for the common measurand that blends the values measured by the participants. Since interlaboratory studies and meta-analyses reveal and quantify differences between measured values, regardless of the underlying causes for such differences, they also provide so-called ‘top-down’ evaluations of measurement uncertainty. Measured values are often substantially over-dispersed by comparison with their individual, stated uncertainties, thus suggesting the existence of yet unrecognized sources of uncertainty (dark uncertainty). We contrast two different approaches to take dark uncertainty into account both in the computation of consensus values and in the evaluation of the associated uncertainty, which have traditionally been preferred by different scientific communities. One inflates the stated uncertainties by a multiplicative factor. The other adds laboratory-specific ‘effects’ to the value of the measurand. After distinguishing what we call recipe-based and model-based approaches to data reductions in interlaboratory studies, we state six guiding principles that should inform such reductions. These principles favor model-based approaches that expose and facilitate the critical assessment of validating assumptions, and give preeminence to substantive criteria to determine which measurement results to include, and which to exclude, as opposed to purely statistical considerations, and also how to weigh them. Following an overview of maximum likelihood methods, three general purpose procedures for data reduction are described in detail, including explanations of how the consensus value and degrees of equivalence are computed, and the associated uncertainty evaluated: the DerSimonian-Laird procedure; a hierarchical Bayesian

  19. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on APMP.M.P-K6.1 pneumatic key comparison from 20 kPa to 105 kPa in gauge mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Chuan; Jian, Wu; Changpan, Tawat

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the key comparison APMP.M.P-K6.1 among the three national metrology institutes, Center for Measurement Standards-ITRI (CMS-ITRI, Taiwan), SPRING Singapore and National Institute of Metrology (NIMT), in the pressure range from 20 kPa to 105 kPa in gas media and gauge mode executed during the period April 2003 to April 2004. This comparison was conducted by CMS-ITRI and was based on the calibration procedure of APMP pneumatic pressure comparison APMP.M.P-K6. We intended to link to the CCM.P-K6 key comparison through the APMP.M.P-K6 key comparison by using the proposed linkage method in the APMP.M.P-K6 key comparison to determine a linking factor that can transform the quantities measured in the APMP.M.P-K6.1 key comparison. All three participating institutes used pneumatic piston gauges as their pressure standards. The Ruska 2465 gas-operated piston-cylinder assembly TL-1409 used as transfer standard offered by CMS-ITRI was calibrated three times by the pilot institute during the comparison period and showed that it was very stable after evaluation. The comparison was conducted on the basis of cross-float experiments to determine the effective area of transfer standards from the national standards of three institutes. The comparison results (as shown in Table 6) were equivalent to the CCM.P-K6 comparison and the relative bilateral degrees of equivalence between two laboratories were smaller than 39.7 × 10-6 from 20 kPa to 105 kPa. These results showed all participating institutes measuring the same quantity in the whole pressure range lay within their expanded uncertainty with confidence level 95%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. Final report on the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII (December 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Morillo Gomez, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. Final report on the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII (December 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Morillo Gomez, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. Final report, on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII, March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert; Sanchez, Carmen; Morillo Gomez, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  4. Comparison of key indicators of external respiration function in students of three health groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainullin RA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define key indicators of function of external breath of students of three groups of health taking into account various total sizes of a body. Material and Methods. For an assessment of breathing function, volume and highspeed characteristics the diagnosing Eton installations (Russia and Schiller (Switzerland were used. Results. Age peculiarities of respiratory ventilation disorders and differentiated assessment of circulatory and metabolic parameters according to the total body size in the special health groups (SHG are analyzed in the article. Breathing volumetric characteristics were examined among the 17-18 aged students in the different health groups. Special attention is paid to the effect of the long-term severe bronchial patency disorders which lead to the respiratory muscles overstrain and the decrease of their strength endurance. This results in the lungs capacity decrease which is typical for the special health groups' students. Conclusion. It is shown that the students of the 1st health group had lower body weight and the same body length in comparison with the 2nd and 3rd groups. This determined unequal role of respiration in providing vital processes in terms of educational activities, especially in case of disorders of musculoskeletal and cardio-respiratory systems.

  5. APMP key comparison for the measurement of air kerma for 60Co (APMP.RI(I)-K1.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. V.; Lee, J.-H.; Budiantari, C. T.; Laban, J.; Saito, N.; Srimanoroth, S.; Khaled, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    The results are reported for an APMP.R(I)-K1.1 comparison that extends the regional comparison of standards for air kerma APMP.R(I)-K1 to several laboratories unable to participate earlier. The comparison was conducted with the goal of supporting the relevant calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) planned for publication by the participant laboratories. The comparison was conducted by the pilot laboratory, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANSA), Australia, supported by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Taiwan, in a modified ring-shaped arrangement from September 2009 to November 2010, in parallel with an APMP.R(I)-K4 comparison being piloted by the INER. The laboratories that took part in the comparison were the ARPANSA, the Centre of Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology (PTKMR-BATAN), Indonesia, the Division of Radiation and Medical Devices (DMSC), Thailand, the INER, the National Centre for Radiation Science (NCRS), New Zealand, the National Institute for Standards (NIS), Egypt and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST), Japan. The two primary laboratories, ARPANSA and NMIJ, were chosen as the linking laboratories. Three ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments to be calibrated in terms of air kerma in 60Co radiotherapy beams. The comparison result is based on the ratio between the air kerma calibration coefficients (NK) determined by the participants and the mean of the results of the linking laboratories. The mean comparison ratio was found to be within 0.5 % of the key comparison reference value KCRV. The largest deviation between any two comparison ratios for the three chambers in terms of air kerma was 2.0 %. An analysis of the participant uncertainty budgets enabled the calculation of degrees of equivalence (DoE) in terms of the deviations of the results and their associated uncertainties. As a result of this APMP comparison, the BIPM key comparison database (KCDB) should

  6. Final report of the key comparison APMP.QM-K91: APMP comparison on pH measurement of phthalate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Maksimov, Igor; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Miura, Tsutomu; Ketrin, Rosi; Nuryatini; Thanh, Ngo Huy; Truong Chinh, Nguyen; Vospelova, Alena; Bastkowski, Frank; Sander, Beatrice; Matzke, Jessica; Prokunin, Sergey; Frolov, Dmitry; Aprelev, Alexey; Dobrovolskiy, Vladimir; Uysal, Emrah; Liv, Lokman; Velina Lara-Manzano, Judith; Montero-Ruiz, Jazmin; Ortiz-Aparicio, JosÉ Luis; Ticona Canaza, Galia; Anuar Mohd Amin, Khirul; Abd Kadir, Haslina; Bakovets, Nickolay; Wong, Siu-Kay; Lam, Wai-Hing

    2017-01-01

    The APMP.QM-K91 was organised by TCQM of APMP to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes in the APMP region to measure a pH value of a phthalate buffer. This APMP comparison on pH measurement was proposed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan at the APMP-TCQM meeting held September 22-23, 2014. After approval by TCQM, the comparison has been conducted by NMIJ. The comparison is a key comparison following CCQM-K91. The comparison material was a phthalate buffer of pH around 4.0 and the measurement temperatures were 15 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. This is the third APMP key comparison on pH measurement and the fifth APMP comparison on pH measurement following APMP.QM-P06 (two phosphate buffers) in 2004, APMP.QM-P09 (a phthalate buffer) in 2006, APMP.QM-K9/APMP.QM-P16 (a phosphate buffer) in 2010-2011 and APMP.QM-K19/APMP.QM-P25 (a borate buffer) in 2013-2014. The results can be used further by any participant to support its CMC claim at least for a phthalate buffer. That claim will concern the pH method employed by the participant during this comparison and will cover the used temperature(s) or the full temperature range between 15°C and 37 °C for the participant which measured pH values at the three temperatures. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Final report of the key comparison APMP.QM-K9: APMP comparison on pH measurement of phosphate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Ohata, Masaki; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Tangpaisarnkul, Nongluck

    2011-01-01

    The APMP.QM-K9 was organised by TCQM of APMP to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes in the APMP region to measure a pH value of a phosphate buffer. This APMP comparison on pH measurement was proposed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, NMIJ, and the National Institute of Metrology of Thailand, NIMT, in August 2009. After approval by TCQM, the comparison has been conducted by NMIJ and NIMT. The comparison is a key comparison following CCQM-K9, CCQM-K9.1 and CCQM-K9.2. The comparison material was a phosphate buffer of pH around 6.86 and the measurement temperatures were 15 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. This is the first APMP key comparison on pH measurement and the third APMP comparison on pH measurement following APMP.QM-P06 (two phosphate buffers) in 2004 and APMP.QM-P09 (a phthalate buffer) in 2006. The results can be used further by any participant to support its CMC claim for a phosphate buffer. That claim will concern the pH method employed by the participant during this comparison and will cover the temperature(s) used or the full temperature range between 15 °C and 37 °C for the participant which measured pH values at the three temperatures. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Final report on RMO key comparison EURAMET.L-K6: CMM 2-D artifact: ball plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jusko, O.; Banreti, E.; Bergmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    and the final report, the optimization was already completed in most cases. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved...

  9. Key comparison study on peptide purity—synthetic human C-peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, R. D.; Li, M.; Song, D.; Westwood, S.; Stoppacher, N.; Daireaux, A.; Choteau, T.; Wielgosz, R.; Xiao, P.; Liu, Y.; Gao, X.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, T.; Mi, W.; Quan, C.; Huang, T.; Li, H.; Flatschart, R.; Borges Oliveira, R.; Melanson, J. E.; Ohlendorf, R.; Henrion, A.; Kinumi, T.; Wong, L.; Liu, Q.; Oztug Senal, M.; Vatansever, B.; Ün, I.; Gören, A. C.; Akgöz, M.; Quaglia, M.; Warren, J.

    2017-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Protein Analysis Working Group (PAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM-K115, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and the Chinese National Institute of Metrology (NIM). Eight Metrology Institutes or Designated Institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of human C-peptide (hCP) present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K115. The comparison samples were prepared from synthetic human hCP purchased from a commercial supplier and used as provided without further treatment or purification. hCP was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of short (up to 5 kDa), non-cross-linked synthetic peptides/proteins. It was anticipated to provide an analytical measurement challenge representative for the value-assignment of compounds of broadly similar structural characteristics. The majority of participants used a peptide impurity corrected amino acid analysis (PICAA) approach as the amount of material that has been provided to each participant (25 mg) is insufficient to perform a full mass balance based characterization of the material by a participating laboratory. The coordinators, both the BIPM and the NIM, were the laboratories to use the mass balance approach as they had more material available. It was decided to propose KCRVs for both the hCP mass fraction and the mass fraction of the peptide related impurities as indispensable contributor regardless of the use of PICAA, mass balance or any other approach to determine the hCP purity. This allowed participants to demonstrate the efficacy of their implementation of the approaches used to determine the hCP mass fraction. In particular it allows participants to demonstrate the efficacy of their implementation of peptide related impurity identification and quantification

  10. Final report of key comparison SIM.QM-K92 'Electrolytic conductivity at 0.05 S m-1'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, F. B.; Fraga, I. C. S.; Lopes, J. C.; Costa, A. O.; Cordeiro, L. R.; Leal, L. H.; Rocha, W. F. C.; Reyes, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Canaza, G. T.; Rodríguez, J.; Chavarro, L. A.; Cristancho, R.

    2015-01-01

    At the SIM meeting in Buenos Aires, from 30 May 2012 to 1 June 2012, it was decided to perform a RMO Key Comparison and a Pilot Study to evaluate the performance of SIM national metrology institutes for measuring electrolytic conductivity. The Brazilian Institute of Metrology, INMETRO, agreed to act as coordinating laboratory. The proposed RMO Key Comparison aims to investigate the equivalence of electrolytic conductivity measurement results around 0.05 S m-1 at 25 °C. Four institutes took part in the comparison. There was a good agreement of the reported results with the average value, considering the measurement uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Be my guest! Challenges and practical solutions of undertaking interviews with children in the home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Gibson, Faith; Horstman, Maire; Milnes, Linda; Randall, Duncan; Carter, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to share critical debate on undertaking interviews with children in the home setting and draws on the authors' extensive research fieldwork. The article focuses on three key processes: planning entry to the child's home, conducting the interviews and exiting the field. In planning entry, we include children's engagement and issues of researcher gender. In conducting the interviews, we consider issues such as the balance of power, the importance of building a rapport, the voluntary nature of consent and the need for a flexible interview structure. Finally, we address exiting from the child's home with sensitivity at the end of the interview and/or research study. Undertaking research in the child's home provides a known and familiar territory for the child, but it means that the researcher faces a number of challenges that require solutions whilst they are a guest in a child's home. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Non-financial reporting, CSR frameworks and groups of undertakings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Dániel Gergely; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    The recently adopted Directive on non-financial reporting (Directive 2014/95/EU) and several CSR frameworks are based on the assumption that groups of undertakings adopt, report and implement one group policy. This is a very important but also rather unique approach to groups. This article first...

  13. Inter-RMO Key Comparison EUROMET.L-K5.2004: Calibration of a step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieto, Emilio; Brown, Nicholas; Lassila, Antti

    2012-01-01

    The results of the inter-RMO key comparison EUROMET.L-K5.2004 on the calibration of a step gauge are reported. Eighteen National Metrology Institutes and one Designated Institute from four different metrological regions all over the world participated in this comparison which lasted three years......, from December 2004 to December 2007. A lack of stability was observed through the shifting of some of the inserted gauges. In order to save the comparison and get valuable and useful conclusions, it was agreed to exclude four gauges from calculation and assume that only seven gauges were reasonably...... participants for measuring step gauges was demonstrated with the only exception of a participant showing very high systematic (both positive and negative) errors. Five participants communicated higher uncertainties than the corresponding approved CMCs. A set of Recommendations and Actions were agreed therefore...

  14. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  15. Original article Personality determinants of motivation to undertake vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Godlewska-Werner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, at a time of frequent changes in the economic and socio-economic circumstances, knowledge acquired in the course of formal education is insufficient. Especially, the education system is still criticized for a lack of flexibility and strong resistance to change. Therefore, regular participation in various forms of training is required. Employee education and training are becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges. The aim of this study was to determine which personality traits are responsible for the strength of motivation to undertake vocational training and other educational forms. Participants and procedure The study included 104 staff members of Polish companies (60 women and 44 men. The study used Cattell’s 16 PF Questionnaire and the scales of readiness to undertake training and further education as a measure of the strength of motivation (Kawecka, Łaguna & Tabor, 2010. Results The study showed that openness to change and tension (primary traits had the greatest impact on the intention and planning to take vocational training. Additionally, the intention and planning to take vocational training were found to be associated with mindedness, independence, self-control, and anxiety (secondary traits. Such traits as rule-consciousness [G], social-boldness [H], abstractedness [M], and apprehension [O] (primary traits, were important in some aspects, which could constitute a background for further research and discussion of the results. Conclusions The obtained results lead to the conclusion that some of the individual differences in personality determine the motivation to undertake vocational training.

  16. Morphological Comparison of U3O8 Ore Concentrates from Canada Key Lake and Namibia Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Uranium ore concentrates from two different sources were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ore powders are referred to as Namibia (id. no. 90036, LIMS id. no. 18775) and Canada Key Lake (id. no. 90019, LIMS id. no. 18774). Earlier work identified the ores as the U₃O₈ phase of uranium oxide using x-ray diffraction. Both sets of powders were in the form of dark brown to black powder fines. However, the Canada Key Lake concentrates contained larger chunks of material on the millimeter scale that were easily visible to the unaided eye. The powders were mounted for SEM examination by hand dispersing a small amount onto conductive sticky tape. Two types of applicators were used and compared: a fine-tipped spatula and a foam-tipped applicator. The sticky tape was on a standard SEM “tee” mount, which was tapped to remove loose contamination before being inserted into the SEM.

  17. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  18. Conceptualizing childhood health problems using survey data: a comparison of key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Anton R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many definitions are being used to conceptualize child health problems. With survey data, commonly used indicators for identifying children with health problems have included chronic condition checklists, measures of activity limitations, elevated service use, and health utility thresholds. This study compares these different indicators in terms of the prevalence rates elicited, and in terms of how the subgroups identified differ. Methods Secondary data analyses used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Canadian children (n = 13,790. Descriptive analyses compared healthy children to those with health problems, as classified by any of the key indicators. Additional analyses examined differences between subgroups of children captured by a single indicator and those described as having health problems by multiple indicators. Results This study demonstrates that children captured by any of the indicators had poorer health than healthy children, despite the fact that over half the sample (52.2% was characterized as having a health problem by at least one indicator. Rates of child ill health differed by indicator; 5.6% had an activity limitation, 9.2% exhibited a severe health difficulty, 31.7% reported a chronic condition, and 36.6% had elevated service use. Further, the four key indicators captured different types of children. Indicator groupings differed on child and socio-demographic factors. Compared to children identified by more than one indicator, those identified only by the severe health difficulty indicator displayed more cognitive problems (p Conclusion We provide information useful to researchers when selecting indicators from survey data to identify children with health problems. Researchers and policy makers need to be aware of the impact of such definitions on prevalence rates as well as on the composition of children classified as

  19. Comparison of the key mechanisms leading to rollovers in Liquefied Natural Gas using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Antoine; Dadonau, Maksim; Dembele, Siaka; Denissenko, Petr; Wen, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Growing demand for the LNG fosters growth of the number of production sites with varying composition and density. Combining different sources of LNG may result in a stably stratified system, in which heat and mass transfer between the layers is limited. Heating of the LNG due to wall thermal conductivity leads to formation of convection cells confined within the layers. While the upper layer can release the extra energy via preferential methane boil-off, the bottom layer cannot and hence becomes superheated. Gradual density equilibration reduces stratification and may eventually lead to a sudden mixing event called ``rollover'', accompanied by violent evaporation of the superheated LNG. Three phenomena are potentially responsible for density equilibration. The first is the growing difference in thermal expansion of the layers due to the reduced ability of the bottom layer to reject heat. The second is the penetration of the heated near-wall boundary layer into the upper layer. The third is the ``entrainment mixing'' occurring at the contact surface between the two layers. The present study uses CFD to compare these mechanisms. Boussinesq approximation and an extended version of the k- ɛ model is used. The code is validated by comparison with a large-scale LNG rollover experiment.

  20. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.a (estradiol): An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Wang, Hongjie; Rodrigues, Jainana; Wollinger, Wagner; Windust, Anthony; Kang, Ma; Fuhai, Su; Philipp, Rosemarie; Kuhlich, Paul; Wong, Siu-kay; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Pérez, Melina; Avila, Marco; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo, D.; de Vos, J.; Visser, R.; Archer, M.; LeGoff, Thierry; Wood, Steve; Bearden, Dan; Bedner, Mary; Boroujerdi, Arezue; Duewer, David; Hancock, Diane; Lang, Brian; Porter, Barbara; Schantz, Michele; Sieber, John; White, Edward; Wise, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.a, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2009/2010. Eleven national measurement institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of estradiol present as the main component in the comparison sample (CCQM-K55.a) which consisted of a bulk estradiol hemihydrate material obtained from a commercial supplier that had been extensively but not exhaustively dried prior to sub-division into the units supplied for the comparison. Estradiol was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of medium structural complexity [molar mass range 300-500 Da] and low polarity (pKOW process. The results displaying a positive bias relative to the KCRV (overestimation of estradiol content) were due to underestimation of the water content of the material, while those with a negative bias (underestimation of estradiol) overestimated the total related substance impurities through a failure to detect and control for artefact formation arising from in situ oxidative dimerization of estradiol in neutral solution prior to analysis. There was however good agreement between all participants in the identification and the quantification of the individual related structure impurities actually present in the sample. The comparison also demonstrated the utility of high-field 1H NMR for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of high purity compounds. It is noted that all the participants who used qNMR as a major or contributing technique and included it as part of, combined it or confirmed it with a conventional 'mass balance' data estimate, obtained results consistent with the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is

  1. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  2. Benefits and barriers for registered nurses undertaking post-graduate diplomas in paediatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne; Copnell, Beverley

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents one aspect of a larger study identifying key influences on curriculum redesign and development of a post-graduate diploma in advanced clinical nursing. The focus is on paediatric intensive care and general paediatric streams. Data presented here relate to registered nurses' perceptions of benefits and barriers when undertaking this post-graduate diploma. As well as interviews and focus group discussions with a number of nurses, data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, A total of 885 surveys were distributed to nurses working in paediatric areas in five hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Of these, 391 were completed (response rate 44%). One hundred and thirty (33%) had post-registration or post-graduate paediatric qualifications. Perceived benefits of undertaking the post-graduate diploma mainly related to an increase in knowledge and experience and improvement of employment opportunities. Perceived barriers mainly related to financial and professional issues such as cost of the course, loss of salary, the lack of direct remuneration on completion of the course and a lack of promotional opportunities. It was of concern that several nurses expressed a belief that paediatric qualifications were unnecessary and that many believed their employers did not value the qualification. Several recommendations are suggested to address the main barriers. These include more flexibility in the provision of such courses and opportunities for financial assistance. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    OpenAIRE

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should public undertakings be considered as public sector bodies in the meaning of the Directive? Are there public undertakings holding "interesting" PSI? Are there different definitions of national legisl...

  4. 42 CFR 137.165 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake annual audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.165 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...-Governance Tribes must undertake annual audits pursuant to the Single Audit Act, 31 U.S.C. 7501 et seq. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...

  5. Final report of the key comparison CCQM-K106: Pb, As and Hg measurements in cosmetic (cream)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Qian; Yamani, Randa Nasr Ahmed; Shehata, Adel B.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Pavlin, Majda; Horvat, Milena; Tsoi, Y. P.; Tsang, C. K.; Shin, Richard; Chailap, Benjamat; Yafa, Charun; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; de Almeida, Marcelo; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Konopelko, Leonid; Ari, Betül; Tokman, Nilgün; Rienitz, Olaf; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Pape, Carola

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are used in practically all walks of life as a means of improving skin and beautifying complexion. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the cosmetic safety. In response to the cosmetic safety issue, the accurate measurement of the heavy metals in cosmetics is, therefore, particularly important. NMIs from different countries should establish their chemical metrology traceability system in this area, which includes both measurement methods research and certain CRMs development. It should be noted that because the matrix of many cosmetics is complex and the contents of the heavy metals are relatively low, it still is a challenging task to measure the analytes with high accuracy and precision. CCQM-K106 followed up CCQM pilot study 'CCQM-P128: Pb, As measurements in cosmetic (cream)' coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM) in 2009. The cream was selected as the testing material, which is widely used as a daily skin care worldwide. This is the first CCQM key comparison regarding the measurement of toxic metal elements with the cosmetic matrix, which includes pure water, liquid paraffin, silicone oil, synthetic squalane, hyaluronic acid, glycerin, propylene glycol, allantoin, preservative and so on. The aim of the CCQM-K106 is to demonstrate the capability of participating NMIs and designated institutes in measuring the contents of poisonous elements, including lead, arsenic and mercury in a cosmetic sample (cream), and support CMC claims relating to inorganic elements in cosmetic materials and similar chemical industry products. The cream matrix sample was prepared under the guidance of professional technicians. The formula of the cream was carefully chosen to match with a real cosmetic. The homogeneity and stability level of Pb, As and Hg in the cream sample were fit for the objective of the comparison. Each participant received two numbered bottles containing about 5g samples in each bottle. The instruction

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K62: Nutrients in infant/adult formula—Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Katherine E.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Nelson, Bryant C.; Duewer, David L.; Wise, Stephen A.; Kim, Byungjoo; Liu, Jun; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K62 was designed to enable demonstration of the equivalence in capabilities for measurement of vitamins in a food matrix. A milk-based fortified human infant/adult formula was selected as the matrix based upon material availability and relevance. Because vitamins were added to the CCQM-K62 study material in a single form and at levels significantly higher than those that would be naturally occurring in the milk base, the ability of a laboratory to measure the study vitamins is only indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure vitamins in fortified foods. Target analytes were selected for study because of the ready availability of suitable standard materials and the range of their chemical properties: folic acid (vitamin B9) is a single water-soluble molecular entity that typically occurs at low levels and can be unstable, niacin (vitamin B3) is a single stable molecular entity and is typically present at higher concentrations than the other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin A has multiple molecular forms (including retinol and retinyl palmitate), is fat-soluble and typically occurs at relatively high levels. Results for participants measuring only folic acid or niacin are only indicative of their ability to make that measurement; results for participants measuring both folic acid and niacin are indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure folic acid, thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin in fortified foods but not vitamin C or other water-soluble vitamins. The ability to measure vitamin A (reported as retinol equivalents) in this material is also indicative of the participant's ability to measure vitamin E (as alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl acetate) but is not indicative of the ability to measure vitamins D and K, which typically occur at much lower concentrations. The relative degrees of equivalence of the reported measurements for all three analytes in CCQM-K62 were within 10%; however, since only two results were submitted for niacin

  7. Final report on APMP.M.M-K1.1: Bilateral key comparison of 1 kg stainless steel mass standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fen, Kitty; Shih Mean, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the bilateral key comparison APMP.M.M-K1.1 between the National Measurement Institute of Australia (NMIA) and the National Metrology Centre, Agency for Science Technology & Research (NMC, A*STAR) using a 1 kg stainless steel mass standard. The objective of the comparison is to demonstrate the metrological equivalence between the two laboratories. The results of the comparison will be used to support improved Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) declaration of NMC, A*STAR to fulfil the requirements of the CIPM MRA. The NMIA has taken part in both CCM.M-K1 and APMP.M.M-K1.1, and is the pilot and linking laboratory for this bilateral comparison. The comparison commenced on 29 September 2008 and was concluded on 15 December 2008. A stainless steel 1 kg OIML Class E1 standard mass was used as the travelling artefact and was transported between the laboratories by courier and by hand-carrying. The APMP.M.M.K2 technical protocol was adopted as the protocol for this comparison. The comparison results together with their assigned uncertainties show good agreement between NMIA and NMC, A*STAR and with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of the CCM.M-K1. It also shows that NMC, A*STAR has the measurement capability at the OIML E1 level. The deviation from the KCRV of the CCM.M-K1 for NMC, A*STAR through this comparison is +0.033 mg with an uncertainty of 0.049 mg. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. KEY COMPARISONS: Final report: SIM regional comparison of ac-dc voltage transfer difference (SIM.EM.K6a, SIM.EM-K9 and SIM.EM-K11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sara; Filipski, Piotr; Izquierdo, Daniel; Afonso, Edson; Landim, Régis P.; Di Lillo, Lucas; Lipe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Three comparisons of ac-dc voltage transfer difference held from January to December 2004 are reported. Six NMIs in the SIM region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay) and INMETRO (Brazil). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc voltage transfer difference of the NMIs in the SIM region. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons, through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons. Additionally, a SIM.EM-Supplementary comparison was proposed, in support of the SIM NMIs' power/energy meter calibration capabilities. One technical protocol and one travelling standard were used, to economize on time and resources. The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc voltage transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. 12 CFR 980.2 - Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 980.2 Section 980.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.2 Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities. No Bank shall undertake any new business activity except in accordance with the...

  10. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should

  11. Comparison of Three Key Marine Shale Reservoirs in the Southeastern Margin of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a comprehensive comparison of three key marine shale reservoirs in the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin, and explains why commercial gas production was only achieved in the Lower Silurian Longmaxi (LSL and Upper Ordovician Wufeng (UOW formations, but not in the Lower Cambrian Niutitang (LCN formation. The experimental methods included in situ gas content and gas composition tests, methane adsorption analysis, low-pressure N2 adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and total organic carbon (TOC and vitrinite reflectance (Ro analyses to evaluate the lithology, mineralogy, physical properties of the reservoir, organic geochemistry, in situ gas content and methane adsorption capacity characteristics of the three shales. The LCN shale has lower quartz and clay mineral contents and a low brittleness index, but higher contents of feldspar, pyrite and carbonate minerals than the LSL and UOW shales. The porosity and permeability of the LSL and UOW shales are higher than those of the LCN shale. The primary contributions to the high permeability in the LSL shale are its well-developed fractures and organic matter pores. In contrast, the over-mature LCN shale is unfavorable for the development of organic pores and fractures. Although the LCN shale has a higher methane sorption capacity than the LSL and UOW shales, the gas content and methane saturation of the LCN shale are distinctly lower than those of the LSL and UOW shales. This is primarily due to gas migration from the LCN shale, resulting from the activities of tectonic uplift and the unconformable contact between the LCN shale and the Dengying formation. When compared with gas shale in North America, the LSL shale is the most favorable shale reservoir out of the three Sichuan shales, while the combination of the LSL and UOW shales is also potentially productive. However, the individual single layer production of the UOW or LCN shales is still

  12. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K61: Quantitation of a linearised plasmid DNA, based on a matched standard in a matrix of non-target DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Alison; Holden, Marcia; Salit, Marc; Burns, Malcolm; Ellison, Stephen L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K61 was performed to demonstrate and document the capability of interested national metrology institutes in the determination of the quantity of specific DNA target in an aqueous solution. The study provides support for the following measurement claim: "Quantitation of a linearised plasmid DNA, based on a matched standard in a matrix of non-target DNA". The comparison was an activity of the Bioanalysis Working Group (BAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière and was coordinated by NIST (Gaithersburg, USA) and LGC (Teddington, UK). The following laboratories (in alphabetical order) participated in this key comparison. DMSC (Thailand); IRMM (European Union); KRISS (Republic of Korea); LGC (UK); NIM (China); NIST (USA); NMIA (Australia); NMIJ (Japan); VNIIM (Russian Federation) Good agreement was observed between the reported results of all nine of the participants. Uncertainty estimates did not account fully for the dispersion of results even after allowance for possible inhomogeneity in calibration materials. Preliminary studies suggest that the effects of fluorescence threshold setting might contribute to the excess dispersion, and further study of this topic is suggested Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K1 of the air-kerma standards of the IST-LPSR, Portugal and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D.; Cardoso, J.

    2018-01-01

    A comparison of the standards for air kerma of the Instituto Superior Técnico, Laboratório de Proteção e Segurança Radiológica (IST-LPSR), Portugal and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in December 2015. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the IST-LPSR and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 1.0026 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 × 10‑3. The results for an indirect comparison made at the same time are consistent with the direct results at the level of 1.1 parts in 103. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. The Commission on Employment Conditions, an ambitious undertaking !

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year, the Commission on Employment Conditions has had much success in the number and ability of its participants. It has mostly worked on salaries, the only compulsory subject of the 2010 five-yearly review. In the framework of this review, the Commission has analysed the results of the comparison carried out by the OECD (see Echo 104 and 105). Through its research and analysis, the Commission has clearly shown that our salaries are lower than those of the comparators. It is there necessary to adjust the salary grid with a salary catch-up and not an increase. In 20 years, no five-yearly review has ended with a significant catch-up. Today it is essential to inform our colleagues that this subject needs to be dealt with and that measures must be taken to finance it, as is the case for restoring the equilibrium of the Pension Fund and Health Insurance schemes. The Commission has established an argumentation to help our fellow delegates talk about the delicate subject of salary catch-...

  15. Alternative sources of financing entrepreneurial undertakings in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficiency of internal financial resources and limited access to external sources of capital, as one of the key problems, local agricultural producers - entrepreneurs usualy describe with high cost of capital, complicated procedures, lack of transparency in regard to the settlement of credit requests and problems with security of loans. The aim of this study is to analyze the possibilities of facilitating access to increased volume of capital for domestic entrepreneurs in agriculture by using funding sources that are applied in developed economies for financing entrepreneurs. In order to achieve the stated aim, the subject of investigation in this paper is the analysis of alternative sources of financing, which use or increased adoption in Serbia would provide greater availability of capital for agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrobusiness complex and thus the promotion of entrepreneurial activity, and consequently, greater competitiveness and greater income of domestic agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrbusiness indirectly leading to increased economic growth and improvement of the welfare.

  16. A Comparison between Two Off-the-Shelf Algebraic Tools for Extraction of Cryptographic Keys from Corrupted Memory Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Abdel,; Zahno, Roger; Youssef, Amr,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Modern Cryptography; International audience; Cold boot attack is a class of side channel attacks which exploits the data remanence property of random access memory (RAM) to retrieve its contents which remain readable shortly after its power has been removed. Specialized algorithms have been previously proposed to recover cryptographic keys of several ciphers from decayed memory images. However, these techniques were cipher-dependent and certainly uneasy to develop and fine tune. On th...

  17. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Buermann, L.; Burns, D.T.; Takeyeddin, M.; Shaha, V.V.; Srimanoroth, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J.; Kadni, T.B.; Takata, N.; Msimang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  18. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie (Australia); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Burns, D.T. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, 92 - Sevres (France); Takeyeddin, M. [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shaha, V.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srimanoroth, S. [Department of Medical Sciences, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Meghzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Yusong (Korea, Republic of); Kadni, T.B. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang (Malaysia); Takata, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Msimang, Z. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-10-15

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  19. International key comparison of measurements of neutron source emission rate (1999-2005): CCRI(III)-K9.AmBe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Jones, L. N.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Rong, C.; Králik, M.; Park, H.; Choi, K. O.; Pereira, W. W.; da Fonseca, E. S.; Cassette, P.; Dewey, M. S.; Moiseev, N. N.; Kharitonov, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Section III (neutron measurements) of the Comité Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, CCRI, conducted a key comparison of primary measurements of the neutron emission rate of an 241Am-Be(α,n) radionuclide source. A single 241Am-Be(α,n) source was circulated to all the participants between 1999 and 2005. Eight laboratories participated—the CIAE (China), CMI (Czech Republic), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LNMRI (Brazil), LNE-LNHB (France), NIST (USA), NPL (UK) and the VNIIM (Russian Federation)—with the NPL making their measurements at the start and repeating them near the end of the exercise to verify the stability of the source. Each laboratory reported the emission rate into 4π sr together with a detailed uncertainty budget. All participants used the manganese bath technique, with the VNIIM also making measurements using an associated particle technique. The CMI, KRISS, VNIIM, and later the NPL, also measured the anisotropy of the source although this was not a formal part of the comparison. The first draft report was released in May 2006 and having been discussed and modified by the participants and subsequently reviewed by the CCRI(III), the present paper is now the final report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section III, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. A comparison of land use change accounting methods: seeking common grounds for key modeling choices in biofuel assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo Saez; Hamelin, Lorie; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Five currently used methods to account for the global warming (GW) impact of the induced land-use change (LUC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been applied to four biofuel case studies. Two of the investigated methods attempt to avoid the need of considering a definite occupation -thus...... amortization period by considering ongoing LUC trends as a dynamic baseline. This leads to the accounting of a small fraction (0.8%) of the related emissions from the assessed LUC, thus their validity is disputed. The comparison of methods and contrasting case studies illustrated the need of clearly...... distinguishing between the different time horizons involved in life cycle assessments (LCA) of land-demanding products like biofuels. Absent in ISO standards, and giving rise to several confusions, definitions for the following time horizons have been proposed: technological scope, inventory model, impact...

  1. Comparison of the aggregation of homologous β2-microglobulin variants reveals protein solubility as a key determinant of amyloid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, Clare L; Hewitt, Eric W; Radford, Sheena E

    2016-02-13

    The mouse and human β2-microglobulin protein orthologs are 70% identical in sequence and share 88% sequence similarity. These proteins are predicted by various algorithms to have similar aggregation and amyloid propensities. However, whilst human β2m (hβ2m) forms amyloid-like fibrils in denaturing conditions (e.g. pH2.5) in the absence of NaCl, mouse β2m (mβ2m) requires the addition of 0.3M NaCl to cause fibrillation. Here, the factors which give rise to this difference in amyloid propensity are investigated. We utilise structural and mutational analyses, fibril growth kinetics and solubility measurements under a range of pH and salt conditions, to determine why these two proteins have different amyloid propensities. The results show that, although other factors influence the fibril growth kinetics, a striking difference in the solubility of the proteins is a key determinant of the different amyloidogenicity of hβ2m and mβ2m. The relationship between protein solubility and lag time of amyloid formation is not captured by current aggregation or amyloid prediction algorithms, indicating a need to better understand the role of solubility on the lag time of amyloid formation. The results demonstrate the key contribution of protein solubility in determining amyloid propensity and lag time of amyloid formation, highlighting how small differences in protein sequence can have dramatic effects on amyloid formation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RULES ON COMPETITION GOVERNING UNDERTAKINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad – Teodor Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the general rules on competition between undertakings in the EU. The author paid attention primarly to matters on the prohibition of agreements that aim to distort or impair competition on the internal market. Moreover, he examined in detail the matter concerning the regulation and interdiction of the abuse of a dominant position. The work also reviews doctrinal opinions, as well as the jurisprudential solutions in the area. The author’s concern to summarize and develop the conditions for the implementation of each of the two legal mechanisms is worth noting: the prohibition of agreements between undertakings and the abuse of a dominant position. The essential considerations taken into account by the Court of Justice of the European Union in settling a case whose subject consisted of assessing the manner in which an undertaking reflected on competition on the internal market were selected at the end of the work.

  3. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing, People' s Republic of China (China); Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N. [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg (United States); Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Tsukuba (Japan); Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A. [Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  4. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C.; Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N.; Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S.; Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N.; Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P.; Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A.; Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D.

    2007-01-01

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  5. Comparison of Key Absorption and Optical Properties Between Pure and Transported Anthropogenic Dust over East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent N.; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD(440) > or = 0.4) and a low Angstrom wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (alpha or = 0.4 and 0.2 Central Asian regions, even if their variations rely on different sources, distance from the source, emission mechanisms, and meteorological characteristics. The overall mean and standard deviation of single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, real part and imaginary part of complex refractive index at 550 nm for Asian PDU are 0.935 +/- 0.014, 0.742 +/- 0.008, 1.526 +/- 0.029, and 0.00226 +/- 0.00056, respectively, while corresponding values are 0.921 +/- 0.021, 0.723 +/- 0.009, 1.521 +/- 0.025, and 0.00364 +/- 0.0014 for Asian TDU. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative effects at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (alpha < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < alpha < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and mineral-transported (mineral-tran.) modes. Therefore, we are convinced that our results hold promise for updating and improving accuracies of Asian dust characteristics in present-day remote sensing applications and regional or global climate models.

  6. Comparison of Key Absorption and Optical Properties Between Pure and Transported Anthropogenic Dust over East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent N.; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD(440) > or = 0.4) and a low Angstrom wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (alpha or = 0.4 and 0.2 < alpha < 0.6 are designated as Transported Anthropogenic Dust (TDU), which is mainly dominated by dust aerosol and might mix with other anthropogenic aerosol types. Our results reveal that the primary components of high AOD days are predominantly dust over East and Central Asian regions, even if their variations rely on different sources, distance from the source, emission mechanisms, and meteorological characteristics. The overall mean and standard deviation of single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, real part and imaginary part of complex refractive index at 550 nm for Asian PDU are 0.935 +/- 0.014, 0.742 +/- 0.008, 1.526 +/- 0.029, and 0.00226 +/- 0.00056, respectively, while corresponding values are 0.921 +/- 0.021, 0.723 +/- 0.009, 1.521 +/- 0.025, and 0.00364 +/- 0.0014 for Asian TDU. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative effects at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (alpha < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < alpha < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and

  7. Who Assists the Faculty? The Need for Mentorship Programs for Faculty Undertaking Global Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Yasmin; London, Chad; Carston, Cathy; Salyers, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the expectations, motivations, and experiences of Canadian faculty members undertaking development and implementation of global education initiatives (GEI) for students in the form of exchange and study abroad programs, supervised practical coursework, and experiential learning in international settings. Findings revealed that…

  8. The Complexities of Supporting Asian International Pre-Service Teachers as They Undertake Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Tangen, Donna; Campbell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Asian international students are choosing to undertake their tertiary studies in English-speaking countries. For universities, international students are an important source of revenue. However, Asian international students face multiple challenges in adapting to a foreign culture, understanding the expectations of their…

  9. 31 CFR 248.5 - Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form 2244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception to requirement of... POSSESSIONS Action to Be Taken by Claimants § 248.5 Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form... and agents, of and from any and all liability, loss, expense, claim, and demand whatsoever, arising in...

  10. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana : Transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.

    The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users), and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for

  11. Best practice in undertaking and reporting health technology assessments : Working Group 4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, R.; Orvain, J.; Velasco, M.; Perleth, M.; Drummond, M.; Gurtner, F.; Jorgensen, T.; Jovell, A.; Malone, J.; Ruther, A; Wild, C.

    2002-01-01

    [Executive Summary] The aim of Working Group 4 has been to develop and disseminate best practice in undertaking and reporting assessments, and to identify needs for methodologic development. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary activity that systematically examines the technical performance, safety, clinical efficacy, and effectiveness, cost, costeffectiveness, organizational implications, social consequences, legal, and ethical considerations of the application of a heal...

  12. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  13. Use of gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify key odorant compounds in dark chocolate. Comparison of samples before and after conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counet, Christine; Callemien, Delphine; Ouwerx, Caroline; Collin, Sonia

    2002-04-10

    After vacuum distillation and liquid-liquid extraction, the volatile fractions of dark chocolates were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed the presence of 33 potent odorants in the neutral/basic fraction. Three of these had a strong chocolate flavor: 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. Many others were characterized by cocoa/praline-flavored/nutty/coffee notes: 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethylpyrazine, 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, and furfurylpyrrole. Comparisons carried out before and after conching indicate that although no new key odorant is synthesized during the heating process, levels of 2-phenyl-5-methyl-2-hexenal, Furaneol, and branched pyrazines are significantly increased while most Strecker aldehydes are lost by evaporation.

  14. Final report on EURAMET.QM-K12: EURAMET key comparison on the determination of the mass fraction of creatinine in serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Hopley, Chris; Ellison, Stephen L. R.; O'Connor, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Creatinine is a well-known marker for the evaluation of kidney function. Its routine measurement is undertaken by many clinical laboratories and comparable results over distance and time are required for effective diagnosis. To address this need many National Measurement Institutes (or designated institutes) provide services in this area via the provision of higher order standards or reference measurements. The organic analysis working group of the consultative committee for amount of substance have conducted two previous key comparisons to assess the equivalence of institutes who provide such services. The purpose of this study was to enable institutes who missed the previous studies to demonstrate their capability for characterizing serum materials containing 1 µg/g to 100 µg/g of creatinine. The study material consisted of two lyophilized serum samples which were used in an external quality control proficiency testing scheme. No target values were available for these materials and all participants reported results within the one month timeframe given for analysis. Five institutes participated in the key study and a single institute submitted results for the parallel pilot study. All participants in the key study used isotope dilution with either gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The pilot study laboratory used a novel isotope dilution surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy method. The comparison reference value for each material was set as the mean of all results submitted by those participating in the key study. The choice of the reference value estimator was constrained as it was deemed more appropriate to treat the data in a similar manner to CCQM-K12 if the relative degrees of equivalence were to be compared. This resulted in reference values of (54.27 ± 0.72) µg/g and (38.01 ± 0.42) µg/g for the two separate materials. The relative degrees of equivalence were calculated and these were compared with the relative degrees of

  15. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K2 of the air-kerma standards of the LNE-LNHB, France and the BIPM in low-energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.T.; Roger, P. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Denoziere, M.; Leroy, E. [CEA Saclay, LIST Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2011-08-15

    A key comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the LNE-LNHB, France and the BIPM in the low-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in agreement at the level of the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 1.6 parts in 10{sup 3}, with no evidence of a trend in the results at different radiation qualities. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. (authors)

  16. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the NMISA (South Africa) and the BIPM April to June 2017 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Matlejoane, A. M.; Magagula, L.; Stock, M.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1.018 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Metrology Institute of South Africa, NMISA (South Africa), was carried out from April to June 2017. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMA (ZA) and BIPMB (ZB), were transported by freight to NMISA and back to BIPM. In order to keep the Zeners powered during their transportation phase, a voltage stabilizer developed by BIPM was connected in parallel to the internal battery. It consists of a set of two batteries, electrically protected from surcharge-discharge, easy to recharge and is designed to power two transfer standards for ten consecutive days. At NMISA, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NMISA, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NMISA, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at NMISA, UNMISA, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference dates of the 19th and 18th of May 2017, respectively. UNMISA - UBIPM = + 0.07 μV uc = 0.02 μV, at 1.018 V UNMISA - UBIPM = + 0.001 μV uc = 0.34 μV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NMISA, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which

  17. Researcher or nurse? Difficulties of undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Susan

    2014-09-01

    To reflect on the author's personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. When discussing care at the end of life, researchers must accept that some participants may become distressed or emotional, depending on their previous experiences. Interviews that involve sensitive topics require careful planning. The semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of the author's PhD study examining the experiences of advance care planning among family caregivers of people with advanced dementia. A reflection on my personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. The frustration and tragedy of dementia, as experienced by the family caregivers, were powerful and required the author to exert self-control to avoid being overly sympathetic and offering words of reassurance, agreement and comfort. This blurring of roles between researcher and nurse has implications for all nurse researchers who undertake qualitative interviews, particularly when an intense emotional response is likely. Nurse researchers should plan and prepare for potential blurring of roles during emotional interviews and should never automatically assume that they are sufficiently prepared as a result of their previous experience and nurse training.

  18. Longitudinal meta-analysis of NIST pH Standard Reference Materials(®): a complement to pH key comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Kenneth W

    2015-04-01

    This meta-analysis assesses the long-term (up to 70 years) within-laboratory variation of the NIST pH Standard Reference Material® (SRM) tetroxalate, phthalate, phosphate, borate, and carbonate buffers. Values of ΔpH(S), the difference between the certified pH value, pH(S), of each SRM issue and the mean of all pH(S) values for the given SRM at that Celsius temperature, t, are graphed as a function of the SRM issue and t. In most cases, |ΔpH(S)| materials, and methodology of the pH(S) measurement yield t-dependent variations. The standard deviation of ΔpH(S) characterizes such changes. Standard deviations of ΔpH(S) are generally 0.0015 or less. The results provide a long-term, single-institution complement to the time-specific, multi-institution results of pH key comparisons administered by the Consultative Committee for Metrology in Chemistry and Biology (CCQM).

  19. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  20. Undertaking and writing research that is important, targeted, and the best you can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-04-01

    Conducting and writing research is a privilege. It is a privilege because researchers can change lives through their findings and can influence public knowledge and debate. It is also a privilege because researchers are reliant on the time and goodwill of participants (and colleagues), and research is often underpinned by funding raised by the public, either through taxes or philanthropic donations. This privilege comes with responsibility. Researchers have a responsibility to undertake research that is important, targeted, and of high quality. This editorial aims to inspire, challenge, and bolster the research efforts of individuals and teams.

  1. Training staff to empower people with long-term conditions to undertake self care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mandy

    Self care can help people with long-term conditions take control of their lives. However, their interest and ability to engage with it may fluctuate over the course of an illness and many need support to undertake self care activities. A team of community matrons in NHS South of Tyne and Wear helped to develop and pilot an e-learning tool for staff, to remind them of the importance of self care and give advice on ways to support patients. The tool has since been rolled out to all staff groups.

  2. Building capacity to use and undertake research in health organisations: a survey of training needs and priorities among staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J

    2016-12-07

    Efforts to improve healthcare and population health depend partly on the ability of health organisations to use research knowledge and participate in its production. We report the findings of a survey conducted to prioritise training needs among healthcare and public health staff, in relation to the production and implementation of research, across an applied health research collaboration. A questionnaire survey using a validated tool, the Hennessy-Hicks Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire. Participants rated 25 tasks on a five-point scale with regard to both their confidence in performing the task, and its importance to their role. A questionnaire weblink was distributed to a convenience sample of 35 healthcare and public health organisations in London and South East England, with a request that they cascade the information to relevant staff. 203 individuals responded, from 20 healthcare and public health organisations. None. Training needs were identified by comparing median importance and performance scores for each task. Individuals were also invited to describe up to three priority areas in which they require training. Across the study sample, evaluation; teaching; making do with limited resources; coping with change and managing competing demands were identified as key tasks. Assessing the relevance of research and learning about new developments were the most relevant research-related tasks. Participants' training priorities included evaluation; finding, appraising and applying research evidence; and data analysis. Key barriers to involvement included time and resources, as well as a lack of institutional support for undertaking research. We identify areas in which healthcare and public health professionals may benefit from support to facilitate their involvement in and use of applied health research. We also describe barriers to participation and differing perceptions of research between professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  3. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Yan, Hui-Jun; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Li, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2018-02-12

    Rosa chinensis var. spontanea , an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC) region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC) region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. s pontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses . This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa , and it might also facilitate the

  4. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefay, Hagos; Abrha, Atakelti; Kinsman, John; Myléus, Anna; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death) have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  5. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  6. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howman, Mary; Jones, Melvyn

    2011-02-03

    Intercalated BScs (iBScs) are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year) exams. A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276). A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance). The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without). Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01). (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300). There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66). (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed"). Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance) undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this confounding in unadjusted results is that students who do better

  7. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −30 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range −30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. PMID:28066029

  8. Electronic assessment of clinical reasoning in clerkships: A mixed-methods comparison of long-menu key-feature problems with context-rich single best answer questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwendiek, S.; Reichert, F.; Duncker, C.; Leng, B.A. De; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.; Bosse, H.M.; Haag, M.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Tonshoff, B.; Dolmans, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which item format would best suit the assessment of clinical reasoning: context-rich single best answer questions (crSBAs) or key-feature problems (KFPs). This study compared KFPs and crSBAs with respect to students' acceptance, their educational impact, and

  9. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  10. Technology transfer in the hydropower industry: An analysis of Chinese dam developers’ undertakings in Europe and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial

    2018-01-01

    Technology transfer is essential for transitioning to a low carbon economy which can include hydropower. Chinese dam developers allegedly dominate the global hydropower industry. Studies have been carried out on technology transfer in their undertakings in Africa and Asia. However, such work is

  11. Non proliferation regimes undertakings: Benefits and limits of synergies in verification technologies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Thirty years ago the NPT was entering into force. Therewith, when a State became party to the NPT, it had, in accordance with article III.1 of the Treaty, an undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Safeguards agreement with the IAEA and accept safeguards verification on source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territories in order to verify that such material is not diverted. This multilateral instrument was the foundation stone of the non-proliferation regime and marked the actual birth of internationally accepted measures to verily compliance with politically stringent agreements. Since that time several important multilateral or bilateral instruments on non-proliferation and disarmament have been negotiated and adopted to curb the development and the acquisition of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) most of them since the middle of the eighties and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Amongst the multilateral instruments are the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological Weapon and Toxin Weapons (1972), the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (1993), the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996), the Strengthening of the IAEA Safeguards and the Additional Protocol (1997), with some still in negotiation like the Protocol of the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons, and some on which negotiation is still a wish like the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. Bilateral disarmament agreements between the United States of America and the Russian Federation such as the INF Treaty, START I and II, the agreements on the elimination of excess defence nuclear material as well as the Trilateral Initiative with the IAEA pave the way to nuclear disarmament with the reduction of both the number of nuclear weapons arsenal and the fissile material inventories. The politically stringent undertakings of States that have become parties to those agreements would not be possible without the

  12. Critical evaluation of the Laboratory of Radionuclide Metrology results of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD in the international key comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Silva, C.J. da

    2014-01-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (LMR) of LNMRI/IRD has been participating since 1984, in international key-comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive sources organized by BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations as EURAMET and APMP. The measured quantity is the activity of a radioactive solution, in becquerel (Bq), containing the radionuclide involved and the of measurement methods used are 4αβ-γ coincidence/anticoincidence, coincidence sum-peak and liquid scintillation. In this paper a summary of the methods used and a performance analysis of the results obtained are presented. (author)

  13. What are the key characteristics of a Christian life? A comparison of the ethics of Calvin to that of Augustine and their relevance today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine and Calvin are two of the greatest (western theologians of all times and it is illuminating and inspiring to investigate what they have to teach as far as Christian life is concerned. Augustine never wrote a work on Christian ethics in the modern sense of the word but from his many writings we can easily deduce what the key characteristics are. He accepted the natural virtues of philosophers (prudence, for- titude, temperance and justice but subordinated them to the “infused virtues” of faith, hope and love. Special attention was also paid to inter alia happiness, humility and truth. Calvin, on the other hand, although following Augustine in many aspects of theology, rejected the virtue ethics of the Greek philosophers and developed a Christological ethics within the broader context of pneumatology. The key characteristics of a Christian life are self-denial, cross-bearing and meditation on the future life – and of course the correct enjoyment of the present life. Although we appreciate much of what the two church fathers have to say, we live in a totally different world context today, facing challenges of far greater proportions, like economical uncertainty, political instability and an immense ecological crisis. Morality is chal- lenged today as never before in world history. Today we have to rethink the relevance of Christian life not only from an individual personal perspective but also in terms of broader social Christian ethics.

  14. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This report provides background information on safeguards and explains procedures for States to conclude Additional Protocols to comprehensive Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA. Since the IAEA was founded in 1957, its safeguards system has been an indispensable component of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and has facilitated peaceful nuclear cooperation. In recognition of this, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) makes it mandatory for all non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) party to the Treaty to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus allow for the application of safeguards to all their nuclear material. Under Article III of the NPT, all NNWS undertake to accept safeguards, as set forth in agreements to be negotiated and concluded with the IAEA, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of the States' obligations under the NPT. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreements (reproduced in INFCIRC/540(Corr.)) which provided for an additional legal authority. In States that have both a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force, the IAEA is able to optimize the implementation of all safeguards measures available. In order to simplify certain procedures under comprehensive safeguards agreements for States with little or no nuclear material and no nuclear material in a facility, the IAEA began making available, in 1971, a 'small quantities protocol' (SQP), which held in abeyance the implementation of most of the detailed provisions of comprehensive safeguards agreements for so long as the State concerned satisfied these criteria. The safeguards system aims at detecting and deterring the diversion of nuclear material. Such material includes enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium-233, which could be used directly in nuclear weapons. It also includes natural uranium and depleted uranium, the latter of which is

  15. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  16. Designing and Undertaking a Health Economics Study of Digital Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying potential academic leaders: Predictors of willingness to undertake leadership roles in an academic department of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-01

    To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. A total of 687 faculty members. Variables related to respondents' willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one's current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members.

  18. Decree No. 67/77 of 6 May establishing a National Uranium Undertaking as a public body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree, promulgated on 29 March 1977, sets up a National Uranium Undertaking (ENU). The ENU Statute which is attached to the Decree lays down that its main purpose is to prospect for and inventory uranium deposits, to explore known deposits, to set up facilities for recovery and treatment of uranium ores, and finally, to market the products obtained. The ENU has taken over the work which, until now, had been carried out in that field by the Junta de Energia Nuclear and it is placed under the authority of the Minister of Industry and Technology. (NEA) [fr

  19. Secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Brands (Stefan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of secret-key certificate schemes is introduced and formalized. As with public-key certificates, triples consisting of a secret key, a corresponding public key, and a secret-key certificate on the public key can only be retrieved by engaging in an issuing protocol with the

  20. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  1. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  2. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill KD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Keith D Hill,1,2 Lesley Day,3 Terry P Haines4,5 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Falls Prevention Research Unit, Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash University, VIC, Australia; 4Allied Health Research Unit, Southern Health, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Monash University, VIC, Australia Purpose: To investigate previous, current, or planned participation in, and perceptions toward, multifactorial fall prevention programs such as those delivered through a falls clinic in the community setting, and to identify factors influencing older people’s intent to undertake these interventions.Design and methods: Community-dwelling people aged >70 years completed a telephone survey. Participants were randomly selected from an electronic residential telephone listing, but purposeful sampling was used to include equal numbers with and without common chronic health conditions associated with fall-related hospitalization. The survey included scenarios for fall prevention interventions, including assessment/multifactorial interventions, such as those delivered through a falls clinic. Participants were asked about previous exposure to, or intent to participate in, the interventions. A path model analysis was used to identify factors associated with intent to participate in assessment/multifactorial interventions.Results: Thirty of 376 participants (8.0% reported exposure to a multifactorial falls clinic-type intervention in the past 5 years, and 16.0% expressed intention to undertake this intervention. Of the 132 participants who reported one or more falls in the past 12 months, over one-third were undecided or disagreed that a falls clinic type of intervention would be of benefit to them. Four elements

  3. Identification of Preferred Sources of Information for Undertaking Studies in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wyrwicka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a survey has been conducted among first-year students about sources of information which influence the decision of undertaking field studies in Safety Engineering, Management Engineering and Logistics in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology. The goal of these analyses is both to assess the effectiveness of promotion and also show trends in the use of diverse channels of information transfer of studies. The results of the investigation show that internet promotion via university and faculty website plays the dominant role but also direct promotion, such as opinion of older friends, is crucial. Furthermore, from year to year the analyses indicate the significant increase of official media and reveal that the prospective students rely on a few sources of information simultaneously.

  4. Key Players and Key Groups in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Sarangi; Emre Unlu

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on centrality measures in economics by defining a team game and identifying the key players in the game. As an illustration of the theory we create a unique data set from the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament. To capture the interaction between players we create the passing network of each team. This all allows us to identify the key player and key groups of players for both teams in each game. We then use our measure to explain player ratings by experts and t...

  5. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  6. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  7. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  8. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  9. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  10. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  11. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  12. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  13. A study on the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks when undertaking a three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) allows the possibility of modifying some of the diagnostic tools used in orthodontics, such as cephalometry. The first step must be to study the characteristics of these devices in terms of accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used landmarks. The aims were 1- To assess intra and inter-observer reliability in the location of anatomical landmarks belonging to hard tissues of the skull in images taken with a CBCT device, 2- To determine which of those landmarks are more vs. less reliable and 3- To introduce planes of reference so as to create cephalometric analyses appropriated to the 3D reality. Study design: Fifteen patients who had a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. To assess the reproducibility on landmark location and the differences in the measurements of two observers at different times, 41 landmarks were defined on the three spatial axes (X,Y,Z) and located. 3.690 measurements were taken and, as each determination has 3 coordinates, 11.070 data were processed with SPSS® statistical package. To discover the reproducibility of the method on landmark location, an ANOVA was undertaken using two variation factors: time (t1, t2 and t3) and observer (Ob1 and Ob2) for each axis (X, Y and Z) and landmark. The order of the CBCT scans submitted to the observers (Ob1, Ob2) at t1, t2, and t3, were different and randomly allocated. Multiple comparisons were undertaken using the Bonferroni test. The intra- and inter-examiner ICC´s were calculated. Results: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was high, both being ICC ≥ 0.99, with the best frequency on axis Z. Conclusions: The most reliable landmarks were: Nasion, Sella, Basion, left Porion, point A, anterior nasal spine, Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton, frontozygomatic sutures, first lower molars and upper and lower incisors. Those with less reliability were the supraorbitals, right zygion and posterior nasal spine. Key words:Cone Beam

  14. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  15. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  16. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  17. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  18. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  20. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole.

  1. Nurses on the move: evaluation of a program to assist international students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Carmel; Rolls, Colleen; Campbell, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a Teaching and Learning Enhancement Scheme (TALES) program designed to meet the unique need of the 2005 cohort of international nursing students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing (BN) program at the Victorian campus of Australian Catholic University (ACU) National. The program involved a team approach with three academic mentors and the international students working together to produce satisfactory learning outcomes through fortnightly meetings and provision of additional assistance including compiling a portfolio, reflective writing, English, including colloquial English and pronunciation, as well as familiarisation with handover and abbreviations common in the clinical field, general communication, assistance with preparing a resume and participation in simulated interviews. This relatively small group of international students (20) confirmed the findings of other studies from other countries of international nursing students' in terms of concerns in regard to studying in a foreign country, namely English proficiency, communication difficulties, cultural differences and unfamiliarity with the health care environment. The assistance provided by the program was identified by the completing students as invaluable in helping them settle into study and successfully complete the theoretical and clinical components of the course.

  2. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2018-01-25

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE URGENCY OF UNDERTAKING LAND CONSOLIDATION WORKS IN THE VILLAGES OF THE SŁAWNO MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Leń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is to analyze the spatial structure of land and identification of the needs of consolidation works and exchange of land in the villages of the Sławno municipality, lying in the district of Opoczno, in the Łódzkie Voivodship. The authors use the method of zero unitarisation for the purposes of determining the order of undertaking consolidation works and exchange of land in the area of research. The basis for calculation is the database of 19 factors (x1–x19 characteristic for the listed five groups of issues, describing each of the following villages. The obtained results, in a form of synthetic meter for each village, allowed creating the hierarchy of the urgency of carrying out consolidation works. The problem of excessive fragmentation of farms, constituting the collections of a certain number of parcels, in a broader sense, is one of the elements that prevent the acceleration of reforms by conversion of the Land and Buildings Register (EGiB in a full valuable real estate cadastre in Poland. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the fact that there are ecological grounds in the study area, significant from the point of view of environmental protection.

  4. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  5. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  6. A systematic scoping review of the evidence for consumer involvement in organisations undertaking systematic reviews: focus on Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Richard F; Norman, Gill; Golder, Su; Griffith, Polly

    2016-01-01

    Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews of clinical trial evidence. We looked for published evidence that reports where consumers (patients and the public) have been involved in Cochrane systematic reviews, and also in reviews published by other organisations.We found 36 studies that reported about consumer involvement either in individual systematic reviews, or in other organisations. The studies showed that consumers were involved in reviews in a range of different ways: coordinating and producing reviews, making reviews more accessible, and spreading the results of reviews ("knowledge transfer"). The most common role was commenting on reviews ("peer reviewing"). Consumers also had other general roles, for example in educating people about evidence or helping other consumers. There were some interesting examples of new ways of involving consumers. The studies showed that most consumers came from rich and English speaking countries. There was little evidence about how consumer involvement had changed the reviews ("impact"). The studies found that consumer involvement needed to be properly supported.In future we believe that more research should be done to understand what kind of consumer involvement has the best impact; that more review authors should report how consumers have been involved; and that consumers who help with reviews should come from more varied backgrounds. Background Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews, and is committed to consumer involvement in the production and dissemination of its reviews. The review aims to systematically scope the evidence base for consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews; with an emphasis on Cochrane. Methods In June 2015 we searched six databases and other sources for studies of consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews, or in individual systematic

  7. An investigation in to the impact of acquisition location on error type and rate when undertaking panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, A; Drage, N; Greenall, C; Farnell, D J J

    2017-11-01

    Panoramic radiography is a common radiographic examination carried out in the UK. This study was carried out to determine if acquisition site has an impact on image quality. An image quality audit was carried out in South Wales across a number of dental and general radiology settings. The image quality was assessed retrospectively against national standards. A total of 174 radiographs were assessed from general radiology departments and 141 from dental radiology units. Chi-squared analysis was used to investigate whether there were differences in the grading between dental radiology units and general radiology departments. Differences between the two settings in terms of the number of errors in the radiographs was analysed using the Mann-Whitney test. Chi-squared analysis was used to see if there were differences between the types of errors in the two clinical settings. There was a significant association (p = 0.021) between the quality of the radiograph grading and type of radiology department. However when excellent and diagnostically acceptable radiographs were grouped together there was no significant difference between the two clinical settings. Although the vast majority of radiographs were diagnostic (89% for general radiology and 92% for dental radiology units), neither reached the required standards. The most common errors were patient positioning errors (54.6% radiographs affected) and preparation/instructional errors (47.9% radiographs affected). Errors in panoramic radiography are relatively high and further instruction to staff undertaking these procedures is required to ensure the targets are reached. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  9. "Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…": actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Whitmore, Rebecca; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2017-05-22

    When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists' caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one's own health. Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists' caregiver companions. While additional research is required to finalize

  10. Ministerial Decree of 15 February 1974 establishing the inventory of qualified experts and physicians authorized to undertake the health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 and provides for the legal and administrative acknowledgment of experts and physicians who are required to undertake supervision of protection against the hazards of ionizing radiations. (NEA) [fr

  11. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  12. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  13. Ministerial Decree of 12 May 1980 authorising Agip Nucleare S.p.a. in Rome to undertake health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Section 83 of Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on protection against ionizing radiation provides that institutions previously authorised by the Minister of Labour and Social Security may, on condition that they are adequately equipped for such services, be authorised to undertake health physics and medical supervision of personnel. This Decree accordingly authorises the Agip Nucleare Company to carry out this work. (NEA) [fr

  14. A comparison of five methods for assessing veld condition in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They key species method has the advantage of simplicity and speed, and should stimulate farmers to undertake routine monitoring of their veld in these two regions. Keywords: Benchmark method; botany; detrended correspondence analysis; grassveld; Grazing capacity; highland sourveld; key species; Key species method ...

  15. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  16. Nuclear energy: a key role despite problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy is projected to be the fastest growing power source and a key to meeting power demands in spite of the many problems facing the nuclear industry in the form of delays, protests, and cancellations. Pressures for a nuclear moratorium will slow the industry, Mr. Anderson feels, but in the long run nuclear reactors will make up an increasing share of the power generating capacity. The Arthur D. Little Co. projects a fourfold increase between 1975 and 1985 on the basis of 10-year lead times for construction of nuclear power plants. Half the new generating capacity after 1985 will be nuclear. Problems besetting every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle result from debates over proliferation, waste disposal, reactor safety, and environmental damage and lead to controversy over regulations and licensing. U.S. utilities are not ordering reactors, but manufacturers are finding markets in other countries. Financial difficulties have kept domestic utilities from undertaking large investment programs until they can resolve problems of fuel costs and rate structures. New construction is inevitable, however, to meet future electrical requirements. Nuclear companies, which number nearly 1300 manufacturers and service providers, need to develop a better public image by working together to demonstrate their ability to manage the risks and uncertainties

  17. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  18. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  19. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  20. Key Features of oxypnictides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Key Features of oxypnictides. Metal –insulator boundary. Quasi 2D structure. Doping important. Charge transfer (redox behaviour). Normal resistivity : mohms (little higher in oxypnictides). Near antiferromagnetic ground state. Superexchange through Fe-As-Fe (Cu-O-Cu) ...

  1. Selecting cryptographic key sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, E. R.; Lenstra, Arjen K.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we offer guidelines for the determination of key sizes for symmetric cryptosystems, RSA, and discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems both over finite fields and over groups of elliptic curves over prime fields. Our recommendations are based on a set of explicitly formulated parameter settings, combined with existing data points about the cryptosystems.

  2. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  3. “THE UNDERTAKING” AND “THE RELEVANT MARKET”: KEY CONCEPTS IN THE ANALYSIS OF ANTICOMPETITIVE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CUCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The desire to maintain themselves on a particular market, at a higher level of profitability or at a reasonable level at least, can lead the undertakings to adopt an anticompetitive behaviour more easily. This may result from either the existence of anticompetitive agreements and concerted practices, or the tendency to abuse its dominant position which the undertaking has on a certain market. “The undertaking” and “the relevant market” are the key concepts in the analysis of anticompetitive practices. The active subject of anticompetitive practices is “the undertaking”. This concept has a particular significance in the competition law, different from the common law. Competition rules apply to the conduct of undertakings and associations of undertakings so that the concept of undertaking makes it possible to determine the categories of actors to which the competition rules apply. However, the term undertaking is nowhere defined in the EU Treaties; as such, the concept has generated a complex body of jurisprudence."The market" is a term with pronounced economic resonances; synthetically, the market is the place where supply meets demand. In the context of the competition law, "the market" means "relevant market". The relevant market is the market of product/service in terms of demand and supply, and then superimposed on the geographic market.The analysis of these key concepts necessarily entails the conceptual delimitation of the notions. On this purpose, the relevant legal provisions will be identified in the Romanian and EU law, together with the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this matter.

  4. Efficient error estimation in quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Treeviriyanupab, Patcharapong; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    In a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, the error rate needs to be estimated for determining the joint probability distribution between legitimate parties, and for improving the performance of key reconciliation. We propose an efficient error estimation scheme for QKD, which is called parity comparison method (PCM). In the proposed method, the parity of a group of sifted keys is practically analysed to estimate the quantum bit error rate instead of using the traditional key sampling. From the simulation results, the proposed method evidently improves the accuracy and decreases revealed information in most realistic application situations. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos.2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.61101137, 61201239, and 61205118).

  5. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  6. Chapter 06: Identification key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    The key is written to guide you through the identification process in the most efficient and accurate way possible. It presents you with a numbered series of questions and asks you to answer them. The answers you provide will be based on your interpretations of the anatomical characters in your unknown specimen and will lead you to a new set of questions. Each time you...

  7. The process of undertaking a quantitative dissertation for a taught M.Sc: Personal insights gained from supporting and examining students in the UK and Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article discusses the roles of the student and the supervisor in the process of undertaking and writing a dissertation, a potentially daunting process. Results: The authors have supervised and examined students within 20 institutions and the personal insights gained result in the guidance provided within this article. Conclusion: The authors conclude that much can be done by students working with their supervisors, to improve progress in both performing and writing up the dissertation. Taking account of these factors will ease the dissertation process and move students progressively towards the production of a well-written dissertation

  8. Key health indicators database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menic, J L

    1990-01-01

    A new database developed by the Canadian Centre for Health Information (CCHI) contains 40 key health indicators and lets users select a range of disaggregations, categories and variables. The database can be accessed through CANSIM, Statistics Canada's electronic database and retrieval system, or through a package for personal computers. This package includes the database on diskettes, as well as software for retrieving and manipulating data and for producing graphics. A data dictionary, a user's guide and tables and graphs that highlight aspects of each indicator are also included.

  9. Key appropriations subcommittee assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Below are membership lists for appropriations subcommittees in the 100th Congress that have direct jurisdiction over geophysical research. Last week, Eos published membership lists for other key congressional committees (Eos, March 10, 1987, p. 138.).Letters to Senate committees should be addressed to the committee, U.S. Senate, Washington, DC 20510; letters to House committees should be addressed to the committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC 20515. Initial contacts with committee and subcommittee staff may be valuable. For additional guidelines on contacting a member of Congress or congressional staff, see “AGU's Guide to Legislative Information and Contacts” (Eos, September 30, 1986, p. 739).

  10. PERBANDINGAN APLIKASI MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMELLIA 128 BIT KEY DAN 256 BIT KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Sutanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the Internet today to easily exchange data. This leads to high levels of risk in the data piracy. One of the ways to secure data is using cryptography camellia. Camellia is known as a method that has the encryption and decryption time is fast. Camellia method has three kinds of scale key is 128 bit, 192 bit, and 256 bit.This application is created using the C++ programming language and using visual studio 2010 GUI. This research compare the smallest and largest key size used on the file extension .Txt, .Doc, .Docx, .Jpg, .Mp4, .Mkv and .Flv. This application is made to comparing time and level of security in the use of 128-bit key and 256 bits. The comparison is done by comparing the results of the security value of avalanche effect 128 bit key and 256 bit key.

  11. Predictors of career progression and obstacles and opportunities for non-EU hospital doctors to undertake postgraduate training in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Ella; Keegan, Conor; Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Brugha, Ruairí

    2016-06-30

    The World Health Organization's Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel urges Member States to observe fair recruitment practices and ensure equality of treatment of migrant and domestically-trained health personnel. However, international medical graduates (IMGs) have experienced difficulties in accessing postgraduate training and in progressing their careers in several destination countries. Ireland is highly dependent on IMGs, but also employs non-European Union (EU) doctors who qualified as doctors in Ireland. However, little is known regarding the career progression of these doctors. In this context, the present study assesses the determinants of career progression of non-EU doctors with particular focus on whether barriers to progression exist for those graduating outside Ireland compared to those who have graduated within. The study utilises quantitative data from an online survey of non-EU doctors registered with the Medical Council of Ireland undertaken as part of the Doctor Migration Project (2011-2013). Non-EU doctors registered with the Medical Council of Ireland were asked to complete an online survey about their recruitment, training and career experiences in Ireland. Analysis was conducted on the responses of 231 non-EU hospital doctors whose first post in Ireland was not permanent. Career progression was analysed by means of binary logistic regression analysis. While some of the IMGs had succeeded in accessing specialist training, many experienced slow or stagnant career progression when compared with Irish-trained non-EU doctors. Key predictors of career progression for non-EU doctors working in Ireland showed that doctors who qualified outside of Ireland were less likely than Irish-trained non-EU doctors to experience career progression. Length of stay as a qualified doctor in Ireland was strongly associated with career progression. Those working in anaesthesia were significantly more likely to experience career

  12. An Inter-industry comparison of market orientation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    The study makes two contributions to the existing knowledge on market orientation. First it extends the insight obtained from previous research on the antecedents of market orientation into the developing country context. Second, it undertakes an inter-industry comparison with the view to determine...... whether the implicit assumption of weak (or non) inter-industry differences in market orientation is tenable...

  13. Key data. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Energy actors and economical energy context are changing: the world extension and the opening of markets calls for reliable and convenient indicators to understand the energy choices and stakes of France with respect to European and world data. The examination of this 2001 issue of the key energy data will help the reader in his understanding of the French energy policy which is mainly based on: the imperative security of energy supplies, the limitation of CO 2 emissions and the respect of the environment, the growth of economic competitiveness, the keeping of public utilities, and the employment. The energy data are presented in tables, graphs, curves and charts. The production, consumption, and foreign market data of France and of the rest of the world are presented successively for: the overall energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity. Renewable energy data are presented for Europe and France (consumption, production, wind energy, solar energy, heat distribution networks, bio-fuels, biogas, biomass). A chapter concerns the rational use of energy in the industry, in transports and in the residential and tertiary sectors. The emissions of pollutants (CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , VOCs, N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 ) are given for France and compared to the worldwide CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  14. Obstacles to researching the researchers: a case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Herbison, G Peter; Roth, Paul; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-03-21

    Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in turn, evidence based clinical practice guidelines.In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons. In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions. Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research. Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential

  15. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  16. Key Updating Methods for Combinatorial Design Based Key Management Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has become one of the most promising network technologies for many useful applications. However, for the lack of resources, it is different but important to ensure the security of the WSNs. Key management is a corner stone on which to build secure WSNs for it has a fundamental role in confidentiality, authentication, and so on. Combinatorial design theory has been used to generate good-designed key rings for each sensor node in WSNs. A large number of combinatorial design based key management schemes have been proposed but none of them have taken key updating into consideration. In this paper, we point out the essence of key updating for the unital design based key management scheme and propose two key updating methods; then, we conduct performance analysis on the two methods from three aspects; at last, we generalize the two methods to other combinatorial design based key management schemes and enhance the second method.

  17. In rats fed high-energy diets, taste, rather than fat content, is the key factor increasing food intake: a comparison of a cafeteria and a lipid-supplemented standard diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Laia; Aranda, Tània; Caviola, Giada; Fernández-Bernal, Anna; Alemany, Marià; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Food selection and ingestion both in humans and rodents, often is a critical factor in determining excess energy intake and its related disorders. Two different concepts of high-fat diets were tested for their obesogenic effects in rats; in both cases, lipids constituted about 40% of their energy intake. The main difference with controls fed standard lab chow, was, precisely, the lipid content. Cafeteria diets (K) were self-selected diets devised to be desirable to the rats, mainly because of its diverse mix of tastes, particularly salty and sweet. This diet was compared with another, more classical high-fat (HF) diet, devised not to be as tasty as K, and prepared by supplementing standard chow pellets with fat. We also analysed the influence of sex on the effects of the diets. K rats grew faster because of a high lipid, sugar and protein intake, especially the males, while females showed lower weight but higher proportion of body lipid. In contrast, the weight of HF groups were not different from controls. Individual nutrient's intake were analysed, and we found that K rats ingested large amounts of both disaccharides and salt, with scant differences of other nutrients' proportion between the three groups. The results suggest that the key differential factor of the diet eliciting excess energy intake was the massive presence of sweet and salty tasting food. The significant presence of sugar and salt appears as a powerful inducer of excess food intake, more effective than a simple (albeit large) increase in the diet's lipid content. These effects appeared already after a relatively short treatment. The differential effects of sex agree with their different hedonic and obesogenic response to diet.

  18. In rats fed high-energy diets, taste, rather than fat content, is the key factor increasing food intake: a comparison of a cafeteria and a lipid-supplemented standard diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Food selection and ingestion both in humans and rodents, often is a critical factor in determining excess energy intake and its related disorders. Methods Two different concepts of high-fat diets were tested for their obesogenic effects in rats; in both cases, lipids constituted about 40% of their energy intake. The main difference with controls fed standard lab chow, was, precisely, the lipid content. Cafeteria diets (K were self-selected diets devised to be desirable to the rats, mainly because of its diverse mix of tastes, particularly salty and sweet. This diet was compared with another, more classical high-fat (HF diet, devised not to be as tasty as K, and prepared by supplementing standard chow pellets with fat. We also analysed the influence of sex on the effects of the diets. Results K rats grew faster because of a high lipid, sugar and protein intake, especially the males, while females showed lower weight but higher proportion of body lipid. In contrast, the weight of HF groups were not different from controls. Individual nutrient’s intake were analysed, and we found that K rats ingested large amounts of both disaccharides and salt, with scant differences of other nutrients’ proportion between the three groups. The results suggest that the key differential factor of the diet eliciting excess energy intake was the massive presence of sweet and salty tasting food. Conclusions The significant presence of sugar and salt appears as a powerful inducer of excess food intake, more effective than a simple (albeit large increase in the diet’s lipid content. These effects appeared already after a relatively short treatment. The differential effects of sex agree with their different hedonic and obesogenic response to diet.

  19. Conditions and Motivations to Undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Ángela Marulanda Valencia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at deepening in the analysis of motivations shown by a group of entrepreneurs in Medellin, Antioquia. It also describes the different perceptions about the enablers and obstacles for the development of entrepreneurship in appropriate environments to promote it. It was found that independence was the principal motivation for entrepreneurship and that the city offered the most favourable environment to foster it. Additionally, it was found that the most important obstacle to develop it was the difficulties to access a bank credit.

  20. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after

  1. Firearm Homicide in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand: What Can We Learn from Long-Term International Comparisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine; Singh, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    Although firearm homicide remains a topic of interest within criminological and policy discourse, existing research does not generally undertake longitudinal comparisons between countries. However, cross-country comparisons provide insight into whether "local" trends (e.g., declines in firearm homicide in one particular country) differ…

  2. Secure key storage and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  3. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  4. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  5. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents fundamental outcomes from an experimental study on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). Hydrodynamic performance was tested in a circulated open channel that comprised of PKW and sand bed (d50 = 0.25 mm). Instantaneous velocities were measured at 20 cross ...

  6. 'You have to be mindful of whose story it is': the challenges of undertaking life story work with people with dementia and their family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Jane; Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Clarke, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    Life story work is increasingly being used with people with dementia; this work offers a critical appraisal of some challenges that may be faced in practice. An in-depth case study analysis was undertaken to understand the experiences of people with dementia, family carers and care staff in using life story work in an NHS Mental Health and Social Care Trust. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, observation, conversations and field notes. Private memories were sometimes recalled by the person with dementia that were not for inclusion in any written product; enabling the person with dementia to tell their own life story could be a challenge; quality of the life story books was variable and; at times, life story work may be overused with the person with dementia. Services should not be deterred from undertaking life story work with people with dementia, but there is a need to adopt a planned approach to its implementation that includes facilitation, education and supervision. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. A prospective phase II randomized study of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in patients undertaking induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Glen A; Morris, Kirk L; Subramonpillai, Elango; Curley, Cameron; Butler, Jason; Durrant, Simon

    2013-06-01

    This prospective randomized phase II study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of deferasirox in preventing iatrogenic iron overload in patients receiving induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) ize. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and CRP were measured pre-, mid- and post- each chemotherapy cycle. Patients were randomized to receive either therapy with deferasirox vs. no deferasirox therapy once serum ferritin increased to >500 μg/l. The trial was stopped prematurely due to excess gastrointestinal (GI) and infectious toxicity demonstrable in the deferasirox arm, after 10 patients had been randomized to deferasirox and 6 patients to the control arm. Overall, deferasirox was poorly tolerated, with median maximum tolerated dose only 13·8 mg/kg/d and no patient able to tolerate doses >20 mg/kg/d. Median duration of deferasirox therapy was only 72 d (range 19-130 d), with 9/10 patients requiring unplanned dose interruptions and 4/10 patients unable to continue the drug predominantly due to GI effects. Although all 3 treatment-related deaths occurred in the deferasirox arm (P = 0·25), median overall survival was similar between treatment arms. Use of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in AML patients undertaking induction/consolidation is poorly tolerated and appears to be associated with excess GI and infectious toxicity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Quality Management and Key Performance Indicators in Oncologic Esophageal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Ines; Ahlbrand, Constantin Johannes; Arras, Michael; Schreiber, Elke Maria; Lang, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    Ranking systems and comparisons of quality and performance indicators will be of increasing relevance for complex "high-risk" procedures such as esophageal cancer surgery. The identification of evidence-based standards relevant for key performance indicators in esophageal surgery is essential for establishing monitoring systems and furthermore a requirement to enhance treatment quality. In the course of this review, we analyze the key performance indicators case volume, radicality of resection, and postoperative morbidity and mortality, leading to continuous quality improvement. Ranking systems established on this basis will gain increased relevance in highly complex procedures within the national and international comparison and furthermore improve the treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

  9. Comparison of Key West and Persian Gulf Seawaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-18

    classified as micronutrient elements. They are defined as materials essential to the growth of plants and animals that are present in such small...Mercury Hg (5.0 x 10-6) 5.6 x 102 Gallium Ga (3.0 x 10-4) 9.0 x 103 Bismuth al (1.0 x 10-4) - Niobium Nb (ɝ x 10-5) - Thallium Ti 6.0 x 10- - Gold Au

  10. EMF 7 model comparisons: key relationships and parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, B.G.

    1983-12-01

    A simplified textbook model of aggregate demand and supply interprets the similarities and differences in the price and income responses of the various EMF 7 models to oil and policy shocks. The simplified model is a marriage of Hicks' classic IS-LM formulation of the Keynesian theory of effective demand with a rudimentary model of aggregate supply, combining a structural Phillips curve for wage determination and a markup theory of price determination. The reduced-form income equation from the fix-price IS-LM model is used to define an aggregate demand (AD) locus in P-Y space, showing alternative pairs of the implicit GNP deflator and real GNP which would simultaneously satisfy the saving-investment identity and the condition for money market equilibrium. An aggregate supply (AS) schedule is derived by a similar reduction of relations between output and labor demand, unemployment and wage inflation, and the wage-price-productivity nexus governing markup pricing. Given a particular econometric model it is possible to derive IS and LM curves algebraically. The resulting locuses would show alternative combinations of interest rate and real income which equilibrate real income identity on the IS side and the demand and supply of money on the LM side. By further substitution the reduced form fix-price income relation could be obtained for direct quantification of the AD locus. The AS schedule is obtainable by algebraic reduction of the structural supply side equations.

  11. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  12. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  13. “Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…”: actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie A. Crooks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists’ caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. Methods To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Results Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one’s own health. Conclusion Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists

  14. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  15. Model plant key measurement points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The key measurement points for the model low enriched fuel fabrication plant are described as well as the measurement methods. These are the measurement points and methods that are used to complete the plant's formal material balance. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the basis for each key measurement; and (2) understand the importance of each measurement to the overall plant material balance. The feed to the model low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant is UF 6 and the product is finished light water reactor fuel assemblies. The waste discards are solid and liquid wastes. The plant inventory consists of unopened UF 6 cylinders, UF 6 heels, fuel assemblies, fuel rods, fuel pellets, UO 2 powder, U 3 O 8 powder, and various scrap materials. At the key measurement points the total plant material balance (flow and inventory) is measured. The two types of key measurement points-flow and inventory are described

  16. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  17. Wiki keys on mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Gisela; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The development of increasingly powerful mobile devices like PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) and Smartphones, with larger displays and greater resolution makes them increasingly suitable for identification tools available directly “in the field”. One of several approaches towards this aim in the KeyToNature project is based on wiki-stored documents. Important features of wiki-based keys, such as hidden text and media information as well as links to glossary entries are su...

  18. Motivations for undertaking DNA sequencing-based non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy: a qualitative study with early adopter patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huso; Hallowell, Nina; Griffiths, Sian; Yeung Leung, Tak

    2013-01-01

    A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT) detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women's motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS). Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then further development of guidelines and quality assurance will be

  19. Motivations for undertaking DNA sequencing-based non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy: a qualitative study with early adopter patients in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huso Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women's motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS. Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. CONCLUSIONS: DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then

  20. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  1. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  2. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research (as part of a broader research project) was to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently experiences with regard to the key body measurements needed for the manufacturing of well-fitting clothes. A postal survey was conducted among South African ...

  3. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    smoothly bifurcate the flow. 3. Experimental setup. The experiments were conducted in River Engineering Laboratory, Water Resources Devel- opment and Management Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. An experimental program was established to quantify the flow behavior at crest level inlet key ...

  4. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  5. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  6. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  7. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  8. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  9. Five Key Leadership Actions Needed to Redesign Family Medicine Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakowski, Stanley M; Eiff, M Patrice; Green, Larry A; Pugno, Perry A; Waller, Elaine; Jones, Samuel M; Fetter, Gerald; Carney, Patricia A

    2015-06-01

    New skills are needed to properly prepare the next generation of physicians and health professionals to practice in medical homes. Transforming residency training to address these new skills requires strong leadership. We sought to increase the understanding of leadership skills useful in residency programs that plan to undertake meaningful change. The Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) project (2007-2014) was a comparative case study of 14 family medicine residencies that engaged in innovative training redesign, including altering the scope, content, sequence, length, and location of training to align resident education with requirements of the patient-centered medical home. In 2012, each P4 residency team submitted a final summary report of innovations implemented, overall insights, and dissemination activities during the study. Six investigators conducted independent narrative analyses of these reports. A consensus meeting held in September 2012 was used to identify key leadership actions associated with successful educational redesign. Five leadership actions were associated with successful implementation of innovations and residency transformation: (1) manage change; (2) develop financial acumen; (3) adapt best evidence educational strategies to the local environment; (4) create and sustain a vision that engages stakeholders; and (5) demonstrate courage and resilience. Residency programs are expected to change to better prepare their graduates for a changing delivery system. Insights about effective leadership skills can provide guidance for faculty to develop the skills needed to face practical realities while guiding transformation.

  10. Key Success Factors and Guidance for International Collaborative Design Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Soetanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the built environment (BE sector, the co-creation process of design demands understanding of requirements (as viewed by parties involved, mobilisation of tacit knowledge, negotiation, and complex exchange of information. The need to collaborate over distance has further exacerbated the complexity of the process, and, in itself, represents a significant challenge for BE professionals who are increasingly expected to undertake this process within globally distributed virtual teams. The research aims to identify key success factors and develop guidance for international collaborative design projects, via the implementation of collaborative design courses in UK and Canadian universities over three academic years. Questionnaire surveys, focus groups, observation of online meetings, personal reflections provided data for the analysis. The findings reveal the significance of the perceived risk of collaboration and a difference in preferred communication mode between architects and civil/structural engineers. These findings suggest the impact of training in the subject discipline, and that the opportunity for co-located working has helped the development of trust. The guidance is aimed at BE educators who wish to implement this activity in their courses.

  11. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  12. Women are still the key

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    September 2005, V ol. 18, No. 2. Member of Parliament, Kenya, Founder and Chair of Board of Trustees, Rural Outreach. Program, Professor of Food Science and Nutrition, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya. Ruth K Oniang'o. WOMEN AND FOOD SECURITY. Women are still the key.

  13. Key concepts in glioblastoma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Ng, Kimberly; Bartek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    regimen, the median survival remains approximately 14 months. Meaningful strategies for therapeutic intervention are desperately needed. Development of such strategies will require an understanding of the therapeutic concepts that have evolved over the past three decades. This article reviews the key...

  14. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  15. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...

  16. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  17. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  18. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  19. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  20. The Body: The Key Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Questions around 'the body' are central to social theory. Our changing understanding of the body now challenges the ways we conceive power, ideology, subjectivity and social and cultural process. The Body: the key concepts highlights and analyses the debates which make the body central to current sociological, psychological, cultural and feminist thinking. Today, questions around the body are intrinsic to a wide range of debates - from technological developments in media and communications, t...

  1. How reliable are radiocarbon laboratories? A report on the Fourth International Radiocarbon Inter-comparison (FIRI) (1998-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boaretto, E; Bryant, C; Carmi, [No Value; Cook, G; Gulliksen, S; Harkness, D; Heinemeier, J; McClure, J; McGee, E; Naysmith, P; Possnert, G; Van der Plicht, H; Van Styrdonck, M

    Radiocarbon laboratories undertake rigorous programmes of internal quality control (QC) and overall quality assurance (QA). In a laboratory 'inter-comparison' samples of the same age are dated at different laboratories using a range of techniques and the results are then compared. The authors

  2. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  3. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  4. Psychological distress in student nurses undertaking an educational programme with professional registration as a nurse: their perceived barriers and facilitators in seeking psychological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2018-03-06

    The present study adds to the existing international evidence on psychological distress in the student population by focusing on student nurses. It quantitatively assesses psychological distress with comparative norms and investigates service uptake in in a single study. Investigate the level of psychological distress in students and compare this with population norms and highlight potential facilitators and barriers to help seeking. This study recruited N=121 student nurses from one university in a cross sectional design. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and one-way ANOVA's. The key findings show high levels of psychological distress which is above levels seen in the general population. The main barriers to seeking support was fear of disclosure and the perceived impact on their suitability as a student nurse. The study highlights that high levels of distress identified in the literature are seen in student nurses and that fear of disclosure may account for some not seeking support. The fear of disclosure and low levels of seeking support suggest there is a need for mental health nurses and academics to play a key role in mental health literacy and evidence-based interventions such as mindfulness to combat these issues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  6. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  7. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  8. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  9. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  10. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    “Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions and activi......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...... and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken...

  11. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  12. Key Elements of a Good Mathematics Lesson as Seen by Japanese Junior High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2016-01-01

    This study makes a comparison between what literature on Japanese Lesson Study suggests are key elements of a good mathematics lesson and what junior high school mathematics teachers in Japan value in planning their lessons. The teachers' strong consensus in their endorsements of these key elements explains why Japanese teachers strongly support…

  13. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...

  14. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  15. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...... of millions of facts. We also show that the conditional keys we mine can improve the quality of entity linking by up to 47% points....

  16. Means to form key competencies by teaching „Chemistry and environmental protection” in grade 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Stefan; Dimitrova, Velichka; Gushterova, Pavlina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A comparison was made of expected results set in grade 8 „Chemistry and environment preservation” curriculum and requirements to form one of eight key competencies „Mathematical literacy and basic knowledge in science and technologies”. The results obtained allow to make some recommendations towards improvement of teaching through a more effective use of science content to form key competencies. Keywords: teaching, science, chemistry, key competencies, curriculum

  17. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  18. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  19. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  20. Key issues in transplant tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-01-01

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations. PMID:24175191

  1. Oral Health in the US: Key Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Published: Jun 01, ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...

  2. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  3. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  4. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  5. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast... regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of Key West, Florida during the Key West... unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Key West or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is...

  6. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  7. Optimizing Key Updates in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low–resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of particular importance in many cases such as when sensitive data is communicated or tamper-resistance is required. Updating the security keys is one of the key points in security, which...... restrict the amount of data that may be exposed when a key is compromised. In this paper, we propose novel key update methods, and benefiting from stochastic model checking we propose a novel method for determining optimal key update strategies for custom network scenarios. We also present a case study...

  8. Indistinguishable encoding for bidirectional quantum key distribution: Theory to experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsul Shaari, Jesni; Soekardjo, Suryadi

    2017-12-01

    We present a bidirectional quantum key distribution protocol with minimal encoding operations derived from the use of only two “nonorthogonal” unitary transformations selected from two mutually unbiased unitary bases. Differently from many bidirectional protocols, these transformations are indistinguishable in principle for a single use. Along with its decoding procedure, it is unique compared to its “orthogonal encoding” predecessors. Given the nature of such protocols where key rates are usually dependent on two different types of error rates, we define a more relevant notion of security threshold for such protocols to allow for proper comparisons to be made. The current protocol outperforms its predecessor in terms of security as the amount of information an eavesdropper can glean is limited by the indistinguishability of the transformations. We further propose adaptations for a practical scenario and report on a proof of concept experimental scheme based on polarised photons from an attenuated pulsed laser for qubits, demonstrating the feasibility of such a protocol.

  9. A key technology for standardizing outdoor optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Su

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a key technology, polarization modulation (PM, which should be taken into account when standardizing outdoor optical wireless communications (OWC, also known as free-space optical communications (FSO. We analyze the distortion of the polarization state when a laser beam propagates through the atmospheric channel. The floating range of the optical polarization was estimated and the necessity of researching the proposed technology was discussed. Moreover, we conducted a comparison between the PM-based FSO system and intensity modulation-based FSO system. The conclusions will be helpful in establishing the FSO standard architectures.

  10. Key Management for Secure Multicast over IPv6 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Mohammad Umar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicasting is an efficient method for transmission and routing of packets to multiple destinations using fewer network resources. Along with widespread deployment of wireless networks, secure multicast over wireless networks is an important and challenging goal. In this paper, we extend the scope of a recent new key distribution scheme to a security framework that offers a novel solution for secure multicast over IPv6 wireless networks. Our key management framework includes two scenarios for securely distributing the group key and rekey messages for joining and leaving a mobile host in secure multicast group. In addition, we perform the security analysis and provide performance comparisons between our approach and two recently published scenarios. The benefits of our proposed techniques are that they minimize the number of transmissions required to rekey the multicast group and impose minimal storage requirements on the multicast group. In addition, our proposed schemes are also very desirable from the viewpoint of transmission bandwidth savings since an efficient rekeying mechanism is provided for membership changes and they significantly reduce the required bandwidth due to key updating in mobile networks. Moreover, they achieve the security and scalability requirements in wireless networks.

  11. How to Share a Key (Invited paper)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wolf, Stefan

    on the common OTP and only partial local knowledge of how many key bits have already been used by each other player, the goal is to commonly consume as many key bits as possible without any overlap. In this paper, we consider a related problem with immediate implications to the previous model. We consider n...... players to share the same k keys of length ` bits. The goal is to assign a key sequence to each player such that, for as many keys as possible and independently of which player uses how many of them, it is guaranteed that all used keys are independent. Such an assignment is called loss-free if k keys can...... always be consumed independently. Note that, in contrast to the previous model, the players are ignorant of each other’s key consumptions. We first observe a simple loss-free solution for the case that the key is of certain (small) minimal length `. Furthermore, for the case of key length ` = 1 (the most...

  12. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  13. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...... recover the secret key of AVALANCHE in 2n/2, where n 2∈ {28; 192; 256} is the key length. This technique also applies to the authentication part of Calico whose 128-bit key can be recovered in 264 time. For RBS, we can recover its full 132-bit key in 265 time with a guess-and-determine attack. All attacks...

  14. Competency Assessment Using Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Toader; Laura Brad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for computing the scores of the key performance indicators resulted in the competency assessment process. The key performance indicators are estimated considering four performance levels that an IT professional can obtain at the end of the assessment process. We suggest as the best approach for estimating the performance key indicators an online questionnaire filled by 60 employees that work in IT Romanian companies. The results provide evidence that the difference...

  15. Establishing Key Performance Indicators : Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    The key performance indicators serve as the navigational tools for a business organization to monitor its performance. They enable the management team to take real time decisions to keep organization’s resources aligned to its business strategy to accomplish its strategic objec-tives. This research was conducted to analyse the process of establishing successful key per-formance indicators for a business organization. The research was conducted to recommend key performance indicators developme...

  16. FPGA BASED HARDWARE KEY FOR TEMPORAL ENCRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lakshmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel encryption scheme with time based key technique on an FPGA is presented. Time based key technique ensures right key to be entered at right time and hence, vulnerability of encryption through brute force attack is eliminated. Presently available encryption systems, suffer from Brute force attack and in such a case, the time taken for breaking a code depends on the system used for cryptanalysis. The proposed scheme provides an effective method in which the time is taken as the second dimension of the key so that the same system can defend against brute force attack more vigorously. In the proposed scheme, the key is rotated continuously and four bits are drawn from the key with their concatenated value representing the delay the system has to wait. This forms the time based key concept. Also the key based function selection from a pool of functions enhances the confusion and diffusion to defend against linear and differential attacks while the time factor inclusion makes the brute force attack nearly impossible. In the proposed scheme, the key scheduler is implemented on FPGA that generates the right key at right time intervals which is then connected to a NIOS – II processor (a virtual microcontroller which is brought out from Altera FPGA that communicates with the keys to the personal computer through JTAG (Joint Test Action Group communication and the computer is used to perform encryption (or decryption. In this case the FPGA serves as hardware key (dongle for data encryption (or decryption.

  17. Jet Joint Undertaking. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Joint European Torus is the largest project in the coordinated fusion programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). A brief general introduction provides an overview of the planning of the Report. This is followed by a description of JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes, which summarize the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, this relates and compares JET to other large fusion devices throughout the world. The following section reports on the technical status of the machine including: technical changes and achievements during 1989; details of the operational organization of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operation. This is followed by the results of JET operations in 1990 under various operating conditions, including ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; the overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards reactor conditions. In particular, the comparative performance between JET and other tokamaks, in terms of the triple fusion product, shows the substantial achievements made by JET since the start of operations in 1983. The second part of the Report explains the organization and management of the Project and describes the administration of JET. In particular, it sets out the budget situation; contractual arrangements during 1990; and details of the staffing arrangements and complement

  18. Jet joint undertaking. Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    After a presentation of the Jet and nuclear fusion, the results of Jet operations in 1985 are given: energy confinement, MHD activity and disruptive instabilities, impurities and radiation losses, plasma evolution, plasma boundary phenomena, control of plasma current, position and shape, RF heating. Technical achievements in 1985 are summarized: vacuum systems, first wall, multi-pellet injection for fuelling and re-fuelling, containment of forces during vertical instabilities, magnet systems, safety systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radio-frequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition, diagnostic systems are implied

  19. Benchmark analysis of railway networks and undertakings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark analysis of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international railway benchmarking

  20. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  1. Jet Joint Undertaking Progress Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The report sets out an overview of progress on JET during 1992 and with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1992 sets these advances in their general context. This summary is specifically cross-referenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1992. The last section is devoted to future plans and certain developments which might enable enhancements of the machine to further improve its overall performance. The Appendices contain a list of work topics which have been carried out under Task Agreements with various Association Laboratories. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published by JET authors in 1992

  2. Jet joint undertaking annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The 1988 activity report of the Joint European Torus (JET) project, is presented. The report provides an overview of the scientific, technical and administrative status of the program. The background of the project, the description of JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programs are explained. The technical status of the machine is given and it includes: technical changes and achievements during 1988; details of the operational organisation of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operations. The results of JET operations in 1988, under various conditions of heating and combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations, are provided. The project budget situation, contractual arrangements, in 1988, and staff complements, are included

  3. Jet Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This JET Progress Reports provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1990. In addition, the Report is supplemented by appendices of contributions (in preprint form) of the more important JET articles published during the year, which set out the details of JET activities

  4. Jet joint undertaking. Progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A brief introduction and some background information relevant to the Report is first provided. Progress on JET during 1984 is overviewed and, with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1984, these advances are set in their general context. This summary is specifically crossreferenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1985. The more important of these articles, which are of general interest, are reproduced as appendices to this Report. Certain developments are considered, which might enable additional improvements/modifications of the machine to further improve its overall performance. These improvements are considered to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokmaks, particularly concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. Some attention has been devoted to methods of surmounting these limitations and these are detailed in this section. In the Appendices, selected articles prepared by JET authors are reproduced in detail, and provide more details of the activities and achievements made on JET during 1985. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published in 1985

  5. Undertaking midwifery studies: commencing students' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina

    2011-10-01

    to explore the motivations and beliefs of commencing midwifery students against a background of high course demand and high student attrition. a qualitative analysis of student reflective essays. Melbourne, Australia. all commencing midwifery students, in 2008, were invited to participate (n = 41). three primary motivations for choosing midwifery were identified, including: notions of altruism (wanting to help), a fascination with pregnancy and birth, and a view of midwifery as a personally satisfying career. Bachelor of Midwifery programmes attract students with idealised views about midwifery practice. Such views may lead to student disillusionment, tensions with educators and clinicians, and higher rates of student attrition. Students need greater support to examine their views about midwifery practice. More meaningful support may assist the students' successful socialisation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Applied Method for Undertaking Phenomenological Explication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    knotted line rather than catching fish. I needed something which would group related material together in an ordered and meaningful fashion, and which ..... being “in pain ... on the inside of my heart and mind.” On another occasion he was strumming his guitar and singing a worship song entitled,. 'Jesus what a beautiful ...

  7. EPA Monthly Key Performance Indicator Dashboards 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each month, the Web Analytics Program posts updated Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dashboards that correspond to three Web performance goals: content consumption, content discovery, and audience engagement.

  8. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  9. Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.

    2007-01-01

    In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes the obtainable key rate for any

  10. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  11. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its...

  12. working towards an african peacekeeping capability: key issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    organisation, equipment, training, doctrine and capacities. It is also acknowledged that the Panel's contention that “[t]here are many tasks which United Nations peacekeeping forces should not be asked to undertake and many places they should go” – especially in Africa – necessitates serious consideration of those issues.

  13. Cultural Intelligence as a Key Construct for Global Talent Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bücker, J.J.L.E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the competencies needed to undertake global talent management (GTM), according to the concept of cultural intelligence (CQ) and its four main dimensions. Using real-world examples and excerpts from interviews with relevant actors in this field, this chapter outlines the CQ

  14. Key-value store with internal key-value storage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Ting, Dennis P. J.; Tzelnic, Percy; Gupta, Uday; Grider, Gary; Bonnie, David J.

    2018-01-16

    A key-value store is provided having one or more key-value storage interfaces. A key-value store on at least one compute node comprises a memory for storing a plurality of key-value pairs; and an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one persistent storage device providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of one or more of the plurality of key-value pairs, wherein the software interface module provides the one or more key-value pairs to the at least one persistent storage device in a key-value format. The abstract storage interface optionally processes one or more batch operations on the plurality of key-value pairs. A distributed embodiment for a partitioned key-value store is also provided.

  15. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  16. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the dis- tribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Conse- quently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the ...

  17. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  18. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the failure of Kak's ...

  19. Bioenergy has a key role to play!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;......Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;...

  20. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  1. Key Competencies, Assessment and Learning Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Keryn; Wright, Jocelyn; Carr, Margaret; Peters, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Developed in response to a strong interest in the use of Learning Stories in schools, this resource is designed to answer some common questions asked by teachers. The assessment of Key Competencies is a topic that deserves a lot of discussion. A Key Competency is complex: it includes social, emotional, cognitive and cultural aspects, and is…

  2. Group Key Agreement Efficient in Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-14

    proceedings. [12] G. Caronni, M. Waldvogel, D. Sun, N. Weiler, and B. Plattner. The VersaKey framework: Versatile group key management. IEEE Journal on...scientist at the University of California at Irvine. His acdemic interests include network security and cryptography. More information about his research is

  3. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  4. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  5. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  6. The Harms of Antipsychotic Drugs: Evidence from Key Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J; Furberg, Curt D

    2017-01-01

    This safety assessment provides a detailed analysis of key studies and focuses on the six most widely used antipsychotic drugs. Lines of evidence include mechanisms of action, short-term treatment of psychosis, relapse prevention, early intervention in schizophrenia, long-term comparisons between first- and second-generation agents, and flexible treatment algorithms. Despite the diversity of study settings, several common features were seen. All the agents obstruct normal signaling through widely dispersed dopamine D 2 receptors. Treatment failure or psychosis relapse was the most frequent outcome in most key studies, ranging from 38 to 93%. High discontinuation rates caused most trials to fail to demonstrate a substantial treatment benefit, or difference from an active comparator. Assessment of harm to the extrapyramidal motor system was confounded because of extensive neurological impairment from previous antipsychotic drug treatment measured at baseline, abrupt discontinuation effects, and high rates of concomitant medications to manage drug adverse effects. Claims that second-generation antipsychotic drugs have safety advantages over classical neuroleptic drugs and prevent relapse were not supported in these key studies. The extent of injury to and impairment of multiple body systems caused by antipsychotic drugs shows the need for a scientific, clinical, and regulatory reappraisal of the appropriate use of these agents.

  7. Self Retaining Anti-Rotation Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Alan Benjamin Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Anti-rotation keys are typically used in applications where an end of a threaded stud is received in a housing, and where the opposite end of the stud projects from the housing to allow attachment of another component to the housing. Once partially received in the housing, further rotation of the stud is prevented by an anti-rotation key. The disclosed anti-rotation key is self-retaining, in that it prevents itself from "backing out" of the channel due to vibration or thermal expansion of the housing, etc., while also being removable from the channel if desired.

  8. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  9. The development and evaluation of the use of a virtual learning environment (Blackboard 5) to support the learning of pre-qualifying nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sue M; Weaver, Mike; Voegeli, David; Fitzsimmons, Debs; Knowles, Jess; Harrison, Maureen; Shephard, Kerry

    2006-07-01

    Students commence nurse education with varying levels of understanding of human anatomy and physiology due to a wide range of previous exposure to the topic. All students, however, are required to attain a broad knowledge of this topic prior to qualification. This paper describes the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), Blackboard 5, and the associated development of appropriate resources aimed at supporting nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module at Higher Education Level 1. The VLE was used as part of a blended learning approach. The results suggested that the majority of students utilised the VLE throughout the academic year. Opportunities for independent and self-directed learning were available in that students chose when and where to learn. Students generally commented favourably on ease of use and type of resources available. Frequency of use of the VLE, however, did not correlate strongly with the final examination mark achieved. Overall the VLE and the associated available resources appeared useful in supporting student learning and has been adopted for use in subsequent years.

  10. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-10-01

    Teaching functional groups to high school and college chemistry students is often accomplished by having students memorize the functional groups from a table. Using this approach, students typically forget what they have memorized shortly after the examination and fail to transfer the memorized material to other topics in chemistry such as nomenclature, VSEPR theory, and chemical reactions. This method is frustrating for both the teacher and the students. To facilitate the learning of functional groups and to avoid a strictly memorization approach, we developed a classification key based on discernible characteristics that students can identify and consequently key out. This key can be used by the teacher in a variety of ways: as an introduction, a review, or a homework assignment. The functional group classification key is well received by students and provides an engaging alternative for teachers to use when introducing functional groups to their classes.

  11. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  12. Key Royale bridge five year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the design, construction, instrumentation, and five-year evaluation of the Key Royale Bridge substructure. The primary focus was the evaluation of the implementation of highly reactive supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) ...

  13. Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.

    2007-10-31

    In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes

  14. Conclusive eavesdropping in quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Howard E

    2005-01-01

    It is argued that the BB84 (Bennett-Brassard 1984) protocol of quantum key distribution has a vulnerability similar to the well-known vulnerability of the B92 (Bennett 1992) protocol in the presence of losses. The quantum circuit and design are first reviewed for an optimized entangling probe attacking the BB84 protocol of quantum key distribution and yielding maximum information to the probe. Probe photon polarization states become optimally entangled with the signal states on their way between the legitimate transmitter and receiver. Although standard von Neumann projective measurements of the probe yield maximum information on the pre-privacy amplified key, if instead the probe measurements are performed with a certain positive operator valued measure, then the measurement results are unambiguous, at least some of the time, resulting in complete information gain by the probe for sufficient loss in the key distribution channel

  15. Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoikova, Elena; Denishev, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Shoikova, E., & Denishev, V. (2009). Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009, Manchester, United Kingdom: TENCompetence.

  16. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  17. PDS4 Training: Key Concepts and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Padams, J.; Raugh, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    Those planning to attend the PDS4 training session are strongly encouraged to review this poster prior to the training session. This poster briefly describes new vocabulary and a number of key concepts introduced with PDS4.

  18. La progettazione di nuovi spazi educativi per l’infanzia: da Ellen Key a Maria Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Pironi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents a comparison between the thought of Ellen Key and that of Maria Montessori. Changes that involved the role of women, caught in its interdependence with the development of new educational practices, were the center of the theoretical contribution of Ellen Key. Maria Montessori believed that only women work outside the home would guarantee the economic independence necessary to form a union on sentiment rather than on utilitarian calculations and therefore she did not seem to share the concerns of the Key on an increasingly massive female entry into the world of work. The paper offers an updated reflection on the work of two scholars of education.

  19. Key performance indicators in agile software development

    OpenAIRE

    Mannila, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    The background of the study was an organisation's need to have new ideas to measure a development team performance and the organisation’s performance in work efficiency and quality. The target was to define working and need based agile software development key performance indicators for the organisation. The study was implemented by evaluating agile software development related books and internet sources to identify recommended key performance indicators and select some of them for the or...

  20. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  1. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  2. SAXICOLE BRYOPHYTES FROM VÂLSAN KEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the saxicole species in the Vâlsan Keys and considerations regarding the bryophytic saxicole cenoses from the protected area. To analyze the diversity of the saxicole bryophytes, we considered the number of species, as well as the phytogeografical element, the growth form and the “life strategy” of each species. From the systematic perspective, Vâlsan Keys are featured by a high specific diversity of the saxicole bryophytes.

  3. Is the Green Key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.; Van Rheede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if

  4. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Newe, T

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided

  5. Key Frame Extraction in the Summary Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqiang

    2017-07-04

    Key frame extraction is an efficient way to create the video summary which helps users obtain a quick comprehension of the video content. Generally, the key frames should be representative of the video content, meanwhile, diverse to reduce the redundancy. Based on the assumption that the video data are near a subspace of a high-dimensional space, a new approach, named as key frame extraction in the summary space, is proposed for key frame extraction in this paper. The proposed approach aims to find the representative frames of the video and filter out similar frames from the representative frame set. First of all, the video data are mapped to a high-dimensional space, named as summary space. Then, a new representation is learned for each frame by analyzing the intrinsic structure of the summary space. Specifically, the learned representation can reflect the representativeness of the frame, and is utilized to select representative frames. Next, the perceptual hash algorithm is employed to measure the similarity of representative frames. As a result, the key frame set is obtained after filtering out similar frames from the representative frame set. Finally, the video summary is constructed by assigning the key frames in temporal order. Additionally, the ground truth, created by filtering out similar frames from human-created summaries, is utilized to evaluate the quality of the video summary. Compared with several traditional approaches, the experimental results on 80 videos from two datasets indicate the superior performance of our approach.

  6. Key-Phenomenon and Religious Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomuscio Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I develop a phenomenology of religious experience through the notion of keyphenomenon. My analysis moves from a general phenomenology of situation, in which we have to relate different phenomena according to a sense. What does “according to a sense” mean? My suggestion is that we should look for a relationship among these data when we find a key-phenomenon (among a series of phenomena that would enlighten all the others. This key-phenomenon would show a non-phenomenal meaning which would make all the others understandable. Each other datum, therefore, becomes the witness of invisible meaning through a key-witness. The key-phenomenon we choose determines the role (i.e., the truth of each datum within its situation. This phenomenological relationship belongs to both the sense of day-life situations, and that one of possible religious situations. If the religious interpretation of a situation depends on our choice of key-phenomenon, or key-witness, we have to define what kind of keyphenomenon constitutes a religious intuition.

  7. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.

  8. Comparison CCEM-K8 of DC voltage ratio: results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marullo-Reedtz, G

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available (s/n20.335) as the traveling standard was adopted to normalize the participants’ results, the calculation of the key comparison reference values and the comparison results were reported for the two mandatory ratios of the comparison, 1000v/10v and 100v...

  9. A Comparison between the Brand Personality Construct of KFC and Marrybrown: Their Restaurant Concept and Brand Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kuang Long

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes the research project from a deductive position based on Aaker’s (1997) brand personality to shape the result by adopting the quantitative research process. Brand personality scale measures important aspects of the personalities that consumers attribute to brands of all kinds. Marketers and researchers have embraced brand personality as an important facet of brand management and a key source of brand differentiation (Siguaw et. al., 1999). This paper attempts to me...

  10. Fully device-independent conference key agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jérémy; Murta, Gláucia; Wehner, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    We present a security analysis of conference key agreement (CKA) in the most adversarial model of device independence (DI). Our protocol can be implemented by any experimental setup that is capable of performing Bell tests [specifically, the Mermin-Ardehali-Belinskii-Klyshko (MABK) inequality], and security can in principle be obtained for any violation of the MABK inequality that detects genuine multipartite entanglement among the N parties involved in the protocol. As our main tool, we derive a direct physical connection between the N -partite MABK inequality and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, showing that certain violations of the MABK inequality correspond to a violation of the CHSH inequality between one of the parties and the other N -1 . We compare the asymptotic key rate for device-independent conference key agreement (DICKA) to the case where the parties use N -1 device-independent quantum key distribution protocols in order to generate a common key. We show that for some regime of noise the DICKA protocol leads to better rates.

  11. Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pljonkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.

  12. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  13. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  14. Key-Finding by Artificial Neural Networks That Learn About Key Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R W; Zielinski, Jasen A Z

    2017-05-08

    We explore the ability of a very simple artificial neural network, a perceptron, to assert the musical key of novel stimuli. First, perceptrons are trained to associate standardized key profiles (taken from 1 of 3 different sources) to different musical keys. After training, we measured perceptron accuracy in asserting musical keys for 296 novel stimuli. Depending upon which key profiles were used during training, perceptrons can perform as well as established key-finding algorithms on this task. Further analyses indicate that perceptrons generate higher activity in a unit representing a selected key and much lower activities in the units representing the competing keys that are not selected than does a traditional algorithm. Finally, we examined the internal structure of trained perceptrons and discovered that they, unlike traditional algorithms, assign very different weights to different components of a key profile. Perceptrons learn that some profile components are more important for specifying musical key than are others. These differential weights could be incorporated into traditional algorithms that do not themselves employ artificial neural networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association Between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-01-01

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. A decrease in ceramide C18:0 concentration was significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  16. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  17. Several Key Features of Marriage in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2014-01-01

    In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special empha...

  18. KeyPathwayMiner 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch; Batra, Richa

    2014-01-01

    release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain...... (avoid) genes provided in a positive (negative) list. Finally the new release now also provides a set of novel visualization features and has been implemented as an app for the standard bioinformatics network analysis tool: Cytoscape. CONCLUSION: With KeyPathwayMiner 4.0, we publish a Cytoscape app...

  19. Key nuclear reaction experiments discoveries and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this book the author charts the developments in nuclear physics since its inception around a century ago by reviewing the key experiments that helped drive and shape our understanding of the field, especially in the context of the wider developments in physics in the early 20th Century. In addition to providing a path through the field and the crucial events it looks at how these experiments not only answered key questions at the time but presented new challenges to the contemporary perception of the nuclear and sub-atomic worlds and how they helped develop our present understanding of nuclear physics.

  20. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  1. Social and environmental assessment: a preliminary data base on population and territory in the undertakings pipelines: a natural gas pipeline GASBEL II; Avaliacao socioambiental - base de dados preliminar sobre populacao e territorio em empreendimentos de dutos - estudo de caso: avaliacao socioambiental GASBEL II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Marcia; Bach, Vanessa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ismerio, Marcia [Pallos Consultorias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Edna Mara [Camargo Correa Engenharia (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The social environmental assessment consists in an instrument of planning which principal objective is to know the social ambient that will be changed by the PETROBRAS' pipe undertakings, that are planning to be implemented and will be analyzed by the licensers environmental organs. When pipeline projects are planned, their route cross some regions and ecological sensitive areas, therefore, the attitude of consider the social environmental aspects at the planning stage through the use of valuation instruments, anticipating, the potential social and environmental impacts, assumes more importance in integrating management of these undertakings. This presentation has the main objective to stand out the relevance of the social environmental assessment realization as preliminary knowledge base to the undertakings, since the research results developed represents a support of information about the regions where the undertakings install themselves in distinct stages: environmental permits, assembly and construction and operating. The social environmental assessment of the project named GASBEL II is presented as a case study once it allow to observe a gas pipeline transport project to be implemented at different regions and areas. The Pipeline will cross two different federal states, where the local research boarded many communities with different ways and conditions of life, territory use, cultural expressions and other aspects. (author)

  2. Is the green key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Rietbergen, Martijn; Rheede, van, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if specific sustainable practices or environmental measures have been implemented, but does however not assess the actual environmental performance of hospitality firms. Therefore, the interesting question...

  3. Ten key considerations for the successful optimization of large-scale health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Implementation and adoption of complex health information technology (HIT) is gaining momentum internationally. This is underpinned by the drive to improve the safety, quality, and efficiency of care. Although most of the benefits associated with HIT will only be realized through optimization of these systems, relatively few health care organizations currently have the expertise or experience needed to undertake this. It is extremely important to have systems working before embarking on HIT optimization, which, much like implementation, is an ongoing, difficult, and often expensive process. We discuss some key organization-level activities that are important in optimizing large-scale HIT systems. These include considerations relating to leadership, strategy, vision, and continuous cycles of improvement. Although these alone are not sufficient to fully optimize complex HIT, they provide a starting point for conceptualizing this important area. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process in the BB84-protocol. Keywords. Quantum cryptography; quantum key distribution. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. Introduction. Since the act of measurement reduces the state function of a quantum object, one cannot determine what state characterized the system prior to the measurement. This property is at the heart of the ...

  5. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  6. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, James; Beck, Rainer; Bell, Michael; de Bruyn, Ger; Chyzy, Krzysztof; Eislöffel, Jochen; Enßlin, Torsten; Fletcher, Andrew; Haverkorn, Marijke; Heald, George; Horneffer, Andreas; Noutsos, Aris; Reich, Wolfgang; Scaife, Anna; the LOFAR collaboration, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    Measuring radio waves at low frequencies offers a new window to study cosmic magnetism, and LOFAR is the ideal radio telescope to open this window widely. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project (MKSP) draws together expertise from multiple fields of magnetism science and intends to use LOFAR to

  7. Radiology Aide. Instructor Key [and] Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwein, Jon; Dunham, John

    This manual can be used independently by students in secondary health occupations programs or by persons receiving on-the-job training in a radiology department. The manual includes an instructor's key that provides answers to the activity sheets and unit evaluations. The manual consists of the following five units: (1) orientation to radiology;…

  8. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  9. Ambitious Expectations and Social Key Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    In German debates over key competencies, it was recognized that noncognitive, e.g., social competencies and transfer across situations are important. A model of social communicative action was developed, with these elements: verbal/nonverbal articulation and interpretation of statements, metacommunication, sensitivity to latent communication,…

  10. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANDREEVSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic futureTransitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  11. Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)

  12. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  13. Memory for melody and key in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age.

  14. Memory for melody and key in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Poon, Jaimie; Weiss, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults) heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age.

  15. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications. 15 or not managed, conflicts are likely to escalate and intensify. White et al. (2009:244) state: 'What distinguishes conflicts from mere disagreement is thus a behavioural expression of formerly latent attitudes where one party is perceived to take action at the ...

  16. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum method of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) where the transmission states have been decreased from 4 to 3 and ...

  17. Key Actions of Successful Summer Research Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, D. Raj; Geisinger, Brandi N.; Kemis, Mari R.; de la Mora, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Summer research opportunities for undergraduates, such as those supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, can be critical experiences that help persuade students to pursue research through graduate studies. Studies analyzing the key actions of successful mentors are scarce. The goal of…

  18. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key...

  19. Crystallization: Key thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the different commercial crystallizers existing till date. For evaporative and cooling crystallization from solution, where the crystallizer is operated in continuous mode in ..... An integration of these modelling methods would lead to a platform for an in-depth process understanding. In subsequent sections, the key aspects ...

  20. Key Ideas and Memorability in Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gila; Mason, John

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concepts of "key ideas" and "memorability" and how they relate to the metric "width of a proof" put forward by the Fields medalist Timothy Gowers (2007) in a recent essay entitled "Mathematics, memory and mental arithmetic". The paper looks at the meaning of these concepts and…

  1. Team building: key to executive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen-Webb, M L

    1985-02-01

    The key to executive success is management of the information overload provided by today's high technology era. Team building, through identification of behavioral styles, helps to enhance self-esteem, utilize inherent skills of individuals, and maximize decision making. The style of the team leader who shares leadership promotes communication patterns that lead to participatory management and harmony within institutions.

  2. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Broadbent (Anne); C. Schaffner (Christian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractQuantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness

  3. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  4. Can Quantum Key Distribution Be Secure

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of quantum key distribution as a cryptographic method depends upon its purported strong security guarantee. The following gives reasons on why such strong security guarantee has not been validly established and why good QKD security is difficult to obtain.

  5. Key Competences in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Dibbern; Kruse, Katrine

    This article presents and discusses how key competences in the school based learning are embedded in the VET curricula during the last five years. It gives an overview of how their role has developed in light of the comprehensive Danish VET reform agreed in 2014 and implemented since August 2015....

  6. Key questions and challenges in angiosperm macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana

    2018-03-25

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Memory for melody and key in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Jaimie; Weiss, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults) heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age. PMID:29077726

  8. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,

  9. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, J.H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, L.; Frouz, J.; Deyn, de G.B.; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, M.; Wall, D.H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; Jimenez, Juan Jose

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential

  10. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  11. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis.Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC and the International Patent Classification (IPC, respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012 and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012 was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones.The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and

  12. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  13. Public-key quantum digital signature scheme with one-time pad private-key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Lin; Liu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Su-Gen; Wang, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    A quantum digital signature scheme is firstly proposed based on public-key quantum cryptosystem. In the scheme, the verification public-key is derived from the signer's identity information (such as e-mail) on the foundation of identity-based encryption, and the signature private-key is generated by one-time pad (OTP) protocol. The public-key and private-key pair belongs to classical bits, but the signature cipher belongs to quantum qubits. After the signer announces the public-key and generates the final quantum signature, each verifier can verify publicly whether the signature is valid or not with the public-key and quantum digital digest. Analysis results show that the proposed scheme satisfies non-repudiation and unforgeability. Information-theoretic security of the scheme is ensured by quantum indistinguishability mechanics and OTP protocol. Based on the public-key cryptosystem, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized compared with other quantum signature schemes under current technical conditions.

  14. Security of a practical semi-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Zhou Chun; Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD. (general)

  15. Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaari, J.S., E-mail: jesni_shamsul@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahari, Asma' Ahmad [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2012-10-01

    A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.

  16. Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Bahari, Asma' Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.

  17. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... grammatical theory, there has been no comprehensive study of its innovative methods and radical proposals for a new national curriculum. Its challenge to Latin and French is analyzed in a historical perspective, and the impact of Lane's ideas during the eighteenth century is traced. The article shows...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  18. Key parameters analysis of hybrid HEMP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Congguang; Zhou Hui

    2009-01-01

    According to the new standards on the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) developed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the target parameter requirements of the key structure of the hybrid HEMP simulator are decomposed. Firstly, the influences of the different excitation sources and biconical structures to the key parameters of the radiated electric field wave shape are investigated and analyzed. Then based on the influence curves the target parameter requirements of the pulse generator are proposed. Finally the appropriate parameters of the biconical structure and the excitation sources are chosen, and the computational result of the electric field in free space is presented. The results are of great value for the design of the hybrid HEMP simulator. (authors)

  19. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  20. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...... Infrastructures. The paper argues why the previous attempts are inadequate to address the issues in the domain of international supply chains. Instead, a different set of key design properties are proposed for the Shipping Information Pipeline. The solution has been developed in collaboration with a network......This paper reports on the use of key design properties for development of a new approach towards a solution for sharing shipping information in the supply chain for international trade. Information exchange in international supply chain is extremely inefficient, rather uncoordinated, based largely...

  1. Regional scale prioritisation for key ecosystem services, renewable energy production and urban development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Casalegno

    Full Text Available Although the importance of addressing ecosystem service benefits in regional land use planning and decision-making is evident, substantial practical challenges remain. In particular, methods to identify priority areas for the provision of key ecosystem services and other environmental services (benefits from the environment not directly linked to the function of ecosystems need to be developed. Priority areas are locations which provide disproportionally high benefits from one or more service. Here we map a set of ecosystem and environmental services and delineate priority areas according to different scenarios. Each scenario is produced by a set of weightings allocated to different services and corresponds to different landscape management strategies which decision makers could undertake. Using the county of Cornwall, U.K., as a case study, we processed gridded maps of key ecosystem services and environmental services, including renewable energy production and urban development. We explored their spatial distribution patterns and their spatial covariance and spatial stationarity within the region. Finally we applied a complementarity-based priority ranking algorithm (zonation using different weighting schemes. Our conclusions are that (i there are two main patterns of service distribution in this region, clustered services (including agriculture, carbon stocks, urban development and plant production and dispersed services (including cultural services, energy production and floods mitigation; (ii more than half of the services are spatially correlated and there is high non-stationarity in the spatial covariance between services; and (iii it is important to consider both ecosystem services and other environmental services in identifying priority areas. Different weighting schemes provoke drastic changes in the delineation of priority areas and therefore decision making processes need to carefully consider the relative values attributed to

  2. Regional scale prioritisation for key ecosystem services, renewable energy production and urban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Stefano; Bennie, Jonathan J; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing ecosystem service benefits in regional land use planning and decision-making is evident, substantial practical challenges remain. In particular, methods to identify priority areas for the provision of key ecosystem services and other environmental services (benefits from the environment not directly linked to the function of ecosystems) need to be developed. Priority areas are locations which provide disproportionally high benefits from one or more service. Here we map a set of ecosystem and environmental services and delineate priority areas according to different scenarios. Each scenario is produced by a set of weightings allocated to different services and corresponds to different landscape management strategies which decision makers could undertake. Using the county of Cornwall, U.K., as a case study, we processed gridded maps of key ecosystem services and environmental services, including renewable energy production and urban development. We explored their spatial distribution patterns and their spatial covariance and spatial stationarity within the region. Finally we applied a complementarity-based priority ranking algorithm (zonation) using different weighting schemes. Our conclusions are that (i) there are two main patterns of service distribution in this region, clustered services (including agriculture, carbon stocks, urban development and plant production) and dispersed services (including cultural services, energy production and floods mitigation); (ii) more than half of the services are spatially correlated and there is high non-stationarity in the spatial covariance between services; and (iii) it is important to consider both ecosystem services and other environmental services in identifying priority areas. Different weighting schemes provoke drastic changes in the delineation of priority areas and therefore decision making processes need to carefully consider the relative values attributed to different services.

  3. George's secret key to the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Galfard, Christophe; Parsons, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In their bestselling book for young readers, noted physicist Stephen Hawking and his daughter, Lucy, provide a grand and funny adventure that explains fascinating information about our universe, including Dr. Hawking's latest ideas about black holes. It's the story of George, who's taken through the vastness of space by a scientist, his daughter, and their super-computer named Cosmos. George's Secret Key to the Universe was a New York Times bestseller and a selection of Al's Book Club on the Today show.

  4. Key factors of teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...

  5. Network layer security and secret key authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Llovet Ureña, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project is to update Von Mann Young Rhee’s book, ‘Internet Security: Cryptographic Principles, Algorithms and Protocols’ which is about network layer security and secret key authentication. It is an extremely important aspect in modern life to have security in the network to protect our information and prevent eavesdroppers or maleficent programs, for example. This is the reason why this project aims to update these kinds of algorithms and hash functions. This project uses me...

  6. Key Research Issues in Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhanel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management.

  7. Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna

    2017-05-01

    Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels.

  8. New Security Results on Encrypted Key Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2003-12-15

    Schemes for encrypted key exchange are designed to provide two entities communicating over a public network, and sharing a (short) password only, with a session key to be used to achieve data integrity and/or message confidentiality. An example of a very efficient and ''elegant'' scheme for encrypted key exchange considered for standardization by the IEEE P1363 Standard working group is AuthA. This scheme was conjectured secure when the symmetric-encryption primitive is instantiated via either a cipher that closely behaves like an ''ideal cipher,'' or a mask generation function that is the product of the message with a hash of the password. While the security of this scheme in the former case has been recently proven, the latter case was still an open problem. For the first time we prove in this paper that this scheme is secure under the assumptions that the hash function closely behaves like a random oracle and that the computational Diffie-Hellman problem is difficult. Furthermore, since Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks have become a common threat we enhance AuthA with a mechanism to protect against them.

  9. Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.

  10. Key competencies and characteristics of accommodation managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Tourism employees are trained by various higher education institutions, yet industry still voices its concern regarding the readiness of potential employees entering the tourism industry. Research purpose: This article aims to critically assess the key competencies and personal characteristics needed by accommodation managers in the South Africa tourism industry based on the opinions of the industry itself. Motivation for the study: Tertiary institutions in South Africa educate potential tourism employees in a variety of skills and knowledge. However, some employers are still of the opinion that these students are not adequately prepared for the demand of the industry. Therefore, the tourism industry feels that students are not employable, which creates challenges for students, tertiary institutions and the tourism industry. Research, design, approach and method: It was achieved by collecting 254 self-administered questionnaires from graded tourism accommodation establishments in South Africa. Main findings: Nine key competencies needed by accommodation managers were identified and the importance of certain personal characteristics was evident. Novel to this field of research, the latter was rated more important than the nine key competencies that hold implications for training institutions and the industry. Practical/managerial implications: The implication of the study is that accommodation managers should be trained in a different manner and higher education institutions should revise their training methods and selection strategies to address the needs of industry. Contribution: Effective selection and training of accommodation managers will improve not only business success but also contribute to the success and growth of the tourism industry.

  11. Social Comparison Seeking: Providing General Comparison Curtails Local Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; Zell, Ethan; Schurtz, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Past research shows that people use local social comparison information more than general social comparison information when both are given (Zell & Alicke, 2010). The present studies examined the extent to which people seek local comparisons when they have already received general comparison information. In Study 1, students received their…

  12. Treatment of Adults With Treatment-Resistant Depression: Electroconvulsive Therapy Plus Antidepressant or Electroconvulsive Therapy Alone? Evidence From an Indirect Comparison Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Guo-Min; Tian, Xu; Shuai, Ting; Yi, Li-Juan; Zeng, Zi; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and antidepressant are the effective treatment alternatives for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, the effects and safety of the ECT plus antidepressant relative to ECT alone remain controversial. We decide to assess the potential of ECT plus antidepressant compared with ECT alone by undertaking an indirect comparison meta-analysis. Databases from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, EMBASE, CBM (China Biom...

  13. Key figures of renewable energies - Release 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, Thelma; Collet, Isabelle; Louati, Sami; Reynaud, Didier; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    This publication gathers numerous graphs and tables of data and statistics on renewable energies. After a presentation of various data which characterize and illustrate the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, production and consumption, the production of renewable energies in metropolitan France and in overseas territories, data are presented regarding renewable hydraulics, wind energy, photovoltaic and thermal solar energy, heat pumps, solid biomass, waste-based energy production, biogas and bio-fuels. The next chapters propose an overview of the present situation and of objectives for 2020, and European and international comparisons

  14. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  15. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, Jack H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Frouz, Jan; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, Michel; Wall, Diana H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; José Jiménez, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential services provided by soils, policy makers depend on robust, predictive models identifying key drivers of SOM dynamics. Existing SOM models and suggested guidelines for future SOM modelling are defined mostly in terms of plant residue quality and input and microbial decomposition, overlooking the significant regulation provided by soil fauna. The fauna controls almost any aspect of organic matter turnover, foremost by regulating the activity and functional composition of soil microorganisms and their physical-chemical connectivity with soil organic matter. We demonstrate a very strong impact of soil animals on carbon turnover, increasing or decreasing it by several dozen percent, sometimes even turning C sinks into C sources or vice versa. This is demonstrated not only for earthworms and other larger invertebrates but also for smaller fauna such as Collembola. We suggest that inclusion of soil animal activities (plant residue consumption and bioturbation altering the formation, depth, hydraulic properties and physical heterogeneity of soils) can fundamentally affect the predictive outcome of SOM models. Understanding direct and indirect impacts of soil fauna on nutrient availability, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth is key to the understanding of SOM dynamics in the context of global carbon cycling models. We argue that explicit consideration of soil fauna is essential to make realistic modelling predictions on SOM dynamics and to detect expected non-linear responses of SOM dynamics to global change. We present a decision framework, to be further developed through the activities of KEYSOM, a European COST Action, for when mechanistic SOM models

  16. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper...... investigates the use of key performance indicators as an approach for measuring the success of global product development projects. With the conclusions from a survey and workshop together with observations during a global development project, the need for an alternative approach to measurement than...... in conventional product development is highlighted....

  17. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  18. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  19. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  20. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    investigates the use of key performance indicators as an approach for measuring the success of global product development projects. With the conclusions from a survey and workshop together with observations during a global development project, the need for an alternative approach to measurement than......The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper...... in conventional product development is highlighted....

  1. Key parameters governing metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-10-21

    Engineering metallic nanoparticles constitutes a powerful route to design next-generation electrocatalysts to be used in future energy and environmental industries. In this mini review, we cover recent advances in metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis, with a focus on understanding how the parameters such as particle sizes, crystalline structures, shapes, compositions, nanoscale alloying and interfaces influence their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. In addition, this review highlights viable approaches for fabrication of nanoparticle-based electrocatalytic electrodes and discusses their influences on the overall catalytic performances. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges ahead to program these key parameters to achieve highly durable designer electrocatalysts in future.

  2. Local innovation: The key to globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivardhini K. Jha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The round table discussion draws the panellists to weigh in on how multinational enterprises from developed countries are innovating in and for emerging markets, the challenges faced, and lessons learnt. The key takeaways are that MNEs are increasingly innovating for the Indian market, alongside their contribution to global products. They are doing so by developing close relationships with field facing organisations, co-creating with customers, empowering engineers, and taking a clean slate approach to product development. This approach has given them dividends not only in the local market but also in the global market.

  3. 5 keys to business analytics program success

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, John; Green, Brian; Harris, Tracy; Van De Vanter, Kay

    2012-01-01

    With business analytics is becoming increasingly strategic to all types of organizations and with many companies struggling to create a meaningful impact with this emerging technology, this work-based on the combined experience of 10 organizations that display excellence and expertise on the subject-shares the best practices, discusses the management aspects and sociology that drives success, and uncovers the five key aspects behind the success of some of the top business analytics programs in the industry. Readers will learn about numerous topics, including how to create and manage a changing

  4. Noiseless Steganography The Key to Covert Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Desoky, Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Among the features that make Noiseless Steganography: The Key to Covert Communications a first of its kind: The first to comprehensively cover Linguistic Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Graph Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Game Steganography Although the goal of steganography is to prevent adversaries from suspecting the existence of covert communications, most books on the subject present outdated steganography approaches that are detectable by human and/or machine examinations. These approaches often fail because they camouflage data as a detectable noise b

  5. Making Knowledge Actionable: Three Key Translation Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Austin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaders regularly experience pressure to move innovation and change initiatives through their organizations. They face the challenge of transforming organizational changes and innovations from ideas into sustained behavior. In this commentary, I argue that successful implementation requires leaders to engage in a translation process that contains three key translation “moments”. The challenges presented by these translation moments are magnified by the difficulty leaders often have in shifting from one moment to the next. Techniques for handling each translation moment are discussed.

  6. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  7. Barriers to innovation in the medical nutrition industry: A quantitative key opinion leader analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, Tamar C; Pronker, E. S.; Commandeur, H.R.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.

    Innovation is a necessity for survival in dynamic and complex industries such as the medical nutrition industry. To remain competitive, medical nutrition companies must embrace innovation activities that improve productivity. Nevertheless, innovation is a difficult undertaking and companies must

  8. Barriers to innovation in the medical nutrition industry : A quantitative key opinion leader analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, T.C.; Pronker, E.S.; Commandeur, H.R.; Claassen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Innovation is a necessity for survival in dynamic and complex industries such as the medical nutrition industry. To remain competitive, medical nutrition companies must embrace innovation activities that improve productivity. Nevertheless, innovation is a difficult undertaking and companies must

  9. On the security of a simple three-party key exchange protocol without server's public keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  10. User-Centric Key Entropy: Study of Biometric Key Derivation Subject to Spoofing Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela Dinca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric data can be used as input for PKI key pair generation. The concept of not saving the private key is very appealing, but the implementation of such a system shouldn’t be rushed because it might prove less secure then current PKI infrastructure. One biometric characteristic can be easily spoofed, so it was believed that multi-modal biometrics would offer more security, because spoofing two or more biometrics would be very hard. This notion, of increased security of multi-modal biometric systems, was disproved for authentication and matching, studies showing that not only multi-modal biometric systems are not more secure, but they introduce additional vulnerabilities. This paper is a study on the implications of spoofing biometric data for retrieving the derived key. We demonstrate that spoofed biometrics can yield the same key, which in turn will lead an attacker to obtain the private key. A practical implementation is proposed using fingerprint and iris as biometrics and the fuzzy extractor for biometric key extraction. Our experiments show what happens when the biometric data is spoofed for both uni-modal systems and multi-modal. In case of multi-modal system tests were performed when spoofing one biometric or both. We provide detailed analysis of every scenario in regard to successful tests and overall key entropy. Our paper defines a biometric PKI scenario and an in depth security analysis for it. The analysis can be viewed as a blueprint for implementations of future similar systems, because it highlights the main security vulnerabilities for bioPKI. The analysis is not constrained to the biometric part of the system, but covers CA security, sensor security, communication interception, RSA encryption vulnerabilities regarding key entropy, and much more.

  11. Symmetry in the pigeon with sample and comparison stimuli in different locations. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Melissa; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Pigeons were trained on arbitrary (hue-form) and identity (hue-hue and form-form) successive matching with center-key samples and left-key comparisons. Later, they were tested on form-hue (symmetry) probe trials that were structured either in the different-locations fashion as the baseline trials (viz., center-key samples and left-key comparisons) or with a constant location by using center-key samples and center-key comparisons. Three of four pigeons showed symmetry when the probe-trial samples and comparisons appeared in center- and left-key spatial locations, respectively, but none did when both appeared in one (center-key) location. Subsequently, pigeons previously tested with center-key samples and left-key comparisons were tested with those form-hue stimuli shown in the same (center-key) location, and vice versa for the other pigeons. None of the former pigeons showed symmetry on the second test even if they had on the first test. By contrast, two of three pigeons that had not shown symmetry with single-location samples and comparisons did so when those stimuli appeared in different (center- vs. left-key) locations. Taken together, these results show that symmetrical relations between the same, nominal matching stimuli depend on where those stimuli appear in testing vis-à-vis in training and, more generally, confirm that spatial location is part of the functional matching stimuli. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Finite-key analysis for quantum key distribution with weak coherent pulses based on Bernoulli sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2017-07-01

    An essential step in quantum key distribution is the estimation of parameters related to the leaked amount of information, which is usually done by sampling of the communication data. When the data size is finite, the final key rate depends on how the estimation process handles statistical fluctuations. Many of the present security analyses are based on the method with simple random sampling, where hypergeometric distribution or its known bounds are used for the estimation. Here we propose a concise method based on Bernoulli sampling, which is related to binomial distribution. Our method is suitable for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with weak coherent pulses [C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984), Vol. 175], reducing the number of estimated parameters to achieve a higher key generation rate compared to the method with simple random sampling. We also apply the method to prove the security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol in the finite-key regime. The result indicates that the advantage of the DQPS protocol over the phase-encoding BB84 protocol in terms of the key rate, which was previously confirmed in the asymptotic regime, persists in the finite-key regime.

  13. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  14. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  16. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  17. Key Lake, a model of Canadian development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Canada ranks among the world's top four countries in terms of measured, indicated, and inferred uranium resources. Since 1984, Canada has been the world's largest uranium producer providing some 30% of the world's total. An important reason for this strong position is related to the discovery of high-grade near-surface uranium deposits in northern Saskatchewan in 1968 and subsequently. The history of the discovery of one such deposit near Key Lake made by the German-controlled Uranerz Exploration and Mining Limited is recounted briefly. The Key Lake mine became operational in 1983 and currently is the largest uranium-producing facility in the world. At present, less than 20% of the country's annual uranium output of approximately 11,000 tonnes U is required to provide fuel for the domestic nuclear power program. The excess, more than 9000 tonnes U annually, is planned to be exported abroad, primarily to customers in Western Europe, Eastern Asia and the United States. Given its strong resource base, large-scale exports from Canada should continue well into the next century. (orig.) [de

  18. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  19. 78 FR 33221 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; Key...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; Key... the island of Key West, Florida during the Annual Swim around Key West on June 8, 2013. The event... clockwise around the island of Key West, Florida. The special local regulation is necessary to provide for...

  20. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  1. Dynamic test of the ITER blanket key and ceramic insulated pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomyakov, S.; Sysoev, G.; Strebkov, Yu.; Kucherov, A.; Ioki, K.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic testing of the blanket module's key integrated into ITER vacuum vessel portion has been performed in 2008 to investigate its capability to react the electro-magnetic (EM) loads. The preliminary analysis showed the large dynamic amplification factor (DAF) of the reactions because of technological gaps between the blanket module and key. Shock load may yield the bronze pads, which protect the blanket electrical insulation from damage. However the dynamic analysis of such particularly non-linear system needs an experimental ground and confirmation. Toward this end, as well as demonstration of the key reliability, the special test facility has been made, and the full-scale mock-up of the inboard intermodular key was tested. So as not to scale non-linear dynamic parameters, 1-ton mass was built on the single flexible support. The key was welded in a 60-mm thick steel plate modeled with a fragment of the VV. The different gaps were set in between the bronze pad of the key and the mass shock worker. This system (supplemented with some additional constraints) has natural oscillations like as the 4-ton module built on four flexible supports. Thus the most critical radial torque might be modeled with a straight force. The objectives of the test were as follows: dynamic response, DAF and damping factor determination; measurement of the strain oscillations in the key's base and in the weld seam; comparison of the measured data with computation results. The paper will present the analytical grounds of the testing conditions, test facility description, analytical adaptation of the facility, experimental results, its comparison with analysis and discussion, and guidelines for the next experimental phase.

  2. Key figures for the environment - Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    Commented graphs and data tables give an overview of several indicators regarding the environment in France in 2014. A first part addresses natural media and biodiversity by commenting several indicators related to climate and greenhouse effect, air pollution and pollutants, water pollution (underground waters, rivers, rivers flowing to the sea, marine environment), soil pollution by organic materials and soil erosion, and biodiversity (birds, protected areas, humid zones). The second part addresses natural resource management and use: space consumption, material consumption, water consumption, energy consumption, consumption of biological resources (forests, fishery resources), and wastes. The third part addresses the economy of the environment and the evolution of behaviours: environmental concerns and expectations of French people, forest fire risks and natural risks, public actions to be performed and environmental concern of the French population, jobs and expenses in the environmental sector, evolution of transport modes, practices in agriculture and in industry. Some brief European comparisons are proposed, as well as a glossary

  3. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities: Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  4. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities - Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  5. Talent Management: Working lines and key processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Talent management represents today a challenge for companies, since the contribution of value comes increasingly from the area of intangible capital. The current paradigm of expanding technology and competitive dynamics, makes talent management that companies realize a critical success factor in today's markets. However, there is no generally accepted theoretical framework and empirical studies sufficient to demonstrate the role of talent management in creating competitive advantage. Therefore, the first objective of this paper is to analyze the evolution of talent management, to understand more deeply their fundamental dimensions: people and key positions in the organization. From these dimensions, as a second objective of the research is proposed to classify and characterize the literature about four alternative ways of study, according to the treatment they receive such dimensions and thus improve understanding of the role of talent management in business strategyDesign/methodology: To develop this paper we have selected the major contributions to the field of talent management, with particular emphasis on certain meta-analysis very quoted by the scientific community (Lewis and Heckman, 2006; Mellahi and Collings, 2009; Tarique and Schuler, 2010. In addition we have select additional papers published in high impact journals seen in ABI/Inform, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and EBSCO (Business Source Complete, through the keywords "Gestion del talento", "Plan de Gestion del Talento" and "Modelo de Gestion de Talento" and its English equivalent "Talent Management ", "Talent Management Plans/Systems" and "Talent Management Framework/Model ".Findings: From this review, we extracted the existence of different ways of understanding and talent management apply in organizations and even different understandings of what is talent itself. For this, we describe the basic dimensions of talent management (people and key positions and four alternative

  6. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  7. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  8. THE EFFECT OF TEACHING WITHIN-TEXT KEY WORDS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khodasenas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words on students’ performance on reading comprehension of TOEFL among Iranian EFL learners. To carry out the research, 60 Iranian EFL learners, who participated in a TOEFL preparation course, were selected as the participants of the study. Afterward they were randomly assigned into experimental and comparison groups. The experimental group was given a treatment including within-text key word synonyms, opposites and their translations, while the comparison group was given a placebo. To collect the required data, two instruments (a pre-test, and a post-test were administered to both groups during the experimentation. Subsequently, students’ scores were collected through the administration of different tests and the results were statistically analyzed. The results of these analyses revealed that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group and thus, it was concluded that teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words can improve the reading comprehension ability and general proficiency of EFL language learners.

  9. Twelve key nutritional issues in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Huber, Olivier; Azagury, Dan E; Pichard, Claude

    2016-02-01

    In morbidly obese patients, i.e. body mass index ≥35, bariatric surgery is considered the only effective durable weight-loss therapy. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) are associated with risks of nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. Therefore, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, are advised. Dietetic counseling is mandatory during the first year, optional later. Planned and structured physical exercise should be systematically promoted to maintain muscle mass and bone health. In this review, twelve key perioperative nutritional issues are raised with focus on LRYGBP and LSG procedures, the most common current bariatric procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  11. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    system operation as well as experiences and results from other European projects. On the other hand, it analyses what requirements for future control rooms arise from the ELECTRA proposed control solutions. Hence, different points of view are taken into account. The ELECTRA Use Cases (UCs...... requirements for the future control centres discussed within this report. The analysis of what happened before the European system disturbance occurred on 4th November 2006 and of the existing trends by vendors helped T8.1 in the definition of the requirements for the future control centres. Volunteer......This internal report provides the key requirements for the future control centres. R8.1 represents the starting point of WP8 activities and wants to achieve a double objective. On the one hand it collects general requirements on future control centres emerging from the general trends in power...

  12. Biocatalysis--key to sustainable industrial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing trends to process improvements, cost reductions and increasing quality, safety, health and environment requirements of industrial chemical transformations have strengthened the translation of global biocatalysis research work into industrial applications. One focus has been on biocatalytic single-step reactions with one or two substrates, the identification of bottlenecks and molecular as well as engineering approaches to overcome these bottlenecks. Robust industrial procedures have been established along classes of biocatalytic single-step reactions. Multi-step reactions and multi-component reactions (MCRs) enable a bottom-up approach with biocatalytic reactions working together in one compartment and recations hindering each other within different compartments or steps. The understanding of the catalytic functions of known and new enzymes is key for the development of new sustainable chemical transformations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teamwork the key to good patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    In a year when, with the inception of the new Clinical Commissioning Groups, the way that healthcare is procured and delivered will see radical changes, this month's HefmA 2013 National Conference & Exhibition will have as its theme, 'Many Players, One Goal: The Patient'. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, among the wide-ranging estates and facilities topics set for discussion will be 'Getting the patient environment right'; 'Dementia Building for the Future'; 'Waterborne Infections; Lessons Learned'; 'Incorporating lean thinking into design', and the key challenges faced by the estates and facilities sector. The keynote address, touching on a wide range of issues common to all large organisations, will be given by one of the best known 'women in football', and will also reflect particularly on the importance of teamwork.

  14. Adaptation to climate change. Key terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, E.; Tirpak, D.

    2006-05-01

    Adaptation has become an important issue in international and domestic discussions on climate change. Numerous terms and concepts have come into common usage as a result of IPCC reports, discussions in the context of the UNFCCC and dialogs by the climate community at large. This paper examines the key adaptation terms and concepts used by the climate change community and other institutions. Conflicts and contradictions are noted with the aim of sensitizing different bodies to the differences, but particularly the Parties to the Convention and experts participating in the IPCC. Given the need to promote a common understanding among various stakeholders and the potential financial implications of various definitions, it appears important for the IPCC and the UNFCCC to work toward common definitions, at least for a core set of terms and concepts

  15. Public key cryptography from weaker assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zottarel, Angela

    in the case the adversary is granted access to partial information about the secret state of the primitive. To do so, we work in an extension of the standard black-box model, a new framework where possible leakage from the secret state is taken into account. In particular, we give the first construction......This dissertation is focused on the construction of public key cryptographic primitives and on the relative security analysis in a meaningful theoretic model. This work takes two orthogonal directions. In the first part, we study cryptographic constructions preserving their security properties also...... of signature schemes in a very general leakage model known as auxiliary input. We also study how leakage influences the notion of simulation-based security, comparing leakage tolerance to adaptive security in the UC-framework. In the second part of this dissertation, we turn our attention to hardness...

  16. Security of practical quantum key distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Nitin

    2015-02-24

    This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.

  17. Key world energy statistics. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Key World Energy Statistics from the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The IEA energy balances and statistics databases on CD-Rom provide annual historical energy data extracted from four IEA/OECD data bases: energy statistics and energy balances, which contain data for most of the OECD countries for the years 1960 to 2002 and energy statistics and balances for more than 100 non-OECD countries for the years 1971 to 2002. The CDs and/or hard-copies and PDFs can be purchased individually: Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Balances of Non OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2004

  18. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Fernandez, Alexandra; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-05-16

    Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  20. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  1. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  2. Low-Power Public Key Cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEAVER,CHERYL L.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.; HAMILTON,VICTORIA A.; SCHROEPPEL,RICHARD C.; GONZALES,RITA A.; MILLER,RUSSELL D.; THOMAS,EDWARD V.

    2000-11-01

    This report presents research on public key, digital signature algorithms for cryptographic authentication in low-powered, low-computation environments. We assessed algorithms for suitability based on their signature size, and computation and storage requirements. We evaluated a variety of general purpose and special purpose computing platforms to address issues such as memory, voltage requirements, and special functionality for low-powered applications. In addition, we examined custom design platforms. We found that a custom design offers the most flexibility and can be optimized for specific algorithms. Furthermore, the entire platform can exist on a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or can be integrated with commercially available components to produce the desired computing platform.

  3. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  4. Key Lake Mining Corporation metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendrum, F.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Key Lake uranium mine is located in Saskatchewan, 550 km northeast of Saskatoon. It began operations in 1983, and is licensed and regulated by both Saskatchewan government agencies and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board. This report examines the metallurgical processes used at the mill and discusses the spills that occurred in the first four months the mine was in operation. It finds that all spills of an acidic nature in the mill were small amounts in the CCD or solution pretreatment sections. Contingency procedures are in place and sumps are capable of handling spills. The only major change in design contemplated will be converting the secondary crushing from the use of an impact crusher to the use of a semi-autogeneous grinding mill. The monitoring program set out by the AECB and Saskatchewan Environment is thorough. It monitors effluents and water pathways, and includes aquatic biota and sediments. Air monitoring is also required by Saskatchewan Environment

  5. The Language of Comparisons: Communicating about Percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Polito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While comparisons between percentages or rates appear frequently in journalism and advertising, and are an essential component of quantitative writing, many students fail to understand precisely what percentages mean, and lack fluency with the language used for comparisons. After reviewing evidence demonstrating this weakness, this experience-based perspective lays out a framework for teaching the language of comparisons in a structured way, and illustrates it with several authentic examples that exemplify mistaken or misleading uses of such numbers. The framework includes three common types of erroneous or misleading quantitative writing: the missing comparison, where a key number is omitted; the apples-to-pineapples comparison, where two subtly incomparable rates are presented; and the implied fallacy, where an invalid quantitative conclusion is left to the reader to infer.

  6. Coral recruitment patterns in the Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Moulding

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines scleractinian zooxanthellate coral recruitment patterns in the Florida Keys to determine if differences in density or community composition exist between regions.From July to September 2002,nine patch reefs,three in each of the upper,middle and lower Keys,were surveyed for coral recruits (colonies Se examina los patrones de reclutamiento de corales escleractinios zooxantelados en los Cayos de la Florida para determinar si existen diferencias en densidad o composición de la comunidad en diferentes regiones.Entre julio y setiembre del 2002,se inventariaron los reclutas (colonias de <5 cm de diámetrousando cuadrantes y transectos al azar en nueve "parches "arrecifales:tres en los cayos del norte,tres en los del medio y tres en los del sur.Todos fueron numerados,medidos e identificados a nivel de género.Se observaron catorce géneros:entre cinco y 13 por sitio.Las densidades tuvieron un ámbito de 6.29 ±1.92 (promedio ±DSa 39.08 ±4.53 reclutas m-2, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre sitios y entre regiones.La densidad de reclutas en los cayos del norte fue significativamente menor que en los demás.Los cayos del norte tuvieron menor diversidad y diferente distribución de tamaños de reclutas.La mayoría de los reclutas eran de especies de escleractinios no masivas,las cuales contribuyen relativamente poco al proceso de crecimiento del arrecife,algo parecido a lo informado en otros estudios. Se encontraron menos reclutas de especies masivas en los cayos del norte.El patrón de reclutamiento en los arrecifes de los cayos del norte podría inhibir potencialmente la recuperación tras "impactos "y perturbaciones.

  7. Several Key Features of Marriage in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special emphasis is put on the essential (material conditions of marital union. The paper provides sufficient reasons for which the positive law in Kosovo has provided on the free expression of will of spouses; opposite sexes; the age threshold; entry into matrimony before a competent state authority, and under a procedure provided by law, as substantial conditions for entering a valid matrimony. Sufficient room is allowed also for the treatment of consequences and responsibilities of various entities if marriage is developed without obeying substantial conditions as provided by law. Due to the nature of the paper, formal conditions for entering matrimony are not addressed. The right to enter marriage and establish a family under provided legal conditions is guaranteed to every Kosovo citizen, as a substantial right. The marriage is a basic cell of the family, and as such, it is protected by the state and society. Apart from normative and sociological methods, I have also used the historical method in developing this paper. The purpose was to discover several marriage features, which used to exist, and do not anymore, and also underline some new features, which nowadays form the pillars of the marriage.

  8. Cycling hypoxia: A key feature of the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Carine; Tellier, Céline; Feron, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    A compelling body of evidence indicates that most human solid tumors contain hypoxic areas. Hypoxia is the consequence not only of the chaotic proliferation of cancer cells that places them at distance from the nearest capillary but also of the abnormal structure of the new vasculature network resulting in transient blood flow. Hence two types of hypoxia are observed in tumors: chronic and cycling (intermittent) hypoxia. Most of the current work aims at understanding the role of chronic hypoxia in tumor growth, response to treatment and metastasis. Only recently, cycling hypoxia, with spatial and temporal fluctuations in oxygen levels, has emerged as another key feature of the tumor environment that triggers different responses in comparison to chronic hypoxia. Either type of hypoxia is associated with distinct effects not only in cancer cells but also in stromal cells. In particular, cycling hypoxia has been demonstrated to favor, to a higher extent than chronic hypoxia, angiogenesis, resistance to anti-cancer treatments, intratumoral inflammation and tumor metastasis. These review details these effects as well as the signaling pathway it triggers to switch on specific transcriptomic programs. Understanding the signaling pathways through which cycling hypoxia induces these processes that support the development of an aggressive cancer could convey to the emergence of promising new cancer treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploration of the Future – a Key to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatroslav Zovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history people were fascinated and curious about the future. The future was, and still is seen as a key for prosperous development in all aspects of the society. As such, new discipline is developed – future studies.This paper discusses the discipline of future studies and its role in the society and science. Future studies are analyzed in the context of sustainable development. It is argued that future studies and sustainable development are complementary in nature. Based on analysis of most developed countries in the world, that spend the greatest portion of their budget on research, development and science in comparison to the rest of the world, there is a conclusive link between investments in research, development and science, and the recognition of the importance of thinking about the future. Those countries started to formalize their future orientation in many respected research centres and universities through their educational programs and research. That situation poses the need for other, less well off countries, to follow up.

  10. Tight finite-key analysis for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution under general attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-05-01

    For quantum key distribution (QKD) using spontaneous parametric-down-conversion sources (SPDCSs), the passive decoy-state protocol has been proved to be efficiently close to the theoretical limit of an infinite decoy-state protocol. In this paper, we apply a tight finite-key analysis for the passive decoy-state QKD using SPDCSs. Combining the security bound based on the uncertainty principle with the passive decoy-state protocol, a concise and stringent formula for calculating the key generation rate for QKD using SPDCSs is presented. The simulation shows that the secure distance under our formula can reach up to 182 km when the number of sifted data is 1010. Our results also indicate that, under the same deviation of statistical fluctuation due to finite-size effects, the passive decoy-state QKD with SPDCSs can perform as well as the active decoy-state QKD with a weak coherent source.

  11. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  12. Decision Trajectories in Dementia Care Networks: Decisions and Related Key Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-van de Ven, Leontine; Smits, Carolien; Oldewarris, Karen; Span, Marijke; Jukema, Jan; Eefsting, Jan; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2017-10-01

    This prospective multiperspective study provides insight into the decision trajectories of people with dementia by studying the decisions made and related key events. This study includes three waves of interviews, conducted between July 2010 and July 2012, with 113 purposefully selected respondents (people with beginning to advanced stages of dementia and their informal and professional caregivers) completed in 12 months (285 interviews). Our multilayered qualitative analysis consists of content analysis, timeline methods, and constant comparison. Four decision themes emerged-managing daily life, arranging support, community living, and preparing for the future. Eight key events delineate the decision trajectories of people with dementia. Decisions and key events differ between people with dementia living alone and living with a caregiver. Our study clarifies that decisions relate not only to the disease but to living with the dementia. Individual differences in decision content and sequence may effect shared decision-making and advance care planning.

  13. An oral epidemiological comparison of Chinese and New Zealand adults in 2 key age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songlin; Thomson, William Murray

    2018-04-01

    To use recent national survey data to compare dentition status and oral diseases in China and New Zealand (NZ), with a particular focus on differences by sex and education level. We undertook secondary analysis of representative data from oral health surveys conducted in 2009 in Sichuan (China) and NZ. Both surveys had an oral examination component and collected detailed demographic data. Socioeconomic position in this analysis was represented by the highest level of education completed. Participants were allocated to 1 of 3 comparable ordinal categories of years of education (primary, middle or tertiary). Analyses used survey weights. The proportion of Chinese who had been educated to only primary level was 3 times higher than that among their NZ counterparts, and the proportion with a tertiary education was correspondingly lower. In the 35-44 age group, the dentate proportions were similar, although the mean number of teeth was higher in China than in NZ. There were substantial differences in dental caries experience, with the mean DMFT in NZ being almost 3 times that observed in China. New Zealanders had more filled teeth, but the prevalence of 1+ missing teeth was lower. Periodontitis was more common in the NZ sample than in the Chinese one, although the extent of bleeding on probing was almost 3 times higher among the latter. For the 65-74 age group, there were significant differences in dentition status, with greater tooth retention among Chinese people. There were also significant differences in dental caries experience, with Chinese 65- to 74-year-olds having more decayed teeth but fewer filled or missing teeth, and lower DMFT scores, on average. Periodontal health was better among the New Zealanders. There were notable differences by sex and education level. The differences observed in this study provide strong support for using broader sociocultural models of oral health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Comparison of Key Concepts in Data Analytics and Data Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Rague, Brian; Wolthuis, Stuart L.; Sambasivam, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    This research study provides an examination of the relatively new fields of Data Analytics and Data Science. We compare word rates in Data Analytics and Data Science documents to determine which concepts are mentioned most often. The most frequent concept in both fields is "data." The word rate for "data" is more than twice the…

  15. Key Competencies in Higher Education: A Comparison of Two Historically Female Colleges in Hampden, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosky Szmyt, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    This research study solicited the competencies that leaders self-identify as critical to their success within their current college and to the survival of two historically female-centric colleges. These two colleges made decisions that allowed them to continue to exist as colleges: albeit one female and one co-ed. There is relatively limited…

  16. Key aspects about education for refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús Vega Pascual

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation entitled «Key Aspects about Education for Refugee Children:Refugee Camp Situation», is based on the 2003 UNHCR Guidelines on Education and highlights the relevance of the education even in situations of emergency and crisis, interms of protection and psychosocial well-being of children. It also mentions key issues to consider when working with refugees, internally displaced people, asylum-seekers,stateless and other populations of concen to UNHCR. Aspects such as refugee children’s rights, UNHCR policy commitments to education, participation of refugees and their communities in the design, establishement and implementation of education programmes, specially in emergencies, will be dealt with in this presentation. It will alsomentions topics such as the school drop out, education for vulnerable groups and the need for promoting a gender sentitive approach, bearing in mind that the hard experience of exile, the changes of family structure, the ethnic, cultural, religious and legal differences are key when working with this populationEsta presentación titulada "Consideraciones esenciales sobre la educación de los niños refugiados: la situación en los campos de refugiados", está basada en las Directrices del ACNUR sobre Eduación de 2003, y pretende resaltar la importancia de la educación en las situaciones de refugiados, incluso en situaciones de emergencia o crisis, y cómo ésta juega en favor de la protección y del bienestar psicosocial de los niños. Se mencionan las peculiaridades más relevantes que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se trabaja con refugiados, desplazados internos, solicitantes de asilo, apátridas y otras poblaciones de las que se ocupa el ACNUR. Se verán aspectos como los derechos de los niños refugiados, los compromisos del Alto Comisionado en materia de Educación, la participación de los refugiados y sus comunidades para diseñar, establecer e impartir programas de educación especialmente

  17. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels

  18. Comparison as a Universal Learning Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores "comparison" as a universal metasubject learning action, a key curricular element envisaged by the Russian Federal State Educational Standards. Representing the modern learner's fundamental pragmatic skill embedding such core capacities as information processing, critical thinking, robust decision-making, and…

  19. Extended KCI attack against two-party key establishment protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an extended Key Compromise Impersonation (KCI) attack against two-party key establishment protocols, where an adversary has access to both long-term and ephemeral secrets of a victim. Such an attack poses serious threats to both key authentication and key confirmation properties of a

  20. KEY FACTORS FOR A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Ricardo Formento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine the content of continuous improvement strategies, taking into account the important role they play in building competitiveness. This paper argues that several specific issues must be taken into account in order to reach successful outcomes. This work starts with a literature review on the matter. On this basis, we designed a survey administered to a group of 30 large companies, each of which is renowned leader in Argentina. Finally, we compared the development of continuous improvement process in companies with very effective results and with scarce results. Differences that emerged from this comparison enabled us to identify critical factors for achieving a successful improvement process. As there are no recent researches on continuous improvement programs in Argentina, this paper contributes to recognizing and systematizing what has been done, comparing it with theoretical framework and uncovering research gaps for future studies. However, further research must confirm these findings and move forward on the analysis of intangible factors, like: internal communications, climate, culture, self reflexion, consensus, etc.

  1. Qualified nurses' rate new nursing graduates as lacking skills in key clinical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison; Larkins, Jo-Ann

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of qualified nurses on the abilities of newly registered nursing graduates to perform a variety of clinical skills. Evidence from the literature suggests that undergraduate nursing programmes do not adequately prepare nursing students to be practice-ready on completion of their nursing courses. A descriptive quantitative design was used. Participants were recruited through the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation, Victorian branch. A brief explanation of the study and a link to the survey were promoted in their monthly e-newsletter. A total of 245 qualified nurses in the state of Victoria, Australia participated in this study. A survey tool of 51 clinical skills and open-ended questions was used, whereby participants were asked to rate new nursing graduates' abilities using a 5-point Likert scale. Overall participants rated new nursing graduates' abilities for undertaking clinical skills as good or very good in 35·3% of skills, 33·3% were rated as adequate and 31·4% rated as being performed poorly or very poorly. Of concern, essential clinical skills, such as critical thinking and problem solving, working independently and assessment procedures, were found to be poorly executed and affecting new registered nurses graduates' competence. The findings from this study can further serve as a reference for nursing education providers to enhance nursing curricula and work collaboratively with healthcare settings in preparing nurses to be competent, safe practitioners on completion of their studies. Identifying key areas in which new nursing graduates are not yet competent means that educational providers and educators from healthcare settings can focus on these skills in better preparing our nurses to be work ready. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dynamic Session-Key Generation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ta Li

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wireless sensor networks have been used extensively in different domains. For example, if the wireless sensor node of a wireless sensor network is distributed in an insecure area, a secret key must be used to protect the transmission between the sensor nodes. Most of the existing methods consist of preselecting m keys from a key pool and forming a key chain. Then, the sensor nodes make use of the key chain to encrypt the data. However, while the secret key is being transmitted, it can easily be exposed during transmission. We propose a dynamic key management protocol, which can improve the security of the key juxtaposed to existing methods. Additionally, the dynamic update of the key can lower the probability of the key to being guessed correctly. In addition, with the new protocol, attacks on the wireless sensor network can be avoided.

  3. Dynamic Session-Key Generation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chin-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, wireless sensor networks have been used extensively in different domains. For example, if the wireless sensor node of a wireless sensor network is distributed in an insecure area, a secret key must be used to protect the transmission between the sensor nodes. Most of the existing methods consist of preselecting keys from a key pool and forming a key chain. Then, the sensor nodes make use of the key chain to encrypt the data. However, while the secret key is being transmitted, it can easily be exposed during transmission. We propose a dynamic key management protocol, which can improve the security of the key juxtaposed to existing methods. Additionally, the dynamic update of the key can lower the probability of the key to being guessed correctly. In addition, with the new protocol, attacks on the wireless sensor network can be avoided.

  4. Secure SCADA communication by using a modified key management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai, Abdalhossein; Keshavarzi, Parviz; Moravej, Zahra

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a new cryptographic key management scheme which increases the efficiency and security of the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) communication. In the proposed key management scheme, two key update phases are used: session key update and master key update. In the session key update phase, session keys are generated in the master station. In the master key update phase, the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) protocol is used. The Poisson process is also used to model the Security Index (SI) and Quality of Service (QoS). Our analysis shows that the proposed key management not only supports the required speed in the MODBUS implementation but also has several advantages compared to other key management schemes for secure communication in SCADA networks. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cairo Plus Five: revisiting a key conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B

    1999-02-01

    Through July 1999, the international development community will be reviewing progress made in achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The review process, dubbed "Cairo Plus Five," includes a NGO Forum and International Forum in the Netherlands in February, a meeting of the UN Commission on Population and Development in March, and a special session of the UN General Assembly in June-July. During the 1994 ICPD, delegates from 180 countries agreed to address rapid population growth by seeking to meet individuals' reproductive health and development needs and by affirming human rights. Key recommendations arising from the ICPD call for recognizing reproductive rights as human rights, empowering women, removing gender disparities in education, integrating family planning and other reproductive health care services, increasing funding, and strengthening public/private cooperation. It is imperative to tract the progress governments are making in implementing these goals. The Cairo Plus Five meetings will reaffirm the ICPD goals while identifying promising strategies and programs and sharing lessons learned. Funding to achieve the goals is several billion dollars short for the year 2000, and all parties must meet their commitments to ensure that a lack of political will does not compromise women's lives and health.

  6. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  7. Human Connectivity: The Key to Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Progress results from human interaction. Advances in knowledge, transportation, communication, technology and industry have aided in social development only to the extent that they have brought greater numbers of people closer. It is only human ingenuity that has achieved. Historically, every event that marks a step forward in social evolution coincides with a discovery, invention or organizational innovation that brings people closer in contact. When two people meet, the knowledge, resourcefulness and capacity that they bring together grow not cumulatively but exponentially. Thus every additional connection made to the human network adds to its depth and richness. When this is done at a larger scale, between entire cultures and civilizations, the result is an explosion of creativity. Urbanization and advances in technology have accelerated this interchange between people and cultures. Unlike all other resources, human capital is inexhaustible, self-replenishing and has the potential to meet and overcome every challenge the world faces today. The logistics of bringing human minds together effectively holds the key to consciously accelerating human progress.

  8. Outreach: Key to Sustainable Nuclear Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, V.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the numerous nuclear power plants being built globally and the prospects for many more, the challenge of the timely availability of a well-prepared, qualified, knowledgeable workforce is a key element in the “critical path” to commissioning these plants. All of these individuals will need quality education and training that is rooted in safety and established in experience. In addition, because many of these new plants are typically being built in developing countries, education, training, recruiting and retaining operations staff can be a significant challenge. Attracting sources of qualified employees for these nuclear power plants in local communities is paramount which implies a strong focus on the science and math education outreach programmes at all levels. This paper will highlight the Nuclear Power Institute’s integration of human resource development outreach strategies, education and training systems, and international cooperation to demonstrate how working in particular with the education sector can not only create interest in future careers in nuclear technology and capture valuable knowledge, but can also build community based support for nuclear power programmes with an emphasis of developing competent workers through education and training, mentoring and apprenticeships. Outreach has also become an important element of all nuclear knowledge management endeavours. (author

  9. KEY COMPETENCES OF SLOVENIAN SPORT MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Retar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research that examined the key competences in the management field in Slovenian sports. The success rate of sport organisations and sportsmen is based on the creative, innovative and quality expert work of employees or/and volunteers. Their work is planned, organised, managed and supervised by a sport manager who possesses knowledge as well as managerial, technical, social, creative and other competences. The purpose of the presented research, which involved successful Slovenian sport managers, was to establish which competences are the most important for successful work in the field of sport management. The paper also presents the technical framework for the selected determination of sport management terminology and competences as well as a competence structure model, prepared by the authors. We have found that the human resources management competence most significantly contributes to the success of Slovenian sport managers in the field of general competences. Respondents evaluated the competence of developing a positive working environment as the most important specific competence that supplements general competences.

  10. KEY PERFORMING FACTORS OF LEADING ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of financial economic ratios provides managers and external partners feedback on the results obtained from operational activities and the associated performance and risks. This paper studies the functional dependence of the companies’ success (on performance over internal financial management elements. The research was carried out for the most traded non-financial securities Bucharest listed companies and covers the period 2011- 2013. To carry out its purpose it analyzed the interdependence between the key financial ratios, studying the impact of liquidity ratios, solvency and efficiency on profitability. The study provides empirical evidences to identify factors that have ensured the performance of companies and their ranking in the segment of the most traded companies in Romania. Results suggest the view that the source of company success on the capital market lies in the positive signals sent to investors regarding profitability and the low risk of solvency. This study gives additional information for managerial decision-making in order to create more value and a better positioning of the companies in the market

  11. Designing organizational structures: Key thoughts for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Patricia; Eschenbacher, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Current strategies and concepts to consider in developing a system-level organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise are discussed. There are many different ways to design an organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise within a health system. The size of the organization, the number of states in which it operates, and the geographic spread and complexity of the pharmacy business lines should be among the key considerations in determining the optimal organizational and decision-making structures for the pharmacy enterprise. The structure needs to support incorporation of the pharmacy leadership (both system-level executives and local leaders) into all strategic planning and discussions at the hospital and health-system levels so that they can directly represent the pharmacy enterprise instead of relying on others to develop strategy on their behalf. It is important that leaders of all aspects of the pharmacy enterprise report through the system's top pharmacy executive, who should be a pharmacist and have a title consistent with those of other leaders reporting at the same organizational level (e.g., chief pharmacy officer). Pharmacy leaders need to be well positioned within an organization to advocate for the pharmacy enterprise and use all resources to the best of their ability. As the scope and complexity of pharmacy services grow, it is critical to ensure that leadership of the pharmacy enterprise is unified under a single pharmacy executive team. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Secure Key Management in the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jakobsen, Thomas Pelle; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2013-01-01

    We consider applications involving a number of servers in the cloud that go through a sequence of online periods where the servers communicate, separated by offline periods where the servers are idle. During the offline periods, we assume that the servers need to securely store sensitive informat......We consider applications involving a number of servers in the cloud that go through a sequence of online periods where the servers communicate, separated by offline periods where the servers are idle. During the offline periods, we assume that the servers need to securely store sensitive...... information such as cryptographic keys. Applications like this include many cases where secure multiparty computation is outsourced to the cloud, and in particular a number of online auctions and benchmark computations with confidential inputs. We consider fully autonomous servers that switch between online...... and offline periods without communicating with anyone from outside the cloud, and semi-autonomous servers that need a limited kind of assistance from outside the cloud when doing the transition. We study the levels of security one can – and cannot – obtain in this model, propose light-weight protocols...

  13. Research on Key Technologies of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shufen; Yan, Hongcan; Chen, Xuebin

    With the development of multi-core processors, virtualization, distributed storage, broadband Internet and automatic management, a new type of computing mode named cloud computing is produced. It distributes computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, so the application systems can obtain the computing power, the storage space and software service according to its demand. It can concentrate all the computing resources and manage them automatically by the software without intervene. This makes application offers not to annoy for tedious details and more absorbed in his business. It will be advantageous to innovation and reduce cost. It's the ultimate goal of cloud computing to provide calculation, services and applications as a public facility for the public, So that people can use the computer resources just like using water, electricity, gas and telephone. Currently, the understanding of cloud computing is developing and changing constantly, cloud computing still has no unanimous definition. This paper describes three main service forms of cloud computing: SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, compared the definition of cloud computing which is given by Google, Amazon, IBM and other companies, summarized the basic characteristics of cloud computing, and emphasized on the key technologies such as data storage, data management, virtualization and programming model.

  14. Is Centrality the Key to High Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckenhofer Eva Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social Capital, the outcome for individuals from networks with shared norms and values, has already been discussed as a driver for innovation and performance improvement. Social Capital is a resource embedded in social structures, which can be accessed as well as mobilized in purposeful actions. There are various theories about social resources and structures leading to discussions on whether network closure or the absence of ties is the key to the success of Social Capital. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between network centrality and Social Capital. Therefore, this paper aims at contributing to the discussion by analyzing, using a case study, the structural position of actors who are rich in Social Capital. The study also assesses if the actors who are central in the social network are the ones with the highest performance. This study was based on a survey of 170 students from a Czech University, who form three different networks. For the detection of Social Capital, a procedure developed and tested in the European Values Study Surveys was applied. The relational data was analyzed using UCINET and illustrated with the use of VISONE. The outcomes suggest that there is a connection between the centrality of an actor and their performance, not only in terms of average grade but also Social Capital. Furthermore, the data analysis shows that the number of languages an actor speaks as well as experiences in foreign countries impacts on their performance and location within a network.

  15. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  16. Key Enabling Technologies for Virtual Private Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Jeffrey M.; Cohen, David; Kaliski, Burton S.

    The concept of a virtual private cloud (VPC) has emerged recently as a way of managing information technology resources so that they appear to be operated for a single organization from a logical point of view, but may be built from underlying physical resources that belong to the organization, an external service provider, or a combination of both. Several technologies are essential to the effective implementation of a VPC. Virtual data centers provide the insulation that sets one organization's virtual resources apart from those of other organizations and from the underlying physical infrastructure. Virtual applications collect those resources into separately manageable units. Policy-based deployment and policy compliance offer a means of control and verification of the operation of the virtual applications across the virtual data centers. Finally, service management integration bridges across the underlying resources to give an overall, logical and actionable view. These key technologies enable cloud providers to offer organizations the cost and efficiency benefits of cloud computing as well as the operational autonomy and flexibility to which they have been accustomed.

  17. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  18. RFID: A key technology for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroc, Yvan; Tedjini, Smail

    2018-01-01

    The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology is a well-known wireless application for traceability, logistics, and access control. It became ubiquitous in industry and our daily life (ticketing, payment, passports, car keys, etc.). RFID is nowadays a standardized technology; its inherent advantages, which are unitary, identification, wireless communication, and low cost of tags, provide it with decisive practical benefits that drive new developments in terms of concepts and applications. This trend is largely confirmed by the market forecast, but also by its implementation in the area of health (smart hospital), assistance to persons, anti-counterfeiting, as well as by its perspective in terms of new paradigms for distributed ambient intelligence and the Internet of Things. The first part of this paper briefly reviews the fundamental concepts of the RFID technology, and shows its link with the radio science. A state of the art including the presentation of current performance and developments is also summarized. The second part illustrates the impact of RFID to the service of our society with a focus of applications in the field of autonomy and handicap. Finally, the last part highlights a panorama of perspectives and the future directions of RFID applications dedicated to the service of Humanity. xml:lang="fr"

  19. The Efficacy of Key Performance Indicators in Ontario Universities as Perceived by Key Informants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Education and Training's Task Force on University Accountability first proposed key performance indicators (KPIs) for colleges and universities in Ontario in the early 1990s. The three main KPIs for Ontario universities are the rates of (1) graduation, (2) employment, and (3) Ontario Student Assistance Program loan default.…

  20. A Novel Key Distribution Solution for Combined Public/Secret Key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, an implementation over the new IPv6 Internet protocol is presented such that the system can be ported to both wired and wireless networking environments. Keywords: cryptography, key distribution, security server. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  1. Chaos-based encryption keys and neural key-store for cloud-hosted data confidentiality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosola, NN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available towards gaining unauthorised access to cloud-bound or cloud-hosted data. This paper proposes a client-end encryption and key management system to curb attacks that targets compromising the confidentiality of cloud-hosted data. The proposed system uses...

  2. Economic contribution of recreating visitors to the Florida Keys/Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Warren Kriesel; Vernon R Leeworthy; Peter C. Wiley

    1996-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the economic impact that visitors to the Florida Keys have on both the Monroe County and larger South Florida regional economies. Estimates are made for output/sales, income, and employment and include both direct and secondary economic impacts. This report provides the basis for demonstrating the income-producing asset value of the...

  3. Key Management Strategies for Safeguards Authentication and Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coram, M.; Hymel, R.; McDaniel, M.; Brotz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Management of cryptographic keys for the authentication and encryption of safeguards data can be the critical weak link in the practical implementation of information security. Within the safeguards community, there is the need to validate that data has not been modified at any point since generation and that it was generated by the monitoring node and not an imposter. In addition, there is the need for that data to be transmitted securely between the monitoring node and the monitoring party such that it cannot be intercepted and read while in transit. Encryption and digital signatures support the required confidentiality and authenticity but challenges exist in managing the cryptographic keys they require. Technologies developed at Sandia National Laboratories have evolved in their use of an associated key management strategy. The first generation system utilized a shared secret key for digital signatures. While fast and efficient, it required that a list of keys be maintained and protected. If control of the key was lost, fraudulent data could be made to look authentic. The second generation changed to support public key / private key cryptography. The key pair is generated by the system, the public key shared, and the private key held internally. This approach eliminated the need to maintain the list of keys. It also allows the public key to be provided to anyone needing to authenticate the data without allowing them to spoof data. A third generation system, currently under development, improves upon the public key / private key approach to address a potential man-in-the-middle attack related to the sharing of the public key. In a planned fourth generation system, secure key exchange protocols will distribute session keys for encryption, eliminating another fixed set of keys utilized by the technology and allowing for periodic renegotiation of keys for enhanced security. (author)

  4. Set-aside key to creating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) submitted a plan of wind energy industry development to the Regie de l'energie of Quebec at its May wind set-aside hearings. According to the plan, CanWEA wants to see Hydro-Quebec buy 10 MW of wind power a year starting in 2001, progressively increasing to 50 MW power per year in four years. According to CanWEA the size of the set-aside must be large enough to foster competition in the turbine manufacturing sector, as well as put a downward pressure on wind energy prices. In 1996, Hydro-Quebec pledged to buy 10 MW of wind power per year over 10 years. It raised the target to 20 MW per year over 10 years in 1997, which was raised to 30 MW per year by a parliamentary commission in the spring of 1998. Hydro-Quebec contends that it cannot buy more than 30 MW, given that some of the utility's large industrial customers won't want to pay the increased cost of wind energy, and before buying any wind power there will have to be a decision about who will pay the additional cost. The Regie de l'energie has the power to decide whether Hydro-Quebec should spread the cost over the entire customer base, or just charge those customers willing to pay. According to the Regie, the wind set-aside is not simply an energy supply question, it is also a matter of developing a wind turbine manufacturing industry. It is this larger objective and other key issues, such as the economic spin-offs from developing wind energy, its role in regional development and its environmental impacts that will determine the the size of the set-aside and the price to be paid for wind power by Hydro-Quebec

  5. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century.

  6. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  7. Polarization-basis tracking scheme for quantum key distribution using revealed sifted key bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu-Yang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Hua; Wang, Chao; li, Ya-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Calibration of the polarization basis between the transmitter and receiver is an important task in quantum key distribution (QKD). An effective polarization-basis tracking scheme will decrease the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and improve the efficiency of a polarization encoding QKD system. In this paper, we proposed a polarization-basis tracking scheme using only unveiled sifted key bits while performing error correction by legitimate users, rather than introducing additional reference light or interrupting the transmission of quantum signals. A polarization-encoding fiber BB84 QKD prototype was developed to examine the validity of this scheme. An average QBER of 2.32% and a standard derivation of 0.87% have been obtained during 24 hours of continuous operation.

  8. Key developments of the EP1000 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a group of European utilities initiated, together with Westinghouse and its industrial partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse passive nuclear plant technology for application in Europe. The Phase I of the European Passive Plant program involved the evaluation of the Westinghouse 600 MWe AP600 and 1000 MWe Simplified Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR) designs against the European Utility Requirements (EUR), and when necessary, the investigation of possible modifications to achieve compliance with the EUR. In Phase 1 of the program, which has been completed in 1996, the following major tasks were accomplished: The impacts of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) on the Westinghouse nuclear island design were evaluated. A 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was developed which conforms to the EUR and is expected to be licensable in Europe. With respect to the NSSS and containment, the EP1000 reference design closely follows those of the Westinghouse SPWR design, while the AP600 design has been taken as the basis for the design of the auxiliary systems. Extensive design and testing efforts have been made for the AP600 and SPWR during the respective multi-year programs. While the results of these programs have been and will continue to be utilised, at the maximum extent, to minimise the work to be performed on the EP1000 design, the compliance with EUR is a key design requirement for the EP1000 The ultimate objective of Phase 2 of the program is to develop design details and perform supporting analyses to produce a Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Safety Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, hereafter referred as Phase 2A, started at the beginning of 1997 and will be completed at the end of 1998. Scope of this phase of the program is to develop the design modifications of important systems and structures so to comply with the

  9. Flexible Group Key Exchange with On-Demand Computation of Subgroup Keys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, M; Chevalier, C; Manulis, M; Pointcheval, D

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Modern multi-user communication systems, including popular instant messaging tools, social network platforms, and cooperative-work applications, offer flexible forms of communication and exchange of data. At any time point concurrent communication sessions involving different subsets of users can be invoked. The traditional tool for achieving security in a multi-party communication environment are group key exchange (GKE) protocols that provide participants with a secu...

  10. Generating Secure Group Key Using m-ARY Based Key Tree Structure in Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    P.Naga Jyothi,; M.Supraja,; S.Suresh

    2010-01-01

    In the security scenario , security became a critical concern in various applications of sensor networks like pay-perview, distribution of digital media, military, distributed information gathering, environment monitoring, patient monitoring and tracking etc., require Secure Group Communication (SGC) in sensor networks. A scalable SGC model ensures that whenever there is a membership change, new group key is computed and distributed to the remaining members in the group with minimal computati...

  11. Key-length analysis of double random phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-20

    Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is a classical optical symmetric-key encryption method. DRPE prevents the key length from being determined because of its redundancy between encryption and decryption, unlike digital symmetric-key cryptographies. In our study, we numerically analyzed the key length of DRPE based on key-space analysis. We estimated the key length of DRPE by calculating the inverse value of the cumulative probability of the normal distribution that was estimated from samples of DRPE and then discuss security against brute-force attacks.

  12. An SSH key management system: easing the pain of managing key/user/account associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D; Shiryaev, A; Betts, W; Lauret, J

    2008-01-01

    Cyber security requirements for secure access to computing facilities often call for access controls via gatekeepers and the use of two-factor authentication. Using SSH keys to satisfy the two factor authentication requirement has introduced a potentially challenging task of managing the keys and their associations with individual users and user accounts. Approaches for a facility with the simple model of one remote user corresponding to one local user would not work at facilities that require a many-to-many mapping between users and accounts on multiple systems. We will present an SSH key management system we developed, tested and deployed to address the many-to-many dilemma in the environment of the STAR experiment. We will explain its use in an online computing context and explain how it makes possible the management and tracing of group account access spread over many sub-system components (data acquisition, slow controls, trigger, detector instrumentation, etc.) without the use of shared passwords for remote logins

  13. An SSH key management system: easing the pain of managing key/user/account associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Betts, W.; Lauret, J.; Shiryaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Cyber security requirements for secure access to computing facilities often call for access controls via gatekeepers and the use of two-factor authentication. Using SSH keys to satisfy the two factor authentication requirement has introduced a potentially challenging task of managing the keys and their associations with individual users and user accounts. Approaches for a facility with the simple model of one remote user corresponding to one local user would not work at facilities that require a many-to-many mapping between users and accounts on multiple systems. We will present an SSH key management system we developed, tested and deployed to address the many-to-many dilemma in the environment of the STAR experiment. We will explain its use in an online computing context and explain how it makes possible the management and tracing of group account access spread over many sub-system components (data acquisition, slow controls, trigger, detector instrumentation, etc.) without the use of shared passwords for remote logins.

  14. Towards understanding the known-key security of block ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ciphers based on ideal components such as random permutations and random functions as well as propose new generic known-key attacks on generalized Feistel ciphers. We introduce the notion of known-key indifferentiability to capture the security of such block ciphers under a known key. To show its...... meaningfulness, we prove that the known-key attacks on block ciphers with ideal primitives to date violate security under known-key indifferentiability. On the other hand, to demonstrate its constructiveness, we prove the balanced Feistel cipher with random functions and the multiple Even-Mansour cipher...... with random permutations known-key indifferentiable for a sufficient number of rounds. We note that known-key indifferentiability is more quickly and tightly attained by multiple Even-Mansour which puts it forward as a construction provably secure against known-key attacks....

  15. A new two-round dynamic authenticated contributory group key ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since key distribution is a corner stone of any SGC, it has .... Group Key Distribution (CKD), Burmester–Desmedt (BD), and Steer et al (STR), were evaluated. On the basis of D–H, three group ...... Curve Cryptography, Version 1.11. Burmester M and Desmedt Y 1994 A secure and efficient conference key distribution system.

  16. Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...6615 DSN Phone: 244-4900 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 1, 2015 Program Information Program Name Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2... Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a critical enabling technology for Information Assurance (IA) services to support seamless secure information flows

  17. Normalized Unconditional ϵ-Security of Private-Key Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lvqing Bi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two normalized versions of non-perfect security for private-key encryption: one version in the framework of Shannon entropy, another version in the framework of Kolmogorov complexity. We prove the lower bound on either key entropy or key size for these models and study the relations between these normalized security notions.

  18. Benefits of time-frequency coding for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, J.; Perlot, N.; Benson, O.; Freund, R.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD), the first applicable quantum technology, is able to distribute a secret key to two parties. This key can then be used as a one-time-pad for absolutely secure communication. The first QKD protocol was the polarization based BB84 protocol proposed in [1]. Since then many QKD protocols have been proposed and investigated [2, 3].

  19. Quantum cryptography to satellites for global secure key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, John G.; Gorman, Philip M.; Knight, Paul; Wallace, Kotska; Tapster, Paul R.

    2017-11-01

    We have designed and built a free space secure key exchange system using weak laser pulses with polarisation modulation by acousto-optic switching. We have used this system to exchange keys over a 1.2km ground range with absolute security. Building from this initial result we analyse the feasibility of exchanging keys to a low earth orbit satellite.

  20. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  1. Accelerating foreign-key joins using asymmetric memory channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirk, H.; Manegold, S.; Kersten, M.

    2011-01-01

    Indexed Foreign-Key Joins expose a very asymmetric access pattern: the Foreign-Key Index is sequentially scanned whilst the Primary-Key table is target of many quasi-random lookups which is the dominant cost factor. To reduce the costs of the random lookups the fact-table can be (re-) partitioned at

  2. Basic study on the rectangular numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1997-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the optimum inter-key spacing of numeric rectangular keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) participated in the experiment. Each subject performed the data entry task using rectangular keys of touch devices. These keys were arranged in both horizontal and vertical layouts. The sizes of the rectangular keys in both layouts were 12 x 21 mm and 15 x 39 mm, and each of the inter-key spacing of each key was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. The response time with inter-key spacing of 3 mm was significantly faster than with the inter-key spacing of 0, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05). Keys of vertical position produced faster response time than that of horizontal position. The subjective ratings showed that the inter-key spacing of 6 mm was significantly better than the inter-key spacing of 0, 3, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05).

  3. A Key Generation Model for Improving the Security of Cryptographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In public key cryptography, the security of private keys is very importance, for if ever compromised, it can be used to decrypt secret messages. Conventional methods that use textual passwords, graphical passwords and single modal biometric systems that are used to encryption and protect private keys do not provide ...

  4. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Recently was published the monograph "Cosmic Ray History" by Lev Dorman and Irina Dorman (Nova Publishers, New York). What learn us and what key scientific problems formulated the Cosmic Ray History? 1. As many great discoveries, the phenomenon of cosmic rays was discovered accidentally, during investigations that sought to answer another question: what are sources of air ionization? This problem became interesting for science about 230 years ago in the end of the 18th century, when physics met with a problem of leakage of electrical charge from very good isolated bodies. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, in connection with the discovery of natural radioactivity, it became apparent that this problem is mainly solved: it was widely accepted that the main source of the air ionization were α, b, and γ - radiations from radioactive substances in the ground (γ-radiation was considered as the most important cause because α- and b-radiations are rapidly absorbed in the air). 3. The general accepted wrong opinion on the ground radioactivity as main source of air ionization, stopped German meteorologist Franz Linke to made correct conclusion on the basis of correct measurements. In fact, he made 12 balloon flights in 1900-1903 during his PhD studies at Berlin University, carrying an electroscope to a height of 5500 m. The PhD Thesis was not published, but in Thesis he concludes: "Were one to compare the presented values with those on ground, one must say that at 1000 m altitude the ionization is smaller than on the ground, between 1 and 3 km the same amount, and above it is larger with values increasing up to a factor of 4 (at 5500 m). The uncertainties in the observations only allow the conclusion that the reason for the ionization has to be found first in the Earth." Nobody later quoted Franz Linke and although he had made the right measurements, he had reached the wrong conclusions, and the discovery of CR became only later on about 10 years. 4. Victor Hess, a

  5. Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum......Quantum cryptography is set to become a key technology for future secure communications. However, to get maximum benefit in communication networks, transmission links will need to be shared among several quantum keys for several independent users. Such links will enable switching in quantum network...... keys are obtained, which are useful in crypto-systems and future quantum network....

  6. Angle comparison using an autocollimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Certificateless Key-Insulated Generalized Signcryption Scheme without Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixue Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized signcryption (GSC can be applied as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme, or a signcryption scheme with only one algorithm and one key pair. A key-insulated mechanism can resolve the private key exposure problem. To ensure the security of cloud storage, we introduce the key-insulated mechanism into GSC and propose a concrete scheme without bilinear pairings in the certificateless cryptosystem setting. We provide a formal definition and a security model of certificateless key-insulated GSC. Then, we prove that our scheme is confidential under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH assumption and unforgeable under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (EC-DL assumption. Our scheme also supports both random-access key update and secure key update. Finally, we evaluate the efficiency of our scheme and demonstrate that it is highly efficient. Thus, our scheme is more suitable for users who communicate with the cloud using mobile devices.

  8. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  9. Key-space analysis of double random phase encryption technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David S.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2007-09-01

    We perform a numerical analysis on the double random phase encryption/decryption technique. The key-space of an encryption technique is the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that technique. In the case of a strong encryption scheme, many keys must be tried in any brute-force attack on that technique. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems demonstrate only how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. However, this type of demonstration does not discuss the properties of the key-space nor refute the feasibility of an efficient brute-force attack. To clarify these issues we present a key-space analysis of the technique. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute-force attack.

  10. Quantum Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, WanQing; Cai, QingYu; Zhang, HuanGuo; Liang, XiaoYan

    2017-11-01

    Classical public key cryptosystems ( P K C), such as R S A, E I G a m a l, E C C, are no longer secure in quantum algorithms, and quantum cryptography has become a novel research topic. In this paper we present a quantum asymmetrical cryptosystem i.e. quantum public key cryptosystem ( Q P K C) based on the Bell states. In particular, in the proposed QPKC the public key are given by the first n particles of Bell states and generalized Pauli operations. The corresponding secret key are the last n particles of Bell states and the inverse of generalized Pauli operations. The proposed QPKC encrypts the message using a public key and decrypts the ciphertext using a private key. By H o l e v o ' s theorem, we proved the security of the secret key and messages during the QPKC.

  11. AUDIO CRYPTANALYSIS- AN APPLICATION OF SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Paira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent trend of network and technology, “Cryptography” and “Steganography” have emerged out as the essential elements of providing network security. Although Cryptography plays a major role in the fabrication and modification of the secret message into an encrypted version yet it has certain drawbacks. Steganography is the art that meets one of the basic limitations of Cryptography. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed based on both Symmetric Key Cryptography and Audio Steganography. The combination of a randomly generated Symmetric Key along with LSB technique of Audio Steganography sends a secret message unrecognizable through an insecure medium. The Stego File generated is almost lossless giving a 100 percent recovery of the original message. This paper also presents a detailed experimental analysis of the algorithm with a brief comparison with other existing algorithms and a future scope. The experimental verification and security issues are promising.

  12. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs.

  13. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [Multilevel and Quadrature Amplitude Shift Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    Much has been said in the literature regarding the problem of establishing symbol synchronization in binary baseband digital communication systems. By comparison, the literature contains little information relating to the extraction of symbol sync from multilevel baseband data. With the recent interest in multilevel amplitude-shift keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems becomes paramount. This paper presents a technique for extracting symbol sync from a MASK or QASK signal which has been transmitted over an infinite-bandwidth white Gaussian noise channel. The scheme is essentially a generalization of the data transition tracking loop (DTTL) which has heretofore been used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop is analyzed in terms of its mean-squared symbol sync jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  14. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  15. On the Wrong Key Randomisation and Key Equivalence Hypotheses in Matsui’s Algorithm 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    estimates. Our study suggests that the efficiency of Matsui’s Algorithm 2 has been previously somewhat overestimated in the cases where the adversary attempts to use a linear approximation with a low bias, to attain a high computational advantage over brute force, or both. These cases are typical since...... needs adjustment. We show that it systematically neglects the varying bias for wrong keys. Based on that, we propose an adjusted statistical model and derive more accurate estimates for the success probability and data complexity of linear attacks which are demonstrated to deviate from all known...... cryptanalysts always try to break as many rounds of the cipher as possible by pushing the attack to its limit. Surprisingly, our approach also reveals the fact that the success probability is not a monotonously increasing function of the data complexity, and can decrease if more data is used. Using less data...

  16. The distinction between key ideas in teaching school physics and key ideas in the discipline of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2001-05-01

    The distinction between key ideas in teaching a high school science and key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science has been largely ignored in scholarly discourse about what science teachers should teach and about what they should know. This article clarifies this distinction through exploring how and why key ideas in teaching high school physics differ from key ideas in the discipline of physics. Its theoretical underpinnings include Dewey's (1902/1990) distinction between the psychological and the logical and Harré's (1986) epistemology of science. It analyzes how and why the key ideas in teaching color, the speed of light, and light interference at the high school level differ from the key ideas at the disciplinary level. The thesis is that key ideas in teaching high school physics can differ from key ideas in the discipline in some significant ways, and that the differences manifest Dewey's distinction. As a result, the article challenges the assumption of equating key ideas in teaching a high school science with key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science, and the assumption that having a college degree in science is sufficient to teach high school science. Furthermore, the article expands the concept of pedagogical content knowledge by arguing that key ideas in teaching high school physics constitute an essential component.

  17. Characterization of Available Light for Seagrass and Patch Reef Productivity in Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Toro-Farmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light availability is an important factor driving primary productivity in benthic ecosystems, but in situ and remote sensing measurements of light quality are limited for coral reefs and seagrass beds. We evaluated the productivity responses of a patch reef and a seagrass site in the Lower Florida Keys to ambient light availability and spectral quality. In situ optical properties were characterized utilizing moored and water column bio-optical and hydrographic measurements. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP was also estimated for these study sites using benthic productivity chambers. Our results show higher spectral light attenuation and absorption, and lower irradiance during low tide in the patch reef, tracking the influx of materials from shallower coastal areas. In contrast, the intrusion of clearer surface Atlantic Ocean water caused lower values of spectral attenuation and absorption, and higher irradiance in the patch reef during high tide. Storms during the studied period, with winds >10 m·s−1, caused higher spectral attenuation values. A spatial gradient of NEP was observed, from high productivity in the shallow seagrass area, to lower productivity in deeper patch reefs. The highest daytime NEP was observed in the seagrass, with values of almost 0.4 g·O2·m−2·h−1. Productivity at the patch reef area was lower in May than during October 2012 (mean = 0.137 and 0.177 g·O2·m−2·h−1, respectively. Higher photosynthetic active radiation (PAR levels measured above water and lower light attenuation in the red region of the visible spectrum (~666 to ~699 nm had a positive correlation with NEP. Our results indicate that changes in light availability and quality by suspended or resuspended particles limit benthic productivity in the Florida Keys.

  18. Security analysis of quantum key distribution on passive optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyongchun; Ko, Heasin; Suh, Changho; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin

    2017-05-15

    Needs for providing security to end users have brought installation of quantum key distribution (QKD) in one-to-many access networks such as passive optical networks. In the networks, a presence of optical power splitters makes issues for secure key rate more important. However, researches for QKD in access networks have mainly focused on implementation issues rather than protocol development for key rate enhancement. Since secure key rate is theoretically limited by a protocol, researches without protocol development cannot overcome the limit of secure key rate given by a protocol. This brings need of researches for protocol development. In this paper, we provide a new approach which provides secure key rate enhancement over the conventional protocol. Specifically, we propose the secure key rate formula in a passive optical network by extending the secure key rate formula based on the decoy-state BB84 protocol. For a passive optical network, we provide a way that incorporates cooperation across end users. Then, we show that the way can mitigate a photon number splitting (PNS) attack which is crucial in an well known decoy BB84 protocol. Especially, the proposed scheme enables multi-photon states to serve as secure keys unlike the conventional decoy BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms the decoy BB84 protocol in secure key rate.

  19. Analysis of key competencies in museums. Proposal for a tool to assess key competencies in museum managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Marcela Arguello Arciniegas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of Cultural Management, such a wide world and sometimes so difficult to outline in terms of all-encompassing, key competencies play a very important role. Therefore, we have tried to propose a tool to assess key competencies in cultural managers who perform their professional work in museums. We present a set of key competencies and then, a list of ten key competencies which are considered important for the staff of cultural management of a museum. For this it is assumed, first, the key competencies proposed by the universities offering master's degrees in official Cultural Management in Spain and, second, the key competencies proposed for the ICOM museum workers. Finally, we present a tool for the evaluation of the chosen key competencies.

  20. Enhanced diffie-hellman algorithm for reliable key exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan; Kumar, Chaithanya; Vincent, P. M. Durai Raj

    2017-11-01

    The Diffie -Hellman is one of the first public-key procedure and is a certain way of exchanging the cryptographic keys securely. This concept was introduced by Ralph Markel and it is named after Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Sender and Receiver make a common secret key in Diffie-Hellman algorithm and then they start communicating with each other over the public channel which is known to everyone. A number of internet services are secured by Diffie -Hellman. In Public key cryptosystem, the sender has to trust while receiving the public key of the receiver and vice-versa and this is the challenge of public key cryptosystem. Man-in-the-Middle attack is very much possible on the existing Diffie-Hellman algorithm. In man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker exists in the public channel, the attacker receives the public key of both sender and receiver and sends public keys to sender and receiver which is generated by his own. This is how man-in-the-middle attack is possible on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Denial of service attack is another attack which is found common on Diffie-Hellman. In this attack, the attacker tries to stop the communication happening between sender and receiver and attacker can do this by deleting messages or by confusing the parties with miscommunication. Some more attacks like Insider attack, Outsider attack, etc are possible on Diffie-Hellman. To reduce the possibility of attacks on Diffie-Hellman algorithm, we have enhanced the Diffie-Hellman algorithm to a next level. In this paper, we are extending the Diffie -Hellman algorithm by using the concept of the Diffie -Hellman algorithm to get a stronger secret key and that secret key is further exchanged between the sender and the receiver so that for each message, a new secret shared key would be generated. The second secret key will be generated by taking primitive root of the first secret key.

  1. Password-based authenticated key exchange scheme using smart card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhong, Shaojun

    2013-03-01

    A protocol that allows any two entities to negotiate a shared session key is commonly called a key exchange protocol. If the protocol provides a function to authenticate each other, we call the protocol authenticated key exchange protocol (AKE). Password authentication key exchange (PAKE) is the AKE protocol in which the two entities share a humanmemorable password. Most of current PAKE relies on the existence of a public key infrastructure, which sometime is impossible for a certain environments such as low computational device due to the computation overhead. In this paper, we propose password-based authenticated key exchange using smart card. Compared to previous PAKE, our protocol is more efficient because our protocol is based on ECC. Thereby, the proposed protocol can be well applied to low computation device.

  2. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  3. Desigualdades en salud y desigualdades sociales: un abordaje epidemiológico en un municipio urbano de Argentina Inequalities in health and socioeconomics: an epidemiological undertaking in an urban area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alazraqui

    2007-01-01

    salud-enfermedad-atención, en particular, la tasa de embarazos en adolescentes y la mortalidad por tumores de mama en mujeres mayores de 40 años. Estos resultados son de gran utilidad para diseñar intervenciones específicas dirigidas a reducir desigualdades en el nivel local.OBJECTIVES: To understand how certain socioeconomic factors interact with health indicators at the local level, so that health inequalities may be better addressed. METHODS: Several epidemiological methods were applied to study the 431 census block groups of the Lanús municipality in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, from January 1995 to December 2002. Using a cluster study, the block groups were categorized according to demographic and socioeconomic traits. A spatial distribution analysis was conducted of each health-related event in terms of its geographic location (georeference, and comparisons were drawn using box-plot charting for each group. Four types of demographic and socioeconomic data were gathered from the 1991 National Population and Housing Census: housing adequacy, overcrowding, percentage of persons 65 and older in the household, and level of education. The health indicators studied were vaccination coverage among children entering primary school, teen pregnancy rates, and breast cancer mortality rates in women over 40 years old. RESULTS: Teen pregnancy rates fell as socioeconomic conditions improved (chi2 = 60.7452; P = 4.074 ´ 10-13. In contrast, the breast cancer mortality rate among women over 40 was higher among those with a better standard of living (chi2 = 12.9766; P = 0.0047. Although the average number of children with incomplete vaccination schedules at school entry decreased with improved socioeconomic conditions, the difference was not statistically significant (chi2 = 6.3993; P = 0.0937. CONCLUSIONS: The combined methodologies confirmed the correlation between socioeconomic factors and health indicators, especially regarding teen pregnancy and breast cancer

  4. Architectural Building A Public Key Infrastructure Integrated Information Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ivanovich Korolev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article keeps under consideration the mattersto apply the cryptographic system having a public key to provide information security and to implya digital signature. It performs the analysis of trust models at the formation of certificates and their use. The article describes the relationships between the trust model and the architecture public key infrastructure. It contains conclusions in respect of the options for building the public key infrastructure for integrated informationspace.

  5. SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    designers to readily and correctly incorporate cryptography and key management into embedded systems . SHAMROCK has been incorporated in multiple...three devices are able to communicate using the same key. If device C is no longer used (or trusted ) for the application, the system is reconfigured by...encrypted communications between SHAMROCK- embedded systems . The key generation request is initiated by the protocol control module to the HAKM module

  6. Key Working for Families with Young Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals

  7. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor...

  8. A Round-Efficient Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Extended Chaotic Maps for Group Cloud Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Hung; Tsung, Chen-Kun; Lee, Tian-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Bo

    2017-12-03

    The security is a critical issue for business purposes. For example, the cloud meeting must consider strong security to maintain the communication privacy. Considering the scenario with cloud meeting, we apply extended chaotic map to present passwordless group authentication key agreement, termed as Passwordless Group Authentication Key Agreement (PL-GAKA). PL-GAKA improves the computation efficiency for the simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) proposed by Lee et al. in terms of computing the session key. Since the extended chaotic map has equivalent security level to the Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme applied by SGPAKE, the security of PL-GAKA is not sacrificed when improving the computation efficiency. Moreover, PL-GAKA is a passwordless scheme, so the password maintenance is not necessary. Short-term authentication is considered, hence the communication security is stronger than other protocols by dynamically generating session key in each cloud meeting. In our analysis, we first prove that each meeting member can get the correct information during the meeting. We analyze common security issues for the proposed PL-GAKA in terms of session key security, mutual authentication, perfect forward security, and data integrity. Moreover, we also demonstrate that communicating in PL-GAKA is secure when suffering replay attacks, impersonation attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen-verifier attacks. Eventually, an overall comparison is given to show the performance between PL-GAKA, SGPAKE and related solutions.

  9. A Round-Efficient Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Extended Chaotic Maps for Group Cloud Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The security is a critical issue for business purposes. For example, the cloud meeting must consider strong security to maintain the communication privacy. Considering the scenario with cloud meeting, we apply extended chaotic map to present passwordless group authentication key agreement, termed as Passwordless Group Authentication Key Agreement (PL-GAKA. PL-GAKA improves the computation efficiency for the simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE proposed by Lee et al. in terms of computing the session key. Since the extended chaotic map has equivalent security level to the Diffie–Hellman key exchange scheme applied by SGPAKE, the security of PL-GAKA is not sacrificed when improving the computation efficiency. Moreover, PL-GAKA is a passwordless scheme, so the password maintenance is not necessary. Short-term authentication is considered, hence the communication security is stronger than other protocols by dynamically generating session key in each cloud meeting. In our analysis, we first prove that each meeting member can get the correct information during the meeting. We analyze common security issues for the proposed PL-GAKA in terms of session key security, mutual authentication, perfect forward security, and data integrity. Moreover, we also demonstrate that communicating in PL-GAKA is secure when suffering replay attacks, impersonation attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen-verifier attacks. Eventually, an overall comparison is given to show the performance between PL-GAKA, SGPAKE and related solutions.

  10. LBTool: A stochastic toolkit for leave-based key updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been successfully employed in verification of information and communication systems. However, the use of such techniques are still rare in the area of security. In this paper, we present a toolkit that implements transient analysis on a key update method for wireless...... sensor networks. The analysis aims to find out the probability of a network key being compromised at a specific time point, which result in fluctuations over time for a specific key update method called Leave-based key update. For such a problem, the use of current tools is limited in many ways...

  11. Experimental demonstration of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, José; Ruiz-Alba, Antonio; Amaya, Waldimar; Martínez, Alfonso; García-Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo, David; Capmany, José

    2012-06-01

    We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10 Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.

  12. Key events in the history of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2005-01-01

    This document is a table which summaries the key events in the history of sustainable development, adapted from International Institute for Sustainable Development's sustainable development timeline. Publisher PDF

  13. Formulation of a diagnostic key in veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gohrbandt, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    A veterinary key of diagnosis, findings and treatments was created at the Small Animal Clinic of the Freie Universität zu Berlin. This happened in dependence on the ICD used in the human medicine. The veterinary key is collected into a tool named “Veterinary diagnosis key Berlin – small animal“. The data were stored in a purpose-built Access™ database. The specific feature of this key is the mapping of synonyms to their descriptors. After the completion of this thesis the veterinary diagn...

  14. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Meng; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Yao, Xin-Qiu; She, Zhen-Su

    2010-01-01

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  16. Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erven, Chris; Ma Xiongfeng; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme that utilizes a biased basis choice in order to increase the efficiency of the scheme. The optimal bias between the two measurement bases, a more refined error analysis and finite key size effects are all studied in order to assure the security of the final key generated with the system. We then implement the scheme in a local entangled QKD system that uses polarization entangled photon pairs to securely distribute the key. A 50/50 non-polarizing beamsplitter (BS) with different optical attenuators is used to simulate a variable BS in order to allow us to study the operation of the system for different biases. Over 6 h of continuous operation with a total bias of 0.9837/0.0163 (Z/X), we were able to generate 0.4567 secure key bits per raw key bit as compared to 0.2550 secure key bits per raw key bit for the unbiased case. This represents an increase in the efficiency of the key generation rate by 79%.

  17. Public key infrastructure building trusted applications and web services

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW OF PKI TECHNOLOGYPublic Key Infrastructures (PKIs): What Are They?Type of Certificate Authorities (CAS) ServicesPKI StandardsTypes of Vendor and Third-Party CA SystemsProtecting Private KeysCA System AttacksStolen Private Keys: What Can Be Done?Certificate Practice StatementsPKI ReadinessANALYZING AND DESIGNING PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURESPKI Design IssuesCost Justification and ConsiderationPKI Standards Design IssuesPKI Architectural Design ConsiderationsIMPLEMENTING PKIRequirementsImplementation ScheduleImplementation CostsPKI PerformanceMANAGING PKIRequesting a CertificateObtaining a

  18. Peer influence on students' estimates of performance: social comparison in clinical rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, A N Janet; Kuks, Jan B M; van Hell, E Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-02-01

    During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students' strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate his or her abilities to master a novel rotation. These estimates are relevant for learning and performance because they are related to self-efficacy. We investigated whether student estimates of their own future performance are influenced by the performance level and gender of the peer with whom the student compares him- or herself. We designed an experimental study in which participating students (n = 321) were divided into groups assigned to 12 different conditions. Each condition entailed a written comparison situation in which a peer student had completed the rotation the participant was required to undertake next. Differences between conditions were determined by the performance level (worse, similar or better) and gender of the comparison peer. The overall grade achieved by the comparison peer remained the same in all conditions. We asked participants to estimate their own future performance in that novel rotation. Differences between their estimates were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students' estimates of their future performance were highest when the comparison peer was presented as performing less well and lowest when the comparison peer was presented as performing better (p influences students' estimates of their future performance in a novel rotation. The effect depends on the performance level and gender of the comparison peer. This indicates that comparisons against particular peers may strengthen or diminish a student's self-efficacy, which, in turn, may ease or hamper the student's learning during clinical rotations. The study is limited by its experimental design. Future research should focus on students' comparison behaviour in real transitions

  19. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 12: Keys to successful collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Collaborating on fire and fuels management with a host of public and private partners may seem like an impossible undertaking, and presents many challenges. This fact sheet reviews tips for what to focus on as you embark on a collaborative fuels management project.Other...

  20. Translating Genius: The Importance Of The Relationship Between Military Geniuses And A Key - Subordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    undertake the office… it was in great disorder and confusion, and by extraordinary exertions you so arranged it as to enable the army to take the files...to each other. Monty explicitly said, “We were complete opposites; he lived on his nerves and was highly strung; in ordinary life he liked wine