WorldWideScience

Sample records for undertaking challenging design

  1. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  2. Be my guest! Challenges and practical solutions of undertaking interviews with children in the home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Gibson, Faith; Horstman, Maire; Milnes, Linda; Randall, Duncan; Carter, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to share critical debate on undertaking interviews with children in the home setting and draws on the authors' extensive research fieldwork. The article focuses on three key processes: planning entry to the child's home, conducting the interviews and exiting the field. In planning entry, we include children's engagement and issues of researcher gender. In conducting the interviews, we consider issues such as the balance of power, the importance of building a rapport, the voluntary nature of consent and the need for a flexible interview structure. Finally, we address exiting from the child's home with sensitivity at the end of the interview and/or research study. Undertaking research in the child's home provides a known and familiar territory for the child, but it means that the researcher faces a number of challenges that require solutions whilst they are a guest in a child's home. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Challenges to Undertake and Innovate in Colombia: Is the New Problematic of the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Hurtado, Saul Rick; Martinez Martinez, Luz Angela

    2018-01-01

    Entrepreneurship in general brings with it certain challenges and risks, which generate a long learning path before reaching success; Colombia for example, there is a complex panorama, the entrepreneurs are limited, and the entrepreneurship projects are not executed with totality. Therefore, the article's objective is to identify the main factors…

  4. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  5. Undertaking Experiments in Social Sciences: Sequential, Multiple Time Series Designs for Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.

    2017-01-01

    In social sciences, the use of stringent methodological approaches is gaining increasing emphasis. Researchers have recognized the limitations of cross-sectional, non-manipulative data in the study of causality. True experimental designs, in contrast, are preferred as they represent rigorous standards for achieving causal flows between variables.…

  6. Kayak Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anson

    2011-01-01

    Living in the Adirondack Park and being an avid outdoorsman has often resulted in the author's love of the outdoors working its way into class projects. In 2010, the author gave a group of 25 students in grades 9-12 a challenge that required them to design and construct a prototype inexpensive, lightweight kayak for backpackers and fisherman. In…

  7. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  8. 'You have to be mindful of whose story it is': the challenges of undertaking life story work with people with dementia and their family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Jane; Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Clarke, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    Life story work is increasingly being used with people with dementia; this work offers a critical appraisal of some challenges that may be faced in practice. An in-depth case study analysis was undertaken to understand the experiences of people with dementia, family carers and care staff in using life story work in an NHS Mental Health and Social Care Trust. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, observation, conversations and field notes. Private memories were sometimes recalled by the person with dementia that were not for inclusion in any written product; enabling the person with dementia to tell their own life story could be a challenge; quality of the life story books was variable and; at times, life story work may be overused with the person with dementia. Services should not be deterred from undertaking life story work with people with dementia, but there is a need to adopt a planned approach to its implementation that includes facilitation, education and supervision. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...

  10. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  11. Public Undertakings and Imputability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    exercised by the State, imputability to the State, and the State’s fulfilment of the Market Economy Investor Principle. Furthermore, it is examined whether, in the absence of imputability, public undertakings’ market behaviour is subject to the Market Economy Investor Principle, and it is concluded...... that this is not the case. Lastly, it is discussed whether other legal instruments, namely competition law, public procurement law, or the Transparency Directive, regulate public undertakings’ market behaviour. It is found that those rules are not sufficient to mend the gap created by the imputability requirement. Legal......In this article, the issue of impuability to the State of public undertakings’ decision-making is analysed and discussed in the context of the DSBFirst case. DSBFirst is owned by the independent public undertaking DSB and the private undertaking FirstGroup plc and won the contracts in the 2008...

  12. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    -to-market, and reduce development and manufacturing costs. In this paper, the author introduces several embedded systems design problems, and shows how they can be formulated as optimization problems. Solving such challenging design optimization problems are the key to the success of the embedded systems design...... of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...

  13. Obstacles to researching the researchers: a case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Herbison, G Peter; Roth, Paul; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-03-21

    Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in turn, evidence based clinical practice guidelines.In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons. In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions. Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research. Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential

  14. New challenges for data design

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides a platform for leading data designers whose vision and creativity help us to anticipate major changes occurring in the data design field, and pre-empt the future. Each of them strives to provide new answers to the question, “What challenges await data design?” To avoid falling into too narrow a mind-set, each works hard to elucidate the breadth of data design today and to demonstrate its widespread application across a variety of business sectors. With end users in mind, designer-contributors bring to light the myriad of purposes for which the field was originally intended, forging the bond even further between data design and the aims and intentions of those who contribute to it. The first seven parts of the book outline the scope of data design, and presents a line-up of “viewpoints” that highlight this discipline’s main topics, and offers an in-depth look into practices boasting both foresight and imagination. The eighth and final part features a series of interviews wit...

  15. Power-Efficient Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrle, Barry

    significant gains can be realized and why power-efficiency requirements will continue to challenge designers into the future. Despite new process technologies, the future will continue to rely on innovative design approaches.

  16. Ulysses mission design after Challenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthey, Joe L.; Peralta, Fernando; Pojman, Joan L.

    1990-01-01

    The delay of the Ulysses launch from May 1986 to October 1990, because of the Challenger disaster, has altered both the constraints under which the mission must be designed and the timing of several mission critical events. Safety and launch reliability concerns from the Shuttle have increased the effective launch window to durations greater than one hour. Fortuitously high declinations of the launch asymptote (DLA), of the order of the launch site latitude, ameliorate the impact of the new constraints on the launch window. Target overlays in the first hour of the launch window provide higher departure energies that improve mission performance and avoid a science schedule conflict at second opposition near the time of closest Jupiter approach. The mission design starts with the maximum earth departure energy that the upper stage can deliver within the launch constraints. The Jupiter arrival asymptotes are chosen from the optimal point of mission performance in the mission space defined in the Jupiter B-plane by contours mapped by the science and spacecraft constraints. More than half the orbital energy of the earth-to-Jupiter transfer orbit is lost in the Jupiter flyby, and the Jupiter gravitational assist rotates the orbit plane out of the ecliptic to an inclination of about 80 degrees.

  17. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  18. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  19. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  20. Designing the robot inclusive space challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Elara Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel robotic challenge, namely the robot inclusive spaces (RIS challenge, is proposed in this paper, which is a cross disciplinary and design focused initiative. It aims to foster the roboticists, architects, and designers towards realizing robot friendly social spaces. Contrary to conventional robotics competitions focusing on designing robots and its component technologies, robot inclusive spaces challenge adopts an interdisciplinary “design for robots” strategy to overcome the traditional research problem in real world deployments of social robots. In order to realize the RIS, various architectural elements must be adapted including: design principles for inclusive spaces, lighting schemes, furniture choices and arrangement, wall and floor surfaces, pathways among others. This paper introduces the format and design principles of RIS challenge, presents a first run of the challenge, and gives the corresponding analysis.

  1. Challenges in Nordic Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....

  2. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...... in use has become larger than the number of humans on the planet. The complexity of embedded systems is growing at a very high pace and the constraints in terms of functionality, performance, low energy consumption, reliability, cost and time-to-market are getting tighter. Therefore, the task...... of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...

  3. Challenges to Designing Game-Based Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core of establish......The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core...... of establishing game based business (GBB), the subsequent stages of development call for other kinds of competencies in order to become a viable GBB....

  4. Challenging the limits for beam bending designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2017-01-01

    The traditional design limits of beams in bending have been challenged by testing from very under-reinforced design to over-reinforced and strengthened over-reinforced designs in order to investigate if the current limits could be abolished. The ductility of normally reinforced beam depends...

  5. The Challenges of Privacy by Design

    OpenAIRE

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Heralded by regulators, Privacy by Design holds the promise to solve the digital world's privacy problems. But there are immense challenges, including management commitment and step-by-step methods to integrate privacy into systems.

  6. Mechatronic Design - Still a Considerable Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2011-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to investigate, if the challenges...... can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during the design task...

  7. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    . The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...

  8. Challenges in biomimetic design and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Barfoed, Michael; Shu, Li

    Biomimetic design copies desired principles found in nature and implement them into artificial applications. Applications could be products we use in our daily life but it can also be used to inspire material innovation. However there are significant challenges in performing biomimetic design. One...... including the terminology and knowledge organisation. It is often easy to recognise the splendour of a biological solution, but it can be much more difficult to understand the underlying mechanisms. Another challenge in biomimetic design is the search and identification of relevant solutions in nature...

  9. Jet Joint Undertaking. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The scientific, technical, experimental and theoretical investigations related to JET tokamak are presented. The JET Joint Undertaking, Volume 2, includes papers presented at: the 15th European Conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating, the 15th Symposium on fusion technology, the 12th IAEA Conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research, the 8th Topical Meeting on technology of fusion. Moreover, the following topics, concerning JET, are discussed: experience with wall materials, plasma performance, high power ion cyclotron resonance heating, plasma boundary, results and prospects for fusion, preparation for D-T operation, active gas handling system and remote handling equipment

  10. Micromachined gyroscopes: challenges, design solutions, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkel, Andrei M.

    2001-08-01

    Micromachined gyroscopes are probably the most challenging type of transducers ever attempted to be designed in micro-world. A nail-size dynamic system integrated with control electronics on the same silicon chip is designed to be a very sensitive sensor which is potentially able to detect maneuvers and motions beyond human perception. Along with exciting opportunities which MEMS gyroscopes could bring to everyday life, the miniaturization introduces many new technical challenges. Multi-degree of freedom dynamics, sensitivity to fabrication imperfections, dynamic instability, limited control resources - all these raise a number of fundamentally challenging issues in the design, analysis, and control of micromachined gyroscopes. In this paper, we summarize principles of operation, review recent research and development efforts, and discuss potential applications and the future market of silicon based micromachined gyroscopes.

  11. Student Design Challenges in Capillary Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Wollman, Andrew; Hall, Nancy R.; Weislogel, Mark; DeLombard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For some grade 8-12 students, capillary flow has bridged the gap between the classroom and research facility, from normal gravity to microgravity. In the past four years, NASA and the Portland State University (PSU) have jointly challenged students to design test cells, using Computer-Aided Design (CAD), to study capillary action in microgravity as PSU has done on the International Space Station (ISS). Using the student-submitted CAD drawings, the test cells were manufactured by PSU and tested in their 2.1-second drop tower. The microgravity results were made available online for student analysis and reporting. Over 100 such experiments have been conducted, where there has been participation from 15 states plus a German school for the children of U.S. military personnel. In 2016, a related NASA challenge was held in partnership with the ASGSR, again, based on the research conducted by PSU. In this challenge, grade 9-12 students designed and built devices using capillary action to launch droplets as far as possible in NASAs 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Example results will be presented by students at this conference. The challenges engage students in ISS science and technology and can inspire them to pursue technical careers.

  12. Deep water challenges for drilling rig design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M. [Transocean Sedco Forex, Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Drilling rigs designed for deep water must meet specific design considerations for harsh environments. The early lessons for rig design came from experiences in the North Sea. Rig efficiency and safety considerations must include structural integrity, isolated/redundant ballast controls, triple redundant DP systems, enclosed heated work spaces, and automated equipment such as bridge cranes, pipe handling gear, offline capabilities, subsea tree handling, and computerized drill floors. All components must be designed to harmonize man and machine. Some challenges which are unique to Eastern Canada include frequent storms and fog, cold temperature, icebergs, rig ice, and difficult logistics. This power point presentation described station keeping and mooring issues in terms of dynamic positioning issues. The environmental influence on riser management during forced disconnects was also described. Design issues for connected deep water risers must insure elastic stability, and control deflected shape. The design must also keep stresses within acceptable limits. Codes and standards for stress limits, flex joints and tension were also presented. tabs., figs.

  13. Challenges of Collaborative Product Styling in Design Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Ovesen, Nis

    2016-01-01

    Apart from a long list of advantages, design students face certain challenges when working collectively in groups on form, styling and aesthetics. An investigation about these challenges has been carried out and a number of challenges have been identified. The most apparent challenges relate to different aesthetic preferences, lack of tools and methods, and difficulties in establishing form related requirements. The challenges are presented and design quality, as well as some solution strateg...

  14. Challenges of Collaborative Product Styling in Design Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2016-01-01

    Apart from a long list of advantages, design students face certain challenges when working collectively in groups on form, styling and aesthetics. An investigation about these challenges has been carried out and a number of challenges have been identified. The most apparent challenges relate...

  15. Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings Management: A Case Study. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... It concludes that the current accounting systems such as financial accounting, cost accounting and reporting systems are not suitable for the effective and efficient management.

  16. Teaching Strategies to Promote Concept Learning by Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…

  17. Original article Personality determinants of motivation to undertake vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Godlewska-Werner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, at a time of frequent changes in the economic and socio-economic circumstances, knowledge acquired in the course of formal education is insufficient. Especially, the education system is still criticized for a lack of flexibility and strong resistance to change. Therefore, regular participation in various forms of training is required. Employee education and training are becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges. The aim of this study was to determine which personality traits are responsible for the strength of motivation to undertake vocational training and other educational forms. Participants and procedure The study included 104 staff members of Polish companies (60 women and 44 men. The study used Cattell’s 16 PF Questionnaire and the scales of readiness to undertake training and further education as a measure of the strength of motivation (Kawecka, Łaguna & Tabor, 2010. Results The study showed that openness to change and tension (primary traits had the greatest impact on the intention and planning to take vocational training. Additionally, the intention and planning to take vocational training were found to be associated with mindedness, independence, self-control, and anxiety (secondary traits. Such traits as rule-consciousness [G], social-boldness [H], abstractedness [M], and apprehension [O] (primary traits, were important in some aspects, which could constitute a background for further research and discussion of the results. Conclusions The obtained results lead to the conclusion that some of the individual differences in personality determine the motivation to undertake vocational training.

  18. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  19. Challenges to Deploy Service Design in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akasaka, Fumiya; Ohno, Takehiko; Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    More and more companies are applying service design approaches to develop services and products. Not every project, however, has achieved its goals. In many cases, difficulties arise from organizational issues such as organization structure and evaluation system. In this research, we held workshops...

  20. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  1. Man-machine dialogue design and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Landragin, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the main problems posed by the design of a man-machine dialogue system and offers ideas on how to continue along the path towards efficient, realistic and fluid communication between humans and machines. A culmination of ten years of research, it is based on the author's development, investigation and experimentation covering a multitude of fields, including artificial intelligence, automated language processing, man-machine interfaces and notably multimodal or multimedia interfaces. Contents Part 1. Historical and Methodological Landmarks 1. An Assessment of the Evolution

  2. Oral Food Challenges: The Design must Reflect the Clinical Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Marrs, Tom; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George

    2015-08-01

    Oral food challenges are the gold-standard diagnostic investigation for diagnosing food allergy. They allow a subject to consume an age-appropriate portion of allergenic food under surveillance to assess whether a reproducible immune-mediated adverse response is demonstrated. The specific design of food challenge must closely reflect the anticipated management step being considered. In clinical practice, food challenges are most commonly used to investigate the subject's status of allergy or tolerance to a food. However, other characteristics of food allergy are increasingly being investigated through recent studies. In particular, studies investigating food allergy prevention strategies, the impact of oral immunotherapy on subjects' threshold for allergic reactions and also their potential acquisition of long-term tolerance each utilize differing designs of oral food challenges to investigate their specific hypothesis. We examine how oral food challenges may be designed to assess specific characteristics of the food allergic response.

  3. Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

  4. The challenge of integrating evidence-based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren S

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the integration of evidence-based design (EBD) into the design process as an innovation, illuminates the significance and progress of the diffusion of this innovation, and identifies EBD advocates and the consequences of meeting the EBD challenge. A free tool for engaging in EBD is explored. Healthcare designers are leading the EBD charge, because their clients depend on it. But not all designers engage in EBD, because it may be beyond the resources of a firm or outside its culture. However, as with other meaningful design innovations, designers who do not practice EBD could fall by the wayside. EBD is a product of the diffusion of the innovation of evidence-based medicine. The academy (i.e., the collective of institutions of higher education), design organizations, design communities, and the media all contribute to the diffusion of EBD. However, the quantity, quality, and understandability of evidence continue to challenge its broad adoption. InformeDesign®, a free, Internet-based tool, presents information to designers in a concise, understandable way. Firms must invest in EBD incrementally as a value-added component of design to meet current and future challenges. It is important for designers to realize that engaging in EBD is not a rejection of creativity, but a means by which to elevate their design solutions. ©2009 VENDOME GROUP, LLC

  5. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetics – or bionik as it is called in parts of Europe – offer a number of promising opportunities and challenges for the designer. The paper investigates how biomimetics as a design methodology is used in engineering design by looking at examples of biological searches and highlight...... the possibilities and challenges. Biomimetics for engineering design is explored through an experiment involving 12 design engineering students. For 7 selected problem areas they searched biology literature available at a university library and identified a number of biological solutions. Central solution...... principles were formulated and used for designing technical items that could be used to solve the initial problems. Experiences are that biomimetic design can be made successfully using commonly available biological literature and internet resources and that designers without detailed biological knowledge...

  6. JET joint undertaking. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. After an introductive part on the controlled nuclear fusion research and an historical survey of the JET project, are presented: the JET joint undertaking (members of council and committee...) with its administration (finance, personnel, external relations), and the scientific and technical department with its divisions for systems (experimental, magnet, plasma, assembly, power supplies, control and data acquisition, and site and building). In appendix is described the Euratom fusion research programme

  7. Human-Centred Design Projects and Co-Design in/outside the Turkish Classroom: Responses and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other professional group in modern history, designers have felt compelled to undertake the responsibility of addressing and engaging with societal problems in their practice. Initially, this liability involved concerns of form and production methods during the industrial revolution era, and developed into existential, ethical…

  8. Reported Challenges for Socio-Cultural Curricula in Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, Wanjira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived challenges of attempting to integrate topics related to social and cultural issues into the coursework in graduate programs in Instructional Design and Technology (IDT). Design/methodology/approach: An open-ended online survey instrument was developed for this study for three reasons.…

  9. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2009-01-01

    the possibilities and challenges. Biomimetics for engineering design is explored through an experiment involving 12 design engineering students. For 7 selected problem areas they searched biology literature available at a university library and identified a number of biological solutions. Central solution...

  10. The Challenges of Designing Digital Services for Multiple Mobile Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazawneh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    on a multiple case study of three mobile application development firms from Sweden, Denmark and Norway, we synthesize the digital service design taxonomy to understand the challenges faced by third-party developers. Our study identifies a set of challenges in four different levels: user level, platform level...... to tap into and join the digital ecosystem. However, while there is an emerging literature on designing digital services, little empirical evidence exists about challenges faced by third-party developers while designing digital services, and in particular for multiple mobile platforms. Drawing......The value of digital services is increasingly recognized by owners of digital platforms. These services have central role in building and sustaining the business of the digital platform. In order to sustain the design of digital services, owners of digital platforms encourage third-party developers...

  11. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  12. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  13. Possibilities and Challenges designing low-carbon-energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken...... as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological...

  14. Challenges in designing interactive systems for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Nielsen, Esben Toftdahl

    2007-01-01

    and visions as ways to bridge between fieldwork and literature studies on the one hand and the emerging computer based prototypes on the other. Our case concerns design of innovative interactive systems for support in emergency response, including patient identification and monitoring as well as construction......This paper presents research on participatory design of interactive systems for emergency response. We present the work by going through the design method with a focus on the new elements that we developed for the participatory design toolkit, in particular we emphasize the use of challenges...... and maintenance of a situational overview....

  15. The ITEA-NASA STS-118 Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Shelli D.; Caron, Daniel W.; Gray, Aaron; Weaver, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In conjunction with the August 8, 2007 launch of STS-118, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed and recently debuted curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration, known as STS-118 Design Challenges. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA…

  16. Barriers and Challenges in the Integrated Design Process Approcach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In the future, it will be a huge challenge to make sustainable building design by using a more holistic and innovative approach in order to be able to decrease or reduce the use of energy for heating and cooling in new building projects. This is seen in the perspective of the Kyoto agre...

  17. Challenges of designing fusion reactors for remote maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major problems faced by the fusion community is the development of the high level of reliability required to assure that fusion will be a viable commercial power source. Much of the responsibility for solving this problem falls directly on the designer in developing concepts that have a high level of maintainability. The problems are both near-term, in developing maintainability for next generation engineering oriented reactors; and long range, in developing full maintainability for the more commercial concepts with their required high level of on-line time. The near-time challenge will include development of unqiue design concepts to perform inspection, maintenance, replacement, and testing under the stringent conditions imposed by the next generation engineering oriented machines. The long range challenge will focus on basic design concepts that will enable the full mainatability required by commerical fusion

  18. Design and manufacturing challenges of optogenetic neural interfaces: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, S. B.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Silva, A. F.; Costa, R. M.; Correia, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    Optogenetics is a relatively new technology to achieve cell-type specific neuromodulation with millisecond-scale temporal precision. Optogenetic tools are being developed to address neuroscience challenges, and to improve the knowledge about brain networks, with the ultimate aim of catalyzing new treatments for brain disorders and diseases. To reach this ambitious goal the implementation of mature and reliable engineered tools is required. The success of optogenetics relies on optical tools that can deliver light into the neural tissue. Objective/Approach: Here, the design and manufacturing approaches available to the scientific community are reviewed, and current challenges to accomplish appropriate scalable, multimodal and wireless optical devices are discussed. Significance: Overall, this review aims at presenting a helpful guidance to the engineering and design of optical microsystems for optogenetic applications.

  19. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P. [ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  20. Nanomedical device and systems design challenges, possibilities, visions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedical Device and Systems Design: Challenges, Possibilities, Visions serves as a preliminary guide toward the inspiration of specific investigative pathways that may lead to meaningful discourse and significant advances in nanomedicine/nanotechnology. This volume considers the potential of future innovations that will involve nanomedical devices and systems. It endeavors to explore remarkable possibilities spanning medical diagnostics, therapeutics, and other advancements that may be enabled within this discipline. In particular, this book investigates just how nanomedical diagnostic and

  1. Electronic health records challenges in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the challenges in electronic health records (EHR) design and implementation along with an introduction to the best practices that have been identified over the past several years. The book examines concerns surrounding EHR use and proposes eight examples of proper EHR use. It discusses the complex strategic planning that accompanies the systemic organizational changes associated with EHR programs and highlights key lessons learned regarding health information-including technology errors and risk management concerns.

  2. Challenges of designing fusion reactors for remote maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major problems faced by the fusion community is the development of the high level of reliability required to assure that fusion will be a viable commercial power source. Much of the responsibility for solving this problem falls directly on the designer in developing concepts that have a high level of maintainability for the next generation engineering oriented reactors; and long range, in developing full maintainability for the more complicated commercial concepts with their required high level of on-line time. The near-term challenge will include development of unique design concepts to perform inspection, maintenance, replacement, and testing under the stringent conditions imposed by the next generation engineering oriented machines. The long range challenge will focus on basic design concepts that will enable the full maintainability required by commercial fusion. In addition to the purely technical challenges, the fusion community is also faced with the problem of developing programmatic means to assure that reactor maintenance issues are given proper and timely emphasis as the nuclear phase of fusion is approached

  3. Renewing Theories, Methods and Design Practices: Challenges for Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Yatmo Yandi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural education should promote the advancement of knowledge that is necessary as the basis for the development of excellent design practice. Architectural education needs to respond appropriately to the current issues in the society. To find its way into the society in an appropriate way, architecture needs to be liquid. The ability to address the liquidity of architecture requires educational approach that promotes the ability to work with a range of design methods and approaches. There are several principles that become the basis for developing architectural education that could strengthen its position within the society: to promote knowledge-based design practice, to embrace variety of design methods and approaches; to keep a balance between design knowledge and design skills; while at the same time to aim for mastery and excellence in design. These principles should be the basis for defining and developing the curriculum and the process of design learning architectural education. Then the main challenge is on our willingness to be liquid in developing architectural education, which needs continuous renewal and update to respond to the changing context of knowledge, technology and society.

  4. The Complexities of Supporting Asian International Pre-Service Teachers as They Undertake Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Tangen, Donna; Campbell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Asian international students are choosing to undertake their tertiary studies in English-speaking countries. For universities, international students are an important source of revenue. However, Asian international students face multiple challenges in adapting to a foreign culture, understanding the expectations of their…

  5. Big Data in Designing Clinical Trials: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Matuszak, Martha M; Schipper, Matthew J; Jolly, Shruti; Hayman, James A; Ten Haken, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of big data analytics resource systems (BDARSs) as a part of routine practice in Radiation Oncology is on the horizon. Gradually, individual researchers, vendors, and professional societies are leading initiatives to create and demonstrate use of automated systems. What are the implications for design of clinical trials, as these systems emerge? Gold standard, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have high internal validity for the patients and settings fitting constraints of the trial, but also have limitations including: reproducibility, generalizability to routine practice, infrequent external validation, selection bias, characterization of confounding factors, ethics, and use for rare events. BDARS present opportunities to augment and extend RCTs. Preliminary modeling using single- and muti-institutional BDARS may lead to better design and less cost. Standardizations in data elements, clinical processes, and nomenclatures used to decrease variability and increase veracity needed for automation and multi-institutional data pooling in BDARS also support ability to add clinical validation phases to clinical trial design and increase participation. However, volume and variety in BDARS present other technical, policy, and conceptual challenges including applicable statistical concepts, cloud-based technologies. In this summary, we will examine both the opportunities and the challenges for use of big data in design of clinical trials.

  6. Big Data in Designing Clinical Trials: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Mayo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of big data analytics resource systems (BDARSs as a part of routine practice in Radiation Oncology is on the horizon. Gradually, individual researchers, vendors, and professional societies are leading initiatives to create and demonstrate use of automated systems. What are the implications for design of clinical trials, as these systems emerge? Gold standard, randomized controlled trials (RCTs have high internal validity for the patients and settings fitting constraints of the trial, but also have limitations including: reproducibility, generalizability to routine practice, infrequent external validation, selection bias, characterization of confounding factors, ethics, and use for rare events. BDARS present opportunities to augment and extend RCTs. Preliminary modeling using single- and muti-institutional BDARS may lead to better design and less cost. Standardizations in data elements, clinical processes, and nomenclatures used to decrease variability and increase veracity needed for automation and multi-institutional data pooling in BDARS also support ability to add clinical validation phases to clinical trial design and increase participation. However, volume and variety in BDARS present other technical, policy, and conceptual challenges including applicable statistical concepts, cloud-based technologies. In this summary, we will examine both the opportunities and the challenges for use of big data in design of clinical trials.

  7. IHE cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging: design challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-03-01

    Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) has recently published a new integration profile for sharing documents between multiple enterprises. The Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing Integration Profile (XDS) lays the basic framework for deploying regional and national Electronic Health Record (EHR). This profile proposes an architecture based on a central Registry that holds metadata information describing published Documents residing in one or multiple Documents Repositories. As medical images constitute important information of the patient health record, it is logical to extend the XDS Integration Profile to include images. However, including images in the EHR presents many challenges. The complete image set is very large; it is useful for radiologists and other specialists such as surgeons and orthopedists. The imaging report, on the other hand, is widely needed and its broad accessibility is vital for achieving optimal patient care. Moreover, a subset of relevant images may also be of wide interest along with the report. Therefore, IHE recently published a new integration profile for sharing images and imaging reports between multiple enterprises. This new profile, the Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I), is based on the XDS architecture. The XDS-I integration solution that is published as part of the IHE Technical Framework is the result of an extensive investigation effort of several design solutions. This paper presents and discusses the design challenges and the rationales behind the design decisions of the IHE XDS-I Integration Profile, for a better understanding and appreciation of the final published solution.

  8. Usability standards meet scenario-based design: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher J; Blandford, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on the challenges and opportunities presented by developing scenarios of use for interactive medical devices. Scenarios are integral to the international standard for usability engineering of medical devices (IEC 62366:2007), and are also applied to the development of health software (draft standard IEC 82304-1). The 62366 standard lays out a process for mitigating risk during normal use (i.e. use as per the instructions, or accepted medical practice). However, this begs the question of whether "real use" (that which occurs in practice) matches "normal use". In this paper, we present an overview of the product lifecycle and how it impacts on the type of scenario that can be practically applied. We report on the development and testing of a set of scenarios intended to inform the design of infusion pumps based on "real use". The scenarios were validated by researchers and practitioners experienced in clinical practice, and their utility was assessed by developers and practitioners representing different stages of the product lifecycle. These evaluations highlighted previously unreported challenges and opportunities for the use of scenarios in this context. Challenges include: integrating scenario-based design with usability engineering practice; covering the breadth of uses of infusion devices; and managing contradictory evidence. Opportunities included scenario use beyond design to guide marketing, to inform purchasing and as resources for training staff. This study exemplifies one empirically grounded approach to communicating and negotiating the realities of practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  10. The challenges of delivering validated personas for medical equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher James; Blandford, Ann

    2014-07-01

    Representations of archetypal users (personas) have been advocated as a way to avoid designing in isolation. They allow communication of user needs and orient teams towards user experience. One of the challenges for developers of interactive medical devices is that most devices are used by a wide variety of people, and that developers have limited access to those people; personas have the potential to make developers more aware of who they are designing for. But this raises the question of whether it is possible to deliver useful, valid personas of interactive medical device users. The aim of this research was to develop and test a rigorous, empirically grounded process of constructing personas, with the objective of reflecting on that process. Many challenges were encountered: we found that directly linking the personas to a user population was not possible and although personas were a useful tool for supporting communication and elicitation across disciplines, it was hard to make them representative when picking details that were relevant and checking accuracy. Checking the content resulted in disparate, possibly incommensurable, views. Despite this, the personas proved useful in supporting the transfer of knowledge across professional perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. EPR design features to mitigate severe accident challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Fischer, M.; Bittermann, D.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor (PWR), is a 4300-4500 MWth that incorporates proven technology within an optimized configuration to enhance safety. EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product. Commercial EPR units are currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France at the Flamanville site. In recent months, Framatome ANP announced their intention to market the EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids as well as their intent to pursue design certification in the United States under 10CFR52. The EPR safety philosophy is based on a deterministic consideration of defense-in-depth complemented by probabilistic analyses. Not only is the EPR designed to prevent and mitigate design basis accidents (DBAs), it employs an extra level of safety associated with severe accident response. Therefore, as a design objective, features are included to ensure that radiological consequences are limited such that the need for stringent counter measures, such as evacuation and relocation of the nearby population, can be reasonably excluded. This paper discusses some of the innovative features of the EPR to address severe accident challenges. (author)

  12. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge... coin design challenge on April 11, 2013, that seeks design entries from contestants age 13 years or...

  13. Nuclear challenges and progress in designing stellarator fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Tautges, T.; Slaybaugh, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Ibrahim, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 5-6 decades, stellarator power plants have been studied in the US, Europe, and Japan as an alternate to the mainline magnetic fusion tokamaks, offering steady-state operation and eliminating the risk of plasma disruptions. The earlier 1980s studies suggested large-scale stellarator power plants with an average major radius exceeding 20 m. The most recent development of the compact stellarator concept delivered ARIES-CS - a compact stellarator with 7.75 m average major radius, approaching that of tokamaks. For stellarators, the most important engineering parameter that determines the machine size and cost is the minimum distance between the plasma boundary and mid-coil. Accommodating the breeding blanket and necessary shield within this distance to protect the ARIES-CS superconducting magnet represents a challenging task. Selecting the ARIES-CS nuclear and engineering parameters to produce an economic optimum, modeling the complex geometry for 3D nuclear analysis to confirm the key parameters, and minimizing the radwaste stream received considerable attention during the design process. These engineering design elements combined with advanced physics helped enable the compact stellarator to be a viable concept. This paper provides a brief historical overview of the progress in designing stellarator power plants and a perspective on the successful integration of the nuclear activity into the final ARIES-CS configuration

  14. Challenges in the design of linear accelerator tunnels and services

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, John

    2008-01-01

    Studies are well underway for the next generation of linear accelerators. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is working towards a maximum collision energy of 1 TeV and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) even higher at 3 TeV. Although the accelerating technologies are very different, many similarities can be found between the two projects from a civil engineering and technical services point of view. Both projects would require a site of approximately 50 km in length with stable geological conditions. CERN has been selected as one of the sample sites for the preliminary studies. The aim of this paper is to present the key challenges in the design of civil engineering and technical services such as cooling, ventilation and electricity that need to be overcome to realise such large scale projects in the future.

  15. Classifications, applications, and design challenges of drones: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing need for flying drones with diverse capabilities for both civilian and military applications. There is also a significant interest in the development of novel drones which can autonomously fly in different environments and locations and can perform various missions. In the past decade, the broad spectrum of applications of these drones has received most attention which led to the invention of various types of drones with different sizes and weights. In this review paper, we identify a novel classification of flying drones that ranges from unmanned air vehicles to smart dusts at both ends of this spectrum, with their new defined applications. Design and fabrication challenges of micro drones, existing methods for increasing their endurance, and various navigation and control approaches are discussed in details. Limitations of the existing drones, proposed solutions for the next generation of drones, and recommendations are also presented and discussed.

  16. Chemical Product Design: A new challenge of applied thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    Chemical products involving specialty chemicals and microstructured materials are often multicomponent systems. A number of five to 20 molecules is not unusual, comprising a range of different chemical compounds e.g. polymers, surfactants, solid particles and water. Milk is an example......, and then to outline some specific examples from our research activities in the area of thermodynamics for chemical products. The examples cover rather diverse areas such as interrelation between thermodynamic and engineering properties in detergents (surfactants), paint thermodynamics and the development of models...... try to describe and understand chemical products with traditional thermodynamic models, typically applicable to problems of petrochemical industries. The purpose of this article is two-fold: first to present some current and future challenges in thermodynamic modelling towards chemical product design...

  17. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  18. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges. The Deputy...

  19. 32 CFR 1802.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of authority to hear challenges... COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action On Challenges § 1802.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges. The...

  20. MISSION PROFILE AND DESIGN CHALLENGES FOR MARS LANDING EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An orbiter and a descent module will be delivered to Mars in the Chinese first Mars exploration mission. The descent module is composed of a landing platform and a rover. The module will be released into the atmosphere by the orbiter and make a controlled landing on Martian surface. After landing, the rover will egress from the platform to start its science mission. The rover payloads mainly include the subsurface radar, terrain camera, multispectral camera, magnetometer, anemometer to achieve the scientific investigation of the terrain, soil characteristics, material composition, magnetic field, atmosphere, etc. The landing process is divided into three phases (entry phase, parachute descent phase and powered descent phase, which are full of risks. There exit lots of indefinite parameters and design constrain to affect the selection of the landing sites and phase switch (mortaring the parachute, separating the heat shield and cutting off the parachute. A number of new technologies (disk-gap-band parachute, guidance and navigation, etc. need to be developed. Mars and Earth have gravity and atmosphere conditions that are significantly different from one another. Meaningful environmental conditions cannot be recreated terrestrially on earth. A full-scale flight validation on earth is difficult. Therefore the end-to-end simulation and some critical subsystem test must be considered instead. The challenges above and the corresponding design solutions are introduced in this paper, which can provide reference for the Mars exploration mission.

  1. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA study: Design challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Cristan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone to the effect of the first (stimulant. We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic. Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual

  2. Nuclear challenges and progress in designing stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.

    2007-01-01

    As an alternate to the mainline magnetic fusion tokamaks, the stellarator concept offers a steady state operation without external driven current, eliminating the risk of plasma irruptions. Over the past 2-3 decades, stellarator power plants have been studied in the U.S., Japan, and Europe to enhance the physics and engineering aspects and optimize the design parameters that are subject to numerous constraints. The earlier 1980's studies delivered large stellarators with an average major radius exceeding 20 m. The most recent development of the compact stellarator concept has led to the construction of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) in the U.S. and the 3 years power plant study of ARIES-CS, a compact stellarator with 7.75 m average major radius, approaching that of tokamaks. The ARIES-CS first wall configuration deviates from the standard practice of uniform toroidal shape in order to achieve compactness. Modeling such a complex geometry for 3-D nuclear analysis was a challenging engineering task. A novel approach based on coupling the CAD model with the MCNP Monte Carlo code was developed to model, for the first time ever, the complex stellarator geometry for nuclear assessments. The most important parameter that determines the stellarator size and cost is the minimum distance between the plasma boundary and mid-coil. Accommodating the breeding blanket and necessary shield to protect the superconducting magnet represented another challenging task. An innovative approach utilizing a non-uniform blanket combined with a highly efficient WC shield for this highly constrained area reduced the radial standoff (and machine size and cost) by 25- 30%, which is significant. As stellarators generate more radwaste than tokamaks, managing ARIES-CS active materials during operation and after plant decommissioning was essential for the environmental attractiveness of the machine. The geological disposal option could be replaced with more attractive scenarios

  3. Designing and Developing Game-Like Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: Challenges and Design Decisions of Novice Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Turkan Karakus; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Many virtual worlds have been adopted for implementation within educational settings because they are potentially useful for building effective learning environments. Since the flexibility of virtual worlds challenges to obtain effective and efficient educational outcomes, the design of such platforms need more attention. In the present study, the…

  4. Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Melanie; Boulange, Claire; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, a growing body of Australian and international evidence has demonstrated that urban design attributes are associated with a range of health outcomes. For example, the location of employment, shops and services, provision of public and active transport infrastructure and access to open space and recreational opportunities are associated with chronic disease risk factors such as physical activity levels, access to healthy food, social connectedness, and air quality. Despite the growing knowledge base, this evidence is not being consistently translated into urban planning policy and practice in Australia. Low-density neighbourhoods with poor access to public transport, shops and services continue to be developed at a rapid rate in the sprawling outer suburbs of Australian cities. This paper provides an overview of the evidence of the association between the built environment and chronic diseases, highlighting progress and future challenges for health promotion. It argues that health promotion practitioners and researchers need to more closely engage with urban planning practitioners, policymakers and researchers to encourage the creation of healthy urban environments through integrated transport, land use and infrastructure planning. There is also a need for innovative research to evaluate the effectiveness of policy options. This would help evidence to be more effectively translated into policy and practice, making Australia a leader in planning healthy communities.

  5. Challenges in implementing model-based phase I designs in a grant-funded clinical trials unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Eleni; Holmes, Jane; Love, Sharon; McGregor, Naomi; Hawkins, Maria

    2017-12-28

    For a clinical trials unit to run its first model-based, phase I trial, the statistician, chief investigator, and trial manager must all acquire a new set of skills. These trials also require a different approach to funding and data collection. From the statisticians' viewpoint, we highlight what is needed to move from running rule-based, early-phase trials to running a model-based phase I study as we experienced it in our trials unit located in the United Kingdom. Our example is CHARIOT, a dose-finding trial using the time-to-event continual reassessment method. It consists of three stages and aims to discover the maximum tolerated dose of the combination of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and the ataxia telangiectasia mutated Rad3-related inhibitor M6620 (previously known as VX-970) in patients with oesophageal cancer. We present the challenges we faced in designing this trial and how we overcame them as a way of demystifying the conduct of a model-based trial in a grant-funded clinical trials unit. Although we appreciate that undertaking model-based trials requires additional time and effort, they are feasible to implement and, once suitable tools such as guiding publications and document templates become available, the design and set-up process will be easier and more efficient.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2010 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2010 award winner, Clarke, developed Natular, a plaster matrix that encapsulates the pesticide spinosad, slowly releasing it into water and effectively controlling mosquito larvae.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, The Solberg Company, replaced fluorinated surfactants in its firefighting foam concentrates with a blend of non-fluorinated surfactants and sugars.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Archer Daniels Midland, developed Archer RC, a nonvolatile, biobased, reactive coalescent that replaces volatile organic coalescents in architectural latex paints.

  9. Design, challenge, and promise of stimuli-responsive nanoantibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Julius A.; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-10-01

    Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Non-financial reporting, CSR frameworks and groups of undertakings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Dániel Gergely; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    The recently adopted Directive on non-financial reporting (Directive 2014/95/EU) and several CSR frameworks are based on the assumption that groups of undertakings adopt, report and implement one group policy. This is a very important but also rather unique approach to groups. This article first...

  11. Using an undertaker's data to assess changing patterns of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key informant interviews were done to support the undertaker's data and determine how families bear the burden of burying deceased relatives. Despite a disproportionate increase in deaths in certain age categories and evidence of worsening poverty, funerals remain large and elaborate affairs. Keywords: AIDS, burial ...

  12. iPad Learning Ecosystem: Developing Challenge-Based Learning Using Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Catalina; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and…

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed spinosad, a highly selective, low-toxicity, nonpersistant insecticide made by a soil microorganism. It controls many chewing insect pests.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Chemical Specialties, developed an alkaline copper quaternary wood preservative to replace chromated copper arsenate preservative phased out due to risk to children.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winners, Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) and Cook Composites and Polymers Co. (CCP), developed Chempol MPS resins and Sefose sucrose esters to enable high-performance low-VOC alkyd paints.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, S.C. Johnson & Son, developed Greenlist, a rating system for environmental and health effects of ingredients. SC Johnson uses it to reformulate many of its products.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Sherwin-Williams, developed water-based acrylic alkyd paints with VOCs that can be made from recycled soda bottle (PET), acrylics, and soybean oil.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed CONFIRM, a highly selective, reduced risk insecticide that disrupts the molting process of caterpillar pests in turf and a variety of crops.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Cargill, Inc., developed a vegetable-oil-based transformer fluid that is much less flammable, provides superior performance, is less toxic, and has a substantially lower carbon footprint.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed Sea-Nine, a marine antifoulant to control plants and animals on ship hulls. Sea-Nine replaces persistent, toxic organotin antifoulants.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed Sentricon to eliminate termites with bait applied only where termites are active; it replaces widespread applications of pesticide to soil.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Albright & Wilson Americas, discovered that tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate, THPS, is an effective, safer biocide for use in industrial water systems.

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, used an artificial neural network to discover spinetoram, an improved spinosad biopesticide to replace organophosphates for key pests of fruit trees.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Cargill, developed biobased polyols for polyurethane applications, including flexible foams. Cargill makes BiOH polyols from vegetable oils, not petroleum products.

  6. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Buckman International, developed Maximyze enzymes that modify the cellulose in wood fibers to increase binding between fibers in paper and improve paper strength.

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, PPG Industries, developed cationic electrodeposition coatings with yttrium that resist corrosion in automobiles. Yttrium is a safe replacement for lead in this use.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Engelhard Corporation, developed a wide range of environmentally friendly Rightfit azo pigments that contain calcium, strontium, or barium instead of heavy metals.

  9. Opportunities and challenges in using Learning Analytics in Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Marcel; Van Limbeek, Evelien; Greller, Wolfgang; Sloep, Peter; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Educational institutions are designing, creating and evaluating courses to optimize learning outcomes for highly diverse student populations. Yet, most of the delivery is still monitored retrospectively with summative evaluation forms. Therefore, improvements to the course design are only

  10. Challenges of doing emphatic design : Experiences from industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.; Zwartkruis-Pelgrim, E.; Daemen, E.; Du, J.

    2012-01-01

    Empathic design aims to build creative understanding of users’ experiences for new product development (NPD). In this paper, we review the literature of empathic design, and we discuss our own experiences with introducing and practicing empathic design in several NPD projects at Philips Research

  11. Applying experience reports in design education : Challenges and ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, G.J.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    What if both design students and design tutors could have real-time insights into how students actually experience their design process rather than after-the-fact reflections? And what if these insights could be applied in ways that would contribute to more in-depth learning experiences? This paper

  12. High School Engineering and Technology Education Integration through Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This study contextualized the use of the engineering design process by providing descriptions of how each element in a design process was integrated in an eleventh grade industry and engineering systems course. The guiding research question for this inquiry was: How do students engage in the engineering design process in a course where technology…

  13. The Experience City and challenges for Architects and Urban Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    The article discusse the challenges of the experience economy from a Nordic welfare perspective. It argues that the challenges of the experience economy must be combined with the ambition that our cities are not reduced to entertainment engines. The urban life in the Nordic "welfare cities" must...... emphasise experiences that challenge, that urge reflection and that contain elements of learning just as the Nordic welfare city must strive for a socially and culturally inclusive urban life which includes offers for many different lifestyles and cultures in its diversity.     Consequently......, it is not simply a matter of creating a framework for entertainment and "Fun" or of creating architectural icon buildings that can bring fame to the city. The question is whether or not the experience economy can provide for a more versatile urban development in which architectural innovation goes hand in hand...

  14. Modernisation of Graphic Design: The Possibilities and Challenges of Digitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T.F. Poon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As inventions go, the contrivance of design as a dynamic, fluid, operational vehicle of human technology has always been subject to arguments and debates. The digitalisation of graphic design is a comparatively new field of research, a progressive process that evolves with technological developments. Undoubtedly, the evolution of design practices has transformed the entire design process in ways not deemed possible in the past. The advantages of digitalisation are particularly tangible in the range of possibilities generated by computer-based design tools. The main argument for the increase in “design capital” has been the accessibility of modern art tools to both design practitioners and the wider society, through mass digital culture absorption and the emerging technologies of production and reproduction. In presenting the fundamentals of digitalisation in design practices, this paper retraces the key cornerstones in the evolution of graphic design as an aesthetic medium from the 19th - to 21st -century, while pointing out the expanding, reflexive relationships between design and our environment. The researcher’s aim is to connect the socio-historical developmental frames of social progress and the practical uses of digitalisation in art and design today. The innovations in computermediated design work today grew from experimental platforms in the 20th -century, inasmuch as technological diffusion in the 21st -century Information Age derived from the widespread global embrace of the World Wide Web, multimedia and graphical computing systems. As a result of this development of the technological ‘canvas’, the production of design, aesthetic and cultural objects has shifted from the traditional artist-craftsman-specialist paradigm to reflect a more encompassing, diverse scope of ideas fostered by the exposure to different facets of creative capital and inspirations.

  15. Fish Farm Challenge Provides STEM Design Experiences for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton , Robert L.; House, Patty L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Monsanto Corporation partnered with National 4-H Council to help inspire and develop professional skills among young agriculturalists. The Ohio State University created Fish Farm Challenge, which engaged more than 8,000 youth across eight states. Youth were taught about worldwide food insecurity and the importance of aquaculture. They…

  16. Design challenges and coordination issues in hotel projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Melvin L., IV; Marsh, David

    2002-11-01

    The design of a Five Star hotel facility encompasses a myriad of design dilemmas. On the same note, the design of a One Star or Two Star hotel has many dilemmas of its own. The ability of an acoustical consultant, as an integral part of the design team, to recognize the differences between these types of projects can be the difference between a successful hotel project and miserable failure. Different quality hotels require different levels of design criteria. Proper coordination and timing between trades and installations, such as loudspeakers, ceiling coffers, chandeliers, sprinkler heads, and ductwork, is also very important for the success of the overall project. This paper will discuss techniques and methods to produce successful hotel projects, as well as various noise sources throughout these spaces. It will also highlight a number of tips learned through many hotel design experiences.

  17. Design Innovations and Implementation Challenges - A Case of Smart Textiles in Future Hospital Interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2014-01-01

    Concerned with the overall challenges of implementing design innovations, this paper relates to the specific case of applying smart textiles in future hospital interiors. The methodological approach is inspired by design thinking and implementation processes, and through the scope of a developed...... strategic framework, the implementation challenges will be discussed from a holistic integrative design perspective. With this explorative initiative, our aim is to present specific approaches to progress the design innovation of smart textiles, and the implementation climate of future hospitals....

  18. Teacher Challenges to Implement Engineering Design in Secondary Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. This article is the third article in a three-part series presenting the results of this study. The first article in the series titled "Examination of Engineering Design Curriculum Content" highlighted the research…

  19. Design challenges facing urban development in Dar es Salaam City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper shows that in order for the resources to be deployed sustainable building design must evolve viable solutions which will guide future developments of built environment. Architecture has to respond on ecological demands including use of environmentally friendly building materials, designs must take into account ...

  20. Some challenges with statistical inference in adaptive designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H M James; Wang, Sue-Jane; Yang, Peiling

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive designs have generated a great deal of attention to clinical trial communities. The literature contains many statistical methods to deal with added statistical uncertainties concerning the adaptations. Increasingly encountered in regulatory applications are adaptive statistical information designs that allow modification of sample size or related statistical information and adaptive selection designs that allow selection of doses or patient populations during the course of a clinical trial. For adaptive statistical information designs, a few statistical testing methods are mathematically equivalent, as a number of articles have stipulated, but arguably there are large differences in their practical ramifications. We pinpoint some undesirable features of these methods in this work. For adaptive selection designs, the selection based on biomarker data for testing the correlated clinical endpoints may increase statistical uncertainty in terms of type I error probability, and most importantly the increased statistical uncertainty may be impossible to assess.

  1. CLASS Challenging Tasks: Using Cognitive Load Theory to Inform the Design of Challenging Mathematical Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, James; Hopkins, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a seven-step process for developing problem-solving tasks informed by cognitive load theory. Through an example of a task developed for Year 2 students, we show how this approach can be used to produce challenging mathematical tasks that aim to optimise cognitive load for each student.

  2. Undertaking and writing research that is important, targeted, and the best you can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-04-01

    Conducting and writing research is a privilege. It is a privilege because researchers can change lives through their findings and can influence public knowledge and debate. It is also a privilege because researchers are reliant on the time and goodwill of participants (and colleagues), and research is often underpinned by funding raised by the public, either through taxes or philanthropic donations. This privilege comes with responsibility. Researchers have a responsibility to undertake research that is important, targeted, and of high quality. This editorial aims to inspire, challenge, and bolster the research efforts of individuals and teams.

  3. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  4. Four categories of design challenges to building game-based business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Harpelund, Christian

    2014-01-01

    a four-category approach to understanding such challenges. The four categories include 1) the learning game design, 2) didactic design on how the game is to be used, 3) organisational design for establishing both supply and demand, and finally 4) business design, which concerns the establishment...

  5. Sampling and energy evaluation challenges in ligand binding protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jiayi; Doyle, Lindsey; Jr Greisen, Per; Schena, Alberto; Park, Hahnbeom; Johnsson, Kai; Stoddard, Barry L; Baker, David

    2017-12-01

    The steroid hormone 17α-hydroxylprogesterone (17-OHP) is a biomarker for congenital adrenal hyperplasia and hence there is considerable interest in development of sensors for this compound. We used computational protein design to generate protein models with binding sites for 17-OHP containing an extended, nonpolar, shape-complementary binding pocket for the four-ring core of the compound, and hydrogen bonding residues at the base of the pocket to interact with carbonyl and hydroxyl groups at the more polar end of the ligand. Eight of 16 designed proteins experimentally tested bind 17-OHP with micromolar affinity. A co-crystal structure of one of the designs revealed that 17-OHP is rotated 180° around a pseudo-two-fold axis in the compound and displays multiple binding modes within the pocket, while still interacting with all of the designed residues in the engineered site. Subsequent rounds of mutagenesis and binding selection improved the ligand affinity to nanomolar range, while appearing to constrain the ligand to a single bound conformation that maintains the same "flipped" orientation relative to the original design. We trace the discrepancy in the design calculations to two sources: first, a failure to model subtle backbone changes which alter the distribution of sidechain rotameric states and second, an underestimation of the energetic cost of desolvating the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of the ligand. The difference between design model and crystal structure thus arises from both sampling limitations and energy function inaccuracies that are exacerbated by the near two-fold symmetry of the molecule. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  6. Challenges of Designing and Implementing High Consequence Infectious Disease Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joan M; Tiwari, Chetan; Mikler, Armin R; O'Neill, Martin

    2018-03-19

    Ebola is a high consequence infectious disease-a disease with the potential to cause outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics with deadly possibilities, highly infectious, pathogenic, and virulent. Ebola's first reported cases in the United States in September 2014 led to the development of preparedness capabilities for the mitigation of possible rapid outbreaks, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) providing guidelines to assist public health officials in infectious disease response planning. These guidelines include broad goals for state and local agencies and detailed information concerning the types of resources needed at health care facilities. However, the spatial configuration of populations and existing health care facilities is neglected. An incomplete understanding of the demand landscape may result in an inefficient and inequitable allocation of resources to populations. Hence, this paper examines challenges in implementing CDC's guidance for Ebola preparedness and mitigation in the context of geospatial allocation of health resources and discusses possible strategies for addressing such challenges. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 4).

  7. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  8. Nuclear submarines in the Royal Navy - the design challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    Since the early years of the century, submarines have been among the most potent contributors to naval power. Nuclear-powered submarines, with the ability to stay continuously submerged for months and capable of the high sustained speeds previously only achieved by surface warships, now vie with aircraft carriers as the capital ships of the major navies of the world. Indeed, their unsurpassed stealth has made them the prime choice for deploying a nuclear deterrent capability. After a brief historical survey, this paper reviews the current status of the Royal Navy's nuclear submarine fleet then describes the design and construction process for a nuclear submarine. The design of any submarine is a complex and highly integrated process and the particular and far-reaching effects of incorporating nuclear steam-raising plant are discussed, along with the key safety considerations involved in nuclear submarine design and operation. The paper concludes with some thoughts on the future development of submarines. (author)

  9. Challenges and opportunities in integration of design and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    , advancements in control algorithms and software have widened the range of feasible operation and control for strongly interconnected production systems. In light of these advances in different areas of the field, recommendations for further research and initiatives for development of an integrated approach......Process synthesis and design of plant operation are related topics but current industrial practice solves these problems sequentially. The implication of this sequential strategy may result in design of processing systems which are very hard to control. This paper presents a discussion on drivers...

  10. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  11. Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the…

  12. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  13. design and operations challenges of a single toggle jaw crusher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    hard rock to stress concentration and strain rate. According to Elisante [14], physical properties of materials such as: moisture content, structure, friability, density, hardness and crushing strength are important design criteria, as these affect both the life of the liners and power requirement. Olaleye [15] revealed that the.

  14. Concept Learning by Direct Current Design Challenges in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, Dave H. J.; de Vries, Marc J.; Schure, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training. LBD uses the…

  15. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  16. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, D.H.J.; de Vries, M.J.; Schure, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  17. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breukelen, D.H.J.; De Vries, M.J.; Schure, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning,

  18. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEd Dave van Breukelen; Prof. Dr. Marc de Vries; MEd Frank Schure

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), that aims to improve student learning,

  19. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development, variabi......Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  20. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  1. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  2. Design Challenges and Guidelines for Persuasive Technologies that Facilitate Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Chen, Ping-yu; Uglow, Scott; Scott, Alison; Montague, Enid

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases and health risks are the result of unhealthy lifestyles and technology could be used as an intervention. However, designing healthy lifestyle technologies is challenging, as the technology should be able to influence user behavior. In this case study, the design and evaluation process of a persuasive healthy lifestyle assistance technology was investigated. The iterative design and evaluation process included: contextual inquiry, storyboarding, concept generation, paper prototyping, video prototyping, interactive prototyping and user testing. Several design challenges are identified and guidelines are described for designing a technological intervention to encourage healthy lifestyles. PMID:24855501

  3. Challenges and perspectives in Service Design curricula. The case of the Service Systems Design Master of Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Morelli, Nicola; Grani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the new Master program on Service Systems Design at Aalborg University in Copenhagen will be presented, focusing on the challenges of building such a curriculum and on its peculiar approach to Service Design through the Problem Based Learning methodology. All the semesters will be d...

  4. Challenges in Capitalizing Knowledge in Innovative Product Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Saad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Capitalizing on company's knowledge is increasingly being recognized in a private organizations environment since managing knowledge productivity is considered a source of competitive advantage. In this paper we present a generalization of GAMETH framework, that play an important role in identifying crucial knowledge used and created in innovative product design process. Thus, we have developed a method based on three phases. In the first phase, we have used GAMETH to identify the set of "reference knowledge". During the second phase, decision rules are inferred, through rough sets theory, from decision assignments provided by the decision maker(s. In the third phase, a multicriteria classification of "potential crucial knowledge" is performed on the basis of the decision rules that have been collectively identified by the decision maker(s.

  5. Doing Disability Research in a Southern Context: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    Research on disability issues in countries of the South is primarily dominated by a focus on generating large scale quantitative data sets. This paper discusses the many challenges, opportunities and dilemmas faced in designing and undertaking a qualitative research study in one district in India. The Disability, Education and Poverty Project…

  6. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  7. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academicreform and the international accreditation...

  8. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  9. IKEA hackers : The lampan - opportunities for 'new' designers bring challenges for 'old' designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, when standardization successfully separated design from manufacturing, a new profession emerged: the industrial designer. Industrial designers cater to mass production by making trade-offs between engineering, human factors, design constraints and marketing.

  10. Characterising Extrinsic Challenges Linked to the Design and Implementation of Inquiry-Based Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2017-11-01

    Inquiry-based science education has been incorporated in science curricula internationally. In this regard, however, many teachers encounter challenges. The challenges have been characterised into those linked to the personal characteristics of these teachers (intrinsic challenges) and others associated with contextual factors (extrinsic challenges). However, this level of characterisation is inadequate in terms of appreciating the complexity of the challenges, tracking of their development, and discovering knowledge within specific categories. Against this background, the purpose of the research presented here was to characterise extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work. In order to do so, we used a conceptual framework of teaching challenges based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development. The data gathered using a multi-method case study of practical work in two South African high schools, was analysed by combining the data-driven inductive approach and the deductive a priori template of codes approach in thematic analysis. On this basis, the extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work that participants are confronted with, were found to consist of macrosystem challenges (such as a restrictive curriculum) and microsystem challenges. At the latter level, the challenges are material-related (e.g., lack of science education equipment and materials) or non-material-related (such as time constraints and the lack of access to interactive computer simulations). We have discussed the theory-, practice- and research-based implications of these results in relation to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work in South Africa and internationally.

  11. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    OpenAIRE

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should public undertakings be considered as public sector bodies in the meaning of the Directive? Are there public undertakings holding "interesting" PSI? Are there different definitions of national legisl...

  12. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course...... contents and relevant teaching methods are discussed....

  13. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course contents and relevant teaching methods are discussed.

  14. 42 CFR 137.165 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake annual audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.165 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...-Governance Tribes must undertake annual audits pursuant to the Single Audit Act, 31 U.S.C. 7501 et seq. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...

  15. Delft Aerospace Design Projects 2015 : Challenging New Designs in Aeronautics, Astronautics and Wind Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melkert, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the results of the Fall Design Synthesis Exercise 2014 and the Spring Design Synthesis Exercise of 2015, based on summaries of each of the projects. The Design Synthesis Exercise Coordination Committee, responsible for the organisation and execution of the exercise,

  16. New Challenges for Design Participation in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brereton, Margot; Buur, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of participatory design in the work democracy projects of the 1970’s and 1980’s in Scandinavia, computing technology and people’s engagement with it have undergone fundamental changes. Although participatory design continues to be a precondition for designing computing that aligns...... computing, and how this challenges the original participatory design thinking. In particular we will argue that more casual, exploratory formats of engagement with people are required, and rather than planning the all-encompassing systems development project, participatory design needs to move towards...

  17. New Challenges for Design Participation in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brereton, Margot; Buur, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    computing, and how this challenges the original participatory design thinking. In particular we will argue that more casual, exploratory formats of engagement with people are required, and rather than planning the all-encompassing systems development project, participatory design needs to move towards......Since the event of participatory design in the work democracy projects of the 1970’s and 1980’s in Scandinavia, computing technology and people’s engagement with it have undergone fundamental changes. Although participatory design continues to be a precondition for designing computing that aligns...

  18. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  19. Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges.

  20. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  1. What values in design? The challenge of incorporating moral values into design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders-Huits, Noëmi

    2011-06-01

    Recently, there is increased attention to the integration of moral values into the conception, design, and development of emerging IT. The most reviewed approach for this purpose in ethics and technology so far is Value-Sensitive Design (VSD). This article considers VSD as the prime candidate for implementing normative considerations into design. Its methodology is considered from a conceptual, analytical, normative perspective. The focus here is on the suitability of VSD for integrating moral values into the design of technologies in a way that joins in with an analytical perspective on ethics of technology. Despite its promising character, it turns out that VSD falls short in several respects: (1) VSD does not have a clear methodology for identifying stakeholders, (2) the integration of empirical methods with conceptual research within the methodology of VSD is obscure, (3) VSD runs the risk of committing the naturalistic fallacy when using empirical knowledge for implementing values in design, (4) the concept of values, as well as their realization, is left undetermined and (5) VSD lacks a complimentary or explicit ethical theory for dealing with value trade-offs. For the normative evaluation of a technology, I claim that an explicit and justified ethical starting point or principle is required. Moreover, explicit attention should be given to the value aims and assumptions of a particular design. The criteria of adequacy for such an approach or methodology follow from the evaluation of VSD as the prime candidate for implementing moral values in design.

  2. Challenges in Design of an Orientation free Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (µDMFC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hales, Jan Harry

    2014-01-01

    The need for increasing the energy density of the power sources for portable electronic applications is getting increasingly important. Hearing aid devices are among the most demanding portable products and require power generators with high energy generation capability. In the current paper...... the challenges in design and manufacturing of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) as the power generator in hearing aid devices is investigated. Among the different challenges in design for μDMFC, the CO2 bubble management and orientation independency of the cell are addressed by proposing a spring loaded...

  3. LTE and the evolution to 4G wireless design and measurement challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rumney, Moray

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide to LTE design, test and measurement, this new edition has been updated to include the latest developments This book presents the latest details on LTE from a practical and technical perspective. Written by Agilent's measurement experts, it offers a valuable insight into LTE technology and its design and test challenges. Chapters cover the upper layer signaling and system architecture evolution (SAE). Basic concepts such as MIMO and SC-FDMA, the new uplink modulation scheme, are introduced and explained, and the authors look into the challenges of verifying the

  4. Rectifier Design Challenges for RF Wireless Power Transfer and Energy Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Collado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of wireless power transfer (WPT and energy harvesting (EH solutions poses different challenges towards achieving maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency in these systems. This paper covers several selected challenges when developing WPT and electromagnetic EH solutions, such as the design of multiband and broadband rectifiers, the minimization of the effect that load and input power variations may have on the system performance and finally the most optimum power combining mechanisms that can be used when dealing with multi-element rectifiers.

  5. The MedlinePlus public user interface: studies of design challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Jennifer L.; Miller, Naomi; Kitendaugh, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Question: What are the challenges involved in designing, modifying, and improving a major health information portal that serves over sixty million page views a month? Setting: MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) consumer health Website, is examined. Method: Challenges are presented as six “studies,” which describe selected design issues and how NLM staff resolved them. Main Result: Improving MedlinePlus is an iterative process. Changes in the public user interface are ongoing, reflecting Web design trends, usability testing recommendations, user survey results, new technical requirements, and the need to grow the site in an orderly way. Conclusion: Testing and analysis should accompany Website design modifications. New technologies may enhance a site but also introduce problems. Further modifications to MedlinePlus will be informed by the experiences described here. PMID:16404467

  6. Present day design challenges exemplified by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, P.W. Jr.; Anderson, C.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The present day design challenges faced by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant engineer result from two causes. The first cause is aspiration to achieve a design that will operate at conditions which are desirable for future LMFBRs in order for them to achieve low power costs and good breeding. The second cause is the licensing impact. Although licensing the CRBRP won't eliminate future licensing effort, many licensing questions will have been resolved and precedents set for the future LMFBR industry

  7. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  8. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  9. Positioning Learning Design: Learner Experience and the challenges of transforming teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Mark; Griffiths, Dai; Hanslot, Zubair

    2010-01-01

    Johnson, M., Griffiths, D., & Hanslot, Z. (2010). Positioning Learning Design: Learner Experience and the challenges of transforming teaching practice. In D. Griffiths, & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open

  10. Hybrid Societies: Challenges and Perspectives in the Design of Collective Behavior in Self-organizing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eHamann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid societies are self-organizing, collective systems composed of different components, for example, natural and artificial parts (bio-hybrid or human beings interacting with and through technical systems (socio-technical. Many different disciplines investigate methods and systems closely related to the design of hybrid societies. A~stronger collaboration between these disciplines could allow for re-use of methods and create significant synergies. We identify three main areas of challenges in the design of self-organizing hybrid societies. First, we identify the formalization challenge. There is an urgent need for a generic model that allows a description and comparison of collective hybrid societies. Second, we identify the system design challenge. Starting from the formal specification of the system, we need to develop an integrated design process. Third, we identify the challenge of interdisciplinarity. Current research on self-organizing hybrid societies stretches over many different fields and hence requires the re-use and synthesis of methods at intersections between disciplines. We then conclude by presenting our perspective for future approaches with high potential in this area.

  11. Design challenges for long-term interaction with a robot in a science classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, Daniel Patrick; Charisi, Vasiliki; Wijnen, Frances Martine; Papenmeier, Andrea; van der Meij, Jan; Reidsma, Dennis; Evers, Vanessa

    This paper aims to present the main challenges that emerged during the process of the research design of a longitudinal study on child-robot interaction for science education and to discuss relevant suggestions in the context. The theoretical rationale is based on aspects of the theory of social

  12. Challenges of building and sustaining living labs for designing services and products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subasi, Özge; Werner, Katharina; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show examples from one of the living labs from the Give&Take project and discuss the observed challenges of establishing and sustaining living labs in a participatory design context. The observations we present are around the mismatch between research language and everyday...

  13. Curriculum Design Practices of a Vocational Community College in a Developing Context: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albashiry, Nabeel M.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2015-01-01

    Aligning vocational curricula with the labor market needs is a common reported challenge in developing countries. Little is known, however, about how vocational community colleges in such contexts regularly review and redesign their curricula to ensure the quality and relevance of their programs. From a curriculum design (CD) perspective, this…

  14. Challenges and Limitations of Applying an Emotion-driven Design Approach on Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper L.; Gudmundsson, Hjalte P.; Achiche, Sofiane

    2011-01-01

    Population ageing is without parallel in human history and the twenty-first century will witness even more rapid ageing than did the century just past. Understanding the user needs of the elderly and how to design better products for this segment of the population is crucial, as it can offer a co...... related to the participants’ age and cognitive abilities. The challenges encountered are discussed and guidelines on what should be taken into account to facilitate an emotion-driven design approach for elderly people are proposed....... a competitive advantage for companies. In this paper, challenges of applying an emotion-driven design approach applied on elderly people, in order to identify their user needs towards walking frames, are discussed. The discussion will be based on the experiences and results obtained from the case study....... To measure the emotional responses of the elderly, a questionnaire was designed and adapted from P.M.A. Desmet’s product-emotion measurement instrument: PrEmo. During the case study it was observed that there were several challenges when carrying out the user survey, and that those challenges particularly...

  15. Challenges and Opportunities for Establishing Design as a Research Discipline in Civil and Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of fields including architecture, industrial design, and urban planning and design, where design is the discipline upon which all research and teaching activities are based. In other fields such as aerospace and mechanical engineering, design is a sub-discipline with its own...... faculty, research and education communities, conferences, and journals. However, design remains an emerging sub-discipline in civil and environmental engineering – practiced, valued, and taught but not subject to rigorous academic research. This paper presents some of the challenges associated...... with the establishment of design as a research discipline within civil and environmental engineering, some of the benefits and opportunities that will come from that establishment, and some evidence for the fact that this process has already begun....

  16. Device and Circuit Design Challenges in the Digital Subthreshold Region for Ultralow-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vaddi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, subthreshold operation has gained a lot of attention due to ultra low-power consumption in applications requiring low to medium performance. It has also been shown that by optimizing the device structure, power consumption of digital subthreshold logic can be further minimized while improving its performance. Therefore, subthreshold circuit design is very promising for future ultra low-energy sensor applications as well as high-performance parallel processing. This paper deals with various device and circuit design challenges associated with the state of the art in optimal digital subthreshold circuit design and reviews device design methodologies and circuit topologies for optimal digital subthreshold operation. This paper identifies the suitable candidates for subthreshold operation at device and circuit levels for optimal subthreshold circuit design and provides an effective roadmap for digital designers interested to work with ultra low-power applications.

  17. Design and Fabrication Challenges for Millimeter-Scale Three-Dimensional Phononic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Lucklum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While phononic crystals can be theoretically modeled with a variety of analytical and numerical methods, the practical realization and comprehensive characterization of complex designs is often challenging. This is especially important for the nearly limitless possibilities of periodic, three-dimensional structures. In this contribution, we take a look at these design and fabrication challenges of different 3D phononic elements based on recent research using additive manufacturing. Different fabrication technologies introduce specific limitations in terms of, e.g., material choices, minimum feature size, aspect ratios, or support requirements that have to be taken into account during design and theoretical modeling. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of additive technologies suitable for millimeter and sub-millimeter feature sizes. Furthermore, we present comprehensive experimental characterization of finite, simple cubic lattices in terms of wave polarization and propagation direction to demonstrate the substantial differences between complete phononic band gap and application oriented directional band gaps of selected propagation modes.

  18. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefay, Hagos; Abrha, Atakelti; Kinsman, John; Myléus, Anna; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death) have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  20. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  1. Two approaches to meeting the economic challenge for advanced BWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, H.; Rao, A.S.; Sawyer, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    In developing next generation nuclear power plants many economic challenges must be addressed before they become economically attractive to utilities. The economic challenges vary from country to country but have several common characteristics. First and foremost, a plant has to have the lowest construction (costs) to even be considered for design and construction. Additionally, the plant design has to a have a reasonable chance of being licensed by the regulatory authorities in order to minimize the financial risk to the constructing utility. With the long lead times involved in the design and development of advanced plants nowadays, the overall development costs have also become a key factor in the evolution of advanced plants. This paper presents the design overview and approach to addressing the aforementioned economic challenges for two Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) designs. The first plant is the ABWR and the second is the European Simplified Boiling Water. The ABWR relies on proven technology and components and an extensive infrastructure that has been built up over the last 20 year. Because it has proven and standard safety systems, which have been licensed in two countries, it has very limited uncertainly regarding licensing. Finally, it relies on the economies of scale and design flexibility to improve the overall economics of power generation. The ESBWR on the other hand has taken an innovative approach to reduce systems and components to simplify the overall plant to improve plant economics. The overall plant design is indeed simpler, but improved economics required reliance on some economies of scale also. This design embodied in the ESBWR, also has minimized the overall development cost by utilizing features and components from the ABWR and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor technology programs. (authors)

  2. ACCELERATOR PHYSICS CHALLENGES IN THE DESIGN OF MULTI-BEND-ACHROMAT-BASED STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Hettel, R.; Leemann, S. C.; Robin, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    With the recent success in commissioning of MAX IV, the multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice has begun to deliver on its promise to usher in a new generation of higher-brightness synchrotron light sources. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the challenges, recent success, and lessons learned of the MAX-IV project. Drawing on these lessons, we then describe the physics challenges in even more ambitious rings and how these can be met. In addition, we touch on engineering issues and choices that are tightly linked with the physics design.

  3. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  4. Designing differently: conflict and the challenge of addressing tensions between contractual and non-contractual norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Y.P.

    2016-01-01

    Lawyers are the engineers and architects of contractual frameworks. Arguably, with respect to the success of the undertaking, they occupy a place of equal importance to the parties executing the contracts. After all, contracts are put in place to help prevent problems from arising in long-term

  5. Opportunities and challenges for innovation in the design of low-carbon energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Andersen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Footprint, concepts and tools from Life Cycle Assessment, and relevant elements from eco-efficiency theoretical frameworks. Often systemic approaches tend to be driven by completely rational models. However, our main contribution is to consider a more holistic approach that also includes socio-psychological...... as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological......Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken...

  6. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  7. Designing capacity-building in e-learning expertise: Challenges and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Aczel, J. C.; Peake, S. R.; Hardy, P.

    2008-01-01

    This research study looks at how organizations in developing countries perceive the challenge of building capacity in e-learning expertise. Data was collected on six such organizations, and a range of perceived rationales and constraints were identified. The paper hypothesizes a four-part framework to define the e-learning capacity gaps that these circumstances appear to represent: the 'instructional design capacity gap', the 'production capacity gap', the 'tutorial capacity gap' and the 'com...

  8. HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipeline and riser design in Guanabara Bay: challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfimsilva, Carlos; Jorge, Joao Paulo Carrijo; Schmid, Dominique; Gomes, Rodrigo Klim [INTECSEA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, Alexander Piraja [GDK, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Worldwide shipments of plastic pipes are forecasted to increase 5.2% per year since 2008, being commonly used for water supply and sewage disposal. The HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipes have been applied recently to deliver potable water and fire fighting water for the main pier of the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. The system contains three sizes of pipe outside diameter, 110 mm and 160 mm for water supply, and 500 mm for the fire fighting system. The main design challenges of the pipeline system included providing on-bottom stability, a suitable installation procedure and a proper riser design. The on-bottom stability calculations, which are quite different from the conventional steel pipelines, were developed by designing concrete blocks to be assembled on the pipeline in a required spacing to assure long term stability, knowing that plastic pipes are buoyant even in flooded conditions. The installation procedure was developed considering the lay down methodology based on surface towing technique. The riser was designed to be installed together with additional steel support structure to allow the entire underwater system to have the same plastic pipe specification up to the surface. This paper presents the main challenges that were faced during the design of the HDPE pipelines for the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, addressing the solutions and recommendations adopted for the plastic underwater pipeline system.

  9. 12 CFR 980.2 - Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 980.2 Section 980.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.2 Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities. No Bank shall undertake any new business activity except in accordance with the...

  10. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should

  11. 77 FR 31161 - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... of May 21, 2012 Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Memorandum for the Chief Executive Officer of the... following officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), in the order listed, shall act as and...

  12. Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Stage (US) section of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ares I rocket will require internal access platforms for maintenance tasks performed by humans inside the vehicle. Tasks will occur during expensive critical path operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) including vehicle stacking and launch preparation activities. Platforms must be translated through a small human access hatch, installed in an enclosed worksite environment, support the weight of ground operators and be removed before flight - and their design must minimize additional vehicle mass at attachment points. This paper describes the application of a user-centered conceptual design process and the unique challenges encountered within NASA's systems engineering culture focused on requirements and "heritage hardware". The NASA design team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) initiated the user-centered design process by studying heritage internal access kits and proposing new design concepts during brainstorming sessions. Simultaneously, they partnered with the Technology Transfer/Innovative Partnerships Program to research inflatable structures and dynamic scaffolding solutions that could enable ground operator access. While this creative, technology-oriented exploration was encouraged by upper management, some design stakeholders consistently opposed ideas utilizing novel, untested equipment. Subsequent collaboration with an engineering consulting firm improved the technical credibility of several options, however, there was continued resistance from team members focused on meeting system requirements with pre-certified hardware. After a six-month idea-generating phase, an intensive six-week effort produced viable design concepts that justified additional vehicle mass while optimizing the human factors of platform installation and use. Although these selected final concepts closely resemble heritage internal access platforms, challenges from the application of the

  13. JET Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1991 - volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The ninth JET Progress Report provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1991. The report contains a brief summary of the background to the project, and describes the basic objectives of JET and the principal design aspects of the machine

  14. Smart Industry Research in the Field of HRM : Resetting Job Design as an Example of Upcoming Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, Milou Maria Petronella; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruel, Huub; Parry, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter aims to encourage and guide Smart Industry HRM-related research by addressing upcoming challenges developed using a Job Design lens. Methodology/approach – The challenges are constructed based on a developed overview of the existing body of work related to Job Design and a

  15. Opportunities and Challenges for Drug Development: Public–Private Partnerships, Adaptive Designs and Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gottwald, Matthias; Schüler, Peter; Michel, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research and Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e., public–private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public–private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical, and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development. PMID:27999543

  16. Opportunities and challenges for drug development: public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yildirim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research & Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e. public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public-private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development.

  17. Opportunities and Challenges for Drug Development: Public-Private Partnerships, Adaptive Designs and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gottwald, Matthias; Schüler, Peter; Michel, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Drug development faces the double challenge of increasing costs and increasing pressure on pricing. To avoid that lack of perceived commercial perspective will leave existing medical needs unmet, pharmaceutical companies and many other stakeholders are discussing ways to improve the efficiency of drug Research and Development. Based on an international symposium organized by the Medical School of the University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) and held in January 2016, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of three specific areas, i.e., public-private partnerships, adaptive designs and big data. Public-private partnerships come in many different forms with regard to scope, duration and type and number of participants. They range from project-specific collaborations to strategic alliances to large multi-party consortia. Each of them offers specific opportunities and faces distinct challenges. Among types of collaboration, investigator-initiated studies are becoming increasingly popular but have legal, ethical, and financial implications. Adaptive trial designs are also increasingly discussed. However, adaptive should not be used as euphemism for the repurposing of a failed trial; rather it requires carefully planning and specification before a trial starts. Adaptive licensing can be a counter-part of adaptive trial design. The use of Big Data is another opportunity to leverage existing information into knowledge useable for drug discovery and development. Respecting limitations of informed consent and privacy is a key challenge in the use of Big Data. Speakers and participants at the symposium were convinced that appropriate use of the above new options may indeed help to increase the efficiency of future drug development.

  18. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  19. Component design challenges for the ground-based SP-100 nuclear assembly test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, R.A.; Disney, R.K.; Brown, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 ground engineering system (GES) program involves a ground test of the nuclear subsystems to demonstrate their design. The GES nuclear assembly test (NAT) will be performed in a simulated space environment within a vessel maintained at ultrahigh vacuum. The NAT employs a radiation shielding system that is comprised of both prototypical and nonprototypical shield subsystems to attenuate the reactor radiation leakage and also nonprototypical heat transport subsystems to remove the heat generated by the reactor. The reactor is cooled by liquid lithium, which will operate at temperatures prototypical of the flight system. In designing the components for these systems, a number of design challenges were encountered in meeting the operational requirements of the simulated space environment (and where necessary, prototypical requirements) while also accommodating the restrictions of a ground-based test facility with its limited available space. This paper presents a discussion of the design challenges associated with the radiation shield subsystem components and key components of the heat transport systems

  20. Building Information Modelling: Challenges and Barriers in Implement of BIM for Interior Design Industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. B. Abd; Taib, M. Z. Mohd; Razak, A. H. N. Abdul; Embi, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an innovative approach that has developed crossways the global in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. The construction industry of Malaysia has undergone a rapid development and dynamic technology adoption in advance and methods between the players industry and stakeholders. Consequently, limited technologies and devices have not been successful as it should have been. This study will be emphasizing scenarios of challenges and barriers in adopting BIM in interior design industry in Malaysia. The study was emphasizing the challenges and barriers in BIM usage from the designer’s perspective. The data are collected through the questionnaires as to identifying the barriers, knowledge, readiness and awareness and distributed to interior design firms were selected randomly. The finding of this research is to examine the barriers and causes of variables BIM usage for interior design industry in Malaysia. The outcome of this study is to identify the constraint of adoption BIM in interior design industry compare to others players in same industry.

  1. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academicreform and the international accreditation......Entrepreneurship is one of the contemporary expectations to engineers and their training at engineering schools. But what is entrepreneurship? We propose three different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship in engineering and design programs. They are: (1) the technology-driven promotion response...... centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...

  2. Mechatronic futures challenges and solutions for mechatronic systems and their designers

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, David

    2016-01-01

    Offering a comprehensive overview of the challenges, risks and options facing the future of mechatronics, this book provides insights into how these issues are currently assessed and managed. Building on the previously published book ‘Mechatronics in Action,’ it identifies and discusses the key issues likely to impact on future mechatronic systems. It supports mechatronics practitioners in identifying key areas in design, modeling and technology and places these in the wider context of concepts such as cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. For educators it considers the potential effects of developments in these areas on mechatronic course design, and ways of integrating these. Written by experts in the field, it explores topics including systems integration, design, modeling, privacy, ethics and future application domains. Highlighting novel innovation directions, it is intended for academics, engineers and students working in the field of mechatronics, particularly those developing new conc...

  3. Co-design and implementation research: challenges and solutions for ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Jackson, Claire; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-11-16

    Implementation science research, especially when using participatory and co-design approaches, raises unique challenges for research ethics committees. Such challenges may be poorly addressed by approval and governance mechanisms that were developed for more traditional research approaches such as randomised controlled trials. Implementation science commonly involves the partnership of researchers and stakeholders, attempting to understand and encourage uptake of completed or piloted research. A co-creation approach involves collaboration between researchers and end users from the onset, in question framing, research design and delivery, and influencing strategy, with implementation and broader dissemination strategies part of its design from gestation. A defining feature of co-creation is its emergent and adaptive nature, making detailed pre-specification of interventions and outcome measures impossible. This methodology sits oddly with ethics committee protocols that require precise pre-definition of interventions, mode of delivery, outcome measurements, and the role of study participants. But the strict (and, some would say, inflexible) requirements of ethics committees were developed for a purpose - to protect participants from harm and help ensure the rigour and transparency of studies. We propose some guiding principles to help square this circle. First, ethics committees should acknowledge and celebrate the diversity of research approaches, both formally (through training) and informally (by promoting debate and discussion); without active support, their members may not understand or value participatory designs. Second, ground rules should be established for co-design applications (e.g. how to judge when 'consultation' or 'engagement' becomes research) and communicated to committee members and stakeholders. Third, the benefits of power-sharing should be recognised and credit given to measures likely to support this important goal, especially in research with

  4. Jet joint undertaking progress report 1988 volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) is presented. It covers the fifth year of JET's operation and provides an overview of the scientific and technical advances made on JET. The JET most important articles, published during 1988, are included. The background of JET project, the main objectives and design aspects of the machine are summarized. Most of 1988 was devoted to machine operations: the number of pulses was 4673. The introduction, commissioning and operation of the JET second beam injector is reported. Planned developments on enhancements in the machine for future operations are included

  5. Longitudinal studies on somatic growth and motor performance: designs, challenges, needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonete Pereira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p130 The principle purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the major longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies that focused on somatic growth, biological maturation and more recently also on physical performance. Only selected studies that were conducted in USA, Europe and Portuguese speaking countries will be considered. First, the main theoretical considerations, general characteristics, the study design and statistical analyses and the methodological challenges of the data will be outlined. Further, an overview is provided of the most important longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies. Finally, the major challenges of the ongoing studies are highlighted.

  6. Analysis of Nordic educational projects designed to meet challenges in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Manninen, Jyri; Àrnason, Hróbjartur

    learning providers, trade unions and other agencies supporting human development to create learning inter-ventions to address specific crisis, challenges or changes. In view of recent crises experienced by the Nordic countries The Education and Training Service Centre in Ice-land (www.frae.is) proposed...... with recommendations on how to prepare and carry out edu-cational projects designed to help individuals, groups or society to meet challenges. The project´s method de-veloped somewhat as it evolved: National expert consortiums chose examples of recent successful educational projects. Project descriptions, submitted...... on special forms created by the researchers, were analysed using qualitative methodology, where the cases studied were seen as exemplary, but not representative, examples of good practise. Success factors emerging from the data were classified, structured and interpreted. This hap-pened in three stages...

  7. Estimating life cycle cost for a product family design: The challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteja, T. J.; Karim, A.; Yarlagadda, P. K. D. V.; Yan, C.

    2017-11-01

    A cost estimation system is required to assist in designing a product family. The aim of this paper is to identify the requirements and the problems in estimating the life cycle cost of a product family. Then, this paper also presents the state-of-the-art and the research challenges in developing a life cycle cost estimation system for a product family design. As the conclusion, the life cycle cost estimation process for a product family still needs to face the challenges to determine the end of life strategy of each sub module of a product family, to integrate the end of life strategy to estimate the life cycle cost of a product family, to estimate the life cycle cost of each component level of a product family for design purposes and for different technologies and approaches, to reduce the required time and effort for updating process in estimating the life cycle cost for different structures of different product families, and to transform the available information into the required information in order to estimate the life cycle cost of a product family at the early stage of product development.

  8. IPAD LEARNING ECOSYSTEM: Developing Challenge-Based Learning using Design Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina MARIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and provides an overview of the pilot implementation of the course. The course achieved its goals to a great extent in that learners felt that they were beginning to help build a better college community by sharing stories of their learning experience and their insights about the essential question they chose with other students and with other teachers. The course also helped the students discover the use of English as they found ways to reach out to the broader college community and held meaningful conversations with teachers, librarians, managers, and staff from different departments and other students. The course transformed the teacher/researcher into an observer of learning and a guide, thus flipping the classroom and allowing the learners to take responsibility and steer their own learning experiences. Further development is needed in the areas of CBL assessment rubric development in English Language Teaching (ELT and the analysis of student generated content through iPad applications.

  9. Visual Analytics Tools for Sustainable Lifecycle Design: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, Devarajan; Bernstein, William Z; Chandrasegaran, Senthil K; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The rapid rise in technologies for data collection has created an unmatched opportunity to advance the use of data-rich tools for lifecycle decision-making. However, the usefulness of these technologies is limited by the ability to translate lifecycle data into actionable insights for human decision-makers. This is especially true in the case of sustainable lifecycle design (SLD), as the assessment of environmental impacts, and the feasibility of making corresponding design changes, often relies on human expertise and intuition. Supporting human sense-making in SLD requires the use of both data-driven and user-driven methods while exploring lifecycle data. A promising approach for combining the two is through the use of visual analytics (VA) tools. Such tools can leverage the ability of computer-based tools to gather, process, and summarize data along with the ability of human-experts to guide analyses through domain knowledge or data-driven insight. In this paper, we review previous research that has created VA tools in SLD. We also highlight existing challenges and future opportunities for such tools in different lifecycle stages-design, manufacturing, distribution & supply chain, use-phase, end-of-life, as well as life cycle assessment. Our review shows that while the number of VA tools in SLD is relatively small, researchers are increasingly focusing on the subject matter. Our review also suggests that VA tools can address existing challenges in SLD and that significant future opportunities exist.

  10. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  11. Challenges for eco-design of emerging technologies: The case of electronic textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Andreas R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent innovations of electronic textiles and their end-of-life impacts are reviewed. • The properties of e-textiles are examined against Design for Recycling (DfR) principles. • Eco-design strategies for sustainable product development are discussed. • Compatibility standards for e-textiles are proposed as a waste prevention strategy. • Labelling of e-textiles is suggested as a measure to facilitate recycling. - Abstract: The combination of textile and electronic technologies results in new challenges for sustainable product design. Electronic textiles (e-textiles) feature a seamless integration of textiles with electronics and other high-tech materials. Such products may, if they become mass consumer applications, result in a new kind of waste that could be difficult to recycle. The ongoing innovation process of e-textiles holds opportunities to prevent future end-of-life impacts. Implementing eco-design in the technological development process can help to minimise future waste. However, the existing Design for Recycling (DfR) principles for textiles or electronics do not match with the properties of the combined products. This article examines possibilities to advance eco-design of a converging technology. DfR strategies for e-textiles are discussed from the background of contemporary innovation trends. Three waste preventative eco-design approaches for e-textiles are discussed: 1 harnessing the inherent advantages of smart materials for sustainable design; 2 establishing open compatibility standards; 3 labelling the e-textiles to facilitate their recycling. It is argued that life-cycle thinking needs to be implemented concurrent to the technological development process

  12. Forward tracking at the next $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider part II: experimental challenges and detector design

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, S.; Dannheim, D.; Duarte, J.; Gaede, F.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Sailer, A.; Valentan, M.; Vila, I.; Vos, M.

    2013-06-01

    We present the second in a series of studies into the forward tracking system for a future linear e+e− collider with a center-of-mass energy in the range from 250 GeV to 3 TeV. In this note a number of specific challenges are investigated, which have caused a degradation of the tracking and vertexing performance in the forward region in previous experiments. We perform a quantitative analysis of the dependence of the tracking performance on detector design parameters and identify several ways to mitigate the performance loss for charged particles emitted at shallow angle.

  13. From Playground to Salon: Challenges in Designing a System for Online Public Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes

    2017-01-01

    This article brings together two separate strands of media research: Online comments and media design. Online comments have long been a topic of much concern, both among scholars and the public at large, fearing negative effects from phenomena such as echo chambers, filter bubbles and hate speech....... This paper reports on a project by the Danish public service broadcaster Danmarks Radio, aiming to develop a system for online comments in line with the broadcaster's public service ideals. Through interviews and observations, I explore the challenges encountered by the project team as an empirical case...

  14. Design and conduct of early phase drug studies in children: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Hawcutt, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    It has historically been very difficult to conduct early phase drug studies in children for a number of reasons related to ethics, acceptability, rarity, standardization, end points, safety, dosing and feasibility. Over the past decade there have been a number of developments including novel clinical trial design, in silico pharmacology and microdosing that have significantly enhanced the ability of investigators to conduct early phase drug studies in children. While the evolution of drug therapy is creating a series of new challenges, there has never been a better time for conducting drug studies in children. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-touchpoint Experience Design for Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiangang; Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Clemmensen, Torkil

    The quality of user experience relies heavily on the consistence and integration of multiple touch points along the journey of purchasing and using mobile services. The challenges caused by fragmented and distributed touch points might be well tackled by providing context-awareness design (CAD......). By analyzing the context of using mobile music services we come up with a framework of CAD. CAD can sense the differences of contexts behind multiple touch points, understand the meaning underneath, predict upcoming possible actions, give advice to users and offer customized and adaptive services....

  16. Practical considerations for test design and interpretation of challenging well test field data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbe, D.O. [Alaska Univ., Anchorage, AK (United States); Charles, D.C. [Superior Energy Services, Harvey, LA (United States); Onyekonwu, M.O. [Port Harcourt Univ. (Nigeria)

    2004-07-01

    Several case studies were used to describe the challenges encountered during the analysis of well test data. Practical guidelines were then presented for well test analysis for proper test design and interpretation of field data. A coherent systematic approach was presented to test and interpret well data in terms of gauge movement; gauge oscillations and sensitivity problems; wrong flow rates reported in the test suite; ineffective surface and downhole shut-ins; inadequate pre-shut-in flow history; leaking test lubricator; gas phase segregation; gas-lift wells; coning tendencies before shut-in; and, inadequate test duration. In addition to demonstrating the importance of the well test design phase, this paper showed how to conduct data analyses in a manner that is consistent with other independently available reservoir information.

  17. Challenges and Approaches to Statistical Design and Inference in High Dimensional Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Karen A.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Advances in modern technologies have facilitated high-dimensional experiments (HDEs) that generate tremendous amounts of genomic, proteomic, and other “omic” data. HDEs involving whole-genome sequences and polymorphisms, expression levels of genes, protein abundance measurements, and combinations thereof have become a vanguard for new analytic approaches to the analysis of HDE data. Such situations demand creative approaches to the processes of statistical inference, estimation, prediction, classification, and study design. The novel and challenging biological questions asked from HDE data have resulted in many specialized analytic techniques being developed. This chapter discusses some of the unique statistical challenges facing investigators studying high-dimensional biology, and describes some approaches being developed by statistical scientists. We have included some focus on the increasing interest in questions involving testing multiple propositions simultaneously, appropriate inferential indicators for the types of questions biologists are interested in, and the need for replication of results across independent studies, investigators, and settings. A key consideration inherent throughout is the challenge in providing methods that a statistician judges to be sound and a biologist finds informative. PMID:19588106

  18. Challenges and approaches to statistical design and inference in high-dimensional investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury, Gary L; Garrett, Karen A; Allison, David B

    2009-01-01

    Advances in modern technologies have facilitated high-dimensional experiments (HDEs) that generate tremendous amounts of genomic, proteomic, and other "omic" data. HDEs involving whole-genome sequences and polymorphisms, expression levels of genes, protein abundance measurements, and combinations thereof have become a vanguard for new analytic approaches to the analysis of HDE data. Such situations demand creative approaches to the processes of statistical inference, estimation, prediction, classification, and study design. The novel and challenging biological questions asked from HDE data have resulted in many specialized analytic techniques being developed. This chapter discusses some of the unique statistical challenges facing investigators studying high-dimensional biology and describes some approaches being developed by statistical scientists. We have included some focus on the increasing interest in questions involving testing multiple propositions simultaneously, appropriate inferential indicators for the types of questions biologists are interested in, and the need for replication of results across independent studies, investigators, and settings. A key consideration inherent throughout is the challenge in providing methods that a statistician judges to be sound and a biologist finds informative.

  19. The front end electronics of the NA62 Gigatracker: challenges, design and experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Ceccucci, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Fiorini, M.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Martoiu, S.; Morel, M.; Perktold, L.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2011-06-01

    The beam spectrometer of the NA62 experiment consists of 3 Gigatracker (GTK) stations. Each station comprises a pixel detector of 16 cm active area made of an assembly of 10 readout ASICs bump bonded to a 200 μm thick pixel silicon sensor, comprising 18000 pixels of 300 μm×300 μm. The main challenge of the NA62 pixel GTK station is the combination of an extremely high kaon/pion beam rate, where the intensity in the center of the beam reaches up to 1.5 Mhit s mm together with an extreme time resolution of 100 ps. To date, it is the first silicon tracking system with this time resolution. To face this challenge, the pixel analogue front end has been designed with a peaking time of 4 ns, with a planar silicon sensor operating up to 300 V over depletion. Moreover, the radiation level is severe, 2×10 1 MeV n cm per year of operation. Easy replacement of the GTK stations is foreseen as a design requirement. The amount of material of a single station should also be less than 0.5% X to minimize the background, which imposes strong constraints on the mechanics and the cooling system. We report upon the design and architecture of the 2 prototype demonstrator chips both designed in 130 nm CMOS technology, one with a constant fraction discriminator and the time stamp digitisation in each pixel (In-Pixel), and the other with a time-over-threshold discriminator and the processing of the time stamp located in the End of Column (EoC) region at the chip periphery. Some preliminary results are presented.

  20. How to design a single-cell RNA-sequencing experiment: pitfalls, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Alessandra; Di Camillo, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    The sequencing of the transcriptome of single cells, or single-cell RNA-sequencing, has now become the dominant technology for the identification of novel cell types in heterogeneous cell populations or for the study of stochastic gene expression. In recent years, various experimental methods and computational tools for analysing single-cell RNA-sequencing data have been proposed. However, most of them are tailored to different experimental designs or biological questions, and in many cases, their performance has not been benchmarked yet, thus increasing the difficulty for a researcher to choose the optimal single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiment and analysis workflow. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the current available experimental and computational methods developed to handle single-cell RNA-sequencing data and, based on their peculiarities, we suggest possible analysis frameworks depending on specific experimental designs. Together, we propose an evaluation of challenges and open questions and future perspectives in the field. In particular, we go through the different steps of scRNA-seq experimental protocols such as cell isolation, messenger RNA capture, reverse transcription, amplification and use of quantitative standards such as spike-ins and Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs). We then analyse the current methodological challenges related to preprocessing, alignment, quantification, normalization, batch effect correction and methods to control for confounding effects. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Integration of scholastic curriculum in computergames – impossible or a design challenge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    The present paper argues that integration of scholastic knowledge in computer games is a design challenge and one that will only work if you preserve the computer game as a game. This is important cause if you don’t adhere to or understand the dynamics of computer games you run the risk of destro......The present paper argues that integration of scholastic knowledge in computer games is a design challenge and one that will only work if you preserve the computer game as a game. This is important cause if you don’t adhere to or understand the dynamics of computer games you run the risk...... of destroying your own goal. In order to integrate the scholastic curriculum in computer games for a learning purpose it is and can not be stressed enough important to preserve the action-outcome circle inside the game world. Stated in simpler terms this means that users of learning games must see...... and experience them as games and not as tools for learning. This may sound like a paradox but it isn’t. It is a question of point of view. From the youngsters viewpoint the game is a game with a recognizable and well know form but with another or changed content. From the teachers view the game is a facilitator...

  2. Designing PISA-Like Mathematics Tasks In Indonesia: Experiences and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkardi, Z.; Kohar, A. W.

    2018-01-01

    The insignificant improvement of Indonesian students in PISA mathematics survey triggered researchers in Indonesia to develop PISA-like mathematics tasks. Some development studies have been conducted to produce valid and practical PISA-like problems that potentially effect on improving students’ mathematical literacy. This article describes the experiences of Indonesian task designers in developing PISA-like mathematics tasks as well as the potential future studies regarding to mathematical literacy as challenges for policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to improve students’ mathematical literacy in Indonesia. The results of this research indicate the task designers to consider domains of PISA like: context, mathematical content, and process as the first profiles of their missions. Our analysis shows that the designers mostly experienced difficulties regarding to the authenticity of context use and language structure. Interestingly, many of them used a variety of local wisdom in Indonesia as contexts for designing PISA-like tasks. In addition, the products developed were reported to be potentially effects on students’ interest and elicit students’ mathematical competencies as mentioned in PISA framework. Finally, this paper discusses future studies such as issues in bringing PISA task into an instructional practice.

  3. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design challenges in nanoparticle-based platforms: Implications for targeted drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Douglas Gurnett

    Characterization and control of heterogeneous distributions of nanoparticle-ligand components are major design challenges for nanoparticle-based platforms. This dissertation begins with an examination of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-based targeted delivery platform. A folic acid targeted modular platform was developed to target human epithelial cancer cells. Although active targeting was observed in vitro, active targeting was not found in vivo using a mouse tumor model. A major flaw of this platform design was that it did not provide for characterization or control of the component distribution. Motivated by the problems experienced with the modular design, the actual composition of nanoparticle-ligand distributions were examined using a model dendrimer-ligand system. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) resolved the distribution of components in samples with mean ligand/dendrimer ratios ranging from 0.4 to 13. A peak fitting analysis enabled the quantification of the component distribution. Quantified distributions were found to be significantly more heterogeneous than commonly expected and standard analytical parameters, namely the mean ligand/nanoparticle ratio, failed to adequately represent the component heterogeneity. The distribution of components was also found to be sensitive to particle modifications that preceded the ligand conjugation. With the knowledge gained from this detailed distribution analysis, a new platform design was developed to provide a system with dramatically improved control over the number of components and with improved batch reproducibility. Using semi-preparative HPLC, individual dendrimer-ligand components were isolated. The isolated dendrimer with precise numbers of ligands were characterized by NMR and analytical HPLC. In total, nine different dendrimer-ligand components were obtained with degrees of purity ≥80%. This system has the potential to serve as a platform to which a precise number of functional molecules

  5. Challenges and Progress in Aerodynamic Design of Hybrid Wingbody Aircraft with Embedded Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, May-Fun

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the contributions to high-fidelity capabilities for analysis and design of hybrid wingbody (HWB) configurations considered by NASA. Specifically, we focus on the embedded propulsion concepts of the N2-B and N3-X configurations, some of the future concepts seriously investigated by the NASA Fixed Wing Project. The objective is to develop the capability to compute the integrated propulsion and airframe system realistically in geometry and accurately in flow physics. In particular, the propulsion system (including the entire engine core-compressor, combustor, and turbine stages) is vastly more difficult and costly to simulate with the same level of fidelity as the external aerodynamics. Hence, we develop an accurate modeling approach that retains important physical parameters relevant to aerodynamic and propulsion analyses for evaluating the HWB concepts. Having the analytical capabilities at our disposal, concerns and issues that were considered to be critical for the HWB concepts can now be assessed reliably and systematically; assumptions invoked by previous studies were found to have serious consequences in our study. During this task, we establish firmly that aerodynamic analysis of a HWB concept without including installation of the propulsion system is far from realistic and can be misleading. Challenges in delivering the often-cited advantages that belong to the HWB are the focus of our study and are emphasized in this report. We have attempted to address these challenges and have had successes, which are summarized here. Some can have broad implications, such as the concept of flow conditioning for reducing flow distortion and the modeling of fan stages. The design optimization capability developed for improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline HWB configurations is general and can be employed for other applications. Further improvement of the N3-X configuration can be expected by expanding the design space. Finally, the support of

  6. Design of fixed and mobile PET/CT facilities: the similarities and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, Debbie J.; Pryor, M.

    2008-01-01

    Design of PET/CT facilities present particular challenges for Radiation Protection. The high energy gamma ray emitted from the radionuclides used, the prolonged uptake period with patients within the facility and the relatively high dose rates from those patients result in some shielding being required and a careful consideration of the layout within each unit. This paper will present the approach used for the design of a fixed facility and will present staff dose data demonstrating that the design has resulted in low staff doses. The approach used to design mobile facilities will then be described, and a consideration of the doses received on this type of unit will also be given. The fixed facility was installed into a wooden clad building and was extremely small. The building was shared with other non radiation workers. Walls were constructed from dense concrete blocks and the layout arranged to prevent a direct line of site between the patient and workers at any point apart from the scan room where a lead glass window was used. For the mobile facility lead was used as the shielding material. The basic approach was to maximise the distance between operators and resting patients. Because of weight restrictions and limitation on the dose rate at the scanner defined by the scanner manufacturer, a higher dose constraint had to be adopted for staff on the unit. Additional complications include the mobility of the unit which can be parked adjacent to buildings with a variety of construction materials. Results of whole body monitoring for staff in the fixed facility over 5 years will be presented with the results from the mobile units over the last year. These will demonstrate the difficulties in keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable in the mobile scenario and the importance of designing the facility with staff dose in mind from the outset. (author)

  7. Meeting the physics design challenges of modern LWRs being inducted into the Indian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, V.; Pal, Usha; Karthikeyan, R.; Raj, Devesh; Srivastava, Argala; Khan, Suhail Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme started with the two Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) of 210 MWe capacity at Tarapur. Two VVER-1000 MWe reactors which are Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) of Russian design are being constructed at Kudankulam, Tamilnadu and are expected to be commissioned by end 2008. There may be also a possibility of inducting some western PWRs in future. These reactors belong to the category of light water reactors (LWR). The LWRs are compact and have complex physical characteristics distinctly different from those of the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) which, currently form the mainstay of our indigenous nuclear power programme. The physics design and analysis capability for the modern LWRs (BWR, PWR and VVER) has been developed at Light Water Reactors Physics Section, BARC. This paper presents the current state of art in this key technology area to meet the physics design and operation challenges when LWRs would be inducted in a major way into the Indian nuclear power programme and commence operating in the coming decades. (author)

  8. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Leobardo Herrera-May

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases.

  9. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-08-24

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases).

  10. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Manikandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  11. YOUTH: decisions and challenges in designing an osteoporosis prevention intervention for teen girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, Lynn L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Vuckovic, Nancy; Stevens, Victor J; Aickin, Mikel; Elliot, Diane; Moe, Esther; Orwoll, Eric; Ernst, Denise; Irving, Lori M

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes decisions about the experimental design for the Youth, Osteoporosis, and Understanding Total Health Project (YOUTH), a trial designed to test the efficacy of a health plan-based lifestyle intervention for increasing bone mineral density among adolescent women 14 to 16 years of age. This randomized controlled trial recruited adolescent women who were at higher risk for developing osteoporosis (body mass index 16-23) from a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The intervention focused on improving diet (high calcium foods, fruits, and vegetables) and increasing physical activity (high impact and spinal motion). The intervention included both group and individual activities. The primary endpoint in the study was total bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Baseline data were collected on the trial cohort of 228 adolescent women and their families. This paper discusses how researchers met the following challenges in designing and implementing the trial: determining appropriate dietary and exercise targets to affect bone mineral density in adolescents; choosing suitable assessments; and developing an intervention well suited for implementation in a non-school (health plan) setting. We also discuss the rationale for the specific study population chosen (females, younger adolescents). The YOUTH project is one of very few preventive research interventions with adolescents conducted in a health plan setting. Many of the recruitment and intervention strategies used in this trial may be appropriate for adoption in other health plan-based prevention studies.

  12. Urban drainage system planning and design--challenges with climate change and urbanization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Zeinab; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are in general failing in their functions mainly due to non-stationary climate and rapid urbanization. As these systems are becoming less efficient, issues such as sewer overflows and increase in urban flooding leading to surge in pollutant loads to receiving water bodies are becoming pervasive rapidly. A comprehensive investigation is required to understand these factors impacting the functioning of urban drainage, which vary spatially and temporally and are more complex when weaving together. It is necessary to establish a cost-effective, integrated planning and design framework for every local area by incorporating fit for purpose alternatives. Carefully selected adaptive measures are required for the provision of sustainable drainage systems to meet combined challenges of climate change and urbanization. This paper reviews challenges associated with urban drainage systems and explores limitations and potentials of different adaptation alternatives. It is hoped that the paper would provide drainage engineers, water planners, and decision makers with the state of the art information and technologies regarding adaptation options to increase drainage systems efficiency under changing climate and urbanization.

  13. Security challenges in designing I and C systems for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Rajendra Prasad; Jayanthi, T.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically distributed instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in any nuclear power plant (NPP) facilitate the operator with remote access to real-time data and issue supervisory command to remote control devices deployed in the field. The increased connectivity to plant communication network has exposed I and C systems to security vulnerabilities both in terms of physical and logical access. For example, denial-of service and fault induction attack can disrupt the operation of I and C systems by delaying or blocking the flow of data through plant communication network. The design process of I and C system is quite challenging since an engineer has to consider both safety and security features implemented in hardware and software components of the system. This paper analyzes attack taxonomy based on available data and presents Security Tree Analysis (STA) technique towards building safe and secures I and C systems for Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  14. The offshoring challenge strategic design and innovation for tomorrow’s organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bals, Lydia; Jensen, Peter; Larsen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The continuous search for efficiency gains and the goal of attaining a sustainable competitive advantage have steadily increased the volume of goods and services procured globally from third party vendors. In this context, named as “the next wave of globalization”, the offshoring phenomenon has stimulated research and political debates. With the rise of services offshoring, international value chain disaggregation for services has reached a formerly unknown scale. Also, it is increasingly complex transactions, requiring a higher degree of qualification, which are becoming subject to offshoring as well. The Offshoring Challenge: Strategic Design and Innovation for Tomorrow’s Organization features selected chapters by an international research community on the topic of offshoring. All potential business models from offshore outsourcing to third party providers are covered, from cooperative arrangements to internal organizational set-ups including captive offshore centers. Contributions have significant in...

  15. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy

  16. Designs and challenges for personalized medicine studies in oncology: focus on the SHIVA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud; Trédan, Olivier; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Campone, Mario; Goncalves, Anthony; Isambert, Nicolas; Conroy, Thierry; Gentien, David; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Pouliquen, Anne-Lise; Servant, Nicolas; Stern, Marc-Henri; Le Corroller, Anne-Gaëlle; Armanet, Sébastien; Rio Frio, Thomas; Paoletti, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    Personalized medicine is defined by the National Cancer Institute as "a form of medicine that uses information about a person's genes, proteins, and environment to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease." In oncology, the term "personalized medicine" arose with the emergence of molecularly targeted agents. The prescription of approved molecularly targeted agents to cancer patients currently relies on the primary tumor location and histological subtype. Predictive biomarkers of efficacy of these modern agents have been exclusively validated in specific tumor types. A major concern today is to determine whether the prescription of molecularly targeted therapies based on tumor molecular abnormalities, independently of primary tumor location and histology, would improve the outcome of cancer patients. This new paradigm requires prospective validation before being implemented in clinical practice. In this paper, we will first review different designs, including observational cohorts, as well as nonrandomized and randomized clinical trials, that have been recently proposed to evaluate the relevance of this approach, and further discuss their advantages and drawbacks. The design of the SHIVA trial, a randomized proof-of-concept phase II trial comparing therapy based on tumor molecular profiling versus conventional therapy in patients with refractory cancer will be detailed. Finally, we will discuss the multiple challenges associated with the implementation of personalized medicine in oncology, as well as perspectives for the future.

  17. Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Restoration Design Challenges for Topographic Mounds, Channel Outlets, and Reed Canarygrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinks, Ian A. [Columbia Land Trust, Vancouver, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to provide science-based information to practitioners and managers of restoration projects in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) regarding aspects of restoration techniques that currently pose known challenges and uncertainties. The CEERP is a program of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Portland District, in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service and five estuary sponsors implementing restoration. The estuary sponsors are Columbia Land Trust, Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce, Cowlitz Tribe, Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The scope of the research conducted during federal fiscal year 2015 included three aspects of hydrologic reconnection that were selected based on available scientific information and feedback from restoration practitioners during project reviews: the design of mounds (also called hummocks, peninsulas, or berms); the control of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinaceae); and aspects of channel network design related to habitat connectivity for juvenile salmonids.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RULES ON COMPETITION GOVERNING UNDERTAKINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad – Teodor Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the general rules on competition between undertakings in the EU. The author paid attention primarly to matters on the prohibition of agreements that aim to distort or impair competition on the internal market. Moreover, he examined in detail the matter concerning the regulation and interdiction of the abuse of a dominant position. The work also reviews doctrinal opinions, as well as the jurisprudential solutions in the area. The author’s concern to summarize and develop the conditions for the implementation of each of the two legal mechanisms is worth noting: the prohibition of agreements between undertakings and the abuse of a dominant position. The essential considerations taken into account by the Court of Justice of the European Union in settling a case whose subject consisted of assessing the manner in which an undertaking reflected on competition on the internal market were selected at the end of the work.

  19. Designing and Undertaking a Health Economics Study of Digital Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The challenges of designing a lightweight spacecraft structure for landing on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Timothy J.; Bassler, Julie; Cooper, Scott; Stephens, Vince; Ponnusamy, Devamanohar; Briere, Marc; Betenbaugh, Theresa

    2012-02-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been working with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on a lunar lander design that would take scientific measurements on the surface of the moon. This effort is part of NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) Development Project. The requirements imposed on the design of the lander are: (1) Provide a lightweight lander structure to minimize the launch costs and maximize the payload carrying capability, (2) Minimize the lander launch envelope to allow for launching multiple landers on a single launch vehicle, (3) Given specific approach velocities, design a lander with geometric properties (low center-of-gravity, etc.) that maximizes the chances for a controlled landing on the lunar surface, (4) Provide a stable platform for all of the various scientific instruments.The lightweight lander requirement originates from the desire to minimize the launch costs and possibly package multiple landers on a single launch vehicle. The use of lightweight composite materials and advanced manufacturing techniques are employed throughout the design and construction of the structure in order to minimize mass and maximize structural stiffness.Minimizing the launch envelope enables the potential packaging of several spacecraft into one launch vehicle shroud. By having multiple landers, the scientific return is enhanced. Multiple spacecraft on the lunar surface provides independent confirmation of science measurements taken and also highlights any variance in the science data taken at differing lunar latitudes. Naturally, the launch cost per lander is greatly reduced if more than one lander can be packaged on a single launch vehicle.The lunar lander vehicle must arrive at the lunar surface at an upright orientation. In order to accomplish this, the structure geometry must be designed to accommodate attitude errors in roll, pitch and yaw. In addition, the structure must be able to withstand various landing

  1. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  2. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure would not attract sufficient investment from conventional generation (e.g., natural gas due to the increased penetration of zero marginal cost renewable generation. As a result, the Alberta government has chosen to transition to a capacity market. For consumers, a capacity market aims to ensure there is sufficient investment in new generation capacity to “keep the lights on” and reduce price swings in the wholesale market. The capacity market will also help the province meet its goals for attracting investors and transitioning away from its dependence on coal-fired electricity generation.However, a switchover is not as simple as it sounds. In an energy-only market, firms are paid solely based on the provision of electricity in hourly wholesale markets. In capacity markets, electricity-generating firms are also paid for providing generation capacity, reflecting the potential to provide electricity at some point in the future. While capacity markets can help ensure there is a reliable supply of electricity, there are several challenges in the implementation of capacity markets. This paper discusses the motivation for the adoption of capacity markets, highlights challenges regulators face when implementing this market design in the context of Alberta, and summarizes the key trade-offs associated with energy-only versus capacity market designs.Relative to an energy-only market, a capacity market is more complex and requires that regulators specify numerous

  3. Constructed wetlands for treatment of combined sewer overflow in the US: a review of design challenges and application status

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, W.; Bays, J.S.; Meyer, D.; Smardon, R.C.; Levy, Z.F.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of con...

  4. Design of experiments and data analysis challenges in calibration for forensics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Burr, Thomas L.; Hamada, Michael S.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; Thomas, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic science aims to infer characteristics of source terms using measured observables. Our focus is on statistical design of experiments and data analysis challenges arising in nuclear forensics. More specifically, we focus on inferring aspects of experimental conditions (of a process to produce product Pu oxide powder), such as temperature, nitric acid concentration, and Pu concentration, using measured features of the product Pu oxide powder. The measured features, Y, include trace chemical concentrations and particle morphology such as particle size and shape of the produced Pu oxide power particles. Making inferences about the nature of inputs X that were used to create nuclear materials having particular characteristics, Y, is an inverse problem. Therefore, statistical analysis can be used to identify the best set (or sets) of Xs for a new set of observed responses Y. One can fit a model (or models) such as Y = f(X) + error, for each of the responses, based on a calibration experiment and ''invert'' to solve for the best set of Xs for a new set of Ys. This perspectives paper uses archived experimental data to consider aspects of data collection and experiment design for the calibration data to maximize the quality of the predicted Ys in the forward models; that is, we assume that well-estimated forward models are effective in the inverse problem. In addition, we consider how to identify a best solution for the inferred X, and evaluate the quality of the result and its robustness to a variety of initial assumptions, and different correlation structures between the responses. In addition, we also briefly review recent advances in metrology issues related to characterizing particle morphology measurements used in the response vector, Y

  5. Energy Transition: Missed Opportunities and Emerging Challenges for Landscape Planning and Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée M. de Waal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Making the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy seems inevitable. Because energy transition poses new challenges and opportunities to the discipline of landscape architecture, the questions addressed in this paper are: (1 what landscape architects can learn from successful energy transitions in Güssing, Jühnde and Samsø; and (2 to what extent landscape architecture (or other spatial disciplines contributed to energy transition in the aforementioned cases. An exploratory, comparative case study was conducted to identify differences and similarities among the cases, to answer the research questions, and to formulate recommendations for further research and practice. The comparison indicated that the realized renewable energy systems are context-dependent and, therefore, specifically designed to meet the respective energy demand, making use of the available potentials for renewable energy generation and efficiency. Further success factors seemed to be the presence of (local frontrunners and a certain degree of citizen participation. The relatively smooth implementation of renewable energy technologies in Jühnde and on Samsø may indicate the importance of careful and (partly institutionalized consideration of landscape impact, siting and design. Comparing the cases against the literature demonstrated that landscape architects were not as involved as they, theoretically, could have been. However, particularly when the aim is sustainable development, rather than “merely” renewable energy provision, the integrative concept of “sustainable energy landscapes” can be the arena where landscape architecture and other disciplines meet to pursue global sustainability goals, while empowering local communities and safeguarding landscape quality.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling: Subsystem Design and Test Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling subsystem for the Mars Science Laboratory is a highly-mechanized, Rover-based sampling system that acquires powdered rock and regolith samples from the Martian surface, sorts the samples into fine particles through sieving, and delivers small portions of the powder into two science instruments inside the Rover. SA/SPaH utilizes 17 actuated degrees-of-freedom to perform the functions needed to produce 5 sample pathways in support of the scientific investigation on Mars. Both hardware redundancy and functional redundancy are employed in configuring this sampling system so some functionality is retained even with the loss of a degree-of-freedom. Intentional dynamic environments are created to move sample while vibration isolators attenuate this environment at the sensitive instruments located near the dynamic sources. In addition to the typical flight hardware qualification test program, two additional types of testing are essential for this kind of sampling system: characterization of the intentionally-created dynamic environment and testing of the sample acquisition and processing hardware functions using Mars analog materials in a low pressure environment. The overall subsystem design and configuration are discussed along with some of the challenges, tradeoffs, and lessons learned in the areas of fault tolerance, intentional dynamic environments, and special testing

  7. An exploration of neuromorphic systems and related design issues/challenges in dark silicon era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandaliya, Mudit; Chaturvedi, Nitin; Gurunarayanan, S.

    2018-03-01

    The current microprocessors has shown a remarkable performance and memory capacity improvement since its innovation. However, due to power and thermal limitations, only a fraction of cores can operate at full frequency at any instant of time irrespective of the advantages of new technology generation. This phenomenon of under-utilization of microprocessor is called as dark silicon which leads to distraction in innovative computing. To overcome the limitation of utilization wall, IBM technologies explored and invented neurosynaptic system chips. It has opened a wide scope of research in the field of innovative computing, technology, material sciences, machine learning etc. In this paper, we first reviewed the diverse stages of research that have been influential in the innovation of neurosynaptic architectures. These, architectures focuses on the development of brain-like framework which is efficient enough to execute a broad set of computations in real time while maintaining ultra-low power consumption as well as area considerations in mind. We also reveal the inadvertent challenges and the opportunities of designing neuromorphic systems as presented by the existing technologies in the dark silicon era, which constitute the utmost area of research in future.

  8. Understanding the selection of core head design features to match precisely challenging well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrana, Roberto; Sousa, J. Tadeu V. de; Antunes, Ricardo [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Reliable rock mechanical information is very important for optimum reservoir development. This information can help specialists to accurately estimate reserves, reservoir compaction, sand production, stress field orientation, etc. In all cases, the solutions to problems involving rock mechanics lead to significant cost savings. Consequently, it is important that the decisions be based on the most accurate information possible. For the describing rock mechanics, cores represent the major source of data and therefore should be of good quality. However, there are several well conditions that cause coring and core recovery to be difficult, for example: unconsolidated formations; laminated and fractured rocks; critical mud losses, etc. The problem becomes even worse in high-inclination wells with long horizontal sections. In such situations, the optimum selections of core heads become critical. This paper will discuss the most important design features that enable core heads to be matched precisely to various challenging applications. Cases histories will be used to illustrate the superior performance of selected core heads. They include coring in horizontal wells and in harsh well conditions with critical mud losses. (author)

  9. Fundamental and Technical Challenges for a Compatible Design Scheme of Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuguang Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxyfuel combustion with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS is a carbon-reduction technology for use in large-scale coal-fired power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the research and development of this technology during its scaling up from 0.4 MWth to 3 MWth and 35 MWth by the combined efforts of universities and industries in China. A prefeasibility study on a 200 MWe large-scale demonstration has progressed well, and is ready for implementation. The overall research development and demonstration (RD&D roadmap for oxyfuel combustion in China has become a critical component of the global RD&D roadmap for oxyfuel combustion. An air combustion/oxyfuel combustion compatible design philosophy was developed during the RD&D process. In this paper, we briefly address fundamental research and technology innovation efforts regarding several technical challenges, including combustion stability, heat transfer, system operation, mineral impurities, and corrosion. To further reduce the cost of carbon capture, in addition to the large-scale deployment of oxyfuel technology, increasing interest is anticipated in the novel and next-generation oxyfuel combustion technologies that are briefly introduced here, including a new oxygen-production concept and flameless oxyfuel combustion.

  10. Who Assists the Faculty? The Need for Mentorship Programs for Faculty Undertaking Global Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Yasmin; London, Chad; Carston, Cathy; Salyers, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the expectations, motivations, and experiences of Canadian faculty members undertaking development and implementation of global education initiatives (GEI) for students in the form of exchange and study abroad programs, supervised practical coursework, and experiential learning in international settings. Findings revealed that…

  11. 31 CFR 248.5 - Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form 2244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception to requirement of... POSSESSIONS Action to Be Taken by Claimants § 248.5 Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form... and agents, of and from any and all liability, loss, expense, claim, and demand whatsoever, arising in...

  12. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana : Transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.

    The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users), and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for

  13. Best practice in undertaking and reporting health technology assessments : Working Group 4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, R.; Orvain, J.; Velasco, M.; Perleth, M.; Drummond, M.; Gurtner, F.; Jorgensen, T.; Jovell, A.; Malone, J.; Ruther, A; Wild, C.

    2002-01-01

    [Executive Summary] The aim of Working Group 4 has been to develop and disseminate best practice in undertaking and reporting assessments, and to identify needs for methodologic development. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary activity that systematically examines the technical performance, safety, clinical efficacy, and effectiveness, cost, costeffectiveness, organizational implications, social consequences, legal, and ethical considerations of the application of a heal...

  14. Integration of end-user needs into building design projects: use of boundary objects to overcome participatory design challenges

    OpenAIRE

    LATORTUE, Xavier; MINEL, Stephanie; POMPIDOU, Stéphane; PERRY, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Participatory design is perceived as a way of improvement in both manufactured and building design. Nonetheless high level of user involvement has its limits. Part of the difficulties of the participatory design is due to the tacit nature of conventions that are shared between professionals. Boundary objects are described as an interesting tool to bridge those boundaries and should be investigated in the context of participatory design in building projects.

  15. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebana Martinez, B.; Armas Garcia, A.; Martinez Gozalo, I.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges. The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years.

  16. Adventures in Evaluation: Reviewing a CD-ROM Based Adventure Game Designed for Young People Recovering from Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Bradley; Hurworth, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Recently the Centre for Program Evaluation (CPE) at the University of Melbourne was approached by a mental health agency to undertake the unique and challenging task of evaluating a prototype CD-ROM based adventure game designed for young people recovering from psychosis. This unusual and inventive game, titled Pogo's Pledge, used…

  17. Opportunity by Design: New High School Models for Student Success. Carnegie Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Leah; Mackinnon, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Carnegie "Challenge" papers is to lift up ideas and issues in a way that elevates them to the nation's agenda. This paper is a "Challenge" paper, and serves as a call to realize the full power of the Common Core by redesigning and reshaping schools to support teachers and maximize key resources, rather than…

  18. The Consumer Behavior Challenge: Designing an Assignment to Motivate Student Reflection and Self-Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravois, Renée; Lopez, Tará Burnthorne; Budden, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    The tension caused by change pushes students to reflect on their new situation, examine preconceived ideas, and synthesize new with existing knowledge. In the Consumer Behavior Challenge, students are challenged to step outside of their comfort zone by changing a behavior or trying something new for a period of time. Through guided reflection…

  19. Using an Iterative Mixed-Methods Research Design to Investigate Schools Facing Exceptionally Challenging Circumstances within Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Jerome; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mohammed, Rhoda; Lee-Piggott, Rinnelle

    2017-01-01

    In this study, methodology and theory were linked to explicate the nature of education practice within schools facing exceptionally challenging circumstances (SFECC) in Trinidad and Tobago. The research design was an iterative quan>QUAL-quan>qual multi-method research programme, consisting of 3 independent projects linked together by overall…

  20. Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Koper, R. (2005) Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges. In E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation, vol. 11, issue 2 [www.uv.es/RELIEVE]. Available at

  1. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G.J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  2. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill KD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Keith D Hill,1,2 Lesley Day,3 Terry P Haines4,5 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Falls Prevention Research Unit, Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash University, VIC, Australia; 4Allied Health Research Unit, Southern Health, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Monash University, VIC, Australia Purpose: To investigate previous, current, or planned participation in, and perceptions toward, multifactorial fall prevention programs such as those delivered through a falls clinic in the community setting, and to identify factors influencing older people’s intent to undertake these interventions.Design and methods: Community-dwelling people aged >70 years completed a telephone survey. Participants were randomly selected from an electronic residential telephone listing, but purposeful sampling was used to include equal numbers with and without common chronic health conditions associated with fall-related hospitalization. The survey included scenarios for fall prevention interventions, including assessment/multifactorial interventions, such as those delivered through a falls clinic. Participants were asked about previous exposure to, or intent to participate in, the interventions. A path model analysis was used to identify factors associated with intent to participate in assessment/multifactorial interventions.Results: Thirty of 376 participants (8.0% reported exposure to a multifactorial falls clinic-type intervention in the past 5 years, and 16.0% expressed intention to undertake this intervention. Of the 132 participants who reported one or more falls in the past 12 months, over one-third were undecided or disagreed that a falls clinic type of intervention would be of benefit to them. Four elements

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  4. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  5. Technical Challenges in the Construction of Gothic Vaults: The Gothic Theory of Structural Design

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Fernández, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The construction of a Gothic vault implied the solution of several technical challenges. The literature on Gothic vault construction is quite large and its growth continues steadily. The main challenge of any structure is that, during and after construction, it must be "safe", that is, it must not collapse. Indeed, it must be amply safe, able to support different loads for long periods of time. Masonry architecture has shown its structural safety for centuries or millennia. The Pantheon of Ro...

  6. Design and challenges for a tsunami early warning system in the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioğlu, Öcal

    2016-01-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes in Turkey, with a total affected population of around 7 million and direct losses of around 25 billion USD. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude Mw = 7.4, Parsons (J Geophys Res. 109, 2004) concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35 to 70 % in the next 30 years. According to a 2011 study, an earthquake with Mw = 7.25 on the Main Marmara Fault is expected to heavily damage or destroy 2 to 4 % of around 1,000,000 buildings in Istanbul with a population around 13 million, with 9 to 15 % of the buildings receiving medium damage and 20 to 34 % of the buildings damaged lightly (Erdik, Science 341:72, 2013). In the absence of adequate post-earthquake assembly areas especially in the heavily urbanized Istanbul, it is evident that after a major earthquake, especially in the coastal parts of the city, citizens would be storming to landfill assembly and recreational areas. Besides earthquakes, around 30 tsunamis have been reported by Altınok et al. (Natural Hazards Earth System Science 11:273-293, 2011) in the Marmara Sea. Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766, and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. The latest tsunami observed in Marmara was due to a triggered submarine landslide of the 1999 Mw = 7.4 Kocaeli earthquake which led to reported run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places (Tinti et al., Marine Geology 225:311-330, 2006). In this study, I propose a design for a tsunami warning system specific for the Marmara region that is strongly coupled with the earthquake early warning system (due to the short arrival times of tsunami) and stakeholders of the tsunami mitigation activities, such as local and regional components of disaster and emergency management and civil protection units, to ensure that the citizens

  7. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  8. Researcher or nurse? Difficulties of undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Susan

    2014-09-01

    To reflect on the author's personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. When discussing care at the end of life, researchers must accept that some participants may become distressed or emotional, depending on their previous experiences. Interviews that involve sensitive topics require careful planning. The semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of the author's PhD study examining the experiences of advance care planning among family caregivers of people with advanced dementia. A reflection on my personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. The frustration and tragedy of dementia, as experienced by the family caregivers, were powerful and required the author to exert self-control to avoid being overly sympathetic and offering words of reassurance, agreement and comfort. This blurring of roles between researcher and nurse has implications for all nurse researchers who undertake qualitative interviews, particularly when an intense emotional response is likely. Nurse researchers should plan and prepare for potential blurring of roles during emotional interviews and should never automatically assume that they are sufficiently prepared as a result of their previous experience and nurse training.

  9. Benefits and challenges of using the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design for testing an intervention for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viksveen, Petter; Relton, Clare; Nicholl, Jon

    2017-07-06

    Trials which test the effectiveness of interventions compared with the status quo frequently encounter challenges. The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT) design is an innovative approach to the design and conduct of pragmatic trials which seeks to address some of these challenges. In this article, we report our experiences with the first completed randomised controlled trial (RCT) using the cmRCT design. This trial-the Depression in South Yorkshire (DEPSY) trial-involved comparison of treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU plus the offer of an intervention for people with self-reported long-term moderate to severe depression. In the trial, we used an existing large population-based cohort: the Yorkshire Health Study. We discuss our experiences with recruitment, attrition, crossover, data analysis, generalisability of results, and cost. The main challenges in using the cmRCT design were the high crossover to the control group and the lower questionnaire response rate among patients who refused the offer of treatment. However, the design did help facilitate efficient and complete recruitment of the trial population as well as analysable data that were generalisable to the population of interest. Attrition rates were also smaller than those reported in other depression trials. This first completed full trial using the cmRCT design testing an intervention for self-reported depression was associated with a number of important benefits. Further research is required to compare the acceptability and cost effectiveness of standard pragmatic RCT design with the cmRCT design. ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN02484593 . Registered on 7 Jan 2013.

  10. 2015 Summer Design Challenge: Team A&E (2241) Additively Manufactured Discriminator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Sarah E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, Brandon James [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Current discriminator designs are based on historical designs and traditional manufacturing methods. The goal of this project was to form non-traditional groups to create novel discriminator designs by taking advantage of additive manufacturing. These designs would expand current discriminator designs and provide insight on the applicability of additive manufacturing for future projects. Our design stretched the current abilities of additive manufacturing and noted desired improvements for the future. Through collaboration with NSC, we noted several additional technologies which work well with additive manufacturing such as topology optimization and CT scanning and determined how these technologies could be improved to better combine with additive manufacturing.

  11. Creating an Information-Rich Learning Environment to Enhance Design Student Learning: Challenges and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Lou; Nicol, David; Littlejohn, Allison; Grierson, Hilary; Juster, Neal; Ion, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of technology with engineering design students is well established, with shared workspaces being particularly supportive of the collaborative design process. This paper reports on a study where a design knowledge framework involving three learning loops was used to analyse the effectiveness of shared workspaces and digital repositories in…

  12. Tool integration and interoperability challenges of a system-level design flow: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.D.; Stefanov, T.; Nikolov, H.; Thompson, M.; Polstra, S.; Deprettere, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Daedalus is a system-level design flow for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded multimedia systems. It offers a fully integrated tool-flow in which design exploration, system-level synthesis, application mapping, and system prototyping of MP-SoC architectures are

  13. Modeling-challenge paradigm using design of experiments for spacecraft immersed in nonstationary, between-regimes, flowing plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Me; Marchand, R.

    2017-10-01

    A conducting sphere and cylinder under the conditions of nonstationary, between-regimes, flowing plasma is adopted as a test case for a modeling-challenge paradigm based on design of experiments (DOE) methodology that merges numerical simulation and testing. This model/simulation development platform facilitates a red-team/blue-team style challenge aimed at a tailored set of standard experimental conditions and measurements addressing specific questions in spacecraft-environment interactions and assessing the capability of models to describe those conditions. The goal is streamlining the Model/Simulation development process. A byproduct is an enhancement of the interrelationship between experiments in the laboratory and in space. Here, we conceptualize the advantage of the model-challenge over conventional validation in advancing whole-device modeling objectives in basic and applied plasma science.

  14. Challenges of clinical trial design when there is lack of clinical equipoise: Use of a response-conditional crossover design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Deng (Chunqin); K. Hanna (Kim); V. Bril (Vera); M.C. Dalakas (Marinos); P. Donofrio (Peter); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); H.P. Hartung; I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractClinical equipoise is widely accepted as the basis of ethics in clinical research and requires investigators to be uncertain of the relative therapeutic merits of trial comparators. When clinical equipoise is in question, innovative trial designs are needed to reduce ethical tension

  15. The Challenges of Art Education in Designer Capitalism: Collaborative Practices in the (New Media) Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    jagodzinski, jan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the challenges to art education in the twenty-first century as art curricula around the world begin to change so as to meet the new emergent technological realities. It is argued that within a "control" society like ours, where the economic system of capitalism dictates the direction of education along with its…

  16. Curriculum Design Practices of a Vocational Community College in a Developing Context: Challenges and Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albashiry, Nabeel; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2015-01-01

    Aligning vocational curricula with the labor market needs is a common reported challenge in developing countries. Little is known, however, about how vocational community colleges in such contexts regularly review and redesign their curricula to ensure the quality and relevance of their programs.

  17. Capturing Collaborative Challenges: Designing Complexity-Sensitive Theories of Change for Cross-Sector Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob); Keen, N. (Nienke)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractSystems change requires complex interventions. Cross-sector partnerships (CSPs) face the daunting task of addressing complex societal problems by aligning different backgrounds, values, ideas and resources. A major challenge for CSPs is how to link the type of partnership to the

  18. Challenges in thermal design of industrial single-phase power inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of thermal aspects in design process of an industrial single-phase inverter, choice of its topology and components. Stringent design inputs like very high overload level, demand for natural cooling and very wide input voltage range have made conventional circuit topology inappropriate therefore asking for alternative solution. Different power losses calculations in semiconductors are performed and compared, outlining the guidelines how to choose the final topology. Some recommendations in power magnetic components design are given. Based on the final project, a 20kVA single-phase inverter for thermal power plant supervisory and control system is designed and commissioned.

  19. Causal inferences on the effectiveness of complex social programs: Navigating assumptions, sources of complexity and evaluation design challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores avenues for navigating evaluation design challenges posed by complex social programs (CSPs) and their environments when conducting studies that call for generalizable, causal inferences on the intervention's effectiveness. A definition is provided of a CSP drawing on examples from different fields, and an evaluation case is analyzed in depth to derive seven (7) major sources of complexity that typify CSPs, threatening assumptions of textbook-recommended experimental designs for performing impact evaluations. Theoretically-supported, alternative methodological strategies are discussed to navigate assumptions and counter the design challenges posed by the complex configurations and ecology of CSPs. Specific recommendations include: sequential refinement of the evaluation design through systems thinking, systems-informed logic modeling; and use of extended term, mixed methods (ETMM) approaches with exploratory and confirmatory phases of the evaluation. In the proposed approach, logic models are refined through direct induction and interactions with stakeholders. To better guide assumption evaluation, question-framing, and selection of appropriate methodological strategies, a multiphase evaluation design is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges of implementation and implementation research: Learning from an intervention study designed to improve tumor registry reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Walker, Daniel M; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Parides, Michael; Bickell, Nina A

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of interventions designed to improve the quality of medical care often proceeds differently from what is planned. Improving existing conceptual models to better understand the sources of these differences can help future projects avoid these pitfalls and achieve desired effectiveness. To inform an adaptation of an existing theoretical model, we examined unanticipated changes that occurred in an intervention designed to improve reporting of adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients at a large, urban academic medical center. Guided by the complex innovation implementation conceptual framework, our study team observed and evaluated the implementation of an intervention designed to improve reporting to a tumor registry. Findings were assessed against the conceptual framework to identify boundary conditions and modifications that could improve implementation effectiveness. The intervention successfully increased identification of the managing medical oncologist and treatment reporting. During implementation, however, unexpected external challenges including hospital acquisitions of community practices and practices' responses to government incentives to purchase electronic medical record systems led to unanticipated changes and associated threats to implementation. We present a revised conceptual model that incorporates the sources of these unanticipated challenges. This report of our experience highlights the importance of monitoring implementation over time and accounting for changes that affect both implementation and measurement of intervention impact. In this article, we use our study to examine the challenges of implementation research in health care, and our experience can help future implementation efforts.

  1. Challenges of implementation and implementation research: Learning from an intervention study designed to improve tumor registry reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Scheck McAlearney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Implementation of interventions designed to improve the quality of medical care often proceeds differently from what is planned. Improving existing conceptual models to better understand the sources of these differences can help future projects avoid these pitfalls and achieve desired effectiveness. To inform an adaptation of an existing theoretical model, we examined unanticipated changes that occurred in an intervention designed to improve reporting of adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients at a large, urban academic medical center. Methods: Guided by the complex innovation implementation conceptual framework, our study team observed and evaluated the implementation of an intervention designed to improve reporting to a tumor registry. Findings were assessed against the conceptual framework to identify boundary conditions and modifications that could improve implementation effectiveness. Results: The intervention successfully increased identification of the managing medical oncologist and treatment reporting. During implementation, however, unexpected external challenges including hospital acquisitions of community practices and practices’ responses to government incentives to purchase electronic medical record systems led to unanticipated changes and associated threats to implementation. We present a revised conceptual model that incorporates the sources of these unanticipated challenges. Conclusion: This report of our experience highlights the importance of monitoring implementation over time and accounting for changes that affect both implementation and measurement of intervention impact. In this article, we use our study to examine the challenges of implementation research in health care, and our experience can help future implementation efforts.

  2. Two conceptual designs of helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1A based on ITER technologies and challenging ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, A.; Miyazawa, J.; Tamura, H.; Tanaka, T.; Goto, T.; Yanagi, N.; Sakamoto, R.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohtani, H.; The FFHR Design Group

    2017-08-01

    The Fusion Engineering Research Project (FERP) at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is conducting conceptual design activities for the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1A. This paper newly defines two design options, ‘basic’ and ‘challenging.’ Conservative technologies, including those that will be demonstrated in ITER, are chosen in the basic option in which two helical coils are made of continuously wound cable-in-conduit superconductors of Nb3Sn strands, the divertor is composed of water-cooled tungsten monoblocks, and the blanket is composed of water-cooled ceramic breeders. In contrast, new ideas that would possibly be beneficial for making the reactor design more attractive are boldly included in the challenging option in which the helical coils are wound by connecting high-temperature REBCO superconductors using mechanical joints, the divertor is composed of a shower of molten tin jets, and the blanket is composed of molten salt FLiNaBe including Ti powers to increase hydrogen solubility. The main targets of the challenging option are early construction and easy maintenance of a large and three-dimensionally complicated helical structure, high thermal efficiency, and, in particular, realistic feasibility of the helical reactor.

  3. Explicit teaching and scaffolding to enhance concept learning by design challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEd Maurice Smeets; MEd Dave van Breukelen; Prof. Dr. Marc de Vries

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 21 first-year student teachers took part that investigated learning outcomes of a modified learning by design task. The study is part of a series of studies that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training. Design-based

  4. Design Research with a Focus on Learning Processes: An Overview on Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Gravemeijer, Koeno; Confrey, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Design research continues to gain prominence as a significant methodology in the mathematics education research community. This overview summarizes the origins and the current state of design research practices focusing on methodological requirements and processes of theorizing. While recognizing the rich variations in the foci and scale of design…

  5. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This report provides background information on safeguards and explains procedures for States to conclude Additional Protocols to comprehensive Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA. Since the IAEA was founded in 1957, its safeguards system has been an indispensable component of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and has facilitated peaceful nuclear cooperation. In recognition of this, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) makes it mandatory for all non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) party to the Treaty to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus allow for the application of safeguards to all their nuclear material. Under Article III of the NPT, all NNWS undertake to accept safeguards, as set forth in agreements to be negotiated and concluded with the IAEA, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of the States' obligations under the NPT. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreements (reproduced in INFCIRC/540(Corr.)) which provided for an additional legal authority. In States that have both a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force, the IAEA is able to optimize the implementation of all safeguards measures available. In order to simplify certain procedures under comprehensive safeguards agreements for States with little or no nuclear material and no nuclear material in a facility, the IAEA began making available, in 1971, a 'small quantities protocol' (SQP), which held in abeyance the implementation of most of the detailed provisions of comprehensive safeguards agreements for so long as the State concerned satisfied these criteria. The safeguards system aims at detecting and deterring the diversion of nuclear material. Such material includes enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium-233, which could be used directly in nuclear weapons. It also includes natural uranium and depleted uranium, the latter of which is

  6. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  7. Training staff to empower people with long-term conditions to undertake self care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mandy

    Self care can help people with long-term conditions take control of their lives. However, their interest and ability to engage with it may fluctuate over the course of an illness and many need support to undertake self care activities. A team of community matrons in NHS South of Tyne and Wear helped to develop and pilot an e-learning tool for staff, to remind them of the importance of self care and give advice on ways to support patients. The tool has since been rolled out to all staff groups.

  8. Challenging encapsulation in the design of high-risk control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, D.

    2002-01-01

    An apporpriate architectural approach is to acknowledge the underlying physics and to elevate the concepts of state and models to first-class design elements that are not encapsulated within subsystem objects.

  9. Design to Process Capabilities: challenges for the use of Process Capability Databases (PCDBs) in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Göhler, Simon Moritz; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In approaches such as Robust Design, Tolerance Management, Design for Six Sigma (DfSS), etc. there is little disagreement that a better understanding of inevitable production variation is conducive to the success of development projects [Eifler et al. (2013), Arvidsson and Gremyr (2008), Karmakar...... and Maiti (2012), Breyfogle (2003)]. At the same time, information on the achievable manufacturing accuracy or the supplier’s performance is usually inaccurate and largely qualitative in early development stages. Design decisions as well as the choice of manufacturing processes, therefore, often rely...... capabilities may lead to low yields and a cost/time overrun, conservatively underestimated capabilities affect quality through the reduced design space, or through increased play, rattle/noise, size or weight. A possibility to overcome the subjective assessment of variation in development projects is a Process...

  10. Establishing Design Storm Values from Climate Models in Coastal Regions: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic interactions of atmospheric and hydrological processes result in large spatiotemporal changes of precipitation and wind speed in coastal storm events under both current and future climates. This variability can impact the design and sustainability of water infrastructure ...

  11. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of

  12. Lessons learned in induced fit docking and metadynamics in the Drug Design Data Resource Grand Challenge 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Matthew P.; Evans, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Two of the major ongoing challenges in computational drug discovery are predicting the binding pose and affinity of a compound to a protein. The Drug Design Data Resource Grand Challenge 2 was developed to address these problems and to drive development of new methods. The challenge provided the 2D structures of compounds for which the organizers help blinded data in the form of 35 X-ray crystal structures and 102 binding affinity measurements and challenged participants to predict the binding pose and affinity of the compounds. We tested a number of pose prediction methods as part of the challenge; we found that docking methods that incorporate protein flexibility (Induced Fit Docking) outperformed methods that treated the protein as rigid. We also found that using binding pose metadynamics, a molecular dynamics based method, to score docked poses provided the best predictions of our methods with an average RMSD of 2.01 Å. We tested both structure-based (e.g. docking) and ligand-based methods (e.g. QSAR) in the affinity prediction portion of the competition. We found that our structure-based methods based on docking with Smina (Spearman ρ = 0.614), performed slightly better than our ligand-based methods (ρ = 0.543), and had equivalent performance with the other top methods in the competition. Despite the overall good performance of our methods in comparison to other participants in the challenge, there exists significant room for improvement especially in cases such as these where protein flexibility plays such a large role.

  13. THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TEACHER IN THE DIGITAL AGE: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Silva de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the architectural education and models of education practiced in the schools of Architecture and Urbanism in Brazil, particularly in the disciplines of architectural design, through the insertion of information and communication technologies in everyday life of students and teachers. Aiming to discuss the effective use of resources in the design studio, made a brief analysis of the pedagogical practices applied in these disciplines in Brazilian schools nowadays. The aim is also to reflect on possible discrepancies between the evolution of tools to support design and development of teachers of design qualifications. Through these discussions and analysis is intended to contribute to an evaluation of the qualifications needed by teachers of design today - and those who act in the future- and pedagogical practices to be used at a time, now imminent, in which the use of virtual tools will predominate and that teachers need to talk with your student in compatible language. Keywords: Information Technology and Communication, Design Teaching, Architecture.

  14. Optimal design of microalgae-based biorefinery: Economics, opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have great potential as a feedstock for the production of a wide range of end-products under the broad concept of biorefinery. In an earlier work, we proposed a superstructure based optimization model to find the optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal...... biomass, and identified several challenges with the focus being on utilizing lipids extracted microalgal biomass for economic and environmentally friendly production of useful energy products. In this paper, we expand the previous optimization framework by considering the processing of microalgae residue...

  15. Benefits and barriers for registered nurses undertaking post-graduate diplomas in paediatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne; Copnell, Beverley

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents one aspect of a larger study identifying key influences on curriculum redesign and development of a post-graduate diploma in advanced clinical nursing. The focus is on paediatric intensive care and general paediatric streams. Data presented here relate to registered nurses' perceptions of benefits and barriers when undertaking this post-graduate diploma. As well as interviews and focus group discussions with a number of nurses, data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, A total of 885 surveys were distributed to nurses working in paediatric areas in five hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Of these, 391 were completed (response rate 44%). One hundred and thirty (33%) had post-registration or post-graduate paediatric qualifications. Perceived benefits of undertaking the post-graduate diploma mainly related to an increase in knowledge and experience and improvement of employment opportunities. Perceived barriers mainly related to financial and professional issues such as cost of the course, loss of salary, the lack of direct remuneration on completion of the course and a lack of promotional opportunities. It was of concern that several nurses expressed a belief that paediatric qualifications were unnecessary and that many believed their employers did not value the qualification. Several recommendations are suggested to address the main barriers. These include more flexibility in the provision of such courses and opportunities for financial assistance. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Challenge of Designing Blended Courses: From Structured Design to Creative Faculty Support! | Les beaux défis du design de cours hybrides : du design structuré à l’accompagnement créatif !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Carré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study deals with the implementation of an e-learning program in a business school in Canada. Cabot Business School decided to offer the program in a blended format so as to increase the flexibility of the program for clientele enrolled in the undergraduate certificate program. A pilot was initiated in 2009 starting with four hybrid courses. Now, three years later, 35 courses are being offered in blended mode by lecturers and a handful of professors who, for the most part, had no previous experience teaching online. Given the rapid development of this program, this case deals with how the instructional designer, without the benefit of any additional resources, managed to juggle both the development of the certificate program as well as parallel projects. The issues encountered deal with the extent to which the instructional designer can support faculty who are converting their courses from in-class to online, one of the main design challenges encountered by faculty. This case describes training strategies and implemented solutions provided by the instructional designer as well as the results obtained, faculty perceptions, and food for thought on the possible evolution of the role of the instructional designer.

  17. Design and Evaluation of Reform Plan for Local Academic Nursing Challenges Using Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadizaker, Marziyeh; Abedsaeedi, Zhila; Abedi, Heidarali; Saki, Azadeh

    2016-12-01

    This study identifies challenges to the first nurse training program for undergraduate nursing students at a nursing and midwifery school in Iran using a collaborative approach in order to improve the program. Action research was used as a research strategy with qualitative content analysis and quantitative evaluation. The participants were 148 individuals from nursing academic and clinical settings, including administrators, faculty members, students, and staff nurses. We obtained approval from the research deputy and ethics committee of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran for this study. Lack of coherence in the educational program and implementation of the program, inadequate communication between management inside and outside the organization, insufficient understanding of situations by students, and improper control of inhibitors and use of facilitators in teaching and in practice were among the major challenges in the first training process in the context of this study. After classification of problems, the educational decision-making authorities of the school developed an operational program with stakeholder cooperation to plan initial reforms, implementation of reforms, reflection about the actions, and evaluation. Comparison of student satisfaction with the collaborative learning process versus the traditional method showed that except for the atmosphere in the clinical learning environment (p>.05), the mean differences for all dimensions were statistically significant. The results confirm the overall success of the revised partnership program, but stressed the need for further modification of some details for its implementation in future rounds. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. State of the art of piloted electric airplanes, NASA's centennial challenge data and fundamental design implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Lori Anne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current state of the electric airplane as primarily defined by results from NASA's Green Flight Challenge Competition. New equations must be derived in order to determine the endurance and range for electric airplanes since the standard equations depend upon weight change over a flight and the weight of an electric airplane does not change. These new equations could then be solved for the optimal velocity and altitude which were the two driving factors that could change range and endurance for a given airplane configuration. The best velocity for range and endurance is not a function of energy storage or weight change thus the results turn out to be very similar to internal combustion engine airplanes, however, the optimal altitude for the best range and endurance equates to flying as high as reasonably possible. From examining the Green Flight Challenge data of the two fully electric airplanes, the analysis suggests that the electric propulsion system is not the only measure, given today's battery technology, that helps create a viable electric airplane solution. Aerodynamic efficiency becomes very important in order to reduce the required amount of energy. Airplanes that are aerodynamically inefficient make bad electric airplanes because the energy density of batteries is still low and the energy available to carry on board is limited. The more energy wasted on drag, the less the range and endurance of the airplane can be since the addition of more batteries may not be an option.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  20. A Challenge to Environmental Making for Positively and Continuous Learning in Engineering Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Takashi; Kamano, Takuya

    This paper describes specific examples of environmental making for positively and continuous learning in design subject which are called the “Project Exercise” at Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of The University of Tokushima. The purpose of the design subject is training of not only creativity but also information processing, problem solving, group working and presentations. The feature of the Project Exercise is to link with the robot contest. As a result, the training of the motive of the own learning and a continuous study habit is executed. The education effect is discussed from the execution example, the student questionnaire, and the comment form in 2004.

  1. Social innovation through disruptive interactions based on new media as a design strategy for empowering socially challenged communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    This article explores potential roles of social media in community upliftment and empowement, based on a study of a non-profit NGO in a socially challenged suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. In particular, it focuses on the relation between online and offline behaviour, and how the use of social...... media can counteract negative influences in the community, e.g. drug abuse and gangsterism. Interviews with staff and participants reveal that social media use differ from what is reported in earlier research, in particular regarding how people connect, and relations between online and offline...... activities. These differences may arguably inform design for disruptive interaction to address negative influences, such as drugs and gangsterism, in socially challenged communities....

  2. Randomized Controlled Studies and Alternative Designs in Outcome Studies: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews several decades of the author's meta-analytic and experimental research on the conditions under which nonrandomized experiments can approximate the results from randomized experiments (REs). Several studies make clear that we can expect accurate effect estimates from the regression discontinuity design, though its statistical…

  3. Challenging the Curriculum: Exploring the Discipline Boundaries in Art, Design and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, Shan

    2011-01-01

    This review of the 5th International Conference held by the University of the Arts London's Centre for Learning and Teaching in Art and Design, 12 and 13 April 2010 at the Novotel, Tiergarten, Berlin, briefly summarizes the contributions of three keynote speakers, and considers some of the issues they raised. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Challenges associated with the design of underground grinding plant at McArthur River project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrozek, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    McArthur River is an unique high grade uranium underground mine. Ore grinding and thickening are part of the underground operation. The grinding circuit is designed to operate in conditions different from conventional plant environments. Design of the grinding plant was a collective effort of a multi-disciplinary engineering team closely cooperating with project operating personnel. The equipment had to be selected to reflect widely varying ore properties. A user-friendly plant layout provides access to equipment inspections, services, and the delivery of necessary components. The size of the grinding chamber was limited in order to keep the rock stress levels within allowable values. All underground equipment brought to the construction site was restricted in size and weight. Plant construction faced limited storage space underground, tight erection sequencing, and schedule. Plant ventilation is a critical design feature. It efficiently removes radioactive dust from work areas, eliminates stagnant air pockets, and separates clean air from contaminated air areas. Radiation shielding on the equipment is designed to correspond with operational and maintenance functions. Plant operation is remotely controlled and requires little attendance. Video cameras are used on critical equipment and in controlled access areas. An extensive program of preventive and predictive maintenance allows highly reliable plant operation. (author)

  5. Engineering Design and Manufacturing Challenges for a Wide-Aperture, Superconducting Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Bielert, E; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Lepoittevin, B; Lorin, C; Luzieux, S; Perez, J C; Russenschuck, S; Sahner, T; Smekens, D; Segreti, M; Durante, M

    2012-01-01

    The design and construction of a wide-aperture, superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC insertion region is part of a study towards a luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN. The engineering design of components and tooling, the procurement, and the construction work presented in this paper includes innovative features such as more porous cable insulation, a new collar structure allowing horizontal assembly with a hydraulic collaring press, tuning shims for the adjustment of field quality, a fishbone like structure for the ground-plane insulation, and an improved quench-heater design. Rapid prototyping of coil-end spacers and trial-coil winding led to improved shapes, thus avoiding the need to impregnate the ends with epoxy resin, which would block the circulation of helium. The magnet construction follows established procedures for the curing and assembly of the coils, in order to match the workflow established in CERN’s ”large magnet facility.” This requirement led to the design and procurement of...

  6. Australia’s Submarine Design Capabilities and Capacities: Challenges and Options for the Future Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Program Office MSD Maritime Systems Division NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASTRAN NASA Structural Analysis programme NSRD National...mechanics Software: DDAM, ABAQUS, NASTRAN , SIMULIA, CATIA 17 Shock qualification Equipment: seismic air guns, British- designed systems Facilities...Fluid systems Software: fluid models Equipment: test-loop equipment 9 Pipe stress Software: NASTRAN variants (from NASA, NEi NASTRAN , Siemens PLM

  7. Superconducting Cavity Cryomodule Designs for the Next Generation of CW Linacs: Challenges and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Thomas [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The designs of nearly all superconducting RF (SRF) linacs over the last several years, with one notable exception being CEBAF at Jefferson Lab, have assumed pulsed beam operation with relatively low duty factors. These include the XFEL at DESY, the ILC, the original configuration for Project X at Fermilab, as well as several others. Recently proposed projects, on the other hand, including the LCLS-II at SLAC, the newly configured low and medium energy sections for Project X, and FRIB at Michigan State, to name a few, assume continuous wave or CW operation on quite a large scale with ambitious gradients and cavity performance requirements. This has implications in the cavity design as well as in many parts of the overall cryomodule due to higher dynamic heat loads in the cavities themselves and higher heat loads in the input and high-order-mode (HOM) couplers. Piping internal to the cryomodule, the effectiveness of thermal intercepts, the size of integrated heat exchangers, and many other aspects of the overall design are also affected. This paper will describe some of these design considerations as we move toward the next generation of accelerator projects.

  8. Review of the application of ergonomics design of trackless mining equipment (TME) - lessons and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, JP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing levels of trackless mining automation in South African mines, there is a distinct lack of design focus specific to the human operator tasked with driving machines for prolonged periods of the working shift. In many instances...

  9. Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative...

  10. Urban Planning for a Renewable Energy Future: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities from a Design Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Vandevyvere

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning for a renewable energy future requires the collaboration of different disciplines both in research and practice. In the present article, the planning of a renewable energy future is approached from a designer’s perspective. A framework for analysis of the planning questions at hand is first proposed. The framework considers two levels of inquiry: the technical environmental aspect, and its wider embedding in sustainable development. Furthermore, life cycle analysis and exergy studies are discussed for their application potential in design. An altered trias energetica as proposed in earlier publications appears to remain a robust concept for low exergy, renewable energy based urban design. When considering sustainable development, environmental assessments shall be completed by an inquiry of the socio-cultural, economical, juridical, aesthetical and ethical aspects characterizing the planning or decision process. The article then presents a number of practical design principles that can help envisioning a built environment that can be sustained on the basis of renewable energy sources. In accordance with the altered trias energetica concept, elements of passive urban energy design, exergetic optimization of energy provision systems and the sourcing of renewable energy are identified, and their respective potentials assessed.

  11. JSFR: Japan's challenge towards the competitive SFR design concept with innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Kotake, S.

    2006-01-01

    JSFR is a sodium-cooled, MOX(or metal) fuelled, advanced loop type fast reactor design concept conducting by Japan Atomic Energy Agency(JAEA) through the Feasibility Study on commercialized Fast Reactor(FR) Cycle Systems with participation of all parties concerned in Japan since 1999. The economic competitiveness is one of the crucial points and has been emphasized in the design study of JSFR. One of the ways for less construction cost is the compact NSSS design by introducing the following innovative technologies; Shortening the piping length, simplified configuration with the inverse L-shaped-pipes and a two-loop system even for a l,500MWe power plant, by adopting high chromium steel with lower thermal expansion and higher strength, Upgrading of the structural design standards at elevated temperature for sodium-cooled FR system, and Development of an integrated intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with a mechanical pump. The other way is introducing passive decay heat removal system with natural circulation. The elimination of active components such as pony motors and blowers leads to reduction of the capacity of the BOP system such as electricity supply system, emergency DGs, HVAC system and component cooling water system. In order to attain lower power generation cost, not only less construction cost but also less operational cost including fuel cycle cost is crucial. Therefore higher burn-up of the averaged core, more than 150GWd/t, has been applied by introducing ODS steel cladding material. As a result, it is confirmed that the JSFR design concept is well suited to the development target equivalent to l,000USD/kWe (as NOAK, overnight cost), while ensuring safety. The most of the cost reduction comes from the innovative technologies. The R and D plan of these technologies was summarized as a roadmap and the R and D efforts are on going for establishing a technical scheme of FR cycle systems by around 2015

  12. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  13. Challenges in designing for horizontal learning in the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Marianne; Bergstedt, Palle; Jørgensen, Claus Bo

    2016-01-01

    As part of an on-going research project (2015-2017) at The National Centre for Vocational Pedagogy, Metropolitan University College, we are studying why and how vocational teachers understand and design for boundary crossing through the use of ICT-based artefacts. The research project is based on...... found that these teachers use ICT as mediating tool within a single system, but rarely as boundary object in and between systems.......As part of an on-going research project (2015-2017) at The National Centre for Vocational Pedagogy, Metropolitan University College, we are studying why and how vocational teachers understand and design for boundary crossing through the use of ICT-based artefacts. The research project is based...

  14. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  15. Internationalisation of the BNFL fuel and waste treatment plant designs the challenges and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.; Lomax, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1970's BNFL has considerably expanded its range of fuel cycle plants, involving an investment of over US$7.5bn (55bn Won). This has included significant development of its Sellafield site with a wide variety of plants and processes to deal with spent fuel and development of its fuel fabrication facilities at the Spring fields Site. In contrast to reactors, fuel plants are constructed infrequently and it is therefore crucial to 'get it right first time'. The achievement of high levels of safety has been an important factor in the development of these facilities. BNFL has applied safety criteria which are as stringent as any other international safety criteria in terms of the extent to which radiation doses to plant workers and people off-site are minimised from both routine operations and possible fault conditions. Because the plant designs are established and supported by robust safety cases they are capable of being licensed overseas. The benefits of this are lower financial risk and shorter project timescales, due to avoiding the high design and safety case development costs (typically of the order of 20% of project cost) which are incurred in the production of a 'first of a kind' design. This paper briefly discusses the role of safety cases in the UK licensing process and the principle safety standards which are applied to BNFL plants and shows how they achieve high levels of safety by comparing them with equivalent IAEA and US based standards. It illustrates how the plants meet or exceed these safety standards by using specific data from existing safety cases supported by operational data where applicable. It discusses some of the important features of the UK approach to safety and licensing and emphasises the need to examine safety provisions on a case by case basis rather than adopting a prescriptive approach to implementing design provisions if cost effectiveness is to be achieved

  16. Interregional Knowledge Management Workshop on Life Cycle Management of Design Basis Information. Issues, Challenges, Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šula, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: • It is evident that the design basis area is from the point of view of knowledge sharing extremely complicated. • Time is changing and puts on us ever greater demands. • We have to analyze the near and remote surroundings and have to simplified the problem of knowledge sharing in that area. • I believe that it is graspable task for knowledge management and I will try to outline some possible context and approaches

  17. Design and conduct of early phase drug studies in children: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Hawcutt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    It has historically been very difficult to conduct early phase drug studies in children for a number of reasons related to ethics, acceptability, rarity, standardization, end points, safety, dosing and feasibility. Over the past decade there have been a number of developments including novel clinical trial design, in silico pharmacology and microdosing that have significantly enhanced the ability of investigators to conduct early phase drug studies in children. While the evolution of drug the...

  18. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  19. The Politics of Reflexive Governance: Challenges for Designing Adaptive Management and Transition Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Voß

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available New concepts of governance take account of ambivalence, uncertainty, and distributed power in societal change. They aim for reflexivity regarding the limits of prognostic knowledge and actual control of complex processes of change. Adaptive management and transition management are two examples that evolved from the analysis of social-ecological and sociotechnical systems, respectively. Both feature strategies of collective experimentation and learning. In this paper, we ask how these two designs of reflexive governance consider politics. Based on a framework of different dimensions and levels of politics, we show that they are mainly concerned with problem solving by a focal process, but conflict and asymmetric power relations, as well as the embedding of processes within broader political contexts, are neglected. We suggest two routes for integrating politics into the design of reflexive governance: (1 recognize the politics of learning for sustainable development and develop safeguards against domination and capture by powerful actors, and (2 systematically consider the embedding of governance designs in political contexts and their ongoing dynamics for political fit.

  20. An overview of challenges limiting the design of protective mucosal vaccines for finfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in mucosal vaccination in finfish has gained prominence in the last decade in pursuit of mucosal vaccines that would lengthen the duration of protective immunity in vaccinated fish. However, injectable vaccines have continued to dominate in the vaccination of finfish because they are perceived to be more protective than mucosal vaccines. Therefore, it has become important to identify the factors that limit developing protective mucosal vaccines in finfish as an overture to identifying key areas that require optimization in mucosal vaccine design. Some of the factors that limit the success for designing protective mucosal vaccines for finfish identified in this review include the lack optimized protective antigen doses for mucosal vaccines, absence of immunostimulants able to enhance the performance of non-replicative mucosal vaccines, reduction of systemic antibodies due to prolonged exposure to oral vaccination and the lack of predefined correlates of protective immunity for use in the optimization of newly developed mucosal vaccines. This review also points out the need to develop prime-boost vaccination regimes able to induce long-term protective immunity in vaccinated fish. By overcoming some of the obstacles identified herein it is anticipated that future mucosal vaccines shall be designed to induce long-term protective immunity in finfish.

  1. Nurses on the move: evaluation of a program to assist international students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Carmel; Rolls, Colleen; Campbell, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a Teaching and Learning Enhancement Scheme (TALES) program designed to meet the unique need of the 2005 cohort of international nursing students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing (BN) program at the Victorian campus of Australian Catholic University (ACU) National. The program involved a team approach with three academic mentors and the international students working together to produce satisfactory learning outcomes through fortnightly meetings and provision of additional assistance including compiling a portfolio, reflective writing, English, including colloquial English and pronunciation, as well as familiarisation with handover and abbreviations common in the clinical field, general communication, assistance with preparing a resume and participation in simulated interviews. This relatively small group of international students (20) confirmed the findings of other studies from other countries of international nursing students' in terms of concerns in regard to studying in a foreign country, namely English proficiency, communication difficulties, cultural differences and unfamiliarity with the health care environment. The assistance provided by the program was identified by the completing students as invaluable in helping them settle into study and successfully complete the theoretical and clinical components of the course.

  2. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  3. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Janke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1, mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year.

  4. Biosensor-based microRNA detection: techniques, design, performance, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Mutharasan, Raj

    2014-04-07

    The current state of biosensor-based techniques for amplification-free microRNA (miRNA) detection is critically reviewed. Comparison with non-sensor and amplification-based molecular techniques (MTs), such as polymerase-based methods, is made in terms of transduction mechanism, associated protocol, and sensitivity. Challenges associated with miRNA hybridization thermodynamics which affect assay selectivity and amplification bias are briefly discussed. Electrochemical, electromechanical, and optical classes of miRNA biosensors are reviewed in terms of transduction mechanism, limit of detection (LOD), time-to-results (TTR), multiplexing potential, and measurement robustness. Current trends suggest that biosensor-based techniques (BTs) for miRNA assay will complement MTs due to the advantages of amplification-free detection, LOD being femtomolar (fM)-attomolar (aM), short TTR, multiplexing capability, and minimal sample preparation requirement. Areas of future importance in miRNA BT development are presented which include focus on achieving high measurement confidence and multiplexing capabilities.

  5. Designing better methane mitigation policies: the challenge of distributed small sources in the natural gas sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-04-01

    Methane—a short-lived and potent greenhouse gas—presents a unique challenge: it is emitted from a large number of highly distributed and diffuse sources. In this regard, the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended periodic leak detection and repair surveys at oil and gas facilities using optical gas imaging technology. This regulation requires an operator to fix all detected leaks within a set time period. Whether such ‘find-all-fix-all’ policies are effective depends on significant uncertainties in the character of emissions. In this work, we systematically analyze the effect of facility-related and mitigation-related uncertainties on regulation effectiveness. Drawing from multiple publicly-available datasets, we find that: (1) highly-skewed leak-size distributions strongly influence emissions reduction potential; (2) variations in emissions estimates across facilities leads to large variability in mitigation effectiveness; (3) emissions reductions from optical gas imaging-based leak detection programs can range from 15% to over 70%; and (4) while implementation costs are uniformly lower than EPA estimates, benefits from saved gas are highly variable. Combining empirical evidence with model results, we propose four policy options for effective methane mitigation: performance-oriented targets for accelerated emission reductions, flexible policy mechanisms to account for regional variation, technology-agnostic regulations to encourage adoption of the most cost-effective measures, and coordination with other greenhouse gas mitigation policies to reduce unintended spillover effects.

  6. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Utilizing food effects to overcome challenges in delivery of lipophilic bioactives: structural design of medical and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2013-12-01

    The oral bioavailability of many lipophilic bioactives, such as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, is relatively low due to their poor solubility, permeability and/or chemical stability within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives can be improved by designing food matrices that control their release, solubilization, transport and absorption within the GIT. This article discusses the challenges associated with delivering lipophilic bioactive components, the impact of food composition and structure on oral bioavailability and the design of functional and medical foods for improving the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. Food-based delivery systems can be used to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. There are a number of potential advantages to delivering lipophilic bioactives using functional or medical foods: greater compliance than conventional delivery forms; increased bioavailability and efficacy; and reduced variability in biological effects. However, food matrices are structurally complex multicomponent materials and research is still needed to identify optimum structures and compositions for particular bioactives.

  8. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools: A methodological challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana

    In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... the Danish Ministry of Education named Development projects and pilot school experiments (Udviklingsprojekter med demonstrationsskoleforsøg vedr. it i folkeskolen – see Undervisningsministeriet 2013) in the spring 2013. The call was based on a governmental decision to allocate 500 million DKR to increase...... the use of ICT in the Danish primary school from 2012-2015 combined with an increased focus on fulfilling learning objectives and to build competencies. This effort is on the one side due to a decade of disappointing Danish PISA results regarding reading, writing and math; on the other side due...

  9. Inter-regional Knowledge Management Workshop on Life-cycle Management of Design Basis Information – Issues, Challenges, Approaches. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Workshop had a strategic focus on identifying and clarifying long-term issues and objectives related to our collective responsibilities to ensure that both existing nuclear facilities and future new build projects properly address life-cycle management of plant design basis knowledge (i.e. from design to decommissioning). The workshop attempted to bring together key stakeholders and build a better collective understanding, recognizing that very different perspectives exist and there are a wide range of national contexts and approaches. The various issues and challenges related to this topic and facing the nuclear energy sector both today and in the long-term were discussed in a senior management context and at strategic level

  10. Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Waddell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1 integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society and sense-making, (2 create successful individual to global aggregations, (3 integrate the short and long term, and (4 integrate major issue areas. A new type of organization, Global Action Networks, aims for this integration. Based upon analysis of this new type of organization, five design principles for global social contract organizations are proposed.

  11. Control design challenges of large space systems and spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiguan Gene

    1987-01-01

    The quick suppression of the structural vibrations excited by bang-bang (BB) type time-optional slew maneuvers via modal-dashpot design of velocity output feedback control was investigated. Simulation studies were conducted, and modal dashpots were designed for the SCOLE flexible body dynamics. A two-stage approach was proposed for rapid slewing and precision pointing/retargeting of large, flexible space systems: (1) slew the whole system like a rigid body in a minimum time under specified limits on the control moments and forces, and (2) damp out the excited structural vibrations afterwards. This approach was found promising. High-power modal/dashpots can suppress very large vibrations, and can add a desirable amount of active damping to modeled modes. Unmodeled modes can also receive some concomitant active damping, as a benefit of spillover. Results also show that not all BB type rapid pointing maneuvers will excite large structural vibrations. When properly selected small forces (e.g., vernier thrusters) are used to complete the specified slew maneuver in the shortest time, even BB-type maneuvers will excite only small vibrations (e.g., 0.3 ft peak deflection for a 130 ft beam).

  12. Addressing Challenges in Teacher Collaborative Curriculum Design: An Activity Theory Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Ching Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the difficulties encountered when teacher teams collaborate in designing school-based integrative curriculum units. Conventionally, teachers are used to accomplish tasks by dividing things into subtasks instead of doing them together. Therefore, it is expected that they encounter difficulties while working on curriculum design collaboratively. Using Activity theory as a framework, this study aimed to identify disturbances and inner contradictions in teacher collaborative curriculum-making. Instead of relying merely on interview or observation data, dialogical data were collected in regular team meetings in a junior high school in New Taipei City. Two teacher teams, the green fair unit team and the classroom electricity device unit team, were examined using the framework of activity theory. Three contradictions were discovered: first, the meaning-making of team meetings: effective versus fatigue; second, individual responsibility versus collective ownership; and third, flatter hierarchical structure of division of labors: explicitness versus ambiguity. The complexity of boundary crossing among teachers in junior high school was also discussed.

  13. The TAHMO sensor design challenge: unlocking and empowering local African talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2013-12-01

    The TAHMO initiative aims to develop and install 20.000 weather stations in sub Saharan Africa. The success of this endeavor greatly depends on using local knowledge, as well as support from local communities. A sensor design competition was held in which participants were asked to design a novel weather sensor. Promotion of the competition was focused on Africa and mainly African student teams responded. The best 15 out of 34 submission were send a 'maker package' containing the tools and materials to physically make their sensors. Winners of the maker packages were asked to upload a video of the process of building their sensors. Using these videos, 9 teams were invited to a final one-week workshop in which all teams worked together to connect all their sensors and automatically upload measurement readings to the internet. This goal was achieved on the last day of the workshop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOTPMp-13Bs The main results of this competition, the lessons learned and the road ahead for TAHMO will be presented.

  14. Tritium containment and blanket design challenges for a 1 GWe mirror fusion central power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1976-06-01

    Tritium containment and removal problems associated with the blanket and power-systems for a mirror fusion reactor are identified and conceptual process designs are devised to reduce emissions to the environment below 1 Ci/day. The blanket concept development proceeds by starting with this emission goal of 1 Ci/day and working inward to the blanket. At each decision point, worker safety, operational labor costs, and capital cost tradeoffs are contrasted. The conceptual design uses air for the reactor hall with a continuous catalytic oxidizer-molecular sieve adsorber cleanup system to maintain a 40 μCi/m 3 tritium level (5 μCi/m 3 HTO) against 180 Ci/day leakage from reactor components, energy recovery systems, and process piping. This blanket contains submodules with Li 2 Be 2 O 3 --Be for tritium breeding and submodules with Be for mostly energy production. Tritium production in both is handled by separately containing this breeding material and scavenging this container with lithium vapor-doped helium gas stream

  15. Active debris removal GNC challenges over design and required ground validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenarejo, Pablo; Avilés, Marcos; di Sotto, Emanuele

    2015-06-01

    Because of the exponential growth of space debris, the access to space in the medium-term future is considered as being seriously compromised, particularly within LEO polar Sun-synchronous orbits and within geostationary orbits. The active debris removal (ADR) application poses new and challenging requirements on: first, the new required Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technologies and, second, how to validate these new technologies before being applied in real missions. There is no doubt about the strong safety and collision risk aspects affecting the real operational ADR missions. But it shall be considered that even ADR demonstration missions will be affected by significant risk of collision during the demonstration, and that the ADR GNC systems/technologies to be used shall be well mature before using/demonstrating them in space. Specific and dedicated on-ground validation approaches, techniques and facilities are mandatory. The different ADR techniques can be roughly catalogued in three main groups (rigid capture, non-rigid capture and contactless). All of them have a strong impact on the GNC system of the active vehicle during the capture/proximity phase and, particularly, during the active vehicle/debris combo control phase after capture and during the de-orbiting phase. The main operational phases on an ADR scenario are: (1) ground controlled phase (ADR vehicle and debris are far), (2) fine orbit synchronization phase (ADR vehicle to reach debris ±V-bar), (3) short range phase (along track distance reduction till 10-100 s of metres), (4) terminal approach/capture phase and (5) de-orbiting. While phases 1-3 are somehow conventional and already addressed in detail during past/on-going studies related to rendezvous and/or formation flying, phases 4-5 are very specific and not mature in terms of GNC needed technologies and HW equipment. GMV is currently performing different internal activities and ESA studies/developments related to ADR mission, GNC and

  16. A New Modeling Approach for Future Challenges in Process and Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In this paper, a new technique for model reduction that is based on rearranging a part of the model representing the constitutive equations is presented. The rearrangement of the constitutive equations leads to the definition of a new set of pseudo-intensive variables, where the component composi...... formulations, the solution of integrated process/product design problem becomes simpler and more flexible....... compositions are replaced by reduction parameters in the process model. Since the number of components dominates the size of the traditional model equations, a significant reduction of the model size is obtained through this new technique. Some interesting properties of this new technique is that the model...... reduction does not introduce any approximations to the model, it does not change the physical location of the process variables and it provides a visualization of the process and operation that otherwise would not be possible. Furthermore by employing the recently introduced principle of reverse problem...

  17. A New Modeling Approach for Future Challenges in Process and Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Mario Richard; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique for model reduction that is based on rearranging a part of the model representing the constitutive equations is presented. The rearrangement of the constitutive equations leads to the definition of a new set of pseudo-intensive variables, where the component composi...... formulations, the solution of integrated process/product design problem becomes simpler and more flexible....... compositions are replaced by reduction parameters in the process model. Since the number of components dominates the size of the traditional model equations, a significant reduction of the model size is obtained through this new technique. Some interesting properties of this new technique is that the model...... reduction does not introduce any approximations to the model, it does not change the physical location of the process variables and it provides a, visualization of the process and operation that otherwise would not be possible. Furthermore by employing the recently introduced principle of reverse problem...

  18. Algorithmic and Editorial Diversity in Public Service Media: The Design Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2018-01-01

    diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content.......With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...

  19. Methodological challenges in designing dementia prevention trials - the European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine; Solomon, Alina; Mangialasche, Francesca; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Coley, Nicola; Fratiglioni, Laura; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Vellas, Bruno; van Gool, Willem A; Kivipelto, Miia

    2012-11-15

    Recent epidemiological studies have indicated numerous associations between vascular and lifestyle related risk factors and incident dementia. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing effectiveness of interventions aimed at these risk factors in preventing or postponing dementia onset is still lacking. Three large RCTs on multi-component interventions to prevent dementia (preDIVA, FINGER, MAPT) have been initiated in Europe to address these issues. Irrespective of some methodological differences, all three studies target cardiovascular and lifestyle related risk factors. Collaboration within the newly founded 'European Dementia Prevention Initiative' (EDPI) will allow for a comprehensive exploration of optimal target population, intervention and outcome measures, which are currently unknown. Combining data of the ongoing studies and running simulation analyses will facilitate determining the optimal design including accurate sample-size calculations for future multi-national clinical trials on dementia prevention. Interventions aiming at dementia prevention should be pragmatic and easy to implement on a large scale in different health care systems, without generating high additional costs or burden on participants or physicians. As the optimal age for intervention precedes the optimal age for outcome assessment, traditional trial designs might lead to suboptimal timing of either of the two. Separation of intervention and outcome assessment in time is a potential solution, but requires studies with very long follow-up. International collaboration of research groups with experience in dementia prevention studies and well-organised logistics for these major projects is pivotal to success for future large-scale dementia prevention studies. Founding of EDPI is an important first step in this direction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Scaling laws for free piston Stirling engine design: Benefits and challenges of miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formosa, Fabien; Fréchette, Luc G.

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the scaling effects for FPSE (free piston Stirling engines), which are known for their simple architecture and potentially high thermodynamic performances. Scaling laws are given and their potential for miniaturization is highlighted. A simple model which allows the design of the geometrical parameters of the heat exchangers, the regenerator and the masses of the pistons is proposed. It is based on the definition of six characteristic dimensionless groups. They are derived from the physics underlying the behavior of the free piston Stirling machine and their relevancy is backed up by comparisons between documented Stirling engines from the literature. Keeping constant values for each group throughout the scaling range theoretically ensures constant performance. The main losses of Stirling engine (heat conduction loss, reheat loss in the regenerator, pressure drop and gas-spring hysteresis) can be expressed as a function of the geometrical and operating parameters. Additionally, the consequences of leakage due to the manufacturing precision of pistons architectures are underlined. From the proposed scaling laws, potential power and efficiency of Stirling cycle engines at a millimeter scale can be anticipated. It appears that the power density increases with miniaturization. It is also shown that the dynamic masses related to the engine size are increased when scaling down and that the gap leakage presents the highest detrimental effects on the efficiency. These results call for dedicated architectures for micro-engines. - Highlights: • Similitude strategy is applied to Stirling engines and allows preliminary design. • New scaling laws are derived. • The power density can be increased with miniaturization. • The gap between the piston and casing is highly detrimental to the performances. • High engine operating pressure is required when miniaturizing

  1. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  2. "Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…": actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Whitmore, Rebecca; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2017-05-22

    When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists' caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one's own health. Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists' caregiver companions. While additional research is required to finalize

  3. A high-resolution scanning pencil-beam scatterometer: system design challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prantik; Gupta, Priyanka; Misra, Tapan

    2016-05-01

    The scanning pencil-beam Scatterometer configuration is pretty effective in covering a large ground-swath by rotating a moderately sized paraboloid dish at a moderate speed. For example, Oscat (Oceansat-II Scatterometer) did cover a ground-swath of 1550km using a 1m diameter reflector that was rotated at 20.5 rpm. The decade-long service (1999-2009) provided by the Seawinds instrument onboard the Quikscat mission followed by an almost half-a-decade (2009-2014) service of Oscat has made this configuration tremendously popular with the global user community. A major drawback of conventional pencil-beam systems like Seawinds and Oscat is the relatively poor spatial resolution. The ground-resolution is beamwidth-limited azimuthally while, in elevation, the resolution is improved by engaging pulse-compression and range-binning. Oscat's Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) was 25km wide in azimuth (az) and 50km in elevation (el) at 49° incidence angle. The range-compressed resolution bins had dimensions of 6km (el) x 25km (az). Therefore, qualified wind products could be generated upon square grids no finer than 25km x 25km resolution. According to recommendations of International Ocean Vector Wind Science Team (IOVWST) and Oscat user community, high-resolution scatterometry is the requirement of the day with wind-vector cell-size dimension of 5km or better. One way to improve the resolution is to adopt the SAR principle of Range-Doppler discrimination in the scanning pencil-beam configuration. The footprint can be resolved simultaneously in range as well as in azimuth, thus significantly improving the size of the combined Range-Doppler resolution bin ( 1km). However, the addition of Doppler filtering to conically scanning radar brings with it its own disadvantages e.g. the limitations of dwell time and the constant change in orientation of isodop lines. This paper presents the constraints in system design of high-resolution scanning systems, the design trade-offs, the

  4. Design challenges of a tunable laser interrogator for geo-stationary communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Honniball, Arthur; McCue, Raymond; Todd, Michael; O'Dowd, John A.; Sheils, David; Voudouris, Liberis; Farnan, Martin; Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Philipp; Lemke, Norbert; Roner, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Recently optical sensing solutions based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology have been proposed for temperature monitoring in telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geo-stationary orbit. Developing radiation hardened optical interrogators designed to be used with FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers offer the capabilities of multiplexing multiple sensors on the same fiber and reducing the overall weight by removing the copper wiring harnesses associated with electrical sensors. Here we propose the use of a tunable laser based optical interrogator that uses a semiconductor MG-Y type laser that has no moving parts and sweeps across the C-band wavelength range providing optical power to FBG sensors and optical wavelength references such as athermal Etalons and Gas Cells to guarantee stable operation of the interrogator over its targeted life time in radiation exposed environments. The MG-Y laser was calibrated so it remains in a stable operation mode which ensures that no mode hops occur due to aging of the laser, and/or thermal or radiation effects. The key optical components including tunable laser, references and FBGs were tested for radiation tolerances by emulating the conditions on a geo-stationary satellite including a Total Ionizing Dose (TID) radiation level of up to 100 krad for interrogator components and 25 Mrad for FBGs. Different tunable laser control, and signal processing algorithms have been designed and developed to fit within specific available radiation hardened FPGAs to guarantee operation of a single interrogator module providing at least 1 sample per second measurement capability across a temperature range of -20°C to +65°C using femtosecond inscribed FBGs (fs-FBG), a polarization switch is used to mitigate for the polarization dependent frequency shift (PDFS) induced from fs-FBG which could be in the order of a hybrid sensor bus (HSB) engineering model system developed in the

  5. Parasite prolyl oligopeptidases and the challenge of designing chemotherapeuticals for Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, I M D; Motta, F N; Grellier, P; Santana, J M

    2013-01-01

    The trypanosomatids Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis, respectively. It is estimated that over 10 million people worldwide suffer from these neglected diseases, posing enormous social and economic problems in endemic areas. There are no vaccines to prevent these infections and chemotherapies are not adequate. This picture indicates that new chemotherapeutic agents must be developed to treat these illnesses. For this purpose, understanding the biology of the pathogenic trypanosomatid- host cell interface is fundamental for molecular and functional characterization of virulence factors that may be used as targets for the development of inhibitors to be used for effective chemotherapy. In this context, it is well known that proteases have crucial functions for both metabolism and infectivity of pathogens and are thus potential drug targets. In this regard, prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, both members of the S9 serine protease family, have been shown to play important roles in the interactions of pathogenic protozoa with their mammalian hosts and may thus be considered targets for drug design. This review aims to discuss structural and functional properties of these intriguing enzymes and their potential as targets for the development of drugs against Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis.

  6. Post graduate clinical placements: evaluating benefits and challenges with a mixed methods cross sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiend, Jenny; Tracy, Derek K; Sreenan, Brian; Cardi, Valentina; Foulkes, Tina; Koutsantoni, Katerina; Kravariti, Eugenia; Tchanturia, Kate; Willmott, Lucy; Shergill, Sukhi; Reedy, Gabriel

    2016-02-16

    Systematic evaluations of clinical placements are rare, especially when offered alongside academic postgraduate courses. An evidence-based approach is important to allow pedagogically-driven provision, rather than that solely governed by opinion or market demand. Our evaluation assessed a voluntary clinical placement scheme allied to a mental health course. Data were collected over academic years 2010/11- 2013/14, from participating students (n = 20 to 58) and clinician supervisors (n = 10-12), using a mixed-methods cross-sectional design. Quantitative evaluation captured information on uptake, dropout, resource use, attitudes and experience, using standardized (the Placement Evaluation Questionnaire; the Scale To Assess the Therapeutic Relationship - Clinical version and the University of Toronto Placement Supervisor Evaluation) and bespoke questionnaires and audit data. Qualitative evaluation comprised two focus groups (5 clinicians, 5 students), to investigate attitudes, experience, perceived benefits, disadvantages and desired future developments. Data were analysed using framework analysis to identify a priori and emergent themes. High uptake (around 70 placements per annum), low dropout (2-3 students per annum; 5 %) and positive focus group comments suggested placements successfully provided added value and catered sufficiently to student demand. Students' responses confirmed that placements met expectations and the perception of benefit remained after completion with 70 % (n = 14) reporting an overall positive experience, 75 % (n = 15) reporting a pleasant learning experience, 60 % (n = 12) feeling that their clinical skills were enhanced and 85 % (n = 17) believing that it would benefit other students. Placements contributed the equivalent of seven full time unskilled posts per annum to local health care services. While qualitative data revealed perceived 'mutual benefit' for both students and clinicians, this was qualified by

  7. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  8. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howman, Mary; Jones, Melvyn

    2011-02-03

    Intercalated BScs (iBScs) are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year) exams. A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276). A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance). The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without). Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01). (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300). There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66). (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed"). Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance) undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this confounding in unadjusted results is that students who do better

  9. Institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage in lesser-developed countries: challenges facing the Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakil; Annear, Peter Leslie; Phonvisay, Bouaphat; Phommavong, Chansaly; Cruz, Valeria de Oliveira; Hammerich, Asmus; Jacobs, Bart

    2013-11-01

    There is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  11. Design and challenges of a randomized clinical trial of medical expulsive therapy (tamsulosin) for urolithiasis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Pamela K; Hollander, Judd E; Wolfson, Allan B; Kurz, Michael C; Richards, Lorna; DiFiore, Sara; Watts, Phillip; Patkar, Nivedita; Brown, Jeremy; Jackman, Stephen; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W; Michel, Chloe; Meltzer, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    Urolithiasis or urinary stone disease has been estimated to affect about 1 in 11 Americans. Patients with urinary stone disease commonly present to the emergency department for management of their acute pain. In addition to providing analgesia, administration of drug (medical expulsive therapy) is often prescribed to assist passage of the urinary stone. In this methodology paper, we describe the design of a prospective, multi-center, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial of the alpha-adrenergic blocker, tamsulosin, to evaluate its effectiveness as medical expulsive therapy. In addition, we describe the unique challenges of conducting a trial of this type within the setting of the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overview of CEA’s R&D on GFR fuel element design: From challenges to solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiégo, M.; Ingremeau, J.J.; Ravenet, A.; Guédeney, P.; Sauder, C.; Guéneau, C.; Lorrette, C.; Chaffron, L.; Séran, J.L.; Le Flem, M.; David, P.; Briottet, L.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions and perspectives: Designing GFR fuel elements represents a considerable challenge. There does seem to be little (if any) alternative to relying on SiC/SiC-based solutions. This resulted in CEA’s R&D program facing several technological bottlenecks. Innovative solutions were proposed and patented in the recent years: • Mixed ceramic/metal SA-duct; • “Buffer” bond; • Blind-end SiC/SiC cladding; • “Sandwich” cladding. Much progress has been accomplished and many perspectives have been open… …but proof is yet to be established that the proposed concepts are truly viable. Despite the present slowing down of GFR-dedicated R&D, limited studies are still conducted by CEA within the frame of LWR/SFR-dedicated programs

  13. Considerations for design and use of container challenge sets for qualification and validation of visible particulate inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchore, James A; Berdovich, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The major compendia require sterile injectable and ophthalmic drugs, to be prepared in a manner that is designed to exclude particulate matter. This requirement is satisfied by testing for subvisual particles in the laboratory and 100% inspection of all containers for the presence of visible particles. Inspection for visible particles is performed in the operations area using one of three methods. Manual inspection is based on human visual acuity, the ability of the inspector to discern between conforming and nonconforming containers, and the ability to remove nonconforming units. Semi-automated inspection is a variation of manual inspection, in which a roller conveyor handles and presents the containers to the human inspector. Fully automated inspection systems perform handling, inspection, and rejection of defective containers. All inspection methods must meet the compendial requirement for sterile drug product to be "essentially free" of visible particulates. Given the random occurrence of particles within the batch, visual detection of a particle in an individual container is probabilistic. The probability of detection for a specific particle is affected by many variables that include product attributes, container size and shape, particle composition and size, and inspection capability. The challenge set is a useful tool to assess the particle detection in a product, and it may also be used to evaluate detection of container/closure defects. While the importance of a well-designed challenge set is not always recognized or understood, it serves as the cornerstone for qualification and/or validation of all inspection methods. This article is intended to provide useful information for the design, composition, and use of container challenge sets for particulate inspection studies. Regulations require drug products intended for injection or ophthalmic use to be sterile and free of particles that could harm the patient. This requirement is meet by 100% inspection of

  14. A Design Case of the T.E.C.H. Playground: Decisions and Challenges in Creating a Space/Place to Transform Education through Creative Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansberry, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This design case (Boling, 2010) includes the challenges, considerations, and decisions associated with the design and development of a learning space/place (Dourish, 2006; Harrison & Dourish, 1996) focused on innovative, creative, and imaginative ways to transform teaching and learning with technology. The T.E.C.H. Playground in the College of…

  15. University Engineering Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-29

    elastic  section...with  series  of  pulleys    Ladder   Expanding  friend   Metal  Ascension  Gloves     Elastic  Rope  Stretch  and...Release   Hooks  to  surface   Bicycle  Ascender     Magnetic   Electro  rheological/ Magneto  rheological   Fluid

  16. The challenge of the global management of plant design modifications. example of the new EJ system at Vandellos NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Fernando; Valdivia, Carlos; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Trueba, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    One of the most challenging areas in the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) is related to the management of plant design modifications. Plant modifications can be made to improve reliability, facilitate operation, improve safety or get better results. In any of these situations, plant modifications imply many different activities that have to be done in a coordinated manner. NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) shows a global approach to manage most of these activities. Although this approach is mainly focused on the design and construction of new plants, it can also be applied to plant modification management. Successful global management will require performing every activity in a specific order, taking advantage of the output coming from some tasks as input for others and finalizing every task when necessary. This will provide the best results in terms of quality, time required for implementation, safe and reliable operation and maintenance, and cost. Tecnatom is involved in most of the activities related to the operational areas and has applied a global approach to get advantages in terms of quality and cost, which is outlined in this paper. As an example of this approach, the Vandellos NPP experience is shown in this presentation. Vandellos NPP carried out an important design modification that consists of replacing an old essential service water system with a new one. This was a three-year project that implied the construction of new reservoirs, new buildings, the implementation of new equipment, and new panels in the main control room. This paper shows the way in which all of these activities were performed. (authors)

  17. A systematic scoping review of the evidence for consumer involvement in organisations undertaking systematic reviews: focus on Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Richard F; Norman, Gill; Golder, Su; Griffith, Polly

    2016-01-01

    Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews of clinical trial evidence. We looked for published evidence that reports where consumers (patients and the public) have been involved in Cochrane systematic reviews, and also in reviews published by other organisations.We found 36 studies that reported about consumer involvement either in individual systematic reviews, or in other organisations. The studies showed that consumers were involved in reviews in a range of different ways: coordinating and producing reviews, making reviews more accessible, and spreading the results of reviews ("knowledge transfer"). The most common role was commenting on reviews ("peer reviewing"). Consumers also had other general roles, for example in educating people about evidence or helping other consumers. There were some interesting examples of new ways of involving consumers. The studies showed that most consumers came from rich and English speaking countries. There was little evidence about how consumer involvement had changed the reviews ("impact"). The studies found that consumer involvement needed to be properly supported.In future we believe that more research should be done to understand what kind of consumer involvement has the best impact; that more review authors should report how consumers have been involved; and that consumers who help with reviews should come from more varied backgrounds. Background Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews, and is committed to consumer involvement in the production and dissemination of its reviews. The review aims to systematically scope the evidence base for consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews; with an emphasis on Cochrane. Methods In June 2015 we searched six databases and other sources for studies of consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews, or in individual systematic

  18. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  19. Technology transfer in the hydropower industry: An analysis of Chinese dam developers’ undertakings in Europe and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial

    2018-01-01

    Technology transfer is essential for transitioning to a low carbon economy which can include hydropower. Chinese dam developers allegedly dominate the global hydropower industry. Studies have been carried out on technology transfer in their undertakings in Africa and Asia. However, such work is

  20. The challenges of being an insider in storytelling research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Stacy; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    To describe the challenges related to being an 'insider' researcher in a study that uses a feminist-informed storytelling research design and to discuss practical strategies to manage these challenges. The positioning of the researcher in qualitative research has numerous methodological implications. Often, qualitative researchers share similar experiences or characteristics with their participants. Such an 'insider' position provides challenges for the researcher in conducting the research. Understanding these challenges and planning how to manage them is beneficial for the researcher and for the conduct of the project. This paper is based on the research team's experience of undertaking a feminist-informed storytelling study exploring the experiences of Australian women providing long-term foster care. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology used in the investigation. Four challenges resulting from the insider status of the primary researcher were identified as affecting the research: assumed understanding, ensuring analytic objectivity, dealing with emotions and participants' expectations. Strategies to address these challenges include: 'participant probing', 'researcher reflexivity', review by an 'outsider' researcher, identifying the risk, debriefing, making the aims and use of study outcomes clear, and acknowledging participants' expectations. Methods to implement these strategies are described. The use of an insider researcher was beneficial to our study design and helped with recruitment and rapport, enabling collaboration and the generation of stories rich in content. By identifying the challenges associated with insider research and using strategies to mitigate them, researchers can effectively use an insider position in conjunction with a storytelling research design. ImplicaTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Further investigation of the insider in different qualitative research designs would be useful in identifying challenges and benefits

  1. Lessons Learned in Evaluating a Multisite, Comprehensive Teen Dating Violence Prevention Strategy: Design and Challenges of the Evaluation of Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Taylor, Bruce G; Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Valle, Linda Anne; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the multisite, longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design of the evaluation of the Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Relationships initiative, and discusses challenges faced in conducting this evaluation. Health departments in 4 communities are partnering with middle schools in high-risk, urban communities to implement 2 models of teen dating violence (TDV) prevention over 4 years. Schools were randomized to receive either the Dating Matters comprehensive strategy or the "standard of care" strategy (an existing, evidence-based TDV prevention curriculum). Our design permits comparison of the relative effectiveness of the comprehensive and standard of care strategies. Multiple cohorts of students from 46 middle schools are surveyed in middle school and high school, and parents and educators from participating schools are also surveyed. Challenges discussed in conducting a multisite RCT include site variability, separation of implementation and evaluation responsibilities, school retention, parent engagement in research activities, and working within the context of high-risk urban schools and communities. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approaches to these challenges in the hopes of informing future research. Despite multiple challenges, the design of the Dating Matters evaluation remains strong. We hope this paper provides researchers who are conducting complex evaluations of behavioral interventions with thoughtful discussion of the challenges we have faced and potential solutions to such challenges.

  2. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  3. Non proliferation regimes undertakings: Benefits and limits of synergies in verification technologies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Thirty years ago the NPT was entering into force. Therewith, when a State became party to the NPT, it had, in accordance with article III.1 of the Treaty, an undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Safeguards agreement with the IAEA and accept safeguards verification on source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territories in order to verify that such material is not diverted. This multilateral instrument was the foundation stone of the non-proliferation regime and marked the actual birth of internationally accepted measures to verily compliance with politically stringent agreements. Since that time several important multilateral or bilateral instruments on non-proliferation and disarmament have been negotiated and adopted to curb the development and the acquisition of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) most of them since the middle of the eighties and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Amongst the multilateral instruments are the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological Weapon and Toxin Weapons (1972), the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (1993), the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996), the Strengthening of the IAEA Safeguards and the Additional Protocol (1997), with some still in negotiation like the Protocol of the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons, and some on which negotiation is still a wish like the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. Bilateral disarmament agreements between the United States of America and the Russian Federation such as the INF Treaty, START I and II, the agreements on the elimination of excess defence nuclear material as well as the Trilateral Initiative with the IAEA pave the way to nuclear disarmament with the reduction of both the number of nuclear weapons arsenal and the fissile material inventories. The politically stringent undertakings of States that have become parties to those agreements would not be possible without the

  4. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  5. Implementation challenges for designing integrated in vitro testing strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Krul, Cyrille; Mikulowski, Stan; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L; Vilà, Maya R

    2012-04-01

    At the IVTIP (in vitro testing industrial platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C')--working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and systematic approach to future toxicity testing without the use of animals. One of the emerging concepts focused on integrating a defined number of tests modelling in vivo-relevant and well-characterised toxicity pathways representing mechanistic endpoints. At this meeting the importance of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) as tools towards reduction and eventually replacement of the animals currently used for hazard identification and risk assessment was recognised. A follow-up IVTIP Spring 2010 meeting entitled 'Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS)--Implementation Challenges' was organised to address pending questions about ITS. This report is not a review of the ITS literature, but a summary of the discussions triggered by presented examples on how to develop and implement ITS. Contrasts between pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as well as a list of general but practical aspects to be considered while developing an ITS emerged from the discussions. In addition, current recommendations on the validation of ITS were discussed. In conclusion, the outcome of this workshop improved the understanding of the participants of some important factors that may impact the design of an ITS in function of its purpose (e.g., screening, or early decision making versus regulatory), the context in which they need to be applied (e.g., ICH guidelines, REACH) and the status and quality of the available tools. A set of recommendations of best practices was established and the importance of the applicability of the individual tests as well as the testing strategy itself was highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of structural dynamics in the design and operations of space systems: The history, the lessons, the technical challenges of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Structural dynamics and its auxiliary fields are the most progressive and challenging areas space system engineering design and operations face. Aerospace systems are dependent on structural dynamicists for their success. Past experiences (history) are colored with many dynamic issues, some producing ground or flight test failures. The innovation and creativity that was brought to these issues and problems are the aura from the past that lights the path to the future. Using this illumination to guide understanding of the dynamic phenomena and designing for its potential occurrence are the keys to successful space systems. Our great paradox, or challenge, is how we remain in depth specialists, yet become generalists to the degree that we make good team members and set the right priorities. This paper will deal with how we performed with acclaim in the past, the basic characteristics of structural dynamics (loads cycle, for example), and the challenges of the future.

  7. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  8. Longitudinal studies on somatic growth and motor performance: designs, challenges, needs. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p130

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonete Pereira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the major longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies that focused on somatic growth, biological maturation and more recently also on physical performance. Only selected studies that were conducted in USA, Europe and Portuguese speaking countries will be considered. First, the main theoretical considerations, general characteristics, the study design and statistical analyses and the methodological challenges of the data will be outlined. Further, an overview is provided of the most important longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies. Finally, the major challenges of the ongoing studies are highlighted.

  9. Identifying potential academic leaders: Predictors of willingness to undertake leadership roles in an academic department of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-01

    To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. A total of 687 faculty members. Variables related to respondents' willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one's current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members.

  10. Decree No. 67/77 of 6 May establishing a National Uranium Undertaking as a public body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree, promulgated on 29 March 1977, sets up a National Uranium Undertaking (ENU). The ENU Statute which is attached to the Decree lays down that its main purpose is to prospect for and inventory uranium deposits, to explore known deposits, to set up facilities for recovery and treatment of uranium ores, and finally, to market the products obtained. The ENU has taken over the work which, until now, had been carried out in that field by the Junta de Energia Nuclear and it is placed under the authority of the Minister of Industry and Technology. (NEA) [fr

  11. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  12. Designing and Delivering Skills Transferability and Employment Mobility: The Challenges of a Market-Driven Vocational Education and Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekara, Victor; Snell, Darryn

    2018-01-01

    As job security declines and precarious employment arrangements become more prevalent, transferable skills have become vital for job seeking success. In recognition of this issue, many governments are seeking to redesign their training systems in ways that transferable skills become better emphasised. This paper examines the challenges of…

  13. Taking over Someone Else's E-Learning Design: Challenges Trigger Change in E-Learning Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    As universities invest in the development of e-learning resources, e-learning sustainability has come under consideration. This has largely focused on the challenges and facilitators of organisational and technological sustainability and scalability, and professional development. Little research has examined the experience of a teacher dealing…

  14. The Tradies' Entrance into Teaching: The Challenges in Designing Teacher Education for Vocational Education and Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This article examines issues and challenges associated with the provision of effective professional teacher education for vocational education and training in schools (VETiS) teachers. Current minimum levels of qualifications for VETiS teachers are argued to be inadequate for the complexity of preparing senior secondary students for work in the…

  15. Longitudinal studies on somatic growth and motor performance: designs, challenges, needs. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p130

    OpenAIRE

    Simonete Pereira da Silva; Gaston Prudence Beunen; Duarte Luiz de Freitas; José António Ribeiro Maia

    2013-01-01

    The principle purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the major longitudinal and mixed longitudinal studies that focused on somatic growth, biological maturation and more recently also on physical performance. Only selected studies that were conducted in USA, Europe and Portuguese speaking countries will be considered. First, the main theoretical considerations, general characteristics, the study design and statistical analyses and the methodological challenges of the data will be...

  16. Experience of three-dimensional vision in the era of digital interaction new devices : opportunity and challenges for applied mathematics and visual design

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Federico Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It will be soon presented to the public a new version of stereoscopic viewers designed for observing files and video projected images through a system of transparent optical prisms which allow the simultaneous perception of the surrounding environment. The real challenge for applied mathematics and visual design will be to prefigure how to use them and their applications, since these new devices can actually enable a deeper visual experience. A specific case study concerns the visualizations of the collisions at the LHC at CERN, selected to verify the traces of the boson theorized by Francois Englert and Peter Higgs, with Robert Brout, who recently (2013) received the Nobel Prize for their research.

  17. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 10: synthesizing evidence for effects collected from quasi-experimental studies presents surmountable challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Betsy Jane; Aloe, Ariel M; Duvendack, Maren; Stanley, T D; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Fretheim, Atle; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-09-01

    To outline issues of importance to analytic approaches to the synthesis of quasi-experiments (QEs) and to provide a statistical model for use in analysis. We drew on studies of statistics, epidemiology, and social-science methodology to outline methods for synthesis of QE studies. The design and conduct of QEs, effect sizes from QEs, and moderator variables for the analysis of those effect sizes were discussed. Biases, confounding, design complexities, and comparisons across designs offer serious challenges to syntheses of QEs. Key components of meta-analyses of QEs were identified, including the aspects of QE study design to be coded and analyzed. Of utmost importance are the design and statistical controls implemented in the QEs. Such controls and any potential sources of bias and confounding must be modeled in analyses, along with aspects of the interventions and populations studied. Because of such controls, effect sizes from QEs are more complex than those from randomized experiments. A statistical meta-regression model that incorporates important features of the QEs under review was presented. Meta-analyses of QEs provide particular challenges, but thorough coding of intervention characteristics and study methods, along with careful analysis, should allow for sound inferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Presentation summary, safety design aspects and U.S. licensing challenges of the pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sproat, Ward; Slabber, Johan

    2001-01-01

    This presentation consists of three sections: An overview of the status of the PBMR project in South Africa, a review of the design features and philosophy being utilized to design the PBMR, and a summary of the key licensing issues that Exelon has identified in assessing the licensability of the PBMR for application in this country

  19. Taking over someone else's e-learning design: challenges trigger change in e-learning beliefs and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As universities invest in the development of e-learning resources, e-learning sustainability has come under consideration. This has largely focused on the challenges and facilitators of organisational and technological sustainability and scalability, and professional development. Little research has examined the experience of a teacher dealing with e-learning sustainability when taking over a course with an e-learning resource and associated assessment. This research focuses on a teacher who was inexperienced with e-learning technology, yet took over a blended unit of study with an e-learning resource that accounted for one-fifth of the subject assessment and was directed towards academic skills development relevant to the degree program. Taking a longitudinal approach, this research examines the challenges faced by the new teacher and the way she changed the e-learning resource and its implementation over two years. A focus of the research is the way the teacher's reflections on the challenges and changes provided an opportunity and stimulus for change in her e-learning beliefs and practices. This research has implications for the way universities support teachers taking over another teacher's e-learning resource, the need for explicit documentation of underpinning beliefs and structured handover, the benefit of teamwork in developing e-learning resources, and provision of on-going support.

  20. Informed consent for clinical trials of deep brain stimulation in psychiatric disease: challenges and implications for trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsman, Nir; Giacobbe, Peter; Bernstein, Mark; Lozano, Andres M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in neuromodulation and an improved understanding of the anatomy and circuitry of psychopathology have led to a resurgence of interest in surgery for psychiatric disease. Clinical trials exploring deep brain stimulation (DBS), a focally targeted, adjustable and reversible form of neurosurgery, are being developed to address the use of this technology in highly selected patient populations. Psychiatric patients deemed eligible for surgical intervention, such as DBS, typically meet stringent inclusion criteria, including demonstrated severity, chronicity and a failure of conventional therapy. Although a humanitarian device exemption by the US Food and Drug Administration exists for its use in obsessive-compulsive disorder, DBS remains a largely experimental treatment in the psychiatric context, with its use currently limited to clinical trials and investigative studies. The combination of a patient population at the limits of conventional therapy and a novel technology in a new indication poses interesting challenges to the informed consent process as it relates to clinical trial enrollment. These challenges can be divided into those that relate to the patient, their disease and the technology, with each illustrating how traditional conceptualisations of research consent may be inadequate in the surgical psychiatry context. With specific reference to risk analysis, patient autonomy, voluntariness and the duty of the clinician-researcher, this paper will discuss the unique challenges that clinical trials of surgery for refractory psychiatric disease present to the consent process. Recommendations are also made for an ethical approach to clinical trial consent acquisition in this unique patient population.

  1. Aircraft conceptual design - an adaptable parametric sizing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gary John, Jr.

    Aerospace is a maturing industry with successful and refined baselines which work well for traditional baseline missions, markets and technologies. However, when new markets (space tourism) or new constrains (environmental) or new technologies (composite, natural laminar flow) emerge, the conventional solution is not necessarily best for the new situation. Which begs the question "how does a design team quickly screen and compare novel solutions to conventional solutions for new aerospace challenges?" The answer is rapid and flexible conceptual design Parametric Sizing. In the product design life-cycle, parametric sizing is the first step in screening the total vehicle in terms of mission, configuration and technology to quickly assess first order design and mission sensitivities. During this phase, various missions and technologies are assessed. During this phase, the designer is identifying design solutions of concepts and configurations to meet combinations of mission and technology. This research undertaking contributes the state-of-the-art in aircraft parametric sizing through (1) development of a dedicated conceptual design process and disciplinary methods library, (2) development of a novel and robust parametric sizing process based on 'best-practice' approaches found in the process and disciplinary methods library, and (3) application of the parametric sizing process to a variety of design missions (transonic, supersonic and hypersonic transports), different configurations (tail-aft, blended wing body, strut-braced wing, hypersonic blended bodies, etc.), and different technologies (composite, natural laminar flow, thrust vectored control, etc.), in order to demonstrate the robustness of the methodology and unearth first-order design sensitivities to current and future aerospace design problems. This research undertaking demonstrates the importance of this early design step in selecting the correct combination of mission, technologies and configuration to

  2. Design Thinking for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  3. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  4. Identification of Preferred Sources of Information for Undertaking Studies in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wyrwicka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a survey has been conducted among first-year students about sources of information which influence the decision of undertaking field studies in Safety Engineering, Management Engineering and Logistics in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology. The goal of these analyses is both to assess the effectiveness of promotion and also show trends in the use of diverse channels of information transfer of studies. The results of the investigation show that internet promotion via university and faculty website plays the dominant role but also direct promotion, such as opinion of older friends, is crucial. Furthermore, from year to year the analyses indicate the significant increase of official media and reveal that the prospective students rely on a few sources of information simultaneously.

  5. Facing Challenges in Differential Classical Conditioning Research: Benefits of a Hybrid Design for Simultaneous Electrodermal and Electroencephalographic Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M. Carmen; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Junghöfer, Markus; Poy, Rosario; López, Raul; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG–EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+) were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (unconditioned stimulus) during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS−) remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS− during 368–600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS−. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS− identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry) in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS− differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre–post-learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral

  6. Facing Challenges in Differential Classical Conditioning Research: Benefits of a Hybrid Design for Simultaneous Electrodermal and Electroencephalographic Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M Carmen; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Junghöfer, Markus; Poy, Rosario; López, Raul; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+) were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (unconditioned stimulus) during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS-) remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368-600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry) in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post-learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral

  7. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  8. Designing a Self-Management App for Young People With Type 1 Diabetes: Methodological Challenges, Experiences, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castensøe-Seidenfaden, Pernille; Reventlov Husted, Gitte; Teilmann, Grete; Hommel, Eva; Olsen, Birthe Susanne; Kensing, Finn

    2017-10-23

    Young people with type 1 diabetes often struggle to self-manage their disease. Mobile health (mHealth) apps show promise in supporting self-management of chronic conditions such as type 1 diabetes. Many health care providers become involved in app development. Unfortunately, limited information is available to guide their selection of appropriate methods, techniques, and tools for a participatory design (PD) project in health care. The aim of our study was to develop an mHealth app to support young people in self-managing type 1 diabetes. This paper presents our methodological recommendations based on experiences and reflections from a 2-year research study. A mixed methods design was used to identify user needs before designing the app and testing it in a randomized controlled trial. App design was based on qualitative, explorative, interventional, and experimental activities within an overall iterative PD approach. Several techniques and tools were used, including workshops, a mail panel, think-aloud tests, and a feasibility study. The final mHealth solution was "Young with Diabetes" (YWD). The iterative PD approach supported researchers and designers in understanding the needs of end users (ie, young people, parents, and health care providers) and their assessment of YWD, as well as how to improve app usability and feasibility. It is critical to include all end user groups during all phases of a PD project and to establish a multidisciplinary team to provide the wide range of expertise required to build a usable and useful mHealth app. Future research is needed to develop and evaluate more efficient PD techniques. Health care providers need guidance on what tools and techniques to choose for which subgroups of users and guidance on how to introduce an app to colleagues to successfully implement an mHealth app in health care organizations. These steps are important for anyone who wants to design an mHealth app for any illness. ©Pernille Castens

  9. Design challenges in transdiagnostic psychotherapy research: Comparing Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) to existing evidence-based psychotherapy in veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F

    2015-07-01

    To address the limitations of disorder-specific approaches, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. However, the recruitment of multiple diagnoses presents many challenges to the traditional design of psychotherapy randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The goal of the manuscript is to present the challenges and rationale for designing a RCT for transdiagnostic treatment to inform and aid in the development of future investigations. A recently funded and ongoing RCT for Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) is used as an example to discuss the related design challenges. The TBT study involves the recruitment of 96 veteran participants with any of the following eight principal diagnoses: posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, major depressive disorder, or persistent depressive disorder. Within the TBT study, participants will complete a semi-structured diagnostic interview and a series of transdiagnostic self-report measures to determine eligibility and assess baseline symptomatology. Qualifying participants will be randomized to TBT or control psychotherapy. Additional assessments will be completed at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. Due to the transdiagnostic nature of the sample, adjustments to the recruitment and randomization procedures, selection of measures, selection of control psychotherapy, and analysis plan were required. These adjustments have implications to future trials on transdiagnostic psychotherapy protocols as well as future research in line with the transdiagnostic focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) funding strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Slow light modes for optical delay lines: 2D photonic crystal-based design structures, performances and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talneau, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2D photonic crystal-based structures designed to display low group velocity as well as reduced group velocity dispersions. Their main envisioned applications are optical delay lines for telecom transmissions at 1.55 µm. Optical mechanisms responsible for slowing down the optical modes and encountered in the slow light regime serve as a guideline for this paper. (review article)

  11. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani, Malatsi; Yu, Ping; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design often does not take into consideration a learner's cognitive ability to absorb new information in a short training period. Given the high cost and difficulty of organising training in healthcare organisations, there is an urgent need for information system trainers to be aware of how cognitive overload or information overload affect a trainee's capability to acquire new knowledge and skills, and what instructional techniques can be used to facilitate effective learning. This paper introduces the concept of cognitive load and how it affects nurses when learning to use a new health information system. This is followed by the relevant strategies for instructional design, underpinned by the principles of cognitive load theory, which may be helpful for the development of effective instructional materials and activities for training nurses to use information systems.

  12. Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial of Tofacitinib Solution for Plaque Psoriasis: Challenges of the Intra-Subject Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ports, William C; Feldman, Steven R; Gupta, Pankaj; Tan, Huaming; Johnson, Theodore R; Bissonnette, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Intra-subject, left-right, randomized, controlled study designs are often used for proof-of-concept studies in dermatology. This design was used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a topical solution of tofacitinib (NCT00678561), a small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor under investigation for the topical and oral treatment of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Eighty-one patients, each with matched left and right target plaques, were randomized to 2%, 0.2%, or 0.02% tofacitinib or vehicle solution once or twice daily. Patients treated one plaque as per their randomization group (2%, 0.2%, 0.02% tofacitinib, or vehicle solution), and used vehicle to treat the contralateral plaque for 4 weeks. Except during clinic visits, study drug applications were performed unsupervised outside the clinical trial site. Intra-subject, vehicle-adjusted mean percent change from baseline in Target Plaque Severity Score at week 4 (primary efficacy endpoint) was not significantly different from baseline for any treatment group (P values of 0.28-0.68). However, skin biopsy analyses detected tofacitinib in both tofacitinib- and vehicle-treated plaques of some patients, suggesting cross-contamination or solution misapplication. Lack of efficacy with tofacitinib relative to vehicle may be due to the intra-subject study design with unsupervised applications. These findings have potential implications for future intra-subject studies of topical treatments.

  13. Could Black Be the New Gold? Design-Driven Challenges in New Sustainable Luxury Materials for Jewelry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Lerma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Is there a new material for use in jewelry, matching gold and precious stones, capable of maintaining the same perception of “preciousness” but that is also more sustainable, ethical, and inexpensive? This article deals with a case study within the European EcoDesign Network research project, aimed at investigating how sustainable design can help prestigious companies pinpoint new materials for the creation of jewelry, focusing on new and environmentally friendly opportunities while preserving their market position and target audience. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. Adopting the exploring design path, a jewelry background analysis pointed out both stereotypes and possible innovations in the jewelry field: an analysis was carried out on the perception of jewels by a panel guided by a cognitive ergonomics specialist, also using the eye-tracking machine to examine participants’ reactions to the jewelry involved in the study, and to establish paradigms of sustainability, preciousness, and innovation. Several meta-project proposals regarding innovations in materials and finishing were hypothesized and tested, following the main guidelines and principles of ecodesign. Lastly, a prototyping phase and some mechanical tests were implemented to verify the hypotheses of innovation. The results allowed the creation of a first set of sustainable jewelry, currently on the market.

  14. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  15. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  16. “Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…”: actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie A. Crooks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists’ caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. Methods To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Results Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one’s own health. Conclusion Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists

  17. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW) store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a clinical study

  18. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pressler Taylor R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a

  19. Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Design Research is a new interdisciplinary research area with a social science orientation at its heart, and this book explores how scientific knowledge can be put into practice in ways that are at once ethical, creative, helpful, and extraordinary in their results. In order to clarify the common...... aspects – in terms of features and approaches – that characterize all strands of research disciplines addressing design, Design Research undertakes an in depth exploration of the social processes involved in doing design, as well as analyses of the contexts for design use. The book further elicits...... ‘synergies from interdisciplinary perspectives’ by discussing and elaborating on differing academic perspectives, theoretical backgrounds, and design concept definitions, and evaluating their unique contribution to a general core of design research. This book is an exciting contribution to this little...

  20. Immunological challenges associated with artificial skin grafts: available solutions and stem cells in future design of synthetic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Saurabh; Baganizi, Dieudonné R; Sahu, Rajnish; Dosunmu, Ejowke; Chaudhari, Atul; Vig, Komal; Pillai, Shreekumar R; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A

    2017-01-01

    The repair or replacement of damaged skins is still an important, challenging public health problem. Immune acceptance and long-term survival of skin grafts represent the major problem to overcome in grafting given that in most situations autografts cannot be used. The emergence of artificial skin substitutes provides alternative treatment with the capacity to reduce the dependency on the increasing demand of cadaver skin grafts. Over the years, considerable research efforts have focused on strategies for skin repair or permanent skin graft transplantations. Available skin substitutes include pre- or post-transplantation treatments of donor cells, stem cell-based therapies, and skin equivalents composed of bio-engineered acellular or cellular skin substitutes. However, skin substitutes are still prone to immunological rejection, and as such, there is currently no skin substitute available to overcome this phenomenon. This review focuses on the mechanisms of skin rejection and tolerance induction and outlines in detail current available strategies and alternatives that may allow achieving full-thickness skin replacement and repair.

  1. A randomised controlled trial on hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: design and methodological challenges (the IMAGINE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flik Carla E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a common gastro-intestinal disorder in primary and secondary care, characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits and/or symptoms of bloating and distension. In general the efficacy of drug therapies is poor. Hypnotherapy as well as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and short Psychodynamic Therapy appear to be useful options for patients with refractory IBS in secondary care and are cost-effective, but the evidence is still limited. The IMAGINE-study is therefore designed to assess the overall benefit of hypnotherapy in IBS as well as comparing the efficacy of individual versus group hypnotherapy in treating this condition. Methods/Design The design is a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The study group consists of 354 primary care and secondary care patients (aged 18-65 with IBS (Rome-III criteria. Patients will be randomly allocated to either 6 sessions of individual hypnotherapy, 6 sessions of group hypnotherapy or 6 sessions of educational supportive therapy in a group (placebo, with a follow up of 9 months post treatment for all patients. Ten hospitals and four primary care psychological practices in different parts of The Netherlands will collaborate in this study. The primary efficacy parameter is the responder rate for adequate relief of IBS symptoms. Secondary efficacy parameters are changes in the IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitions, psychological complaints, self-efficacy as well as direct and indirect costs of the condition. Hypnotherapy is expected to be more effective than the control therapy, and group hypnotherapy is expected not to be inferior to individual hypnotherapy. Discussion If hypnotherapy is effective and if there is no difference in efficacy between individual and group hypnotherapy, this group form of treatment could be offered to more IBS patients, at lower costs. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN22888906

  2. IMPROVE trial: a randomized controlled trial of patient-controlled analgesia for sickle cell painful episodes: rationale, design challenges, initial experience, and recommendations for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampier, Carlton D; Smith, Wally R; Wager, Carrie G; Kim, Hae-Young; Bell, Margaret C; Miller, Scott T; Weiner, Debra L; Minniti, Caterina P; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Ataga, Kenneth I; Eckman, James R; Hsu, Lewis L; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M; Molokie, Robert; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Telen, Marilyn J

    2013-04-01

    The hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD) is pain from a vaso-occlusive crisis. Although ambulatory pain accounts for most days in pain, pain is also the most common cause of hospitalization and is typically treated with parenteral opioids. The evidence base is lacking for most analgesic practice in SCD, particularly for the optimal opioid dosing for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), in part because of the challenges of the trial design and conduct for this rare disease. The purpose of this report is to describe our Network's experiences with protocol development, implementation, and analysis, including overall study design, the value of pain assessments rather than 'crisis' resolution as trial endpoints, and alternative statistical analysis strategies. The Improving Pain Management and Outcomes with Various Strategies (IMPROVE) PCA trial was a multisite inpatient randomized controlled trial comparing two PCA-dosing strategies in adults and children with SCD and acute pain conducted by the SCD Clinical Research Network. The specified primary endpoint was a 25-mm change in a daily average pain intensity using a Visual Analogue Scale, and a number of related pain intensity and pain interference measures were selected as secondary efficacy outcomes. A time-to-event analysis strategy was planned for the primary endpoint. Of 1116 individuals admitted for pain at 31 participating sites over a 6-month period, 38 were randomized and 4 withdrawn. The trial was closed early due to poor accrual, reflecting a substantial number of challenges encountered during trial implementation. While some of the design issues were unique to SCD or analgesic studies, many of the trial implementation challenges reflected the increasing complexity of conducting clinical trials in the inpatient setting with multiple care providers and evolving electronic medical record systems, particularly in the context of large urban academic medical centers. Complicated clinical organization of many

  3. An Overview of the Challenges in Designing, Integrating, and Delivering BARD: A Public Chemical-Biology Resource and Query Portal for Multiple Organizations, Locations, and Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Andrea; Bittker, Joshua A; Lahr, David L; Brudz, Steve; Chatwin, Simon; Oprea, Tudor I; Waller, Anna; Yang, Jeremy J; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Schürer, Stephan C; Vempati, Uma D; Southern, Mark R; Dawson, Eric S; Clemons, Paul A; Chung, Thomas D Y

    2014-06-01

    Recent industry-academic partnerships involve collaboration among disciplines, locations, and organizations using publicly funded "open-access" and proprietary commercial data sources. These require the effective integration of chemical and biological information from diverse data sources, which presents key informatics, personnel, and organizational challenges. The BioAssay Research Database (BARD) was conceived to address these challenges and serve as a community-wide resource and intuitive web portal for public-sector chemical-biology data. Its initial focus is to enable scientists to more effectively use the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) data generated from the 3-year pilot and 6-year production phases of the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN), which is currently in its final year. BARD evolves the current data standards through structured assay and result annotations that leverage BioAssay Ontology and other industry-standard ontologies, and a core hierarchy of assay definition terms and data standards defined specifically for small-molecule assay data. We initially focused on migrating the highest-value MLP data into BARD and bringing it up to this new standard. We review the technical and organizational challenges overcome by the interdisciplinary BARD team, veterans of public- and private-sector data-integration projects, who are collaborating to describe (functional specifications), design (technical specifications), and implement this next-generation software solution. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. Proactive and integrated primary care for frail older people: design and methodological challenges of the Utrecht primary care PROactive frailty intervention trial (U-PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleijenberg Nienke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, primary care for frail older people is reactive, time consuming and does not meet patients' needs. A transition is needed towards proactive and integrated care, so that daily functioning and a good quality of life can be preserved. To work towards these goals, two interventions were developed to enhance the care of frail older patients in general practice: a screening and monitoring intervention using routine healthcare data (U-PRIM and a nurse-led multidisciplinary intervention program (U-CARE. The U-PROFIT trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the U-PROFIT trial design and to discuss methodological issues and challenges. Methods/Design The effectiveness of U-PRIM and U-CARE is being tested in a three-armed, cluster randomized trial in 58 general practices in the Netherlands, with approximately 5000 elderly individuals expected to participate. The primary outcome is the effect on activities of daily living as measured with the Katz ADL index. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, mortality, nursing home admission, emergency department and out-of-hours General Practice (GP, surgery visits, and caregiver burden. Discussion In a large, pragmatic trial conducted in daily clinical practice with frail older patients, several challenges and methodological issues will occur. Recruitment and retention of patients and feasibility of the interventions are important issues. To enable broad generalizability of results, careful choices of the design and outcome measures are required. Taking this into account, the U-PROFIT trial aims to provide robust evidence for a structured and integrated approach to provide care for frail older people in primary care. Trial registration NTR2288

  5. Design of Architectures and Materials in In-Plane Micro-supercapacitors: Current Status and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-02-01

    The rapid development of integrated electronics and the boom in miniaturized and portable devices have increased the demand for miniaturized and on-chip energy storage units. Currently thin-film batteries or microsized batteries are commercially available for miniaturized devices. However, they still suffer from several limitations, such as short lifetime, low power density, and complex architecture, which limit their integration. Supercapacitors can surmount all these limitations. Particularly for micro-supercapacitors with planar architectures, due to their unique design of the in-plane electrode finger arrays, they possess the merits of easy fabrication and integration into on-chip miniaturized electronics. Here, the focus is on the different strategies to design electrode finger arrays and the material engineering of in-plane micro-supercapacitors. It is expected that the advances in micro-supercapacitors with in-plane architectures will offer new opportunities for the miniaturization and integration of energy-storage units for portable devices and on-chip electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Design and legal considerations for North American emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    2002-06-01

    When considering a multi-pollutant emissions trading system covering Mexico, the United States and Canada, several issues must be looked at. Such a system would result from the changing environment in the electricity sector. An understanding of the architectural elements involved in the design of an emissions trading regime was the stated goal for the preparation of this working paper. In the event of the implementation of a North American emissions trading system, some potential interface issues resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were identified. An overview of the emissions trading systems currently in place in North America and their results was included in a background paper, as well as a description of architectural elements comprised in the design of an emissions trading system, the implications of cross-border harmonization taking into account environmental integrity and economic efficiency, and potential trade issues. This paper was circulated among a broad section of policy experts in environmental matters, and was then discussed at an informal workshop in December 2001, attended by 25 cross-sectoral experts. The author also identified several areas where further work is required. refs., 2 tabs

  7. Design Challenges of an Episode-Based Payment Model in Oncology: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Oncology Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Ronald M; Muldoon, L Daniel; Schumacher, Heidi K; Strawbridge, Larisa M; York, Andrew W; Mortimer, Laura K; Falb, Alison F; Cox, Katherine J; Bazell, Carol; Lukens, Ellen W; Kapp, Mary C; Rajkumar, Rahul; Bassano, Amy; Conway, Patrick H

    2017-07-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services developed the Oncology Care Model as an episode-based payment model to encourage participating practitioners to provide higher-quality, better-coordinated care at a lower cost to the nearly three-quarter million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with cancer who receive chemotherapy each year. Episode payment models can be complex. They combine into a single benchmark price all payments for services during an episode of illness, many of which may be delivered at different times by different providers in different locations. Policy and technical decisions include the definition of the episode, including its initiation, duration, and included services; the identification of beneficiaries included in the model; and beneficiary attribution to practitioners with overall responsibility for managing their care. In addition, the calculation and risk adjustment of benchmark episode prices for the bundle of services must reflect geographic cost variations and diverse patient populations, including varying disease subtypes, medical comorbidities, changes in standards of care over time, the adoption of expensive new drugs (especially in oncology), as well as diverse practice patterns. Other steps include timely monitoring and intervention as needed to avoid shifting the attribution of beneficiaries on the basis of their expected episode expenditures as well as to ensure the provision of necessary medical services and the development of a meaningful link to quality measurement and improvement through the episode-based payment methodology. The complex and diverse nature of oncology business relationships and the specific rules and requirements of Medicare payment systems for different types of providers intensify these issues. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services believes that by sharing its approach to addressing these decisions and challenges, it may facilitate greater understanding of the model within the oncology

  8. Design challenges in a double-blinded RCT study of music therapy for people suffering from szhizophrenia with negative symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    . The study includes 120 participants. Participants in the experimental group become 25 hours of individual music therapy by specific trained music therapists working from a manual, wheras the control Group become 25 hours of being together with a care persone (trained by a music therapist) for music......The aim of this study is to examine if postiive results of International Cochrane Reviews on Music Therapy and Schizophrenia can be confirmed by a randomized controlled double blinded study on music therapy for people suffering from schizophrenia with extensive negative symptoms in Denmark...... listening from a selected playlist. Ethical refelctions around the design will be presented, and the possibilities of keeping the examination process blinded or not blinded to the participants with be shared. As this examination is currently running, the focus will be on the Development of abd application...

  9. A randomised controlled trial on hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: design and methodological challenges (the IMAGINE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flik, Carla E; van Rood, Yanda R; Laan, Wijnand; Smout, André Jpm; Weusten, Bas Lam; Whorwell, Peter J; de Wit, Niek J

    2011-12-20

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastro-intestinal disorder in primary and secondary care, characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits and/or symptoms of bloating and distension. In general the efficacy of drug therapies is poor. Hypnotherapy as well as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and short Psychodynamic Therapy appear to be useful options for patients with refractory IBS in secondary care and are cost-effective, but the evidence is still limited. The IMAGINE-study is therefore designed to assess the overall benefit of hypnotherapy in IBS as well as comparing the efficacy of individual versus group hypnotherapy in treating this condition. The design is a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The study group consists of 354 primary care and secondary care patients (aged 18-65) with IBS (Rome-III criteria). Patients will be randomly allocated to either 6 sessions of individual hypnotherapy, 6 sessions of group hypnotherapy or 6 sessions of educational supportive therapy in a group (placebo), with a follow up of 9 months post treatment for all patients. Ten hospitals and four primary care psychological practices in different parts of The Netherlands will collaborate in this study. The primary efficacy parameter is the responder rate for adequate relief of IBS symptoms. Secondary efficacy parameters are changes in the IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitions, psychological complaints, self-efficacy as well as direct and indirect costs of the condition. Hypnotherapy is expected to be more effective than the control therapy, and group hypnotherapy is expected not to be inferior to individual hypnotherapy. If hypnotherapy is effective and if there is no difference in efficacy between individual and group hypnotherapy, this group form of treatment could be offered to more IBS patients, at lower costs. ISRCTN: ISRCTN22888906.

  10. Custom design of a hanging cooling water power generating system applied to a sensitive cooling water discharge weir in a seaside power plant: A challenging energy scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Chuan Min; Jaffar, Mohd Narzam; Ramji, Harunal Rejan; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an innovative design of hydro-electricity system was applied to an unconventional site in an attempt to generate electricity from the exhaust cooling water of a coal-fired power plant. Inspired by the idea of micro hydro, present study can be considered new in three aspects: design, resource and site. This system was hung at a cooling water discharge weir, where all sorts of civil work were prohibited and sea water was used as the cooling water. It was designed and fabricated in the university's mechanical workshop and transported to the site for installation. The system was then put into proof run for a three-month period and achieved some success. Due to safety reasons, on-site testing was prohibited by the power plant authority. Hence, most data was acquired from the proof run. The driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45% experimentally while modeling results came close to experimental results. Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.23 years. Result obtained validates the feasibility of the overall design under the sensitive site application. - Highlights: • Challenging energy scheme via a hanging cooling water power generating system. • Driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45%. • Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.2 years

  11. Challenges in designing appropriate scaffolding to improve students' representational consistency: The case of a Gauss's law problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru; Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-12-01

    Prior research suggests that introductory physics students have difficulty with graphing and interpreting graphs. Here, we discuss an investigation of student difficulties in translating between mathematical and graphical representations for a problem in electrostatics and the effect of increasing levels of scaffolding on students' representational consistency. Students in calculus-based introductory physics were given a typical problem that can be solved using Gauss's law involving a spherically symmetric charge distribution in which they were asked to write a mathematical expression for the electric field in various regions and then plot the electric field. In study 1, we found that students had great difficulty in plotting the electric field as a function of the distance from the center of the sphere consistent with the mathematical expressions in various regions, and interviews with students suggested possible reasons which may account for this difficulty. Therefore, in study 2, we designed two scaffolding interventions with levels of support which built on each other (i.e., the second scaffolding level built on the first) in order to help students plot their expressions consistently and compared the performance of students provided with scaffolding with a comparison group which was not given any scaffolding support. Analysis of student performance with different levels of scaffolding reveals that scaffolding from an expert perspective beyond a certain level may sometimes hinder student performance and students may not even discern the relevance of the additional support. We provide possible interpretations for these findings based on in-depth, think-aloud student interviews.

  12. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market.

  13. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  15. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole.

  16. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2018-01-25

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE URGENCY OF UNDERTAKING LAND CONSOLIDATION WORKS IN THE VILLAGES OF THE SŁAWNO MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Leń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is to analyze the spatial structure of land and identification of the needs of consolidation works and exchange of land in the villages of the Sławno municipality, lying in the district of Opoczno, in the Łódzkie Voivodship. The authors use the method of zero unitarisation for the purposes of determining the order of undertaking consolidation works and exchange of land in the area of research. The basis for calculation is the database of 19 factors (x1–x19 characteristic for the listed five groups of issues, describing each of the following villages. The obtained results, in a form of synthetic meter for each village, allowed creating the hierarchy of the urgency of carrying out consolidation works. The problem of excessive fragmentation of farms, constituting the collections of a certain number of parcels, in a broader sense, is one of the elements that prevent the acceleration of reforms by conversion of the Land and Buildings Register (EGiB in a full valuable real estate cadastre in Poland. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the fact that there are ecological grounds in the study area, significant from the point of view of environmental protection.

  18. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  19. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  20. Designing Sustainable Urban Social Housing in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Galal Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The United Arab Emirates is experiencing a challenging turn towards sustainable social housing. Conventional neighborhood planning and design principles are being replaced by those leading to more sustainable urban forms. To trace this challenging move, the research has investigated the degree of consideration of sustainable urban design principles in two social housing neighborhoods in Al Ain City in Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE. The first represents a conventional urban form based on the neighborhood theory; the other represents the new sustainable design. The ultimate aim is to define the obstacles hindering the full achievement of a sustainable urban form in this housing type. To undertake research investigations, a matrix of the design principles of sustainable urban forms has been initiated in order to facilitate the assessment of the urban forms of the two selected urban communities. Some qualitatively measurable design elements have been defined for each of these principles. The results of the analysis of the shift from ‘conventional’ to ‘sustainable’ case studies have revealed some aspects that would prevent the attainment of fully sustainable urban forms in newly designed social housing neighborhoods. Finally, the research concludes by recommending some fundamental actions to help meet these challenges in future design.

  1. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  2. A nationwide study on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, and risk of premature menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer: design and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Annelies

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly growing group of survivors. However, both chemo- and radiotherapy may adversely affect reproductive function. This paper describes the design and encountered methodological challenges of a nationwide study in the Netherlands investigating the effects of treatment on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, premature menopause and pregnancy outcomes in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS, the DCOG LATER-VEVO study. Methods The study is a retrospective cohort study consisting of two parts: a questionnaire assessing medical, menstrual, and obstetric history, and a clinical assessment evaluating ovarian and uterine function by hormonal analyses and transvaginal ultrasound measurements. The eligible study population consists of adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer treated in the Netherlands, whereas the control group consists of age-matched sisters of the participating CCS. To date, study invitations have been sent to 1611 CCS and 429 sister controls, of which 1215 (75% and 333 (78% have responded so far. Of these responders, the majority consented to participate in both parts of the study (53% vs. 65% for CCS and sister controls respectively. Several challenges were encountered involving the study population: dealing with bias due to the differences in characteristics of several types of (non- participants and finding an adequately sized and well-matched control group. Moreover, the challenges related to the data collection process included: differences in response rates between web-based and paper-based questionnaires, validity of self-reported outcomes, interpretation of clinical measurements of women using hormonal contraceptives, and inter- and intra-observer variation of the ultrasound measurements. Discussion The DCOG LATER-VEVO study will provide valuable information about the

  3. A nationwide study on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, and risk of premature menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer: design and methodological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly growing group of survivors. However, both chemo- and radiotherapy may adversely affect reproductive function. This paper describes the design and encountered methodological challenges of a nationwide study in the Netherlands investigating the effects of treatment on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, premature menopause and pregnancy outcomes in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS), the DCOG LATER-VEVO study. Methods The study is a retrospective cohort study consisting of two parts: a questionnaire assessing medical, menstrual, and obstetric history, and a clinical assessment evaluating ovarian and uterine function by hormonal analyses and transvaginal ultrasound measurements. The eligible study population consists of adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer treated in the Netherlands, whereas the control group consists of age-matched sisters of the participating CCS. To date, study invitations have been sent to 1611 CCS and 429 sister controls, of which 1215 (75%) and 333 (78%) have responded so far. Of these responders, the majority consented to participate in both parts of the study (53% vs. 65% for CCS and sister controls respectively). Several challenges were encountered involving the study population: dealing with bias due to the differences in characteristics of several types of (non-) participants and finding an adequately sized and well-matched control group. Moreover, the challenges related to the data collection process included: differences in response rates between web-based and paper-based questionnaires, validity of self-reported outcomes, interpretation of clinical measurements of women using hormonal contraceptives, and inter- and intra-observer variation of the ultrasound measurements. Discussion The DCOG LATER-VEVO study will provide valuable information about the reproductive potential of

  4. Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: application for nurse education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Fenella J; Leslie, Gavin D; Grech, Carol; Latour, Jos M

    2013-11-01

    The Internet is increasingly being used as a data collection medium to access research participants. This paper reports on the experience and value of using web-survey software to conduct an eDelphi study to develop Australian critical care course graduate practice standards. The eDelphi technique used involved the iterative process of administering three rounds of surveys to a national expert panel. The survey was developed online using SurveyMonkey. Panel members responded to statements using one rating scale for round one and two scales for rounds two and three. Text boxes for panel comments were provided. For each round, the SurveyMonkey's email tool was used to distribute an individualized email invitation containing the survey web link. The distribution of panel responses, individual responses and a summary of comments were emailed to panel members. Stacked bar charts representing the distribution of responses were generated using the SurveyMonkey software. Panel response rates remained greater than 85% over all rounds. An online survey provided numerous advantages over traditional survey approaches including high quality data collection, ease and speed of survey administration, direct communication with the panel and rapid collation of feedback allowing data collection to be undertaken in 12 weeks. Only minor challenges were experienced using the technology. Ethical issues, specific to using the Internet to conduct research and external hosting of web-based software, lacked formal guidance. High response rates and an increased level of data quality were achieved in this study using web-survey software and the process was efficient and user-friendly. However, when considering online survey software, it is important to match the research design with the computer capabilities of participants and recognize that ethical review guidelines and processes have not yet kept pace with online research practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peritoneal dialysis--current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Simon J

    2013-07-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is now a well established, mature treatment modality for advanced chronic kidney disease. The medium term (at least 5 year) survival of patients on peritoneal dialysis is currently equivalent to that of those on haemodialysis, and is particularly good in patients who are new to renal replacement therapy and have less comorbidity. Nevertheless the modality needs to keep pace with the constantly evolving challenges associated with the provision and delivery of health care. These challenges, which are gradually converging at a global level, include ageing of the population, multimorbidity of patients, containment of cost, increasing self care and environmental issues. In this context, peritoneal dialysis faces particular challenges that include multiple barriers to the therapy and unsatisfactory and poorly defined technique survival as well as limitations relating to intrinsic aspects of the therapy, such as peritoneal membrane longevity and hypoalbuminaemia. To move the therapy forward and favourably influence health-care policy, the peritoneal dialysis community needs to integrate their research effort more effectively by undertaking clinically meaningful studies-with a strong focus on technique survival--that are supported by multidisciplinary expertise in patient-centred outcomes, study design and analysis.

  6. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2016-09-24

    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  7. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. "Positive technology" thereby takes the responsible role of a "digital coach," supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the "therapeutic interaction" mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the discussion

  8. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article

  9. EPI-CT: design, challenges and epidemiological methods of an international study on cancer risk after paediatric and young adult CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch de Basea, Magda; Pearce, Mark S; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Bernier, Marie-Odile; Dabin, Jérémie; Engels, Hilde; Hauptmann, Michael; Krille, Lucian; Meulepas, Johanna M; Struelens, Lara; Baatout, Sarah; Kaijser, Magnus; Maccia, Carlo; Jahnen, Andreas; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Blettner, Maria; Johansen, Christoffer; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Nordenskjöld, Arvid; Olerud, Hilde; Salotti, Jane A; Andersen, Tina Veje; Vrijheid, Martine; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has great clinical utility and its usage has increased dramatically over the years. Concerns have been raised, however, about health impacts of ionising radiation exposure from CTs, particularly in children, who have a higher risk for some radiation induced diseases. Direct estimation of the health impact of these exposures is needed, but the conduct of epidemiological studies of paediatric CT populations poses a number of challenges which, if not addressed, could invalidate the results. The aim of the present paper is to review the main challenges of a study on the health impact of paediatric CTs and how the protocol of the European collaborative study EPI-CT, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is designed to address them. The study, based on a common protocol, is being conducted in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom and it has recruited over one million patients suitable for long-term prospective follow-up. Cohort accrual relies on records of participating hospital radiology departments. Basic demographic information and technical data on the CT procedure needed to estimate organ doses are being abstracted and passive follow-up is being conducted by linkage to population-based cancer and mortality registries. The main issues which may affect the validity of study results include missing doses from other radiological procedures, missing CTs, confounding by CT indication and socioeconomic status and dose reconstruction. Sub-studies are underway to evaluate their potential impact. By focusing on the issues which challenge the validity of risk estimates from CT exposures, EPI-CT will be able to address limitations of previous CT studies, thus providing reliable estimates of risk of solid tumours and leukaemia from paediatric CT exposures and scientific bases for the optimisation of paediatric CT protocols and patient protection.

  10. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  11. Designing food delivery systems: challenges related to the in vitro methods employed to determine the fate of bioactives in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Elena; Corredig, Milena; Guri, Anilda

    2016-08-10

    An in depth understanding of the underpinning mechanisms that relate to food disruption and processing in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary to achieve optimal intake of nutrients and their bioefficacy. Although in vivo trials can provide insights on physiological responses of nutrients, in vitro assays are often applied as tools to understand specific mechanisms, or as prescreening methods to determine the factors associated with the uptake of food components in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro assays are also often utilized to design novel or improved food delivery systems. In this review the available approaches to study delivery and uptake of food bioactives and the associated challenges are discussed. For an in depth understanding of food processing in the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methodologies, at the interface between materials science, chemistry, physics and biology.

  12. Challenges of Designing a 13-Hz High-Load Vibration Isolation System with Tight Volume Constraints: Lessons Learned and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Stella; Ruebsamen, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a passive isolation system using D-struts (Registered TradeMark) to isolate an optical payload from aircraft-borne jitter with challenging stroke per volume requirements. It discusses the use of viscoelastic-coated D-struts® that meet the customer performance and outgassing specification, NASA-1124. The result was a relatively soft isolation system, (where the first mode was 13 Hz), with each individual strut capable of withstanding loads on the order of magnitude of 623 N (140 lbf), weighing less than 910 g (2 lbm), fitting in a volume 5.1 cm (2 inches) in diameter and 12-cm (4.7-inches) long and capable of performing up to 1000 Hz without nonlinearities.

  13. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  14. The Future of Management Education in Australia: Challenges and Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard; Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose -- The purpose of this paper is to undertake a survey of the external and internal forces changing the nature of business schools and business education. It aims to investigate how management education responds to increasing productivity, innovation and capability challenges, examine how MBA programs currently meet these demands, and how…

  15. An Analysis of the Challenges Facing Emerging Contractors in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aim of this article is to explore the diffi cult journey which emerging contractors currently undertake through a survey analysis of the industry, and to provide recommendations to overcome these challenges. The survey herein discussed was restricted to emerging contractors in the Nelson Mandela Metropole. African Insight ...

  16. Building capacity to use and undertake research in health organisations: a survey of training needs and priorities among staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J

    2016-12-07

    Efforts to improve healthcare and population health depend partly on the ability of health organisations to use research knowledge and participate in its production. We report the findings of a survey conducted to prioritise training needs among healthcare and public health staff, in relation to the production and implementation of research, across an applied health research collaboration. A questionnaire survey using a validated tool, the Hennessy-Hicks Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire. Participants rated 25 tasks on a five-point scale with regard to both their confidence in performing the task, and its importance to their role. A questionnaire weblink was distributed to a convenience sample of 35 healthcare and public health organisations in London and South East England, with a request that they cascade the information to relevant staff. 203 individuals responded, from 20 healthcare and public health organisations. None. Training needs were identified by comparing median importance and performance scores for each task. Individuals were also invited to describe up to three priority areas in which they require training. Across the study sample, evaluation; teaching; making do with limited resources; coping with change and managing competing demands were identified as key tasks. Assessing the relevance of research and learning about new developments were the most relevant research-related tasks. Participants' training priorities included evaluation; finding, appraising and applying research evidence; and data analysis. Key barriers to involvement included time and resources, as well as a lack of institutional support for undertaking research. We identify areas in which healthcare and public health professionals may benefit from support to facilitate their involvement in and use of applied health research. We also describe barriers to participation and differing perceptions of research between professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  17. An investigation in to the impact of acquisition location on error type and rate when undertaking panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, A; Drage, N; Greenall, C; Farnell, D J J

    2017-11-01

    Panoramic radiography is a common radiographic examination carried out in the UK. This study was carried out to determine if acquisition site has an impact on image quality. An image quality audit was carried out in South Wales across a number of dental and general radiology settings. The image quality was assessed retrospectively against national standards. A total of 174 radiographs were assessed from general radiology departments and 141 from dental radiology units. Chi-squared analysis was used to investigate whether there were differences in the grading between dental radiology units and general radiology departments. Differences between the two settings in terms of the number of errors in the radiographs was analysed using the Mann-Whitney test. Chi-squared analysis was used to see if there were differences between the types of errors in the two clinical settings. There was a significant association (p = 0.021) between the quality of the radiograph grading and type of radiology department. However when excellent and diagnostically acceptable radiographs were grouped together there was no significant difference between the two clinical settings. Although the vast majority of radiographs were diagnostic (89% for general radiology and 92% for dental radiology units), neither reached the required standards. The most common errors were patient positioning errors (54.6% radiographs affected) and preparation/instructional errors (47.9% radiographs affected). Errors in panoramic radiography are relatively high and further instruction to staff undertaking these procedures is required to ensure the targets are reached. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  19. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  20. Design Research as Conceptual Designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jacucci, Giulio; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘conceptual designing’ refers to an activity that various practitioners already undertake, but for which we lack a clear definition. This article provides that definition and uses an example of a design concept called ‘Manhattan’ to present how exactly this type of process happens. We...... that conceptual designing can be especially useful in research and design projects that bring different kinds of people, organizations, technologies and domains together into the forming of new well-founded proposals for development. The presentation of conceptual designing in this paper is written...... with an intention to provide designers and researchers with terminology and concepts that they may use to structure their work as well as to become more resourceful in reflecting upon their projects....

  1. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  2. Ministerial Decree of 15 February 1974 establishing the inventory of qualified experts and physicians authorized to undertake the health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 and provides for the legal and administrative acknowledgment of experts and physicians who are required to undertake supervision of protection against the hazards of ionizing radiations. (NEA) [fr

  3. The "No Trucks" Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Large tractor-trailers have a reputation of being involved in rather horrific accidents, often involving death and carnage among smaller passenger vehicles. The giant rigs, according to some transportation experts, may have outlived their usefulness on crowded highways, and perhaps it is time that people rethink their presence on the roads. In…

  4. BUILDING BETTER LAW: HOW DESIGN THINKING CAN HELP US BE BETTER LAWYERS, MEET NEW CHALLENGES, AND CREATE THE FUTURE OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ursel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal profession faces increasing challenges to the relevance, utility, and acceptance of law and the rule of law as tools of social organization that are important and essential to human beings. Often the issues which challenge law and legal systems seem perennial, obstinate, and intractable. In order to remain relevant to the societies it serves, the law needs to innovate. We need to find new ways of thinking about law as a human designed and deliberate system of social organization. In this context, adopting an innovation mindset is an important starting point. “Design thinking” offers us a description and practice of an innovation mindset that can be and is employed in a variety of professional contexts. This article is an introduction to design thinking, its challenges, and its possibilities for law. It postulates that in fact design thinking as a concept and as a set of techniques is particularly well suited for use in law, and that we actually employ many of its techniques already. The article argues that by bringing these techniques into sharper focus, we can both recognize how we are in some ways using them already, and more importantly, how they can be deployed in even more useful and innovative ways to “build better law” at all scales of the legal endeavour, from individual service to legal systems.    La profession juridique doit relever des défis croissants liés à la pertinence, à l’utilité et à l’acceptation du droit et de la règle de droit comme outils d’organisation sociale qui sont importants, voire essentiels pour l’être humain. Les problèmes qui minent le droit et les systèmes juridiques semblent souvent permanents, tenaces et insolubles. Pour que le droit demeure pertinent à l’endroit des sociétés qu’il dessert, nous devons lui donner un souffle nouveau et trouver de nouvelles façons de le considérer comme un système d’organisation sociale conçu par l’être humain et mûrement r

  5. Comunidades virtuales, grupos y proyectos de investigación sobre ims learning design. Status quo, factores clave y retos inmediatos [Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burgos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We carry out a report showing the state of the art about virtual communities, research groups and projects focused on the e-learning specification IMS Learning Design or directly related to it. This specification is currently becoming the most flexible and supported de facto standard for modelling full learning processes, as a complement for any structure of educational contents. Afterwards, as a consequence of the previous study, we develop a reading and a further analysis of the current panorama, and describe the key factors that show the relevance and impact of IMS Learning Design and also the main forthcoming challenges. Realizamos una descripción del estado del arte sobre las comunidades virtuales, los grupos de trabajo y los proyectos de investigación centrados en la especificación de e-learning IMS Learning Design o desarrollados en torno a ella. Esta especificación se está convirtiendo de facto en el estándar más versátil y respaldado para modelar procesos completos de aprendizaje como complemento de estructuras de contenidos educativos. Posteriormente, y como consecuencia del estudio, desarrollamos un análisis y lectura del panorama actual con una indicación de los factores clave que muestran su impacto y relevancia y los principales retos a abordar en un futuro inmediato.

  6. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual dysfunction ...

  7. Preparing Medical Students to Undertake a Cultural Immersion Experience: Introducing Frameworks for Preparatory and Post-Immersion Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Donna B.; Watson, Rashmi; Hadden, John

    2011-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining practitioners to rural and remote locations is a challenge for many industries including health and education. The medical, nursing and teaching professions have utilized immersion experiences for trainees and students to better prepare them and to address workforce shortages in crosscultural and underserved areas. This…

  8. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies or...

  9. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnadottir, H.; Hilding-Rydevik, T. [Nordregio, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented

  10. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnadottir, H.; Hilding-Rydevik, T.

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented. Our perception of

  11. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  12. Waterfront Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront.......An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront....

  13. Ministerial Decree of 12 May 1980 authorising Agip Nucleare S.p.a. in Rome to undertake health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Section 83 of Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on protection against ionizing radiation provides that institutions previously authorised by the Minister of Labour and Social Security may, on condition that they are adequately equipped for such services, be authorised to undertake health physics and medical supervision of personnel. This Decree accordingly authorises the Agip Nucleare Company to carry out this work. (NEA) [fr

  14. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  15. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  16. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant; Control de riesgos y retos asociados al diseno y construccion de una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebana Martinez, B.; Armas Garcia, A.; Martinez Gozalo, I.

    2011-07-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges. The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years.

  17. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  18. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ...

  19. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list of benefits for ... getting started. Hear how moms overcame common nursing challenges and stayed committed to breastfeeding. Common questions about ...

  20. Challenges in developing competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Thippaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Food Safety and Standards Act have redefined the roles and responsibilities of food regulatory workforce and calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Aims: 1 Identify the competencies needed among the food regulatory workforce in India. 2 Develop a competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in the country. 3 Develop training materials for use to train the food regulatory workforce. Settings and Design: The Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, led the development of training curriculum on food safety with technical assistance from the Royal Society for Public Health, UK and the National Institute of Nutrition, India. The exercise was to facilitate the implementation of new Act by undertaking capacity building through a comprehensive training program. Materials and Methods: A competency-based training needs assessment was conducted before undertaking the development of the training materials. Results: The training program for Food Safety Officers was designed to comprise of five modules to include: Food science and technology, Food safety management systems, Food safety legislation, Enforcement of food safety regulations, and Administrative functions. Each module has a facilitator guide for the tutor and a handbook for the participant. Essentials of Food Hygiene-I (Basic level, II and III (Retail/ Catering/ Manufacturing were primarily designed for training of food handlers and are part of essential reading for food safety regulators. Conclusion: The Food Safety and Standards Act calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Despite having developed a comprehensive competency-based training curriculum by joint efforts by the local, national, and international agencies, implementation remains a challenge in resource-limited setting.

  1. Challenges in Developing Competency-based Training Curriculum for Food Safety Regulators in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippaiah, Anitha; Allagh, Komal Preet; Murthy, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Food Safety and Standards Act have redefined the roles and responsibilities of food regulatory workforce and calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Aims: 1) Identify the competencies needed among the food regulatory workforce in India. 2) Develop a competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in the country. 3) Develop training materials for use to train the food regulatory workforce. Settings and Design: The Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, led the development of training curriculum on food safety with technical assistance from the Royal Society for Public Health, UK and the National Institute of Nutrition, India. The exercise was to facilitate the implementation of new Act by undertaking capacity building through a comprehensive training program. Materials and Methods: A competency-based training needs assessment was conducted before undertaking the development of the training materials. Results: The training program for Food Safety Officers was designed to comprise of five modules to include: Food science and technology, Food safety management systems, Food safety legislation, Enforcement of food safety regulations, and Administrative functions. Each module has a facilitator guide for the tutor and a handbook for the participant. Essentials of Food Hygiene-I (Basic level), II and III (Retail/ Catering/ Manufacturing) were primarily designed for training of food handlers and are part of essential reading for food safety regulators. Conclusion: The Food Safety and Standards Act calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Despite having developed a comprehensive competency-based training curriculum by joint efforts by the local, national, and international agencies, implementation remains a challenge in resource-limited setting. PMID:25136155

  2. FPGA design

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This book describes best practices for successful FPGA design. It is the result of the author's meetings with hundreds of customers on the challenges facing each of their FPGA design teams. By gaining an understanding into their design environments, processes, what works and what does not work, key areas of concern in implementing system designs have been identified and a recommended design methodology to overcome these challenges has been developed. This book's content has a strong focus on design teams that are spread across sites. The goal being to increase the productivity of FPGA design t

  3. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL. Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together

  4. Design law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU......This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU...

  5. Undertaking a Collaborative Rapid Realist Review to Investigate What Works in the Successful Implementation of a Frail Older Person's Pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-25

    We addressed the research question "what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person\\'s pathway within the acute setting". A rapid realist review (RRR) was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources)-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE) study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person\\'s pathway.

  6. Recent Perspectives on Genome, Transmission, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis, Therapeutic Strategies, Vaccine Developments, and Challenges of Zika Virus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Shankar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential threats to public health microbiology in 21st century is the increased mortality rate caused by Zika virus (ZIKV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The severity of ZIKV infection urged World Health Organization (WHO to declare this virus as a global concern. The limited knowledge on the structure, virulent factors, and replication mechanism of the virus posed as hindrance for vaccine development. Several vector and non-vector-borne mode of transmission are observed for spreading the disease. The similarities of the virus with other flaviviruses such as dengue and West Nile virus are worrisome; hence, there is high scope to undertake ZIKV research that probably provide insight for novel therapeutic intervention. Thus, this review focuses on the recent aspect of ZIKV research which includes the outbreak, genome structure, multiplication and propagation of the virus, current animal models, clinical manifestations, available treatment options (probable vaccines and therapeutics, and the recent advancements in computational drug discovery pipelines, challenges and limitation to undertake ZIKV research. The review suggests that the infection due to ZIKV became one of the universal concerns and an interdisciplinary environment of in vitro cellular assays, genomics, proteomics, and computational biology approaches probably contribute insights for screening of novel molecular targets for drug design. The review tried to provide cutting edge knowledge in ZIKV research with future insights required for the development of novel therapeutic remedies to curtail ZIKV infection.

  7. The process of undertaking a quantitative dissertation for a taught M.Sc: Personal insights gained from supporting and examining students in the UK and Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article discusses the roles of the student and the supervisor in the process of undertaking and writing a dissertation, a potentially daunting process. Results: The authors have supervised and examined students within 20 institutions and the personal insights gained result in the guidance provided within this article. Conclusion: The authors conclude that much can be done by students working with their supervisors, to improve progress in both performing and writing up the dissertation. Taking account of these factors will ease the dissertation process and move students progressively towards the production of a well-written dissertation

  8. A Mobile Internet Service for Self-Management of Physical Activity in People With Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges in Advancing the Co-Design Process During the Requirements Specification Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenäs, Åsa; Martin, Cathrin; H Opava, Christina; Brusewitz, Maria; Keller, Christina; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

    2015-09-17

    User involvement in the development of health care services is important for the viability, usability, and effectiveness of services. This study reports on the second step of the co-design process. The aim was to explore the significant challenges in advancing the co-design process during the requirements specification phase of a mobile Internet service for the self-management of physical activity (PA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A participatory action research design was used to involve lead users and stakeholders as co-designers. Lead users (n=5), a clinical physiotherapist (n=1), researchers (n=2) with knowledge in PA in RA and behavioral learning theories, an eHealth strategist (n=1), and an officer from the patient organization (n=1) collaborated in 4 workshops. Data-collection methods included video recordings and naturalistic observations. The inductive qualitative video-based analysis resulted in 1 overarching theme, merging perspectives, and 2 subthemes reflecting different aspects of merging: (1) finding a common starting point and (2) deciding on design solutions. Seven categories illustrated the specific challenges: reaching shared understanding of goals, clarifying and handling the complexity of participants' roles, clarifying terminology related to system development, establishing the rationale for features, negotiating features, transforming ideas into concrete features, and participants' alignment with the agreed goal and task. Co-designing the system requirements of a mobile Internet service including multiple stakeholders was a complex and extensive collaborative decision-making process. Considering, valuing, counterbalancing, and integrating different perspectives into agreements and solutions (ie, the merging of participants' perspectives) were crucial for moving the process forward and were considered the core challenges of co-design. Further research is needed to replicate the results and to increase knowledge on key factors for a successful

  9. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  11. Crohn's disease presenting as gastric outlet obstruction: a therapeutic challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Faisal; Ullah, Waqas; Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram

    2017-04-28

    Isolated gastric Crohn's disease with initial presentation related to gastric outlet obstruction is an unusual clinicopathological entity. We undertake here a literature review of this rare initial presentation of isolated gastric Crohn's disease and discuss the formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenges encountered in such patients. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Meeting the inventory optimization challenges of the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.K. IV

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the efforts being taken by the new Southern Nuclear Operating Company to augment the inventory optimization efforts of the parent Southern Company. Southern Nuclear Operating Company's management is undertaking a multifaceted program to enhance their inventory practices. Key elements of this program include improved performance reporting, procurement support, and material identification. These elements will enable Southern Nuclear to meet inventory management challenges dynamically in the 1990s

  13. Does an integrated information technology system provide support for community pharmacists undertaking Discharge Medicines Reviews? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzourani, Efthymia; Way, Cheryl M; Hodson, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the views of community pharmacists participating in the pilot of a secure online platform in Wales, the Choose Pharmacy application (CPA), with particular interest in the electronic Discharge Advice Letters (e-DALs) and online Discharge Medicines Review (DMR) form. A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was adopted. A gatekeeper from National Health Service Wales Informatics Service identified 35 pharmacies, of the 43 pharmacies where the CPA had been implemented, that had completed at least one DMR, and these were therefore invited to an interview. A total of 17 pharmacists were interviewed. Overall, the results were positive and CPA and e-DAL were perceived to facilitate continuity of care between care settings. The design and usability were perceived as good as pharmacists could navigate the CPA without problems; many felt this was due to the level of training they had received. Many pharmacists were happy for other services to be included on the platform due to its ease of use and automatic reimbursement. Several pharmacists felt that communication between primary and secondary care can be further improved as the uptake of e-DAL increases. CPA was found to streamline the completion of online DMR improving continuity of care between primary and secondary sectors, which in turn should improve patient safety on discharge from hospital.

  14. Facilitating knowledge of mental health nurses to undertake physical health interventions: a pre-test/post-test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Steve; Clifton, Andrew; Stephenson, John; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this project was to develop and deliver an evidence-based educational package with a physical and mental health focus to clinicians and other health care workers in mental health settings. For individuals who experience mental disorders, pharmacotherapy is often considered as a first line of treatment. However, owing to adverse drug reactions and pre-existing physical conditions, outcomes for clients/service users may be compromised. Mortality and morbidity rates of people diagnosed with a serious mental illness caused by physical health conditions do not compare favourably with the general population. This paper reports on a physical skills project that was developed in collaboration between the University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust. Pre-post study design: five workshops were conducted in the fields of intramuscular injections, diabetes, health improvement, oral health and wound care. A total of 180 pairs of questionnaires to assess practitioner and student skills and knowledge were administered to participants before and after workshops. All workshops resulted in a statistically significant improvement in subject skills and knowledge scores (P Mental health nurses are the largest group of registered practitioners working in the mental health setting and thus need to be harnessed to make a positive contribution to the improvement of the physical health status of service users with a serious mental illness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Challenges in Incorporating Climate Change Adaptation into Integrated Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, P. H.; Cardwell, H.; Kartez, J.; Merrill, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last few decades, integrated water resources management (IWRM), under various names, has become the accepted philosophy for water management in the USA. While much is still to be learned about how to actually carry it out, implementation is slowly moving forward - spurred by both legislation and the demands of stakeholders. New challenges to IWRM have arisen because of climate change. Climate change has placed increased demands on the creativities of planners and engineers because they now must design systems that will function over decades of hydrologic uncertainties that dwarf any previous hydrologic or other uncertainties. Climate and socio-economic monitoring systems must also now be established to determine when the future climate has changed sufficiently to warrant undertaking adaptation. The requirements for taking some actions now and preserving options for future actions as well as the increased risk of social inequities in climate change impacts and adaptation are challenging experts in stakeholder participation. To meet these challenges, an integrated methodology is essential that builds upon scenario analysis, risk assessment, statistical decision theory, participatory planning, and consensus building. This integration will create cross-disciplinary boundaries for these disciplines to overcome.

  16. Take the Money and Run: The Challenges of Designing and Evaluating Financial Incentives in Healthcare; Comment on “Paying for Performance in Healthcare Organisations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Mannion

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are turning their attention to the use of explicit financial incentives to drive desired improvements in healthcare performance. However, we have only a weak evidence-base to inform policy in this area. The research challenge is to generate robust evidence on what financial incentives work, under what circumstances, for whom and with what intended and unintended consequences.

  17. Lunches Selected and Consumed from the National School Lunch Program in Schools Designated As HealthierUS School Challenge Schools Are More Nutritious than Lunches Brought from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Saade, Catherine; Shaw, Emily; Englund, Tim; Cashman, Linda; Taylor, Katie Weigt; Watkins, Tracee; Rushing, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the nutrient content of National School Lunch Program (NSLP) lunches and lunches brought from home (LBFH) lunches in elementary schools participating in the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC). Methods: Participants included students in grades 2-5 in four Washington state HUSSC…

  18. Great excavations refitting an existing tunnel ring at CERN for a new, more complex particle accelerator challenged designers to succeed under extraordinary conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    Wallis, S

    2001-01-01

    Caverns up to 35 m wide, 42 m high and 82 m long are now under construction at CERN to house the detectors which will be used for the LHC. The size and difficult geological conditions have made this a very challenging project (8 pages).

  19. Baseline integrated behavioural and biological assessment among most at-risk populations in six high-prevalence states of India: design and implementation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidel, Tobi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar; Dale, Jayesh; Loo, Virginia; Rahman, Motiur; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents key methodological approaches and challenges in implementing and analysing the first round of the integrated biobehavioural assessment of most-at-risk populations, conducted in conjunction with evaluation of Avahan, the India AIDS initiative. The survey collected data on HIV risk behaviours, sexually transmitted infections and HIV prevalence in 29 districts in six high-prevalence states of India. Groups included female sex workers and clients, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users and truck drivers. Strategies for overcoming some challenges of the large-scale surveys among vulnerable populations, including sampling hidden populations, involvement of the communities targeted by the survey, laboratory and quality control in remote, non-clinic field settings, and data analysis and data use are presented. Satisfying the need for protocols, guidelines and tools that allowed for sufficient standardization, while being tailored enough to fit diverse local situations on such a large scale, with so many implementing partners, emerged as a major management challenge. A major lesson from the first round is the vital importance of investing upfront time in tailoring the sampling methods, data collection instruments, and analysis plan to match measurement objectives. Despite the challenges, the integrated biobehavioural assessment was a huge achievement, and was largely successful in providing previously unavailable information about the HIV situation among populations that are critical to the curtailment of HIV spread in India. Lessons from the first round will be used to evolve the second round into an exercise with increased evaluative capability for Avahan.

  20. A study on the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks when undertaking a three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) allows the possibility of modifying some of the diagnostic tools used in orthodontics, such as cephalometry. The first step must be to study the characteristics of these devices in terms of accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used landmarks. The aims were 1- To assess intra and inter-observer reliability in the location of anatomical landmarks belonging to hard tissues of the skull in images taken with a CBCT device, 2- To determine which of those landmarks are more vs. less reliable and 3- To introduce planes of reference so as to create cephalometric analyses appropriated to the 3D reality. Study design: Fifteen patients who had a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. To assess the reproducibility on landmark location and the differences in the measurements of two observers at different times, 41 landmarks were defined on the three spatial axes (X,Y,Z) and located. 3.690 measurements were taken and, as each determination has 3 coordinates, 11.070 data were processed with SPSS® statistical package. To discover the reproducibility of the method on landmark location, an ANOVA was undertaken using two variation factors: time (t1, t2 and t3) and observer (Ob1 and Ob2) for each axis (X, Y and Z) and landmark. The order of the CBCT scans submitted to the observers (Ob1, Ob2) at t1, t2, and t3, were different and randomly allocated. Multiple comparisons were undertaken using the Bonferroni test. The intra- and inter-examiner ICC´s were calculated. Results: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was high, both being ICC ≥ 0.99, with the best frequency on axis Z. Conclusions: The most reliable landmarks were: Nasion, Sella, Basion, left Porion, point A, anterior nasal spine, Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton, frontozygomatic sutures, first lower molars and upper and lower incisors. Those with less reliability were the supraorbitals, right zygion and posterior nasal spine. Key words:Cone Beam

  1. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  2. Design and Fabrication of Superfluid Heat Exchanger Tubes for the LHC Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Favre, G; Ferreira, L M A; Rossi, L; Savary, F

    2004-01-01

    The dipole and quadrupole cold masses of the LHC machine require about 1 700 heat exchanger tubes (HET). In operation the HET carries a two-phase flow of superfluid helium at sub-atmospheric pressure. The HET consists of an oxygen-free, seamless copper tube equipped with stainless steel ends. After an evaluation of different alternatives, a design based on the technologies of vacuum brazing and electron beam welding has been adopted. Presence of these multiple technologies at CERN and synergies with the cleaning, handling and transport of other 15-metre components for LHC, motivated CERN to undertake this series fabrication on site. The raw copper tubes are procured in industry, presenting challenging issues of geometric precision. Organisation of the HET fabrication includes cryomeasurements to validate cleaning procedures, characterisation of welding procedures, design and experimental verification of buckling pressure, quality control during series production. The series fabrication of these long, multi-te...

  3. A blended learning approach for teaching computer programming: design for large classes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu Bati, Tesfaye; Gelderblom, Helene; van Biljon, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of teaching programming in higher education is complicated by problems associated with large class teaching, a prevalent situation in many developing countries. This paper reports on an investigation into the use of a blended learning approach to teaching and learning of programming in a class of more than 200 students. A course and learning environment was designed by integrating constructivist learning models of Constructive Alignment, Conversational Framework and the Three-Stage Learning Model. Design science research is used for the course redesign and development of the learning environment, and action research is integrated to undertake participatory evaluation of the intervention. The action research involved the Students' Approach to Learning survey, a comparative analysis of students' performance, and qualitative data analysis of data gathered from various sources. The paper makes a theoretical contribution in presenting a design of a blended learning solution for large class teaching of programming grounded in constructivist learning theory and use of free and open source technologies.

  4. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  5. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  6. The operational challenge of remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsythe, L.

    2015-01-01

    consideration when undertaking remote maintenance. This paper focuses on the technical methods employed for remote maintenance, describing the requirements of being able to maintain components and equipment in challenging environments using remote handling applications. Developing tasks for remote handling techniques right from the concept design stage, in order to reduce time and cost later in development and operation, especially when they have become irradiated and cannot be manually handled. (author)

  7. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  8. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.

  9. A nationwide study on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, and risk of premature menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer: Design and methodological challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Overbeek; M.H. van den Berg (Marleen); L.C.M. Kremer (Leontien); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); W.J.E. Tissing (Wim); J.J. Loonen; B. Versluys; D. Bresters; G.J. Kaspers (Gertjan); C.B. Lambalk (Cornelius); F.E. van Leeuwen (Flora); E. van Dulmen-den Broeder (E.); C.C.M. Beerendonk (Catharina); J.P. Bökkerink (Jos); C. van den Bos (Cor); W. van Dorp (Wendy); M.P. van Engelen (M.); G.A. Huizinga (G.); M.W.M. Jaspers (Monique); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); M. Louwerens M. (M.); H.J.H. van der Pal (Heleen); C.M. Ronckers (Cécile); A.H.M. Simons; N. Tonch (Nino); E.C.M. Verkerk (E. C M)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly growing group of survivors. However, both chemo- and radiotherapy may adversely affect reproductive function. This paper describes the design and

  10. A nationwide study on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, and risk of premature menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer : design and methodological challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, Annelies; van den Berg, Marleen H.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Loonen, Jacqueline J.; Versluys, Birgitta; Bresters, Dorine; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly growing group of survivors. However, both chemo- and radiotherapy may adversely affect reproductive function. This paper describes the design and encountered

  11. A nationwide study on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, and risk of premature menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer: design and methodological challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, A.; van den Berg, M.H.; Kremer, L.C.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M.; Tissing, W.J.; Loonen, J.J.; Versluys, B.; Bresters, D.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Lambalk, C.B.; van Leeuwen, F.E.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly growing group of survivors. However, both chemo- and radiotherapy may adversely affect reproductive function. This paper describes the design and encountered

  12. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  13. Foundations of mechanism design: A tutorial Part 2 – Advanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    undertake a study of several other key issues in mechanism design theory. Keywords. Mechanism design; game theory; social choice functions; auctions. 1. Introduction. In the second half of the twentieth century, game theory and mechanism design have found widespread use in a gamut of applications in engineering.

  14. Conditions and Motivations to Undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Ángela Marulanda Valencia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at deepening in the analysis of motivations shown by a group of entrepreneurs in Medellin, Antioquia. It also describes the different perceptions about the enablers and obstacles for the development of entrepreneurship in appropriate environments to promote it. It was found that independence was the principal motivation for entrepreneurship and that the city offered the most favourable environment to foster it. Additionally, it was found that the most important obstacle to develop it was the difficulties to access a bank credit.

  15. Design Considerations for Developing Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet S.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Manuel, Michele V.

    The integration of biodegradable and bioabsorbable magnesium implants into the human body is a complex undertaking that faces major challenges. The complexity arises from the fact that biomaterials must meet both engineering and physiological requirements to ensure the desired properties. Historically, efforts have been focused on the behavior of commercial magnesium alloys in biological environments and their resultant effect on cell-mediated processes. Developing causal relationships between alloy chemistry and micro structure, and its effect on cellular behavior can be a difficult and time intensive process. A systems design approach driven by thermodynamics has the power to provide significant contributions in developing the next generation of magnesium alloy implants with controlled degradability, biocompatibility, and optimized mechanical properties, at reduced time and cost. This approach couples experimental research with theory and mechanistic modeling for the accelerated development of materials. The aim of this article is to enumerate this strategy, design considerations and hurdles for developing new magnesium alloys for use as biodegradable implant materials [1].

  16. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  17. The regulatory challenges for utility reform in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, P.T. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Haas School of Business]|[Law and Economics Consulting Group, Inc. (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Throughout the developing world, private sector participation in utilities is being favoured as a policy option. Private sector investors are currently undertaking projects in sectors ranging from the by now familiar electricity and telecommunication, to gas distribution, water and sanitation, and transport including roads, ports and airports. The purpose of this article is to provide an analysis of the regulatory challenges and opportunities that developing countries may face in the next decade. In particular, I will discuss those challenges and opportunities arising from the use of franchise licensing procedures for the privatization of utilities. (Author)

  18. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between diverse – material, digital and networked – spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do the conventional distinctions between research and design. The papers presented in this focus section explore...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  19. Design for Behaviour Change as a Driver for Sustainable Innovation : Challenges and Opportunities for Implementation in the Private and Public Sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedderer, K.; Ludden, G; Clune, S.J.; Lockton, D.; Mackrill, J.; Morris, A.; Cain, R.; Gardiner, E.; Evans, M.; Gutteridge, R.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, design for behaviour change has become increasingly recognised as a strategy for enabling social change. Despite
    this, we are far from understanding its implementation, especially through the private and public sectors. This study has surveyed private
    and public sector

  20. Reflections on the Role of the "Users": Challenges in a Multi-Disciplinary Context of Learner-Centred Design for Children on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sarah; Cobb, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Technology design in the field of human-computer interaction has developed a continuum of participatory research methods, closely mirroring methodological approaches and epistemological discussions in other fields. This paper positions such approaches as examples of inclusive research (to varying degrees) within education, and illustrates the…