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Sample records for undertake perpetual jihad

  1. Devolving Jihadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Rosler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The danger and effectiveness of religiously motivated terrorist organizations is undeniable. However, a different type of threat is on the rise on the global playing field as a result of the ongoing operations against these organizations. "Devolved" jihadism, Islamist terrorism conducted by native, amateur, untrained and unfunded individuals, or small ad hoc groups, has recently garnered headlines and the attention of terrorists and counterterrorists alike. These devolved jihadist operations are planned and carried out by native members of a country's populace, radicalized in their home country, resulting in the interchangeable monikers of "homegrown" or "grassroots" jihadism.

  2. Jihad, Modernity, and Sectarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This essay introduces this special issue of Nova Religio by examining the main varieties of jihad and the main varieties of Islamism, and also by exploring the overlap between scholarship on terrorism and scholarship on NRMs. Three unusual varieties of jihad are identified, all of which...... are relatively modern: anti-colonial jihad, pacifist jihad, and Islamist jihad. All three are explored further by other articles in this issue. This essay also argues that the internal dynamics of the Islamist terrorist cell have much in common with the internal dynamics of the sectarian NRM...

  3. Jihad: Islamic Thought and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    JIHAD European colonization in Asia was met with a Muslim declaration of jihad. As early as 1512, the great Portuguese viceroy, Affonso de Albuquerque...have been corrupted and must be considered heathens . The Tanzim al-Jihad ("jihad organization"), which was credited with the assassination of Anwar Sadat...close of the twentieth century. Terrorism in the name of jihad is the historical pattern when its supporters are faced with a modern army with which they

  4. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  5. MAKNA JIHAD DALAM KERANGKA DAKWAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Pahlevi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mission at its core meaning is invited to persuasive. Prophet Muhammad as a treatise da'wah carrier has no authority to compel. Reality in the community with a call attempt is often not negligible. When you arrive at the implementation level, should the missionary do with violence in the name of jihad? Or what exactly is the meaning of jihad in the context of propaganda. That is why this paper is derived as a reflection and an attempt to explain how the actual context of jihad and da'wah.

  6. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... Al-Qaeda plays a leading role in the larger movement of global jihad, a splinter faction of militant Islamism intent on establishing its vision of strict Islamic rule in the Muslim world through armed action...

  7. Terrorism and Jihad: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Holtmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What many Westerners call criminal terrorism is, in the eyes of many Islamists, legitimate jihad. They say they are opposed to terrorism but by this they mean certain uses of force against one target but not again another. Are we talking about different phenomena when we talk about terrorism and jihad or are these basically the same? Jihad is sometimes translated as holy war, i.e. religiously sanctioned warfare. In Islam, jihad has been around for more than 1300 years. Terrorism as we know it is, as a doctrine, little more than 200 years old when we take the Terreur phase of the French revolution (1793-1974 as point of departure, or little more than 140 years old when we look at non-state propaganda-by-the-deed type terrorism of the anarchist sort. In the meantime, both terrorism and jihad have evolved, at least to some extent.

  8. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  9. Why JIHADS End: Lessons for Today

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Shane R

    2008-01-01

    .... The paper starts by looking at Jihads covering the period from the beginning of Islam until the defeat of the Ottomans at Vienna in 1683 when Islam was primarily in an offensive mode, spreading the message of Islam...

  10. The Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sara E

    2007-01-01

    .... Al-Qaeda plays a leading role in the larger movement of global jihad, a splinter faction of militant Islamism intent on establishing its vision of strict Islamic rule in the Muslim world through armed action...

  11. PEMAKNAAN JIHAD DAN PROBLEM APLIKASINYA DALAM TATARAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patompo Adnan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The precise meaning of jihad is confusing to even moslem themselves and, let alone, nonmoslem. Many conceive jihad as a sort of physical war against enemies. Jihad also means conquering and subjugating nonmuslims and forcing them to convert to Islamic faith as their religion. But, if we look at in detail the Quranic verses and the hadith, we shall underline that jihad could also be meant as any kind of holding God’s commands.Observing religious practices, helping the poor, being patient and all good deeds are also jihad. Jihad in terms of the war is only allowed when muslims are being attacked by enemies, as what now happens in Afghanistan and Palestine. The association of jihad with violence, especially after the September 11 attack in the U.S. is a more political trick of the West, especially the U.S., rather than an exact definition of jihad itself.

  12. RELEVANSI PEMIKIRAN TAFSIR JIHAD M. QURAISH SHIHAB DALAM TAFSIR AL-MISBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Cholil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews concepts and ideas of M. Quraish Shihab on jihad in his landmark work, Tafsir al-Mishbah. As an interpreter of contemporary Muslim in Indonesia, Shihab interprets Jihad as trials and tribulations for the quality of a person who requires patience and fortitude. Jihad also implies Mujâhid’s ability to mobilize all his power and ability to achieve objectives. However, Shihab did not deny that jihad in some verses means war. Moreover, jihad is a level examination of one’s faith. For Shihab, jihad not only means war, but also means sincerity, hard work, and determination. He also classifies jihad into three kinds, namely jihad against real enemies, jihad against devils, and jihad against lust contained within each human being. For Quraish Shihab, in the context in Indonesia and in some phenomena in other countries, jihad is allowed if there is persecution and violation of human rights.

  13. In Their Own Words: Voices of Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUBSTANCE ABUSE TERRORISM AND HOMELAND...economic and technological advancement, but failed to satisfy human needs and fulfill the conditions of a stable social life. The west- ern way of life...her face.” (al-Qaradhawi, 1977) 26 Twigs commonly used as toothbrushes . 96 Voices of Jihad “. . . My virtuous sisters. . . . A woman in the family

  14. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  15. Terrorism and jihad: a less biased debate would benefit us

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmann, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    A short while ago, an interested reader inquired about one of my articles on the topic of jihad and terrorism. I am thankful for the inspiring question. The reader asked me to clarify why there seems to be no difference between terrorism and jihad nowadays, and why this boundary has disappeared in debates by many people in the social media and in other places...

  16. PERPETUAL LEASE: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Yurchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article namely deals with the peculiarities of legal regulation of the right to use someone else's land for agricultural purposes under the perpetual lease contract. Recognition of the legitimacy of perpetual lease as an intangible asset and, therefore, the object of accounting was justified. The features of the primary account perpetual lease rights were analyzed. It was found that for documenting transactions receipt, commissioning, de-recognition perpetual lease specialized forms of primary documents is not installed. The main aspects of accounting reflection of land under perpetual lease contracts were identified and ways of their improving were developed. The period on which the land is transferred for use under perpetual lease contract was proposed. During the study, general scientific methods – induction, deduction, synthesis, analysis, dialectical, historical, generalizations and specific methods of accounting – documentation, evaluation, accounting records were used. Keywords: accounting, land, perpetual lease, intangible assets, the right to use.

  17. Public Undertakings and Imputability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    exercised by the State, imputability to the State, and the State’s fulfilment of the Market Economy Investor Principle. Furthermore, it is examined whether, in the absence of imputability, public undertakings’ market behaviour is subject to the Market Economy Investor Principle, and it is concluded...... that this is not the case. Lastly, it is discussed whether other legal instruments, namely competition law, public procurement law, or the Transparency Directive, regulate public undertakings’ market behaviour. It is found that those rules are not sufficient to mend the gap created by the imputability requirement. Legal......In this article, the issue of impuability to the State of public undertakings’ decision-making is analysed and discussed in the context of the DSBFirst case. DSBFirst is owned by the independent public undertaking DSB and the private undertaking FirstGroup plc and won the contracts in the 2008...

  18. Whose Hearts and Minds? Narratives and Counter-Narratives of Salafi Jihadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Al Raffie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the Global War on Terror, the world has witnessed the continuation of terrorist activity under the banner of Salafi Jihad. With military action proving insufficient to defeat the propagators of the ideology, attention has turned to the ideology itself. Understanding the narratives that constitute this ideology and the systems in place that help propagate it is crucial to defeating it. Analysis brings to light elements that arguably constitute a Jihadist master narrative as well as support structures that help perpetuate key underlying messages of this master narrative. Successful counter-narratives should focus on rolling back and containing Jihadist narratives whilst simultaneously highlighting the values and attitudes of democratic, free societies

  19. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 4, March 2008. Jihad After Iraq: Lessons from the Arab Afghans Phenomenon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafez, Mohammed M

    2008-01-01

    ...: jihad in the path of God. Known as "Arab Afghans," these veterans participated in national insurgencies and civil wars, facilitated international terrorism and became ideologues of global jihad...

  20. Global Insurgency Strategy and the Salafi Jihad Movement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shultz, Jr, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    ... on a global scale by the Salafi Jihad movement. This work lays out the case that terrorism and insurgency differ, and that the current "long war" is actually being fought by the other side as an insurgency...

  1. The Egyptian Islamic Group’s Critique of Al-Qaeda’s Interpretation of Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kamolnick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif. In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.

  2. Deconstruction of Jihad Radicalism in Islamic Law: A Conceptual Proposal to Combat Isis Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkum Sumitro, SH, MH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic State of Iran and Syria (ISIS has become a global movement that penetrates into Indonesia. This movement leads back to the trauma of Indonesian nation to a series of destructive events of terrorism in the country. The meaning of jihad in Islam is hijacked by ISIS activists into violence and war against western infidels in their perspective. They do not care if their target is civilian or military. Meanwhile, the actual concept of jihad in Islam is essential jihad, namely jihad by striving earnestly to improve the quality of individual and community. A wrong interpretation of jihad can not only be solved by force because enforcement effort through violence leaves an endless conflict between terrorists and law enforcer. One conceptual proposal in combating terrorism in Indonesia is by deconstructing the perspective of the physical jihad into essential jihad.

  3. Perpetual flowering in strawberry species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have revealed genetic control of flowering patterns for seasonal flowering (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) genotypes in the common garden strawberry, with associated links to gene homeologs in diploid alpine strawberry, F. vesca L. Within the genus Fragaria, 22 species and multiple subspec...

  4. Jihad oder Parusieverzögerung?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Ehlers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay’s guiding thesis assumes that the Christianization of the Saxons as well as the spatial and legal integration of Saxony into the Frankish realm during the late 8th and 9th centuries was facilitated by the ordering or arrangement of space according to Roman models. These spatial orderings were accompanied and reinforced by historical and eschatological interpretations as well as, were implemented by the, more or less, voluntary acceptance of the new order by the Saxon nobility, who recognized the opportunities associated with the active integration into the Frankish system. Both the meaning of this process and the terms used to describe it are treated in this essay. On the one hand, in order to interpret these events and processes, it is useful – if not necessary – to take a look at the spread of Christianity within the territories of the former Roman Empire up till 800 (i. e., Charlemagne’s coronation as Imperator Augustus, for this development appears to serve as the constructive basis for Charles’ (and that of his contemporaries interpretation of the course of history. On the other, it is just as important to compare the interpretations of these events (including contemporary perspectives in order to do justice to the historical significance of Saxony’s integration into the Frankish realm as the successful successor to the Roman Empire.While this contribution primarily treats the historical sources, the title of this essay was decidedly inspired by more contemporary studies: Hans-Dietrich Kahl’s work on the escalation of the Saxon wars, Yitzhak Hen’s analysis »Charlemagne’s jihad« (2006, as well as several other equally influential contemporary works focusing on the eschatological meaning of the year 800 as well as on the continuity of the Roman Empire as a force delaying the Parousia of Christ in the theological debate since the Ascension Day almost two millennia ago.

  5. The Fulani Jihad and its Implication for National Integration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Fulani Jihad (1804-1810) led by Shehu, Uthman Dan Fodio was successfully prosecuted against the established Hausa dynasty in Northern Nigeria. It led to the emergence of a theocratic state, the Sokoto Caliphate, which was administered largely as a federation, due to its wide expanse and diverse composition of its ...

  6. Jihad as Passionarity : Said Buriatskii and Lev Gumilev

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garaev, D.

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses Russian elements in the texts of Said Buriatskii (1982–2010), who in the late 2000s was one of the main ideologists and symbols of the internationalist Islamist resistance in the North Caucasus. Trying to explain the importance and validity of jihad, Buriatskii referred to the

  7. After jihad: A biographical approach to passionate politics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azca, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    Muhammad Najib Azca onderzocht de levensloop van niet-lokale jihad-strijders die deelnamen aan het religieuze geweld dat plaatsvond in Oost-Indonesië (Ambon in de Molukken en Poso in Centraal Sulawesi) tijdens de eerste fase van de democratische transitie in Indonesië. In de jaren na de val van

  8. Deradicalization or Disengagement : A Framework for Encouraging Jihad Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    of compromise. A radical Islamic terrorist bent on conducting jihad to rid the world of infidels , on the other hand, is not as likely to accept a...negotiated settlement, because the radical Islamic ideology leaves no room for negotiation with infidels . Radical Islamists believe infidels should be...families of prisoners, replacement of lost income , health care, and other services.6 1

  9. The Fulani Jihad and its Implication for National Integration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The Fulani Jihad (1804-1810) led by Shehu, Uthman Dan Fodio was successfully prosecuted against the established Hausa dynasty in Northern. Nigeria. It led to the emergence of a theocratic state, the Sokoto Caliphate, which was administered largely as a federation, due to its wide expanse and.

  10. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  11. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  12. Islamic Fundamentalism, Jihad, and Terrorism 【Review】

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Byung-Ock

    2005-01-01

    This paper is on the relation between jihad and terrorism in the Islamic fundamentalism. Since September 11th, the nation's press, too, has made exclusive coverage of the attack and we have becomemore familiar with many relevant terms, one of which is Islamic fundamentalism. Radical Islamic fun-damentalism is inherently militant in nature and poses a threat to the new world order that emphasizesdemocratic values, particularly after the establishment of the Afghan Taliban. Some Western observe...

  13. To Our Great Detriment: Ignoring What Extremists Say About Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    private transactions, from criminal justice to the laws of traffic, from ritual to international law, and from the laws of taxation and finance to...Federation of Student Organizations. 1978 [written 1966]). 190 Khan Nyazee in Pakistan to the Indian born Malaysian ‘Abdur Rahman I. Doi to Iraqi...even a 20th century Arab, Pakistani, Indian, Malaysian or American. None of the legal authorities spoke to the “greater jihad.” All conformed to

  14. Jet Joint Undertaking. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The scientific, technical, experimental and theoretical investigations related to JET tokamak are presented. The JET Joint Undertaking, Volume 2, includes papers presented at: the 15th European Conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating, the 15th Symposium on fusion technology, the 12th IAEA Conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research, the 8th Topical Meeting on technology of fusion. Moreover, the following topics, concerning JET, are discussed: experience with wall materials, plasma performance, high power ion cyclotron resonance heating, plasma boundary, results and prospects for fusion, preparation for D-T operation, active gas handling system and remote handling equipment

  15. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  16. Suicide Terrorism: Menelusuri Justifikasi Fikih dalam Literatur Jihad Kontemporer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Rusli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper deals with the issue of suicide terrorism or suicidal bombing which has been used as a serious tactic by terrorist organizations or radical and puritan religious movements. The motive behind this kind of action varies greatly, ranging from religious, cultural, political, to social issues. In the literatures on jiha>d, there are various points of view regarding the legality and validity of suicidal attack. First, those who allow this act and regard it as a part of the tactic and strategy of jiha>d, such as radical islamist movements (Salafi-jiha>dists. Second, those who allow it on several conditions, such as Salafi-intellectual (salafiyyah ‘ilmiyyah and Salafi-reformists (salafiyyah is}la>hiyyah. Third, those who prohibit this act absolutely, such as Salafi-wahha>bists (salafiyyah wahha>biyyah, who based their arguments on the assumption that this is regarded as the act that is prohibited in Islam, and there is no legal precedence in the history of Islamic law that allows the attack to civil people (women, children, and old men and non-military targets.

  17. Policing Toward a De-Clawed Jihad: Antiterrorism Intelligence Techniques for Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gyves, Clifford M

    2006-01-01

    .... The religious foundations of Islamic terrorism and the milieu in which it flourishes provides both a strategic and tactical backdrop for what has been cast as a global jihad a violent, worldwide...

  18. The GSPC: Newest Franchise in al-Qa'ida's Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudali, Lianne K

    2007-01-01

    ... of support in Europe. The alignment of the GSPC with al Qa ida represents a significant change in the group's strategy, however, its decision to join al Qa ida's global jihad should be understood as an act of desperation...

  19. Gerakan Terorisme Tahun 2015: Pola Serangan, Jumlah Korban dan Wajah Baru Global Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini mengulas tentang aksi teror yang terjadi sepanjang tahun 2015. Data teror bersumber dari pemberitaan media massa baik nasional maupun internasional. Data dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa kelompok; pola serangan, jumlah korban, dan jumlah serangan organisasi terorisme, yang kemudian dianalisis secara deskriptif. ISIS menjadi organisasi terorisme paling mematikan di tahun 2015, diikuti oleh Boko Haram dan Taliban. Data teror 2015 menunjukkan bahwa Al-Qaeda tidak lagi menjadi ancaman terorisme yang mematikan. Jumlah serangan Al-Qaeda lebih kecil dibandingkan Taliban, ISIS maupun Boko Haram. ISIS menjadi wajah baru global jihad pasca Al-Qaeda. Konsep Jihad ISIS adalah “Jihad untuk Negara Islam” sementara Al-Qaeda “Jihad fi Sabilillah”.

  20. REAKTUALISASI JIHAD FÎ SABÎL AL-LÂH DALAM KONTEKS KEKINIAN DAN kEINDONESIAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Chirzin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Some moslems perceive the concept of jihad simply on the perspective of political ideology. Jihad is understood as fight againts external enemies. This leads to the meaning of jihad as a struggle using the power of weapon (war againts the enemy of Islam. This makes it contraproductive for Indonesian moslems who live in pluralistic society.Therefore, reinterpretation of the meaning of jihad is urgently needed to get a more contextual meaning in accordance with the Indonesian moslems circumtances. Refering to the classical literatures, the meaning of jihad, can be corrected to be more conceptual and practical. Jihad should contain a concept of collective struggle to overcome the actual problems faced by moslems such as economy, law, and education.

  1. Describing chaotic attractors: Regular and perpetual points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Prasad, Awadhesh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    We study the concepts of regular and perpetual points for describing the behavior of chaotic attractors in dynamical systems. The idea of these points, which have been recently introduced to theoretical investigations, is thoroughly discussed and extended into new types of models. We analyze the correlation between regular and perpetual points, as well as their relation with phase space, showing the potential usefulness of both types of points in the qualitative description of co-existing states. The ability of perpetual points in finding attractors is indicated, along with its potential cause. The location of chaotic trajectories and sets of considered points is investigated and the study on the stability of systems is shown. The statistical analysis of the observing desired states is performed. We focus on various types of dynamical systems, i.e., chaotic flows with self-excited and hidden attractors, forced mechanical models, and semiconductor superlattices, exhibiting the universality of appearance of the observed patterns and relations.

  2. The asylum-jihadism nexus: non-government actors and detection of jihadism among asylum seekers. : A case study of the Dutch Refugee Council and the guardianship organization for unaccompanied minors (Nidos).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, J.; Bolhuis, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores why, how and to what extent two non-government organizations working with asylum seekers in the Netherlands engage in the detection of jihadism. It concludes that the organizations acknowledge the importance of sharing possible signs of jihadism with relevant governmental

  3. Texas perpetual pavements : new design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Since 2001, the State of Texas has been designing and constructing perpetual pavements : on some of its heavily trafficked highways where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of : 18 kip ESALs is in excess of 30 million (TxDOT, 2001). To date,...

  4. De-Radicalization of Intepretation the Concept of Nation and Jihad in Tafsir al-Azhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Sidik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no a single definition of state and jihad because there has been no agreement on the terms. Therefore, there is a gap between perceived concept of state and jihad and recent de- velopment of nation-state, plurality, and civility. In additions, the emergence of psychoso- cial factor such as truth claim and the feeling of being marginalized and oppressed results in radicalism under the banner of religion. Based on the aforementioned background, this paper seeks to discuss “Tafsir al-Azhar”, a monumental work of Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah (Hamka, an Indonesian leading figure in tafsir (interpretation study. This is the first tafsir book written in Bahasa Indonesia and becomes one of the main sources in the field. By using documentation and hermeneutics the writer revealed not only the substance and the method of interpreting the concepts of “state” and “jihad”, but also their significance for the attempt of de-radicalization in Indonesia. According to Hamka, the relationship between religion and state was integral and the formation of the state de- pended on social development; whereas the concept of jihad did not merely mean “war”. In a boarder meaning, the concept of jihad included physical and non-physical dimen- sions. Physical jihad (battle was permissible under certain conditions and circumstances.

  5. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  6. Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings Management: A Case Study. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... It concludes that the current accounting systems such as financial accounting, cost accounting and reporting systems are not suitable for the effective and efficient management.

  7. Responding to Cyber Jihad: Towards an Effective Counter Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “Who is in control of the narrative?” is the mantra that now echoes in the hallways of the EU’s headquarters in Brussels. Spurred in part by large-scale jihadist propaganda, approximately 20,000 people from 50 countries have joined the fight in Iraq and Syria. So far, authorities in their countries of origin have not been able to address the jihadist radicalisation messages transmitted via the internet and social media. Many new initiatives were recently announced, however, including the establishment of a European counter-narrative centre in Brussels. Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel analyses the role of the internet and social media in processes of radicalisation. It offers an outline of the various aspects of the jihadist narrative, in order better to understand what message needs to be countered. The counter-actions against this cyber jihad can take different forms. Parallel to the way in which advertisement campaigns are tailored to sell products to a certain target group, strategic communication should take into account how a number of recurring elements play a role in the counter-messaging. The understanding of who the target group is, what jihadist narrative is used and how that message can be countered, who the credible messenger should be, and what medium can best be used to deliver the message are all relevant questions that can only be answered in a context-specific manner. The Research Paper concludes with several recommendations on how the recently announced new European counter-narrative centre can effectively contribute to the already diverse landscape of counter-narrative initiatives.

  8. General Duality for Perpetual American Options

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the generalization of the Call-Put duality equality obtained in Alfonsi and Jourdain (preprint, 2006, available at ) for perpetual American options when the Call-Put payoff (y - x)+ is replaced by ϕ(x,y). It turns out that the duality still holds under monotonicity and concavity assumptions on ϕ. The specific analytical form of the Call-Put payoff only makes calculations easier but is not crucial unlike in the derivation of the Call-Put duality equality for Europ...

  9. The 'Ottoman-German Jihad': Lessons for the Contemporary 'Area Studies' Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    it in perspective. It looks more closely at a debate between two founding fathers of Islamic studies. After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet V declared jihad against the Entente powers in 1914, Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje and Carl-Heinrich Becker disputed the role allegedly played by German Orientalists in this affair...

  10. Laskar Jihad : Islam, militancy and the quest for identity in post-New Order Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the intellectual and political history of Laskar Jihad, the most spectacular Muslim paramilitary group that emerged in Indonesia in the aftermath of the collapse of the New Order regime in May 1998. Using an interpretive framework derived from social movement theory and identity

  11. the political economy of the middle benue basin before the jihad, c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the evolution and nature of the political economy of the middle Benue basin before the Jihad. The processes of production in the middle Benue basin developed to a level that made it possible to generate surpluses. The level of surplus appropriation in the tributary mode of production was such that it ...

  12. Structural influences on involvement in European homegrown jihadism : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, B.W.; Bakker, E.; Eijkman, Q.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    his article empirically assesses the applicability of structural-level hypotheses for involvement in terrorism within the context of European homegrown jihadism. It uses these hypotheses to study how structural factors influenced involvement in the Dutch “Hofstadgroup.” Structural factors enabled

  13. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  14. Whose "Jihad"? Oral History of an American Muslim Educational Leader and U.S. Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzani, Miriam D.; King, Kelley M.

    2018-01-01

    While case studies have documented how teachers can either ameliorate or exacerbate situations of ignorance or hate in the classroom toward Muslim students, the role of educational leaders in U.S. public schools remains negligible. In response, this paper aims to develop the knowledge base of educational leadership as it pertains to the jihad or…

  15. A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...

  16. JET joint undertaking. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. After an introductive part on the controlled nuclear fusion research and an historical survey of the JET project, are presented: the JET joint undertaking (members of council and committee...) with its administration (finance, personnel, external relations), and the scientific and technical department with its divisions for systems (experimental, magnet, plasma, assembly, power supplies, control and data acquisition, and site and building). In appendix is described the Euratom fusion research programme

  17. Future design of perpetual pavements for New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-29

    This study provides guidance for future designs of perpetual pavements in New Mexico. The perpetual pavement in this study refers to only hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement sections designed for a useful life of 50 years or more without having major dist...

  18. Is Might Right? Boko Haram, the Joint Military Task Force, and the Global Jihad

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel B. Agbiboa

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically examines the ongoing religious terrorism of Boko Haram in northern Nigeria, focusing on why the group exists and its growing connection to the global jihad. It evaluates the coercive and conciliatory responses of the Nigerian government to Boko Haram, with particular reference to the Joint Military Task Force. Problematizing a security-only, killing approach to dealing with religious terrorism, it argues that countries fighting terror abroad should learn from the Nigeri...

  19. The New Global Jihadist: Extremist Reassessments Of Violent Jihad In A Changing Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    the Jihadist. Takfir – Declaring One a Religious Apostate Those who fail in the Jihadist interpretation of tawhid are a religious apostate ( infidel ...violent spread of Jihad beyond the auspices of repelling infidels and crusaders, and into the realm of attacking other Muslims for interpreted...aiding non-Muslims or seeking aid from them, and showing compassion or forgiveness to a non-Muslim. 21 In the eyes of the Jihadist, these sins

  20. Paradigmatic Shifts in Jihadism in Cyberspace: The Emerging Role of Unaffiliated Sympathizers in Islamic State’s Social Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Veilleux-Lepage

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper provides an overview of the evolution of the concept of jihadism as it presently exists in cyberspace. From its roots during the Chechen conflict to the current use of social media by the Islamic State (IS, this paper identifies and examines three highly significant paradigm shifts: (1 the emergence of rudimentary Web 2.0 platforms and jihadist forums; (2 the advent of advanced Web 2.0 and social media platforms as methods of spreading jihadism; and (3 turn towards ‘lone wolf’ terrorism.  In this paper, the author argues that IS’ extensive reliance on unaffiliated sympathizers, who either re-tweet or re-post content produced and authorized by the IS leadership can be seen as a groundbreaking paradigm shift in the evolution of jihadism in cyberspace. Furthermore, it is also argued that IS’ strategy of empowering of unaffiliated sympathizers represents a further development in the evolution of jihadism in cyberspace and can best be understood as an attempt to normalize and legitimize IS’ existence through its efforts to dominate the ‘IS narrative’ across social media platforms.' ' '

  1. Towards Global Jihadism: Al-Qaeda's Strategic, Ideological and Structural Adaptations since 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Braniff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Al-Qaeda has suffered a number of setbacks, but has also successfully spawned an expansionist global jihadist movement that will survive the death of Osama bin Laden. This article describes how the multifaceted threat posed by global jihadism has evolved over the last decade. It first recounts some of the more salient examples of Al-Qaeda’s post-9/11 strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations, and then offers a balance sheet of Al-Qaeda’s contemporary strengths and weaknesses. Al-Qaeda continues to enable the violence of others, orient that violence towards the United States and its allies in a distributed game of attrition warfare, and foster a dichotomous “us versus them” narrative between the Muslim world and the rest of the international community. Despite this overarching consistency, Al-Qaeda shepherds a different phenomenon than it did ten years ago. The aggregation of the movement’s strategic, ideological, and structural adaptations has fundamentally changed the nature of the jihadist threat to the West. This evolved threat is not inherently more dangerous, as counterterrorism efforts today focus on and disrupt capability earlier and more consistently than prior to September 2001. This multifaceted global jihad will, however, continue to produce greater numbers of attacks in more locations, from a more diverse cadre of individuals spanning a wider ideological spectrum.   

  2. The Use of ICT to Support Perpetual Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, N. W.; Huda, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Perpetual students are problematic, both for campus and for themselves. Inefficient student management could lead to bad lecturer: students’ ratio and cause complicated problem for students and parents. This paper describes ICT used by an Informatics department of a big private university in Indonesia to help 203 perpetual undergraduate students finishing their study in a short time. Lengths of study are varying from 7 until 15 years and most of them suffered from some compulsory credits and mandatory internship project. We observed wide-range of ICT used for data management and communication during the beginning, middle and the end of periods. Success rate of finding perpetual students and producing graduates are almost 70%, but this percentage could be higher if we maximize ICT use. Information sharing type, social media, privacy and patience become important issues related with the use of ICT.

  3. The Perpetual American Put Option for Jump-Diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    2010-01-01

    -This is the author's version of the article"The Perpetual American Put Option for Jump-Diffusions" Energy Systems pp 493-507. We solve a specific optimal stopping problem with an infinite time horizon, when the state variable follows a jump-diffusion. The novelty of the paper is related to the inclusion of a jump component in this stochastic process. Under certain conditions, our solution can be interpreted as the price of an American perpetual put option. We characterize the continuation...

  4. Optimal stopping and perpetual options for Lévy processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Mordecki

    2002-01-01

    Consider a model of a financial market with a stock driven by a Lévy process and constant interest rate. A closed formula for prices of perpetual American call options in terms of the overall supremum of the Lévy process, and a corresponding closed formula for perpetual American put options involving the infimum of the after-mentioned process are obtained. As a direct application of the previous results, a Black-Scholes type formula is given. Also as a consequence, simple explicit formulas fo...

  5. Cosmopolitanism and peace in Kant's essay on 'Perpetual Peace'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presen...... the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever given of the limitations of the cosmopolitan law. In this contribution, Kant's essay is analysed and the reasons he gives for these restrictions discussed in relation to his main focus: to project a realistic path to perpetual peace....

  6. Cosmopolitanism and Peace in Kant's Essay on "Perpetual Peace"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presents the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever…

  7. Texas perpetual pavements : experience overview and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, the State of Texas has been designing and constructing perpetual pavements on some of its heavily : trafficked highways where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of 18 kip ESALs is in excess of 30 million. To : date, there are 10 ...

  8. Bounds for the American perpetual put on a stock index

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, V.

    2001-01-01

    Let us consider n stocks with dependent price processes each following a geometric Brownian motion. We want to investigate the American perpetual put on an index of those stocks. We will provide inner and outer boundaries for its early exercise region by using a decomposition technique for optimal stopping.

  9. Social Media and Perpetuation of Violence against Women in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, criminals who invade and negatively use the opportunities offered by the internet and the World Wide Web, seem to be removing smiles off the faces of many Nigerian women. Social media forms due to their high interactivity, are used to perpetuate violence against women. Facebook remains the most ...

  10. An importance sampling algorithm for estimating extremes of perpetuity sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide class of problems in insurance and financial mathematics, it is of interest to study the extremal events of a perpetuity sequence. This paper addresses the problem of numerically evaluating these rare event probabilities. Specifically, an importance sampling algorithm is described which...... of the so-called forward sequences generated to the given stochastic recursion, together with elements of Markov chain theory....

  11. Perpetual pavement – absorbing stress and functional maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual Pavement combines the well documented smoothness and safety advantages of asphalt with an advanced, multi-layer paving design process, that with routine maintenance, extends the useful life of a roadway. Perpetual provides long lasting road and smoothness for the construction purposes. This study has the design key points of perpetual pavement based on the idea of life cycle, which has a new direction for the new highway construction, reconstruction and expansion. First, the structure of long life pavement design is studied to analyze the effect of stress absorbing layer. Second, researches on stress absorbing layer from the aspects of raw materials, mix proportion are implemented. Third, the design index of stress absorbing layer is determined by the shear strength test. The results show that the design idea of composite perpetual pavement can be realized by reasonable design of the stress absorbing layer and carrying out the surface functional maintenance can ensure the pavement to avoid structural damage in the operation stage.

  12. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  13. The GSPC: Newest Franchise in al-Qa’ida’s Global Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Maghrebʹs Bin Ladin,” Paris  Le   Monde   Diplomatique  (February 1, 2005).   18 “GSPC blamed for Mauritania attack,” Jane’s Terrorism and Security Monitor...desperation.      The  Groupe  Salafist  pour  la  Prédication  et  le   Combat  (GSPC)  was  founded  in  1998  as  an  offshoot of the Armed Islamic Group...1 Also known as Abu Hamza.  2 Arielle Thedrel, ʺThe New Jihad of Algerian Islamists,” Paris  Le  Figaro (April 6, 2004

  14. Pricing perpetual American options under multiscale stochastic elasticity of variance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the effects of the stochastic elasticity of variance on perpetual American option. • Our SEV model consists of a fast mean-reverting factor and a slow mean-revering factor. • A slow scale factor has a very significant impact on the option price. • We analyze option price structures through the market prices of elasticity risk. - Abstract: This paper studies pricing the perpetual American options under a constant elasticity of variance type of underlying asset price model where the constant elasticity is replaced by a fast mean-reverting Ornstein–Ulenbeck process and a slowly varying diffusion process. By using a multiscale asymptotic analysis, we find the impact of the stochastic elasticity of variance on the option prices and the optimal exercise prices with respect to model parameters. Our results enhance the existing option price structures in view of flexibility and applicability through the market prices of elasticity risk

  15. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 4, March 2008. Jihad After Iraq: Lessons from the Arab Afghans Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Virtual and physical propaganda extolling the virtues of jihad could motivate curious, religiously motivated Muslims to seek out ideological and...Social del Terrorismo Yihadista en Espana: Implicaciones en Seguridad Interior y Accion Exterior,” ARI #34, Real Instituto Elcano, 2006. Terrorist...is the departure from “physical recruitment” activities toward virtual recruitment. CDs, laptops (11-M) and the internet are driving self

  16. Inflammation in the genesis and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Mads D M; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the relative inefficacy of the currently available pharmacotherapy requires development of new treatment strategies. Recent findings have suggested a mechanistic link between inflammatory processes and the development of AF. Epidemiol...... be through anti-inflammatory activity. This article reviews what is known about inflammation in genesis and perpetuation of AF, the putative underlying mechanisms, and possible therapeutic implications for the inhibition of inflammation as an evolving treatment modality for AF....

  17. Burger Jihad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Based on a number of ‘burger episodes’ during ten days of itikaf at a Sufi lodge in Pakistan, this article discusses the difficulties of religious self-cultivation among young Muslim pilgrims from Denmark. The focus on food and eating is not only used to discuss how religious brotherhoods...

  18. Non-financial reporting, CSR frameworks and groups of undertakings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Dániel Gergely; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    The recently adopted Directive on non-financial reporting (Directive 2014/95/EU) and several CSR frameworks are based on the assumption that groups of undertakings adopt, report and implement one group policy. This is a very important but also rather unique approach to groups. This article first...

  19. Using an undertaker's data to assess changing patterns of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key informant interviews were done to support the undertaker's data and determine how families bear the burden of burying deceased relatives. Despite a disproportionate increase in deaths in certain age categories and evidence of worsening poverty, funerals remain large and elaborate affairs. Keywords: AIDS, burial ...

  20. Prioritizing Agricultural Services and Identifying Effective Factors on Serving in Guilan Agricultural Jihad Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karim Motamd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify different agricultural services, by correlation-descriptive method, the present study attempts to prioritize demands of villagers for agricultural services, determine the role of effective factors on serving villagers through discriminant analysis and compute correlation between demands of agricultural services with education services through Spearman's Coefficient in Guilan Agricultural Jihad centers. The results showed that the five demands of services which had the priority were related to applicants of agricultural machines, draft discussion for fertilizer, facilities for livestock and poultry units, quota of fuel for agricultural machines and agricultural units and demands related to rice agronomy. In addition,educational services had a positive correlation with educational needs of villagers and staff factor enjoyed more important role in compare with human resource factor, equipment and rural coordination to offer services. Regarding that priorities in service demands from the centers requires providing credits, cooperation to establish local funds to provide agricultural machines which is the first demands of villagers and agreeing with collective ownership of these agricultural instruments are proper options so that the fund could be effective to provide other inputs and credits.

  1. "Walking on eggshells": how expressing relationship insecurities perpetuates them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Clark, Margaret S

    2008-08-01

    The authors present a model positing that when people are insecure about a relationship partner's acceptance, they often express emotional vulnerabilities to the partner, which causes them to believe the partner views them as highly vulnerable and insecure. In turn, this belief causes them to doubt the authenticity of the partner's expressions of positive regard, which may perpetuate the experience and expression of insecurity that initiated the process. Prototypes of interactions with interpersonally vulnerable individuals included partners' inauthentic expressions of regard (Study 1). Suggesting that these prototypes are applied to personal relationships when vulnerabilities are expressed, those who claimed to have expressed vulnerabilities doubted the partner's authenticity because they believed that they were viewed as vulnerable (Studies 2A, 2B, and 4). Authenticity doubts in turn predicted perceptions of rejection (Studies 3 and 4), which in turn predicted partner derogation and subsequent expressions of vulnerability (Study 4). An experimental manipulation of reflected appraisals of vulnerability increased doubts about the authenticity of a new acquaintance's expressions of emotion (Study 5). Relational insecurity may be perpetuated via the intrapersonal cognitive consequences of expressing it. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Original article Personality determinants of motivation to undertake vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Godlewska-Werner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, at a time of frequent changes in the economic and socio-economic circumstances, knowledge acquired in the course of formal education is insufficient. Especially, the education system is still criticized for a lack of flexibility and strong resistance to change. Therefore, regular participation in various forms of training is required. Employee education and training are becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges. The aim of this study was to determine which personality traits are responsible for the strength of motivation to undertake vocational training and other educational forms. Participants and procedure The study included 104 staff members of Polish companies (60 women and 44 men. The study used Cattell’s 16 PF Questionnaire and the scales of readiness to undertake training and further education as a measure of the strength of motivation (Kawecka, Łaguna & Tabor, 2010. Results The study showed that openness to change and tension (primary traits had the greatest impact on the intention and planning to take vocational training. Additionally, the intention and planning to take vocational training were found to be associated with mindedness, independence, self-control, and anxiety (secondary traits. Such traits as rule-consciousness [G], social-boldness [H], abstractedness [M], and apprehension [O] (primary traits, were important in some aspects, which could constitute a background for further research and discussion of the results. Conclusions The obtained results lead to the conclusion that some of the individual differences in personality determine the motivation to undertake vocational training.

  3. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  4. To Assess the Rate for Affecting the Structural Dimensions of Governmental Organizations on their Agility (Case Study: Isfahan Province Jihad Agriculture Organization)

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi Fatemeh; Rashidpoor Ali; Alinaghiyan Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This research has been performed in the direction of making agile the governmental organizations at Isfahan Province Jihad Agriculture Organization. In this research the structural dimensions were eight dimensions (formalization, specialization, standardization, hierarchy of authorities, complexity, centralization, professionalism, personnel rations). In order to assess the variables for testing the research hypotheses, a standard questionnaire was built in the dimension of the organizational...

  5. 75 FR 47674 - In the Matter of the Designation of Harakat-ul Jihad Islami, Also Known as HUJI, Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... determined to be subject to the Order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States would... subject to this determination who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7102] In the Matter of the Designation of Harakat-ul Jihad...

  6. Recovering a time-homogeneous stock price process from perpetual option prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik; Hobson, David

    2009-01-01

    It is well known how to determine the price of perpetual American options if the underlying stock price is a time-homogeneous diffusion. In the present paper we consider the inverse problem, that is, given prices of perpetual American options for different strikes, we show how to construct a time-homogeneous stock price model which reproduces the given option prices.

  7. A note on the pricing of the perpetual American capped power put option

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We give an explicit solution to the perpetual American capped power put option pricing problem in the Black-Scholes-Merton Model. The approach is mainly based on free-boundary formulation and verification. For completeness we also give an explicit solution to the perpetual American standard power (≥1) option pricing problem.

  8. Inheritance of Perpetual Blooming in Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shubin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual blooming is one of the most important biological and economical traits in modern rose, while the genetic basis underlining the control of this trait is poorly investigated. With an aim in dissecting the genetic determinism of perpetual blooming, we developed six rose populations (OB, W, F1, F2, BC1OB and BC1W derived from a WOB population [interspecific diploid hybridization between Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’ (OB and R. wichuriana ‘Basye’s Thornless’ (W]. Perpetual blooming is absent both in a F1 population with 296 individuals and a BC1W population (W as the backcross parent with 150 individuals. However, the perpetual blooming trait showed a typical 3:1 segregation in a backcross population BC1OB with OB as the backcross parent. In this population with 300 individuals, 83 plants had the perpetual blooming phenotype while the other 217 featured non-perpetual blooming, indicating that the perpetual blooming trait is very likely controlled by two recessive genes in R. chinensis (rpb1 and rpb2. These genetic data suggest that the inheritance of rose perpetual blooming may be controlled by a complex mechanism.

  9. Volatility and dividend risk in perpetual American options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-04-01

    American options are financial instruments that can be exercised at any time before expiration. In this paper we study the problem of pricing this kind of derivatives within a framework in which some of the properties—volatility and dividend policy—of the underlaying stock can change at a random instant of time, but in such a way that we can forecast their final values. Under this assumption we can model actual market conditions because some of the most relevant facts that may potentially affect a firm will entail sharp predictable effects. We will analyse the consequences of this potential risk on perpetual American derivatives, a topic connected with a wide class of recurrent problems in physics: holders of American options must look for the fair price and the optimal exercise strategy at once, a typical question of free absorbing boundaries. We present explicit solutions to the most common contract specifications and derive analytical expressions concerning the mean and higher moments of the exercise time.

  10. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  11. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    OpenAIRE

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should public undertakings be considered as public sector bodies in the meaning of the Directive? Are there public undertakings holding "interesting" PSI? Are there different definitions of national legisl...

  12. 42 CFR 137.165 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake annual audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.165 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...-Governance Tribes must undertake annual audits pursuant to the Single Audit Act, 31 U.S.C. 7501 et seq. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...

  13. La Politique coloniale française et les Ahl Shaykh Ma al-cAynin. Jihad et resistances tribales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bonte

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El destino de Ahl Shaykh Mâ al-cAynîn está conectado a la resistencia contra la colonización europea en el Sahara y Marruecos. La literatura colonial francesa ha concebido la lucha del Sheij como consecuencia de un panislamismo activista. El contexto tribal regional lleva al Sheij a oponerse a la colonización francesa en Mauritania y Marruecos cuestionándose la legitimidad dinástica alawi. El desarrollo de la yihad concluyó con el nombramiento del sultán de Marruecos. Se subraya las contradicciones de un proyecto político basado en el guerrero tlamid del Sheij y las movilizaciones tribales contra el orden colonial. The fate of the Ahl Shaykh Mâ al-cAynîn is connected to the resistance against the European colonization in Sahara and Morocco. The french colonial literature has conceived the Shaykh’s fight as a consequence of an activistic panislamism. As a matter of fact it is located in a tribal regional context leading the Shaykh to be opposed to the French colonization in Mauritania and Morocco and to question finally the calawi dynastic legitimacy. The development of the jihad concluded in the name of the Moroccan Sultan underlines the contradictions of a political project depending on the warrior tlamid of the Shaykh and tribal mobilizations against the colonial order. The check of the jihad reduces the family’s part in the organization of the resistance; after 1920 this part becomes a secondary one.

  14. Towards Perpetual Energy Operation in Wireless Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2017-11-01

    Wireless is everywhere. Smartphones, tablets, laptops, implantable medical devices, and many other wireless devices are massively taking part of our everyday activities. On average, an actively digital consumer has three devices. However, most of these wireless devices are small equipped with batteries that are often limited and need to be replaced or recharged. This fact limits the operating lifetime of wireless devices and presents a major challenge in wireless communication. To improve the perpetual energy operation of wireless communication systems, energy harvesting (EH) from the radio frequency (RF) signals is one promising solution to make the wireless communication systems self-sustaining. Since RF signals are known to transmit information, it is interesting to study when RF signals are simultaneously used to transmit information and scavenge energy, namely simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT). In this thesis, we specifically aim to study the SWIPT in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication systems and in cognitive radio (CR) networks. First, we study the SWIPT in MIMO relay systems where the relay harvests the energy from the source and uses partially/fully the harvested energy to forward the signal to the destination. For both the amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relaying protocols, we consider the ideal scheme where both the energy and information transfer to the relay happen simultaneously, and the practical power splitting and time switching schemes. For each scheme, we aim to maximize the achievable end-to-end rate with a certain energy constraint at the relay. Furthermore, we consider the sum rate maximization problem for the multiuser MIMO DF relay broadcasting channels with multiple EH-enabled relays, and an enhanced low complex solution is proposed based on the block diagonalization method. Finally, we study the energy and data performance of the SWIPT in CR network where either the

  15. Bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2006-01-01

    We provide bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model in terms of American option prices in the standard Black-Scholes model. We also investigate the dependence of the bounds on different parameters of the model.

  16. The perpetual American put option for jump-diffusions with applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we solve an optimal stopping problem with an infinite time horizon, when the state variable follows a jump-diffusion. Under certain conditions our solution can be interpreted as the price of an American perpetual put option, when the underlying asset follows this type of process. We present several examples demonstrating when the solution can be interpreted as a perpetual put price. This takes us into a study of how to risk adjust jump-diffusions. One key observatio...

  17. Developing a Literacy Guide to Perpetuate Traditional Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, S. M.; Kaaiai, C.

    2010-12-01

    Literacy guides summarize the most important principles and concepts about a subject and help individuals make informed, responsible decisions regarding it. They are needed when a subject is absent in national and state standards, curricula and assessments; public attention to the issues associated with the subject is declining; there is a lack of consensus on what literacy in the subject is; and/or there is a lack of guidance on prioritizing the content of the subject and determining how the subject fits into an already full curriculum. Literacy guides provide a common language for educators and experts in the subject and can result in attention to and momentum for teaching the subject. During the 2006 Hoohanohano I Na Kupuna Puwalu (Honor Our Ancestors conference), Native Hawaiian cultural practitioners expressed the need for assistance to perpetuate TK and the practices used to teach it and to keep it current. The practitioners worked with Hawaii educators to define challenges in teaching TK in the classroom and took initial steps to meet them. During the 2007 International Pacific Marine Educators Conference (IPMEC), South Pacific Islanders expressed a similar need for outside assistance to recover TK, particularly as an important part of natural resource management. Traditional taxonomy, village elders as walking libraries with hundred years of personal experience and hundreds of generations of TK, less destructive fishing techniques and traditional resource management tools such as taboo are seen as assets, or social capital, that are being lost. In 2007, the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council—convener of the Puwalu and IPMEC conferences—took these concerns to the National Marine Educators Association (NMEA). The NMEA had been integral in developing the Ocean Literacy (OL) Guide, which provides a Western viewpoint of the subject. While NMEA supported a proposed TK supplement to the OL Guide, it wanted consensus of Native Americans and

  18. 12 CFR 980.2 - Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 980.2 Section 980.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.2 Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities. No Bank shall undertake any new business activity except in accordance with the...

  19. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should

  20. A numerical approach to the study of the perpetual case of Ameripean options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandilarov, J.

    2013-12-01

    A new numerical method for solving the perpetual case of Ameripean options is proposed. The Ameripean delayed exercise model analyzes a new class of option model with American and ParAsian features. The model is mathematically described by ultraparabolic and parabolic PDE's which are valid over different regions. The perpetual case leads to the parabolic-elliptic two-phase Stefan problem with free internal boundary. To deal with the obtained nonlinear problem an iterative numerical method is proposed. Numerical analysis are presented and discussed.

  1. On the Perpetual American Put Options for Level Dependent Volatility Models with Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Erhan

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the perpetual American put option price of level dependent volatility model with compound Poisson jumps is convex and is the classical solution of its associated quasi-variational inequality, that it is $C^2$ except at the stopping boundary and that it is $C^1$ everywhere (i.e. the smooth pasting condition always holds).

  2. Perpetual American put options in a level-dependent volatility model

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We find the explicit value of perpetual American put options in the constant elasticity of variance model using the concept of smooth fit. We show that the price is increasing in the volatility and convex in the underlying stock price. Moreover, as the model converges to the standard Black and Scholes model, the value of the put is shown to approach the `correct' limit.

  3. Predisposing, Precipitating, Perpetuating, Professional Help, and Prevention Factors of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Chanko, Cathy

    This report describes an eating disorder as a multi-dimensional physiological, psychological, social, and cultural illness. A chart describing the typical anorexic and bulimic is included which has on its horizontal axis the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, professional help, and prevention factors of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. On its…

  4. A concept mapping study on perpetuating factors of functional somatic symptoms from clinicians' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Houtveen, Jan H.; Tak, Lineke M.; Bonvanie, Irma J.; Scholtalbers, Anna; van Gils, Anne; Geenenc, Rinie; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this concept mapping study was to identify the structure and alleged importance of perpetuating factors of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) from the perspective of professionals. Further, we examined to which extent these factors have been addressed in scientific literature.

  5. School Absenteeism as a Perpetuating Factor of Functional Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René; Rosmalen, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether school absenteeism is a perpetuating factor of functional somatic symptoms and whether this holds true for bullied adolescents. Study design This study is part of the longitudinal population-based study Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. Data from assessment

  6. Analyzing Cultural Artifacts for the Introduction, Perpetuation, or Reinforcement of Moral Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The development and socialization of morals is a complex concept for students studying ethics. To help students understand the role social learning theory plays in the development of morality, an activity was created focusing on cultural artifacts and their introduction, perpetuation, and/or reinforcement of morality. The aim of this assignment is…

  7. A comparative study of Ayatollah Motahhari’s views on Jihad and Rawls’ views on Humanitarian Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Maghami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since there appears to be a relationship between Ayatollah Mutahhari’s ‘Jihad’ theory and John Rawls’s Humanitarian War theory, and between their shared social concerns, this study aims at investigating whether the two theories are similar or different in terms of legitimacy of war and the use of force. It seems that humanitarian jihad and liberal humanitarian intervention have a similar genesis, the difference being that the former is prescribed on theological foundations and the latter is founded on ethical liberalism, though the two have similar claims. Can this apparently unprofessed resemblance in permissibility of jihad in Jihad theory of Ayatollah Motahhari – as a Muslim jurist and philosopher - and the justification of war to confront violation of human rights in “The Law of Peoples” as a complement to theory of justice of Rawls – as a Kantian liberal philosopher be considered a significant relationship? نسبتی ناخواسته میان نظریه جهاد شهید مرتضی مطهری و جان رالز و مشابهت برخی دغدغه‌های اجتماعی آن‌ها بهانه‌ای است برای کنجکاوی در امکان تشابه یا افتراق نظریه این دو در باب مشروعیت جنگ و توسل ابتدایی به زور. در این بررسی به نظر می‌رسد جهاد بشردوستانه آن گونه که از نامش پیداست سنخیتی با مداخله بشردوستانه دارد؛ با این تفاوت که اولی از منظری ایدئولوژیک و الهی تجویز می‌شود و دومی از منظر لیبرالیسم اخلاقی؛ گر چه هر دو تقریباً مدعای یکسانی دارند. آیا این تشابه علی الظاهر ناخودآگاه در میان موارد تجویز جهاد در نظریه جهاد شهید مطهری به عنوان یک فقیه فلسفه‌گرای مسلمان و توجیه

  8. Tast Force report on bonding and perpetual care of nuclear licensed activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Potential issues which should be considered prior to the adoption and implementation of a bonding or perpetual care program are examined. The following topics are discussed: problem definition; major processors; factors in setting the amount of a bond; waste handling licensees; ore refineries and mills; former AEC licensed facilities; other specific licenses; authority; states where it is deemed that amendment of existing statutes is necessary to authorize imposition of a bonding requirement for licenses; administration; and recommendations. The following appendices are included: summary of cost estimate to decontaminate the American Nuclear Company; report on 1974 national conference on radiation control workshop no. 3; suggested changes to state regulations; and suggested legislation for licensee bonding and perpetual care trust funds

  9. Evaluating life cycle costs of perpetual pavements in China using operational pavement management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway transportation is considered as vital factor in China’s economic growth; many high grade highways have been constructed in China during the last decades. The research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology have been deployed in China since 2000. The semi-rigid pavement has been normally considered as typical pavement of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different Chinese perpetual pavements using operational pavement management system and to examine its suitability for use in the design and construction of more economical and durable pavements. It has been found that the use of thin asphalt layers over semi-rigid pavement foundation in PP structure will create more sustainable, economical, and durable PP structures in comparison with typical thick asphalt layers PP structures.

  10. Perpetual American vanilla option pricing under single regime change risk: an exhaustive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2009-07-01

    Perpetual American options are financial instruments that can be readily exercised and do not mature. In this paper we study in detail the problem of pricing this kind of derivatives, for the most popular flavour, within a framework in which some of the properties—volatility and dividend policy—of the underlying stock can change at a random instant of time but in such a way that we can forecast their final values. Under this assumption we can model actual market conditions because most relevant facts usually entail sharp predictable consequences. The effect of this potential risk on perpetual American vanilla options is remarkable: the very equation that will determine the fair price depends on the solution to be found. Sound results are found under the optics both of finance and physics. In particular, a parallelism among the overall outcome of this problem and a phase transition is established.

  11. Predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors and the common sense model of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina; Kasch, Helge; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors are found to be associated with development of persistent symptoms and disability after whiplash trauma. According to the commonsense model of illness, people use commonsense knowledge to develop individual illness models when...... of precollision sick leave on chronic whiplash? Methods: This presentation will integrate findings from research on predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating factors that are associated with poor outcome after whiplash trauma and propose the common-sense model as a unifying model. Data from a study including 740...... into specific factors in the model we found that negative perception of the whiplash trauma mediated the effect of previous sick leave on future neck pain, sum of indirect effect: 0.017, confidence intervals (0.008;0.028). Conclusion: Previous life experiences have an impact on how people make sense of a health...

  12. Perpetual Learning Framework based on Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System for a Complex Manufacturing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka, A.; Panoutsos, G.; Cater, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a perpetual type-2 Neuro-Fuzzy modelling structure for continuous learning and its application to the complex thermo-mechanical metal process of steel Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The ‘perpetual’ property refers to the capability of the proposed system to continuously learn from new process data, in an incremental learning fashion. This is particularly important in industrial/manufacturing processes, as it eliminates the need to retrain the model in the presence of new d...

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RULES ON COMPETITION GOVERNING UNDERTAKINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad – Teodor Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the general rules on competition between undertakings in the EU. The author paid attention primarly to matters on the prohibition of agreements that aim to distort or impair competition on the internal market. Moreover, he examined in detail the matter concerning the regulation and interdiction of the abuse of a dominant position. The work also reviews doctrinal opinions, as well as the jurisprudential solutions in the area. The author’s concern to summarize and develop the conditions for the implementation of each of the two legal mechanisms is worth noting: the prohibition of agreements between undertakings and the abuse of a dominant position. The essential considerations taken into account by the Court of Justice of the European Union in settling a case whose subject consisted of assessing the manner in which an undertaking reflected on competition on the internal market were selected at the end of the work.

  14. Analysis of the Determination of Contributions in the Peruvian Private Pension System: An Application of Annuities and Perpetuities

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana Meza, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses on how to set fixed contributions for a given objective of a private pension plan, by using two traditional financial models such as annuities and perpetuities. The private pension plan has two components: (i) the contributions’ plan on a monthly basis (annuity), and (ii) the pension plan on a monthly basis (perpetuity). The document focuses on the relationship between the size to the contribution and the pension fund returns. The document covers the Peruvian case. Est...

  15. Analysis of the Determination of Contributions in the Peruvian Private Pension System: An Application of Annuities and Perpetuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Quintana Meza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses on how to set fixed contributions for a given objective of a private pension plan, by using two traditional financial models such as annuities and perpetuities. The private pension plan has two components: (i the contributions’ plan on a monthly basis (annuity, and (ii the pension plan on a monthly basis (perpetuity. The document focuses on the relationship between the size to the contribution and the pension fund returns. The document covers the Peruvian case.

  16. Analysis of the Determination of Contributions in the Peruvian Private Pension System: An Application of Annuities and Perpetuities

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Quintana Meza

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses on how to set fixed contributions for a given objective of a private pension plan, by using two traditional financial models such as annuities and perpetuities. The private pension plan has two components: (i) the contributions’ plan on a monthly basis (annuity), and (ii) the pension plan on a monthly basis (perpetuity). The document focuses on the relationship between the size to the contribution and the pension fund returns. The document covers the Peruvian case.

  17. Who Assists the Faculty? The Need for Mentorship Programs for Faculty Undertaking Global Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Yasmin; London, Chad; Carston, Cathy; Salyers, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the expectations, motivations, and experiences of Canadian faculty members undertaking development and implementation of global education initiatives (GEI) for students in the form of exchange and study abroad programs, supervised practical coursework, and experiential learning in international settings. Findings revealed that…

  18. The Complexities of Supporting Asian International Pre-Service Teachers as They Undertake Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Tangen, Donna; Campbell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Asian international students are choosing to undertake their tertiary studies in English-speaking countries. For universities, international students are an important source of revenue. However, Asian international students face multiple challenges in adapting to a foreign culture, understanding the expectations of their…

  19. 31 CFR 248.5 - Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form 2244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception to requirement of... POSSESSIONS Action to Be Taken by Claimants § 248.5 Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form... and agents, of and from any and all liability, loss, expense, claim, and demand whatsoever, arising in...

  20. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana : Transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.

    The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users), and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for

  1. Best practice in undertaking and reporting health technology assessments : Working Group 4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, R.; Orvain, J.; Velasco, M.; Perleth, M.; Drummond, M.; Gurtner, F.; Jorgensen, T.; Jovell, A.; Malone, J.; Ruther, A; Wild, C.

    2002-01-01

    [Executive Summary] The aim of Working Group 4 has been to develop and disseminate best practice in undertaking and reporting assessments, and to identify needs for methodologic development. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary activity that systematically examines the technical performance, safety, clinical efficacy, and effectiveness, cost, costeffectiveness, organizational implications, social consequences, legal, and ethical considerations of the application of a heal...

  2. Evaluating the performance of sustainable perpetual pavements using recycled asphalt pavement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast highways network in China is moving from the phase of construction to the phase of maintenance, and with the introduction of new technique of perpetual pavement in last decade, it is necessary to consider recycling as one of the promising solutions for rehabilitation of old asphalt concrete pavement and ultimately to convert them into perpetual pavements. The aim is to reuse the existing pavement materials for several reasons, mainly to preserve natural resources such as aggregates, and to satisfy economic requirements by reducing the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation. A detailed testing program has been carried out on recycled asphalt pavements materials (RAP to evaluate their mechanical and structural characteristics to be used for the construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. Different types of RAP mixes have been stabilized by Portland cement to find the most suitable one from the point of view of design, construction, economy and environment. The analysis of life cycle costs has been carried out using system analysis and management of pavement program (SAMP5. The analysis of life cycle costs showed that the use of Portland cements with small percentages improves the structural characteristics of recycled asphalt materials to be used as stabilized base pavement layers for new or rehabilitated old road pavements and also for the construction and rehabilitation of perpetual pavements. A large amount of savings in construction and rehabilitation cost has been achieved by the use of stabilized RAP materials in addition to important contributions to the environment and preserving of natural resources.

  3. Is insomnia a perpetuating factor for late-life depression in the IMPACT cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Hegel, Mark; Unützer, Jürgen; Fan, Ming-Yu; Sateia, Michael J; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Phillips, Cindy; Perlis, Michael L

    2008-04-01

    Insomnia and depressive disorders are significant health problems in the elderly. Persistent insomnia is a risk factor for the development of new-onset and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Less clear is whether persistent insomnia may perpetuate MDD andlor dysthymia. The present longitudinal study examines the relationship of insomnia to the continuation of depression in the context of an intervention study in elderly subjects. Data were drawn from Project IMPACT, a multisite intervention study, which enrolled 1801 elderly patients with MDD and/or dysthymia. In the current study, subjects were assigned to an insomnia-status group (Persistent, Intermediate, and No Insomnia) based on insomnia scores at both baseline and 3-month time points. Logistic regressions were conducted to determine whether Persistent Insomnia was prospectively associated with increased risk of remaining depressed and/or achieving a less than 50% clinical improvement at 6 and at 12 months compared with the No Insomnia reference group. The Intermediate Insomnia group was compared with the other 2 groups to determine whether a dose-response relationship existed between insomnia type and subsequent depression. Eighteen primary clinics in 5 states. Older adults (60+) with depression. Overall, patients with persistent insomnia were 1.8 to 3.5 times more likely to remain depressed, compared with patients with no insomnia. The findings were more robust in patients receiving usual care for depression than in patients receiving enhanced care. Findings were also more robust in subjects who had MDD as opposed to those with dysthymia alone. These findings suggest that, in addition to being a risk factor for a depressive episode, persistent insomnia may serve to perpetuate the illness in some elderly patients and especially in those receiving standard care for depression in primary care settings. Enhanced depression care may partially mitigate the perpetuating effects of insomnia on depression.

  4. Rogue proliferator? North Korea's nuclear fuel cycle and its relationship to regime perpetuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is unlikely to relinquish its nuclear program because of its importance to the perpetuation of the Kim regime. This conclusion arises from the observation that the nuclear program has been a long-term project spanning several decades, culminating in denuclearisation negotiations, which have followed a cyclical pattern in which the North has provoked crises to extract concessions and gain leverage vis-a-vis regional states. It is clear that the nuclear program has great intrinsic value to Pyongyang. First, this paper argues that the sunk costs of previous investment in the nuclear program, as evidenced by the infrastructure for the country's nuclear fuel cycle, create forward momentum favouring continuation of the nuclear program. Second, it argues that the nuclear program solidifies Kim regime rule as an institutional buttress, as a prop for the domestic economy, and as a vehicle for ideological legitimation. The paper is a unique contribution, which explicitly links the Kim regime's proliferation calculus to the economic and bureaucratic imperatives of regime perpetuation, as well as the sunk cost of previous investment in the nuclear program. It provides a coherent explanation for North Korea's consistent unreliability in negotiations, and offers insights into future prospects of the denuclearisation process.

  5. School absenteeism as a perpetuating factor of functional somatic symptoms in adolescents: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Karin A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2011-12-01

    To examine whether school absenteeism is a perpetuating factor of functional somatic symptoms and whether this holds true for bullied adolescents. This study is part of the longitudinal population-based study Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. Data from assessment wave 2 (n = 2149; 51.0% girls; mean age = 13.65, SD = 0.53) and assessment wave 3 (n = 1816; 53.3% girls; mean age = 16.25, SD = 0.72) were used. Peer victimization was assessed by peer nominations, school absenteeism by both parent and teacher reports, and functional somatic symptoms with the Youth Self-Report. With structural equation modeling, school absenteeism at the second wave, adjusted for functional somatic symptoms at the second wave, was revealed to predict functional somatic symptoms at the third wave in the entire cohort (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.22), but not in the subgroup of bullied adolescents (β = -0.13; 95% CI, -0.62--0.26). However, the difference between bullied and unbullied adolescents did not reach significance. This study provides evidence that school absenteeism is a perpetuating factor of functional somatic symptoms in adolescents. A clinical intervention study is necessary to examine whether preventing school absenteeism truly helps to reduce functional somatic symptoms in adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Large deviation estimates for exceedance times of perpetuity sequences and their dual processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraczewski, Dariusz; Collamore, Jeffrey F.; Damek, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    In a variety of problems in pure and applied probability, it is of relevant to study the large exceedance probabilities of the perpetuity sequence $Y_n := B_1 + A_1 B_2 + \\cdots + (A_1 \\cdots A_{n-1}) B_n$, where $(A_i,B_i) \\subset (0,\\infty) \\times \\reals$. Estimates for the stationary tail dist......-time exceedance probabilities of $\\{ M_n^\\ast \\}$, yielding a new result concerning the convergence of $\\{ M_n^\\ast \\}$ to its stationary distribution.......In a variety of problems in pure and applied probability, it is of relevant to study the large exceedance probabilities of the perpetuity sequence $Y_n := B_1 + A_1 B_2 + \\cdots + (A_1 \\cdots A_{n-1}) B_n$, where $(A_i,B_i) \\subset (0,\\infty) \\times \\reals$. Estimates for the stationary tail...... distribution of $\\{ Y_n \\}$ have been developed in the seminal papers of Kesten (1973) and Goldie (1991). Specifically, it is well-known that if $M := \\sup_n Y_n$, then ${\\mathbb P} \\left\\{ M > u \\right\\} \\sim {\\cal C}_M u^{-\\xi}$ as $u \\to \\infty$. While much attention has been focused on extending...

  7. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  8. Be my guest! Challenges and practical solutions of undertaking interviews with children in the home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Gibson, Faith; Horstman, Maire; Milnes, Linda; Randall, Duncan; Carter, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to share critical debate on undertaking interviews with children in the home setting and draws on the authors' extensive research fieldwork. The article focuses on three key processes: planning entry to the child's home, conducting the interviews and exiting the field. In planning entry, we include children's engagement and issues of researcher gender. In conducting the interviews, we consider issues such as the balance of power, the importance of building a rapport, the voluntary nature of consent and the need for a flexible interview structure. Finally, we address exiting from the child's home with sensitivity at the end of the interview and/or research study. Undertaking research in the child's home provides a known and familiar territory for the child, but it means that the researcher faces a number of challenges that require solutions whilst they are a guest in a child's home. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. DIME Elements of Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    consortium closer to cultural imperialism, targeting departments of Middle East studies, international relations, and history on American, European...human rights, democratization, minorities, feminism , and jihadist ideologies from Western academia.33 According to Brigitte Gabriel, some of our...material to mosques. Much of this material preaches hatred towards Jews and Israel, and re-writes history to exclude any mention of the holocaust. It

  10. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  11. Researcher or nurse? Difficulties of undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Susan

    2014-09-01

    To reflect on the author's personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. When discussing care at the end of life, researchers must accept that some participants may become distressed or emotional, depending on their previous experiences. Interviews that involve sensitive topics require careful planning. The semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of the author's PhD study examining the experiences of advance care planning among family caregivers of people with advanced dementia. A reflection on my personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. The frustration and tragedy of dementia, as experienced by the family caregivers, were powerful and required the author to exert self-control to avoid being overly sympathetic and offering words of reassurance, agreement and comfort. This blurring of roles between researcher and nurse has implications for all nurse researchers who undertake qualitative interviews, particularly when an intense emotional response is likely. Nurse researchers should plan and prepare for potential blurring of roles during emotional interviews and should never automatically assume that they are sufficiently prepared as a result of their previous experience and nurse training.

  12. The cult of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in the - Redemptorist Church in Krakow-Podgórze

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    Stanisław Piech

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Podgórze was painted in 1903 in Rome, blessed by pope Leon XIII on 18 April and brought in the same year to Krakow by Father Bernard Łubieński, who was greatly involved in popularising the worship of Virgin Mary related to the painting. The Redemptorists linked their apostolic work with Mary Our Lady of Perpetual Help from the beginning. The painting had already been known to the inhabitants of Podgórze, since its paper copy was hung in the parish church. A turning point in the growth of the worship of Our Lady of Perpetual Help was the introduction of the service known as constant novena, which involves group prayers before her icon on the selected day of every week­ to request some special grace.

  13. Supplying Spin-Offs: Collaboration Practices in the Perpetuation of an Organizaton

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    Katja Maria Hydle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the collaboration practices between spin-offs and their customers and suppliers. With empirical material from seven cases of incumbentbacked spin-offs, we find that suppliers are highly involved in the development of the innovation that spin-offs are based upon and specifically, the practices of understanding customers, identifying a market gap and collaborating with suppliers. We contribute to the spin-off literature by revealing which activities are at play for successful spin-offs, and we contribute to practice theory by empirically uncovering the general understandings in the perpetuation of an organization and the nets between the spin-offs and their suppliers.

  14. The role of personality in the development and perpetuation of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C; Schweitzer, R

    2000-06-01

    Qualitative evidence suggests that personality may have special relevance to the predisposition, precipitation and perpetuation of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study compares three dimensions of personality - perfectionism, self-esteem, and emotional control in the personality profiles of CFS patients (N=44) and a control group (N=44) without a history of CFS, matched for age and gender. Participants were assessed on the MPS [Frost RO, Marten P, Lahart C, Rosenblate R. The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognit Ther Res 1990;14:449-468.]; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [Rosenberg M. Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ Press, 1965.]; the Courtauld Emotional Scale [Watson M, Greer S. Development of a questionnaire measure of emotional control. J Psychosom Res 1983;27:299-305.] and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne DP, Marlowe D. A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. J Consult Psychol 1960;24:349-354.]. Analyses revealed that the CFS group reported higher levels than the control group on the Total Perfectionism score and Doubts about Actions and the Concern over Mistakes subscales. Furthermore, the CFS group also reported lower self-esteem than the control group. No difference between the two groups was found on the dimensions of emotional control and social desirability response bias. A developmental model of CFS, which considers the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors that may account for the course of the disorder irrespective of etiology, is proposed. In the context of the results, recommendations for practice and future research are discussed.

  15. Experimental study of shear rate dependence in perpetually sheared granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sophie Yang; Guillard, François; Marks, Benjy; Rognon, Pierre; Einav, Itai

    2017-06-01

    We study the shear behaviour of various granular materials by conducting novel perpetual simple shear experiments over four orders of magnitude of relatively low shear rates. The newly developed experimental apparatus employed is called "3D Stadium Shear Device" which is an extended version of the 2D Stadium Shear Device [1]. This device is able to provide a non-radial dependent perpetual shear flow and a nearly linear velocity profile between two oppositely moving shear walls. Using this device, we are able to test a large variety of granular materials. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the device on glass beads (diameter 1 mm, 3 mm, and 14 mm) and rice. We particularly focus on studying these materials at very low inertial number I ranging from 10-6 to 10-2. We find that, within this range of I, the friction coefficient μ of glass beads has no shear rate dependence. A particularly appealing observation comes from testing rice, where the attainment of critical state develops under much longer duration than in other materials. Initially during shear we find a value of μ similar to that found for glass beads, but with time this value decreases gradually towards the asymptotic critical state value. The reason, we believe, lies in the fact that rice grains are strongly elongated; hence the time to achieve the stable μ is primarily controlled by the time for particles to align themselves with respect to the shear walls. Furthermore, the initial packing conditions of samples also plays a role in the evolution of μ when the shear strain is small, but that impact will eventually be erased after sufficient shear strain.

  16. Experimental study of shear rate dependence in perpetually sheared granular matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sophie Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the shear behaviour of various granular materials by conducting novel perpetual simple shear experiments over four orders of magnitude of relatively low shear rates. The newly developed experimental apparatus employed is called “3D Stadium Shear Device” which is an extended version of the 2D Stadium Shear Device [1]. This device is able to provide a non-radial dependent perpetual shear flow and a nearly linear velocity profile between two oppositely moving shear walls. Using this device, we are able to test a large variety of granular materials. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the device on glass beads (diameter 1 mm, 3 mm, and 14 mm and rice. We particularly focus on studying these materials at very low inertial number I ranging from 10−6 to 10−2. We find that, within this range of I, the friction coefficient μ of glass beads has no shear rate dependence. A particularly appealing observation comes from testing rice, where the attainment of critical state develops under much longer duration than in other materials. Initially during shear we find a value of μ similar to that found for glass beads, but with time this value decreases gradually towards the asymptotic critical state value. The reason, we believe, lies in the fact that rice grains are strongly elongated; hence the time to achieve the stable μ is primarily controlled by the time for particles to align themselves with respect to the shear walls. Furthermore, the initial packing conditions of samples also plays a role in the evolution of μ when the shear strain is small, but that impact will eventually be erased after sufficient shear strain.

  17. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

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    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  18. Undertaking and writing research that is important, targeted, and the best you can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-04-01

    Conducting and writing research is a privilege. It is a privilege because researchers can change lives through their findings and can influence public knowledge and debate. It is also a privilege because researchers are reliant on the time and goodwill of participants (and colleagues), and research is often underpinned by funding raised by the public, either through taxes or philanthropic donations. This privilege comes with responsibility. Researchers have a responsibility to undertake research that is important, targeted, and of high quality. This editorial aims to inspire, challenge, and bolster the research efforts of individuals and teams.

  19. Training staff to empower people with long-term conditions to undertake self care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mandy

    Self care can help people with long-term conditions take control of their lives. However, their interest and ability to engage with it may fluctuate over the course of an illness and many need support to undertake self care activities. A team of community matrons in NHS South of Tyne and Wear helped to develop and pilot an e-learning tool for staff, to remind them of the importance of self care and give advice on ways to support patients. The tool has since been rolled out to all staff groups.

  20. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study

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    Alexandra Tcherkasski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  1. Benefits and barriers for registered nurses undertaking post-graduate diplomas in paediatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne; Copnell, Beverley

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents one aspect of a larger study identifying key influences on curriculum redesign and development of a post-graduate diploma in advanced clinical nursing. The focus is on paediatric intensive care and general paediatric streams. Data presented here relate to registered nurses' perceptions of benefits and barriers when undertaking this post-graduate diploma. As well as interviews and focus group discussions with a number of nurses, data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, A total of 885 surveys were distributed to nurses working in paediatric areas in five hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Of these, 391 were completed (response rate 44%). One hundred and thirty (33%) had post-registration or post-graduate paediatric qualifications. Perceived benefits of undertaking the post-graduate diploma mainly related to an increase in knowledge and experience and improvement of employment opportunities. Perceived barriers mainly related to financial and professional issues such as cost of the course, loss of salary, the lack of direct remuneration on completion of the course and a lack of promotional opportunities. It was of concern that several nurses expressed a belief that paediatric qualifications were unnecessary and that many believed their employers did not value the qualification. Several recommendations are suggested to address the main barriers. These include more flexibility in the provision of such courses and opportunities for financial assistance. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study on the effect of social capital on learning organization: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of Kermanshah, Iran

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    Akbar Veismoradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in contemporary zone of management and organizational behavior is to create and strengthen social capital. Social capital arises from individuals trying to help people build trust, relationships and cooperation. Without social capital, employees are not able to share information and knowledge. The purpose of this study is to review the relationship of social capital and the learning organizational in one of Iranian organizations called Jihad Agriculture Organization of Kermanshah. The statistical population includes 270 employees of this organization and a sample size of 159 people are chosen using Morgan statistical table for a the first six months of 2012. The research method is descriptive- survey, the type of correlation and a questionnaire for collecting information are used. A number of university professors confirmed validity of the questionnaires. Their reliabilities were obtained with Cronbach's alpha and the coefficients for questionnaire of social capital was 0.705 and for questionnaire of learning organization was 0.838, respectively. By using correlation coefficient and multiple regressions, the data were analyzed. Results in a significant level of 95% showed, social capital had a meaningful relationship with learning organizational.

  3. Girls, Guys and Games: How News Media Perpetuate Stereotypes of Male and Female Gamers

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    Erin Maclean

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sheer popularity of gaming, stereotypes of gamers are persistent and often ill-informed. The average age of an Australian gamer, for example, is 33 and nearly half of gamers are female. Yet, few mainstream and gaming news articles seem to acknowledge this diversity. Because news media and public perception are intertwined, such misrepresentation may affect the way gamers are perceived by the public and, in turn, how gamers negotiate their identities. This paper, through a primarily qualitative analysis of 75 online news articles, explores many examples of simplistic and distorted portrayals of gamers that characterise news coverage. In particular, it examines three gendered tropes—‘not real’ female gamers, women as the victims and oppressors of gamers, and toxic male gamers—that news media use to frame the narratives that misrepresent gaming in social life. Ultimately, this article argues that two prevailing themes underlie many news stories about gaming: the perpetuation of male technocratic privilege and moral panic. Both of these phenomena have relevance to the #GamerGate controversy of 2014, which news media portrayed as a ‘culture war’ between these inaccurate notions of male and female gamers. Thus, this indicates that the media blame game and alienation of gaming culture, as a multibillion-dollar international industry of increasing social importance, must be acknowledged and addressed.

  4. Creating and Perpetuating Social Memory across the Ancient Cost Rican Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Payson; Sever, Tom

    2004-01-01

    For most of the time that Native Americans lived in ancient Costa Rica, their travel across the landscape was task-oriented and thus sufficiently randomized to leave no detectable trace. That changed about 500 BC in the Arenal area when people separated their cemeteries from their villages, and travel between them was ritually mediated by travel along the same path, in single file, in as straight a line as possible. The inadvertent erosion over centuries of use entrenched paths 2 or more meters deep, and we believe the cultural standard developed that the preferred way of entering a special place was by an entrenched path. People created and perpetuated social memory across their landscapes with generation after generation of use. The construction of meaning developed as the paths entrenched, ultimately embedding that meaning deep in people s belief systems as well as literally embedding it in the landscape. the Arenal area, a series of chiefdoms did develop east of the area at about AD 1000. To satisfy their need for monumentality, we suggest here that chiefs chose the proper entrenched entryway as exemplified in the Arenal area, for elaboration. On the rocky slopes of the volcanoes monumental entryways were built of stone, and on the fine alluvial plains they were of earthen construction. For instance, the radiating entrenched roads entering Cutris are about 4 km long and as wide as 50 meters, and many meters deep.

  5. Participatory Filmmaking Pedagogies in Schools: Tensions Between Critical Representation and Perpetuating Gendered and Heterosexist Discourses.

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    Matt Rogers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although participatory media practices are often adopted to address social issues with youth in school and community contexts, there is a lack of critical analysis of the visual and discursive representations that organize student-produced participatory films. To respond to this concern, I employ critical discourse analysis to examine a series of films that were created for a New Brunswick school-based participatory filmmaking program that I coordinate, called What’s up Doc? Since the project’s inception in 2009, students have produced over 60 films that have raised institutional critiques, troubled inequitable discourses, and addressed social justice issues. Drawing attention to discourses that framed students’ films, I show how the work may perpetuate, rather than fully resist, marginalizing discourses, narratives, and visual representations. In particular, I show how the films may reproduce and authorize sexist discourses, demeaning narratives, and heteronormative assumptions. Youth may have undertaken filmmaking to generate social commentary and resist inequity, but critical engagement with the What’s up Doc? program demonstrates how discursive power operates on, in, and through participatory media texts.

  6. Trading in Discursive Commodities: Biofuel Brokers’ Roles in Perpetuating the Jatropha Hype in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Vel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypes about wonder crops raise critical questions about the actors and mechanisms that link optimistic narratives about the crops’ potentials to actual production in the field. Jatropha curcas has been such a wonder crop, with a wide discrepancy between plans and reality. While many studies focus on agronomic or technological explanations of discrepancy and how to decrease it, much less is known about the influence of specific actors on creating a gap between high expectations and actual production in the field. This paper highlights the role of commercial brokers, who link potential investors and their capital to land and labor in the production areas. How have such commercial brokers contributed to perpetuating the optimism regarding the potentials of Jatropha plantations? The article presents the results of ethnographic research in a case study of commercial biofuel brokers at work in Sumba, one of the marginal areas in Indonesia targeted by policy makers for Jatropha cultivation. The study indicates that these actors have assembled their own short-term projects, translated narratives about future potential activities into the objects of trade in the present and produced optimistic figures about their projects to attract investors. In the conclusion, the paper warns against the unintended effects of green biofuel policies and discourses, when the latter get translated into a business opportunity for short-term private benefits instead of for the social and environmental goals for which the policies were originally intended.

  7. Visual portrayals of obesity in health media: promoting exercise without perpetuating weight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, R L; Dovidio, J F; Puhl, R M

    2015-08-01

    Health education campaigns for preventing and reducing obesity often contain weight-stigmatizing visual content, which may have unintended negative health consequences. The goal of the present research was to identify non-stigmatizing visual content for health education materials that can promote exercise among people of diverse weight statuses. An online sample of 483 US women viewed: (i) a woman with obesity portrayed stereotypically; (ii) a woman with obesity exercising; (iii) a woman with obesity portrayed neutrally; or (iv) a lean woman exercising. Race of the models pictured was randomized (White or Black). Participants completed measures of weight bias and exercise behavior and attitudes, and provided information about their weight status. Analysis of covariance revealed that responses to stereotypical and exercise images varied by participant weight status. Across participants, neutral obesity portrayals elicited lower expressions of weight-biased attitudes and higher reports of exercise liking/comfort. Among non-overweight participants, images portraying women with obesity stereotypically or counter-stereotypically produced greater endorsement of negative stereotypes than control, lean images. No effects of model race were found. These findings suggest that the public responds differently to visual portrayals of obesity depending on weight status, and neutral portrayals may be an effective route toward promoting exercise without perpetuating stigma. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefay, Hagos; Abrha, Atakelti; Kinsman, John; Myléus, Anna; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death) have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  9. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  10. Lung collagens perpetuate pulmonary fibrosis via CD204 and M2 macrophage activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Stahl

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by abundant collagen production and accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 in the lower respiratory tract. Mechanisms as to how alveolar macrophages are activated by collagen breakdown products are unknown. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 30 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and 37 healthy donors (HD. Alveolar macrophages were cultured in the presence of collagen type I, III, IV and V monomers w/wo a neutralizing antibody against scavenger receptor I class A (CD204. Culture supernatants were assayed for the M2 markers CCL18, CCL2, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra by ELISA. Furthermore, expression of phospho-Akt was measured using ELISA and expression of CD204 by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Stimulation with collagen type I and III monomers significantly up-regulated CCL18, IL-1ra production of alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, expression of CCL2 and CD204 were up-regulated by collagen type I exposure. In addition, collagen type I stimulation increased pospho-Akt expression. Collagen type I effects were abrogated by neutralizing antiCD204 and a non-selective Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002. Spontaneous CD204 expression of alveolar macrophages was significantly increased in patients with IPF. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that monomeric collagen type I via CD204 induces phospho-Akt expression shifting alveolar macrophages to the profibrotic M2 type. Innate immune responses induced by collagen monomers might perpetuate pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Land management restrictions and options for change in perpetual conservation easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  12. Education at a standstill: how the consociational school of thought has perpetuated ethnic conflict in post-war Bosnia

    OpenAIRE

    Norheim, Snorre Standish

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to explore why the consociational prescription to have cultural autonomy in education contributes to perpetuating ethnic conflict instead of conflict resolving, in post-war societies like Bosnia and Herzegovina. The prescription is to recognise and strengthen the major ethnic groups through decentralisation of decision-making in education. The study analyses a fragmented and politicised educational system, and its consequences for inter-ethnic relations, which are analysed ...

  13. First Passage Time for Tempered Stable Process and Its Application to Perpetual American Option and Barrier Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Shin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss an approximation of the characteristic function of the first passage time for a Levy process using the martingale approach. The characteristic function of the first passage time of the tempered stable process is provided explicitly or by an indirect numerical method. This will be applied to the perpetual American option pricing and the barrier option pricing. Numerical illustrations are provided for the calibrated parameters using the market call and put prices.

  14. On perpetual American put valuation and first-passage in a regime-switching model with jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Z.; Pistorius, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of pricing a perpetual American put option in an exponential regime-switching L\\'{e}vy model. For the case of the (dense) class of phase-type jumps and finitely many regimes we derive an explicit expression for the value function. The solution of the corresponding first passage problem under a state-dependent level rests on a path transformation and a new matrix Wiener-Hopf factorization result for this class of processes.

  15. Towards Perpetual Peace: an Analysis of the reachability of the basic premises of Kant’s Project

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    Greyce Kelly Cruz de Sousa França

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study will seek to analyze Kant’s project with regard, specifically, to its basic premises as conditions of possibility for perpetual peace. Such peace is admittedly an unattainable ideal; however, the attainability of its premises is advocated by Kant. The objective of this article is to verify if the conditions stipulated by it are enough to reach these premises.

  16. The socio-cultural-symbolic nexus in the perpetuation of female genital cutting: a critical review of existing discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Esho, Tammary; Van Wolputte, Steven; Enzlin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Female Genital Cutting (FGC), also known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Female Circumcision (FC), continues to be a prevalent practice in many parts of the world and especially in Africa. This is somewhat perplexing given the concerted efforts aimed at eradicating this practice. This article argues that the perpetuation of FGC is due to the unintended effects of marginalization experienced by individuals and groups of women as a result of the approach of some of the anti-FGC global di...

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α perpetuates synovial fibroblast interactions with T cells and B cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanlei; Liu, Hongjiang; Xu, Liling; Li, Yingni; Liu, Xu; Shi, Lianjie; Su, Yin; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xia; Yang, Yuqin; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhanguo

    2016-03-01

    Synovial fibroblast hyperplasia, T-cell hyperactivity, B-cell overactivation, and the self-perpetuating interactions among these cell types are major characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The inflamed joints of RA patients are hypoxic, with upregulated expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). It remains unknown whether HIF-1α regulates interactions between RASFs and T cells and B cells. We report here that HIF-1α promotes the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and cell-cell contact mediators IL-15, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, thrombospondin (TSP)-1, and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 in RASFs. Furthermore, HIF-1α perpetuates RASF-mediated inflammatory Th1- and Th17-cell expansion while differentially inhibiting regulatory B10 and innate-like B cells, leading to increased IFN-γ, IL-17, and IgG production and decreased protective natural IgM secretion. Our findings suggest that HIF-1α perpetuates the interactions between RASFs and T cells and B cells to induce inflammatory cytokine and autoantibody production, thus exacerbating the severity of RA. Targeting HIF-1α may provide new therapeutic strategies for overcoming this persistent disease. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howman, Mary; Jones, Melvyn

    2011-02-03

    Intercalated BScs (iBScs) are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year) exams. A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276). A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance). The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without). Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01). (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300). There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66). (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed"). Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance) undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this confounding in unadjusted results is that students who do better

  19. The non-targeted effects of radiation are perpetuated by exosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mayah, Ammar; Bright, Scott; Chapman, Kim [Genomic Instability Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Irons, Sarah [Insect Virus Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Luo, Ping [Izon Science Ltd., The Oxford Science Park, Magdalen Centre, Robert Robinson Avenue, Oxford OX4 4GA (United Kingdom); Carter, David [Chromatin and non-coding RNA, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Edwin [The New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Kadhim, Munira, E-mail: mkadhim@brookes.ac.uk [Genomic Instability Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    partially inhibited when either exosome protein or exosome RNA were inactivated separately, whilst combined RNA–protein inhibition significantly reduced or eliminated the BE. These results demonstrate that exosomes are associated with long-lived signalling of the NTE of IR. Both RNA and protein molecules of exosomes work in a synergistic manner to initiate NTE, spread these effects to naïve cells, and perpetuate GI in the affected cells.

  20. The non-targeted effects of radiation are perpetuated by exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayah, Ammar; Bright, Scott; Chapman, Kim; Irons, Sarah; Luo, Ping; Carter, David; Goodwin, Edwin; Kadhim, Munira

    2015-02-01

    , spread these effects to naïve cells, and perpetuate GI in the affected cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  2. Technology transfer in the hydropower industry: An analysis of Chinese dam developers’ undertakings in Europe and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial

    2018-01-01

    Technology transfer is essential for transitioning to a low carbon economy which can include hydropower. Chinese dam developers allegedly dominate the global hydropower industry. Studies have been carried out on technology transfer in their undertakings in Africa and Asia. However, such work is

  3. The role of education at the aiming of the european unity: the enlighted and romantic perpetual peace projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José REBOLLO ESPINOSA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The sources of the peace education goes back far enoug. This article aims to analyzing some perpetual peace projects which were actually written beetween the XVII and XX centuries. Those projects, being regarded as a proper means in order to attain the european unity, may be viewed as antecedents of the today peace conferences. It is, then, acknowledged, that what started as a human desire for international agreement is progressively achieved and it is purported to show the role this particular dynamics plays in the education.

  4. Unreal perpetual motion machine, Rydberg constant and Carnot non-unitary efficiency as a consequence of the atomic irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2018-02-01

    A perpetual motion machine is a completely ideal engine which cannot be realized. Carnot introduced the concept of the ideal engine which operates on a completely reversible cycle, without any dissipation, but with an upper limit in it. So, even in ideal condition without any dissipation, there is something that prevents the conversion of all the energy absorbed by an ideal reservoir into work. But what is the cause of irreversibility? Here we highlight the atomic nature of this irreversibility, proving that it is no more than the continuous interaction of the atoms with the surrounding field. The macroscopic irreversibility is the consequence of the microscopic irreversibility.

  5. Non proliferation regimes undertakings: Benefits and limits of synergies in verification technologies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Thirty years ago the NPT was entering into force. Therewith, when a State became party to the NPT, it had, in accordance with article III.1 of the Treaty, an undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Safeguards agreement with the IAEA and accept safeguards verification on source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territories in order to verify that such material is not diverted. This multilateral instrument was the foundation stone of the non-proliferation regime and marked the actual birth of internationally accepted measures to verily compliance with politically stringent agreements. Since that time several important multilateral or bilateral instruments on non-proliferation and disarmament have been negotiated and adopted to curb the development and the acquisition of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) most of them since the middle of the eighties and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Amongst the multilateral instruments are the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological Weapon and Toxin Weapons (1972), the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (1993), the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996), the Strengthening of the IAEA Safeguards and the Additional Protocol (1997), with some still in negotiation like the Protocol of the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons, and some on which negotiation is still a wish like the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. Bilateral disarmament agreements between the United States of America and the Russian Federation such as the INF Treaty, START I and II, the agreements on the elimination of excess defence nuclear material as well as the Trilateral Initiative with the IAEA pave the way to nuclear disarmament with the reduction of both the number of nuclear weapons arsenal and the fissile material inventories. The politically stringent undertakings of States that have become parties to those agreements would not be possible without the

  6. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderbei, Robert J.; Pınar, Mustafa Ç.; Bozkaya, Efe B.

    2013-01-01

    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  7. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbei, Robert J., E-mail: rvdb@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering (United States); P Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nar, Mustafa C., E-mail: mustafap@bilkent.edu.tr [Bilkent University, Department of Industrial Engineering (Turkey); Bozkaya, Efe B. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Faculty of Administrative Sciences (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  8. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This report provides background information on safeguards and explains procedures for States to conclude Additional Protocols to comprehensive Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA. Since the IAEA was founded in 1957, its safeguards system has been an indispensable component of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and has facilitated peaceful nuclear cooperation. In recognition of this, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) makes it mandatory for all non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) party to the Treaty to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus allow for the application of safeguards to all their nuclear material. Under Article III of the NPT, all NNWS undertake to accept safeguards, as set forth in agreements to be negotiated and concluded with the IAEA, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of the States' obligations under the NPT. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreements (reproduced in INFCIRC/540(Corr.)) which provided for an additional legal authority. In States that have both a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force, the IAEA is able to optimize the implementation of all safeguards measures available. In order to simplify certain procedures under comprehensive safeguards agreements for States with little or no nuclear material and no nuclear material in a facility, the IAEA began making available, in 1971, a 'small quantities protocol' (SQP), which held in abeyance the implementation of most of the detailed provisions of comprehensive safeguards agreements for so long as the State concerned satisfied these criteria. The safeguards system aims at detecting and deterring the diversion of nuclear material. Such material includes enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium-233, which could be used directly in nuclear weapons. It also includes natural uranium and depleted uranium, the latter of which is

  9. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  10. 1980–2008: The Illusion of the Perpetual Money Machine and What It Bodes for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Sornette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the present crisis and stalling economy that have been ongoing since 2007 are rooted in the delusionary belief in policies based on a “perpetual money machine” type of thinking. We document strong evidence that, since the early 1980s, consumption has been increasingly funded by smaller savings, booming financial profits, wealth extracted from house price appreciation and explosive debt. This is in stark contrast with the productivity-fueled growth that was seen in the 1950s and 1960s. We describe the transition, in gestation in the 1970s, towards the regime of the “illusion of the perpetual money machine”, which started at full speed in the early 1980s and developed until 2008. This regime was further supported by a climate of deregulation and a massive growth in financial derivatives designed to spread and diversify the risks globally. The result has been a succession of bubbles and crashes, including the worldwide stock market bubble and great crash of October 1987, the savings and loans crisis of the 1980s, the burst in 1991 of the enormous Japanese real estate and stock market bubbles, the emerging markets bubbles and crashes in 1994 and 1997, the Long-Term Capital Management (LTCM crisis of 1998, the dotcom bubble bursting in 2000, the recent house price bubbles, the financialization bubble via special investment vehicles, the stock market bubble, the commodity and oil bubbles and the current debt bubble, all developing jointly and feeding on each other until 2008. This situation may be further aggravated in the next decade by an increase in financialization, through exchange-traded-funds (ETFs, speed and automation, through algorithmic trading and public debt, and through growing unfunded liabilities. We conclude that, to get out of this catch 22 situation, we should better manage and understand the incentive structures in our society, we need to focus our efforts on our real economy and we have to respect and master

  11. Waging and Fighting e Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    in 2008 for his role in the 2003 Bali nightclub bombing , used carding as a means to fund his attacks. 5 In his autobiography, “Samudra urges...method uses the known defamatory website as a honeypot, a website with false information to spread disinformation such as “a bomb that will detonate...to Life in Prison for Attempted Bombing of Flight 253 on Christmas Day 2009.”http://www.fbi.gov/detroit/press-releases/2012/umar-farouk

  12. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-23

    Third, our ultimate objective of these painful strikes against the head of the serpent was to prompt it to come out of its hole. This would make it...sciences; 7) construct an intelligence agency; 8) unite the people through money and shari’a governance; 9) force domestic hypocrites to hide their...Pakistan, from where he has been studying Western intelligence services. 30 Al-Suri, 1392. 31 Al-Suri, 1367-1368. 32 Naji, 7. 33 Open Source

  13. Identifying potential academic leaders: Predictors of willingness to undertake leadership roles in an academic department of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-01

    To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. A total of 687 faculty members. Variables related to respondents' willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one's current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members.

  14. Decree No. 67/77 of 6 May establishing a National Uranium Undertaking as a public body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree, promulgated on 29 March 1977, sets up a National Uranium Undertaking (ENU). The ENU Statute which is attached to the Decree lays down that its main purpose is to prospect for and inventory uranium deposits, to explore known deposits, to set up facilities for recovery and treatment of uranium ores, and finally, to market the products obtained. The ENU has taken over the work which, until now, had been carried out in that field by the Junta de Energia Nuclear and it is placed under the authority of the Minister of Industry and Technology. (NEA) [fr

  15. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill KD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Keith D Hill,1,2 Lesley Day,3 Terry P Haines4,5 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Falls Prevention Research Unit, Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash University, VIC, Australia; 4Allied Health Research Unit, Southern Health, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Monash University, VIC, Australia Purpose: To investigate previous, current, or planned participation in, and perceptions toward, multifactorial fall prevention programs such as those delivered through a falls clinic in the community setting, and to identify factors influencing older people’s intent to undertake these interventions.Design and methods: Community-dwelling people aged >70 years completed a telephone survey. Participants were randomly selected from an electronic residential telephone listing, but purposeful sampling was used to include equal numbers with and without common chronic health conditions associated with fall-related hospitalization. The survey included scenarios for fall prevention interventions, including assessment/multifactorial interventions, such as those delivered through a falls clinic. Participants were asked about previous exposure to, or intent to participate in, the interventions. A path model analysis was used to identify factors associated with intent to participate in assessment/multifactorial interventions.Results: Thirty of 376 participants (8.0% reported exposure to a multifactorial falls clinic-type intervention in the past 5 years, and 16.0% expressed intention to undertake this intervention. Of the 132 participants who reported one or more falls in the past 12 months, over one-third were undecided or disagreed that a falls clinic type of intervention would be of benefit to them. Four elements

  16. Help to perpetuate traditional gender roles: Benevolent sexism increases engagement in dependency-oriented cross-gender helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Kende, Anna; Bareket, Orly; Lazar, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Based on theorizing that helping relations may serve as a subtle mechanism to reinforce intergroup inequality, the present research (N = 1,315) examined the relation between benevolent sexism (i.e., a chivalrous yet subtly oppressive view of women) and helping. In cross-gender interactions, the endorsement of (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or exposure to (Study 2) benevolent sexism predicted (a) men's preference to provide women with dependency-oriented help (i.e., direct assistance) rather than tools for autonomous coping, and (b) women's preference to seek dependency-oriented help rather than tools for autonomous coping. Benevolent sexism did not predict men's and women's engagement in dependency-oriented helping relations in same-gender interactions. Studies 1 and 2 examined behavioral intentions in response to a series of hypothetical scenarios; Studies 3 and 4 examined actual behavior in tests of mathematical and logical ability, and pointed to assumed partner's expectations as a potential mediator. The converging evidence supports the hypothesis that benevolent sexism encourages engagement in cross-gender helping relations that perpetuate traditional gender roles. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Perpetual memory. Episode Review «The entire history of you« of Black Mirror (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Salomé LIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What would happen if man could store and recovered all its memories at will? The entire history of you is an episode of the British television drama series which presents a futuristic scenario of a very old situation: jealousy. Human passions disturb our soul, trouble our reflections, and pushes us to action. Memory will be a privileged object for our analysis; not organic memory, but significant memory: this means the trace of memories that perform our body. We will try to analyze the possibilities of our actions against the technological dangers and “progresses”. The scope of biopolitics presented by Michel Foucault in the 70venties could be taken up by the contemporary idea of the current decline of love, desire and sexuality. We will visit some of the Freudian early works to think how memory and the possibilities of remembrance are a singular construction of human being. This significant memory is capable of knotting remembrance, fantasy and desire. But memory could also become perpetual when it is object of manipulation producing devastating effects on human´s subjectivity.

  18. Identification of Preferred Sources of Information for Undertaking Studies in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wyrwicka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a survey has been conducted among first-year students about sources of information which influence the decision of undertaking field studies in Safety Engineering, Management Engineering and Logistics in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology. The goal of these analyses is both to assess the effectiveness of promotion and also show trends in the use of diverse channels of information transfer of studies. The results of the investigation show that internet promotion via university and faculty website plays the dominant role but also direct promotion, such as opinion of older friends, is crucial. Furthermore, from year to year the analyses indicate the significant increase of official media and reveal that the prospective students rely on a few sources of information simultaneously.

  19. Jihad na África Ocidental durante a "Era das Revoluções": em direção a um diálogo com Eric Hobsbawm e Eugene Genovese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Lovejoy

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das relações entre movimentos sociais e políticos ocorridos na África Ocidental em fins do século XVIII e início do século XIX, em especial o jihad sudanês, e os processos de transformação global do Ocidente nesse mesmo período. Abre-se um diálogo com os trabalhos de Erick Hobsbawm e Eugene Genovese, analisando criticamente suas abordagens sobre a influência das sociedades do oeste africano nos eventos que têm lugar no mundo atlântico durante a chamada "era das revoluções". O artigo discute, ainda, a perspectiva a partir da qual vêm sendo estudadas as rebeliões escravas nas Américas, que pouco considera o contexto africano e ressalta apenas as influências das mudanças revolucionárias na Europa Ocidental. Nesse sentido, também questiona a historiografia que analisa o surgimento do "Atlântico Negro", a qual não atribui a devida importância aos determinantes originados no interior da África, fundamentais nesse processo.

  20. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  1. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  2. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  3. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  4. Perpetuating power through autoethnography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot; , Stasja

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on my longitudinal relation with the indigenous Hai//om Bushmen of the resettlement farm Tsintsabis, in Namibia, exploring my position of power as a development fieldworker. I have been connected to the Hai//om since 1999, doing research and living and working with them

  5. Perpetual Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    successfully shown that monitoring things like chains of system calls can differentiate normal system behavior from that of malware [8]. In terms of...reachable set of states for nonlinear hybrid automata is over approximated, preserving soundness at the cost of potential false positives. Other

  6. Dynamic imaging of coherent sources reveals different network connectivity underlying the generation and perpetuation of epileptic seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Elshoff

    Full Text Available The concept of focal epilepsies includes a seizure origin in brain regions with hyper synchronous activity (epileptogenic zone and seizure onset zone and a complex epileptic network of different brain areas involved in the generation, propagation, and modulation of seizures. The purpose of this work was to study functional and effective connectivity between regions involved in networks of epileptic seizures. The beginning and middle part of focal seizures from ictal surface EEG data were analyzed using dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS, an inverse solution in the frequency domain which describes neuronal networks and coherences of oscillatory brain activities. The information flow (effective connectivity between coherent sources was investigated using the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC method. In 8/11 patients, the first and second source of epileptic activity as found by DICS were concordant with the operative resection site; these patients became seizure free after epilepsy surgery. In the remaining 3 patients, the results of DICS / RPDC calculations and the resection site were discordant; these patients had a poorer post-operative outcome. The first sources as found by DICS were located predominantly in cortical structures; subsequent sources included some subcortical structures: thalamus, Nucl. Subthalamicus and cerebellum. DICS seems to be a powerful tool to define the seizure onset zone and the epileptic networks involved. Seizure generation seems to be related to the propagation of epileptic activity from the primary source in the seizure onset zone, and maintenance of seizures is attributed to the perpetuation of epileptic activity between nodes in the epileptic network. Despite of these promising results, this proof of principle study needs further confirmation prior to the use of the described methods in the clinical praxis.

  7. Scandalum acceptum and scandalum datum: Kant's non-Interventionism in the Fifth Preliminary Article of the Perpetual Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Is it right to wage war to export democracy, or - as Kant would have said - to forcibly interfere in the constitution and in the government of another state with the goal of transforming it into a republic? The answer of Kant, contained in the fifth preliminary article of the Perpetual Peace, leans towards non-interventionism: a bad constitution can never justify a war, because it may be the root only of a scandalum acceptum. To understand the meaning of scandalum acceptum we have to become aware that it is a term originating from moral theology, which we should translate into the language of international law. The scandal, as it was still clear to Kant’s contemporaries, is the sin of advertising a sinful behavior: but it is just a scandalum acceptum if the act that inspired others to sin has been done without the intention to give them a bad example. A flawed constitution can be only the occasion of a scandalum acceptum because its legal power does not spread its influence beyond the border of its state. If a nation chooses to imitate the allegedly wrong constitution of another state, its choice depends only on its sovereignty, because it is a matter of internal constitutional law. On the other hand, waging war against another country because of its allegedly flawed constitution is a worse kind of scandal, the scandalum datum, because it involves an international law principle of limited sovereignty according to which every state has the right to assault another state because of its constitution.

  8. Muscle Pain Induces a Shift of the Spatial Distribution of Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity During a Repetitive Task: A Mechanism for Perpetuation of Pain With Repetitive Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Cescon, Corrado; Lindstroem, Rene; Barbero, Marco

    2017-11-01

    An association exists between repetitive movements and the development or perpetuation of neck-shoulder muscle pain. The mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. This observational study investigated the effect of upper trapezius muscle pain on the distribution of upper trapezius activity during repetitive lifting. It was hypothesized that nociception would change the distribution of activity resulting in activation of muscle regions which would not normally be active during the task. Healthy men repeatedly lifted a box with a cycle time of 3 seconds for 50 cycles, at baseline, following injection of isotonic and hypertonic saline into the upper trapezius muscle and 15 minutes after the last injection. High-density surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the upper trapezius using a grid of 64 electrodes. The EMG amplitude was computed for each location to form a map of the EMG amplitude distribution. During the painful condition, the overall EMG amplitude was lower compared with all other conditions (Pactivity was shifted toward the caudal region of the muscle (Pactive during the task. The described alterations of muscle activity likely play an important role in the perpetuation of pain during repetitive activity. Novel mapping of the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity showed that nociception induced a redistribution of activity during repetitive lifting. This knowledge provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the perpetuation of pain with repetitive activity.

  9. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  11. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole.

  12. Nurses on the move: evaluation of a program to assist international students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Carmel; Rolls, Colleen; Campbell, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a Teaching and Learning Enhancement Scheme (TALES) program designed to meet the unique need of the 2005 cohort of international nursing students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing (BN) program at the Victorian campus of Australian Catholic University (ACU) National. The program involved a team approach with three academic mentors and the international students working together to produce satisfactory learning outcomes through fortnightly meetings and provision of additional assistance including compiling a portfolio, reflective writing, English, including colloquial English and pronunciation, as well as familiarisation with handover and abbreviations common in the clinical field, general communication, assistance with preparing a resume and participation in simulated interviews. This relatively small group of international students (20) confirmed the findings of other studies from other countries of international nursing students' in terms of concerns in regard to studying in a foreign country, namely English proficiency, communication difficulties, cultural differences and unfamiliarity with the health care environment. The assistance provided by the program was identified by the completing students as invaluable in helping them settle into study and successfully complete the theoretical and clinical components of the course.

  13. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2018-01-25

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. DETERMINATION OF THE URGENCY OF UNDERTAKING LAND CONSOLIDATION WORKS IN THE VILLAGES OF THE SŁAWNO MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Leń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is to analyze the spatial structure of land and identification of the needs of consolidation works and exchange of land in the villages of the Sławno municipality, lying in the district of Opoczno, in the Łódzkie Voivodship. The authors use the method of zero unitarisation for the purposes of determining the order of undertaking consolidation works and exchange of land in the area of research. The basis for calculation is the database of 19 factors (x1–x19 characteristic for the listed five groups of issues, describing each of the following villages. The obtained results, in a form of synthetic meter for each village, allowed creating the hierarchy of the urgency of carrying out consolidation works. The problem of excessive fragmentation of farms, constituting the collections of a certain number of parcels, in a broader sense, is one of the elements that prevent the acceleration of reforms by conversion of the Land and Buildings Register (EGiB in a full valuable real estate cadastre in Poland. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the fact that there are ecological grounds in the study area, significant from the point of view of environmental protection.

  15. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  16. A systematic scoping review of the evidence for consumer involvement in organisations undertaking systematic reviews: focus on Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Richard F; Norman, Gill; Golder, Su; Griffith, Polly

    2016-01-01

    Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews of clinical trial evidence. We looked for published evidence that reports where consumers (patients and the public) have been involved in Cochrane systematic reviews, and also in reviews published by other organisations.We found 36 studies that reported about consumer involvement either in individual systematic reviews, or in other organisations. The studies showed that consumers were involved in reviews in a range of different ways: coordinating and producing reviews, making reviews more accessible, and spreading the results of reviews ("knowledge transfer"). The most common role was commenting on reviews ("peer reviewing"). Consumers also had other general roles, for example in educating people about evidence or helping other consumers. There were some interesting examples of new ways of involving consumers. The studies showed that most consumers came from rich and English speaking countries. There was little evidence about how consumer involvement had changed the reviews ("impact"). The studies found that consumer involvement needed to be properly supported.In future we believe that more research should be done to understand what kind of consumer involvement has the best impact; that more review authors should report how consumers have been involved; and that consumers who help with reviews should come from more varied backgrounds. Background Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews, and is committed to consumer involvement in the production and dissemination of its reviews. The review aims to systematically scope the evidence base for consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews; with an emphasis on Cochrane. Methods In June 2015 we searched six databases and other sources for studies of consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews, or in individual systematic

  17. Building capacity to use and undertake research in health organisations: a survey of training needs and priorities among staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J

    2016-12-07

    Efforts to improve healthcare and population health depend partly on the ability of health organisations to use research knowledge and participate in its production. We report the findings of a survey conducted to prioritise training needs among healthcare and public health staff, in relation to the production and implementation of research, across an applied health research collaboration. A questionnaire survey using a validated tool, the Hennessy-Hicks Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire. Participants rated 25 tasks on a five-point scale with regard to both their confidence in performing the task, and its importance to their role. A questionnaire weblink was distributed to a convenience sample of 35 healthcare and public health organisations in London and South East England, with a request that they cascade the information to relevant staff. 203 individuals responded, from 20 healthcare and public health organisations. None. Training needs were identified by comparing median importance and performance scores for each task. Individuals were also invited to describe up to three priority areas in which they require training. Across the study sample, evaluation; teaching; making do with limited resources; coping with change and managing competing demands were identified as key tasks. Assessing the relevance of research and learning about new developments were the most relevant research-related tasks. Participants' training priorities included evaluation; finding, appraising and applying research evidence; and data analysis. Key barriers to involvement included time and resources, as well as a lack of institutional support for undertaking research. We identify areas in which healthcare and public health professionals may benefit from support to facilitate their involvement in and use of applied health research. We also describe barriers to participation and differing perceptions of research between professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  18. An investigation in to the impact of acquisition location on error type and rate when undertaking panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, A; Drage, N; Greenall, C; Farnell, D J J

    2017-11-01

    Panoramic radiography is a common radiographic examination carried out in the UK. This study was carried out to determine if acquisition site has an impact on image quality. An image quality audit was carried out in South Wales across a number of dental and general radiology settings. The image quality was assessed retrospectively against national standards. A total of 174 radiographs were assessed from general radiology departments and 141 from dental radiology units. Chi-squared analysis was used to investigate whether there were differences in the grading between dental radiology units and general radiology departments. Differences between the two settings in terms of the number of errors in the radiographs was analysed using the Mann-Whitney test. Chi-squared analysis was used to see if there were differences between the types of errors in the two clinical settings. There was a significant association (p = 0.021) between the quality of the radiograph grading and type of radiology department. However when excellent and diagnostically acceptable radiographs were grouped together there was no significant difference between the two clinical settings. Although the vast majority of radiographs were diagnostic (89% for general radiology and 92% for dental radiology units), neither reached the required standards. The most common errors were patient positioning errors (54.6% radiographs affected) and preparation/instructional errors (47.9% radiographs affected). Errors in panoramic radiography are relatively high and further instruction to staff undertaking these procedures is required to ensure the targets are reached. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  20. Ministerial Decree of 15 February 1974 establishing the inventory of qualified experts and physicians authorized to undertake the health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 and provides for the legal and administrative acknowledgment of experts and physicians who are required to undertake supervision of protection against the hazards of ionizing radiations. (NEA) [fr

  1. Sociocultural and structural perpetuators of domestic violence in pregnancy: A qualitative look at what South Indian women believe needs to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Sahana; Frey, Sarah; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Manhart, Lisa E; Kaysen, Debra; Andu, Eaden; Rao, Deepa

    2018-02-01

    In India, reported rates of domestic violence rise as high as 31%. Abuse against pregnant women in India is associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms, and poor birth outcomes, yet no evidence-based interventions have been tested on this population. In this cross-sectional qualitative study, we sought perspective on South Indian women's concerns about abuse during pregnancy and what they believed would help. Participants cited economic dependence on husbands and sociocultural structures as factors perpetuating domestic violence. Women also described resilience factors that can protect against abuse. Our participants highlighted a requisite for interventions within health and social systems.

  2. A qualitative study of perpetuating factors for long term sick leave and promoting factors for return to work: chronic work disabled patients in their own words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2010-06-01

    Chronic work disability generates high financial costs for society and causes personal suffering to patients and their families; however, crucial knowledge about the factors associated with long-term sick leave is still missing. This study provides insight, from the perspective of chronic work disabled patients, into the perpetuating factors for long-term sick leave and promoting factors for return to work. Five focus group interviews were conducted with 27 patients with different disorders who had been on long-term sickness absence (18 months or more). Qualitative data analysis was performed using a conceptual framework to identify barriers and enablers for return to work. Four main themes of important perpetuating factors for long-term sick leave were identified: health-related obstacles, personal obstacles, social obstacles, and work-related obstacles. Four main themes of important promoting factors for return to work were identified: favourable working conditions, positive personal characteristics of the employee, the influence of the social environment, and the influence of the personal economic situation. Besides sickness, several non-medical factors are recognized barriers for return to work. Factors such as illness perceptions and self-efficacy expectations are reported to be promoting factors for return to work.

  3. Is physical deconditioning a perpetuating factor in chronic fatigue syndrome? A controlled study on maximal exercise performance and relations with fatigue, impairment and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazelmans, E; Bleijenberg, G; Van Der Meer, J W; Folgering, H

    2001-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients often complain that physical exertion produces an increase of complaints, leading to a greater need for rest and more time spent in bed. It has been suggested that this is due to a bad physical fitness and that physical deconditioning is a perpetuating factor in CFS. Until now, studies on physical deconditioning in CFS have shown inconsistent results. Twenty CFS patients and 20 matched neighbourhood controls performed a maximal exercise test with incremental load. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory tidal volume, O2 saturation, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and blood-gas values of arterialized capillary blood were measured. Physical fitness was quantified as the difference between the actual and predicted ratios of maximal workload versus increase of heart rate. Fatigue, impairment and physical activity were assessed to study its relationship with physical fitness. There were no statistically significant differences in physical fitness between CFS patients and their controls. Nine CFS patients had a better fitness than their control. A negative relationship between physical fitness and fatigue was found in both groups. For CFS patients a negative correlation between fitness and impairment and a positive correlation between fitness and physical activity was found as well. Finally, it was found that more CFS patients than controls did not achieve a physiological limitation at maximal exercise. Physical deconditioning does not seem a perpetuating factor in CFS.

  4. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  5. Ministerial Decree of 12 May 1980 authorising Agip Nucleare S.p.a. in Rome to undertake health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Section 83 of Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on protection against ionizing radiation provides that institutions previously authorised by the Minister of Labour and Social Security may, on condition that they are adequately equipped for such services, be authorised to undertake health physics and medical supervision of personnel. This Decree accordingly authorises the Agip Nucleare Company to carry out this work. (NEA) [fr

  6. “I know it’s bad for me and yet I do it”: exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to inform the development of culturally relevant programs that enable AHWs to quit smoking. A reduction of smoking in AHWs is important to promote their health and also optimise the delivery of smoking cessation support to Aboriginal clients. Methods We conducted a fundamental qualitative description study that was nested within a larger mixed method participatory research project. The individual and contextual factors that directly or indirectly promote (i.e. perpetuate smoking behaviours in AHWs were explored in 34 interviews and 3 focus groups. AHWs, other health service staff and tobacco control personnel shared their perspectives. Data analysis was performed using a qualitative content analysis approach with collective member checking by AHW representatives. Results AHWs were highly stressed, burdened by their responsibilities, felt powerless and undervalued, and used smoking to cope with and support a sense of social connectedness in their lives. Factors directly and indirectly associated with smoking were reported at six levels of behavioural influence: personal factors (e.g. stress, nicotine addiction, family (e.g. breakdown of family dynamics, grief and loss, interpersonal processes (e.g. socialisation and connection, domestic disputes, the health service (e.g. job insecurity and financial insecurity, demanding work, the community (e.g. racism, social disadvantage and policy (e.g. short term and insecure funding. Conclusions An extensive array of factors

  7. “I know it’s bad for me and yet I do it”: exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers - a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to inform the development of culturally relevant programs that enable AHWs to quit smoking. A reduction of smoking in AHWs is important to promote their health and also optimise the delivery of smoking cessation support to Aboriginal clients. Methods We conducted a fundamental qualitative description study that was nested within a larger mixed method participatory research project. The individual and contextual factors that directly or indirectly promote (i.e. perpetuate) smoking behaviours in AHWs were explored in 34 interviews and 3 focus groups. AHWs, other health service staff and tobacco control personnel shared their perspectives. Data analysis was performed using a qualitative content analysis approach with collective member checking by AHW representatives. Results AHWs were highly stressed, burdened by their responsibilities, felt powerless and undervalued, and used smoking to cope with and support a sense of social connectedness in their lives. Factors directly and indirectly associated with smoking were reported at six levels of behavioural influence: personal factors (e.g. stress, nicotine addiction), family (e.g. breakdown of family dynamics, grief and loss), interpersonal processes (e.g. socialisation and connection, domestic disputes), the health service (e.g. job insecurity and financial insecurity, demanding work), the community (e.g. racism, social disadvantage) and policy (e.g. short term and insecure funding). Conclusions An extensive array of factors perpetuated smoking in

  8. "I know it's bad for me and yet I do it": exploring the factors that perpetuate smoking in Aboriginal Health Workers--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-07-11

    Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) have a mandate to deliver smoking cessation support to Aboriginal people. However, a high proportion of AHWs are smokers and this undermines their delivery of smoking cessation programs. Smoking tobacco is the leading contributor to the burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and must be prevented. Little is known about how to enable AHWs to quit smoking. An understanding of the factors that perpetuate smoking in AHWs is needed to inform the development of culturally relevant programs that enable AHWs to quit smoking. A reduction of smoking in AHWs is important to promote their health and also optimise the delivery of smoking cessation support to Aboriginal clients. We conducted a fundamental qualitative description study that was nested within a larger mixed method participatory research project. The individual and contextual factors that directly or indirectly promote (i.e. perpetuate) smoking behaviours in AHWs were explored in 34 interviews and 3 focus groups. AHWs, other health service staff and tobacco control personnel shared their perspectives. Data analysis was performed using a qualitative content analysis approach with collective member checking by AHW representatives. AHWs were highly stressed, burdened by their responsibilities, felt powerless and undervalued, and used smoking to cope with and support a sense of social connectedness in their lives. Factors directly and indirectly associated with smoking were reported at six levels of behavioural influence: personal factors (e.g. stress, nicotine addiction), family (e.g. breakdown of family dynamics, grief and loss), interpersonal processes (e.g. socialisation and connection, domestic disputes), the health service (e.g. job insecurity and financial insecurity, demanding work), the community (e.g. racism, social disadvantage) and policy (e.g. short term and insecure funding). An extensive array of factors perpetuated smoking in AHWs. The multitude of personal, social

  9. Social capital, participation and the perpetuation of health inequalities: obstacles to African-Caribbean participation in 'partnerships' to improve mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora; Mclean, Carl

    2004-11-01

    There has recently been much emphasis on the role of 'partnerships' between local community 'stakeholders' in strategies to redress health inequalities. This paper examines obstacles to participation in such partnerships by African-Caribbean lay people in local initiatives to improve mental health in a town in southern England. We present a 'social psychology of participation' which we use to interpret our data. Our work seeks to illustrate some of the micro-social mechanisms through which social inequalities are perpetuated, using Bourdieu's conceptualization of the role played by various forms of capital (economic, social, cultural and symbolic) in perpetuating social inequalities. Our empirical research consists of a qualitative case study of attitudes to participation in mental-health-related partnerships in a deprived community. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with 30 local community 'stakeholders', drawn from the statutory, voluntary, user and lay sectors. While interviewees expressed enthusiasm about the principles of participation, severe obstacles to its effective implementation were evident. These included severe distrust between statutory and community sectors, and reported disillusionment and disempowerment within the African-Caribbean community, as well as low levels of community capacity. Moreover, divergent understandings of the meaning of 'partnership' suggested that it would be difficult to satisfy both community and statutory sectors at once. We suggest that disadvantaged and socially excluded communities are often deprived of the social resources which would provide a solid basis for their participation in partnerships with state health services. In the absence of efforts to remove such obstacles, and to generate the necessary resources for participation, partnerships may be 'set up to fail', leaving social inequalities to prevail.

  10. The process of undertaking a quantitative dissertation for a taught M.Sc: Personal insights gained from supporting and examining students in the UK and Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article discusses the roles of the student and the supervisor in the process of undertaking and writing a dissertation, a potentially daunting process. Results: The authors have supervised and examined students within 20 institutions and the personal insights gained result in the guidance provided within this article. Conclusion: The authors conclude that much can be done by students working with their supervisors, to improve progress in both performing and writing up the dissertation. Taking account of these factors will ease the dissertation process and move students progressively towards the production of a well-written dissertation

  11. Islamic Jihad: Sectarian Factors in Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. Biography Lieutenant Colonel Michael Moyles is...ourselves rather than to them.13 The Council on Foreign Relations agrees, saying “The West’s increasing intellectual distance from most thing...Shining Path in Peru , the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Irish Republican Army, and the Tamil Liberation Tigers in Sri Lanka. 23 The

  12. Is de jihad van IS islamitisch?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Strijd, extreem geweld, verdrijvingen, afhakken van hoofden: kan IS zijn heilige oorlog terugvoeren op de islam? Islamoloog Joas Wagemakers bestudeert de manier waarop jihadisten de strijd legitimeren.

  13. In Their Own Words: Voices of Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aaron, David

    2008-01-01

    .... A minimum of introductory and contextual material is provided, so that the reader may experience the full impact of what they are saying to each other and to the world. It is hoped that this will provide greater insights into the motives, plans, and participants in jihadi terrorism, as well as the nature of the threat they pose.

  14. Dogmatic Basis of Jihad and Martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    harm allowed to be inflicted upon the enemy can be to property, life or personal liberty, that is enslavement and ownership, on the authority of ibn... harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things 25 smallwarsjournal.com...said, ‘O ’Amir! Let us hear some of your Huda (camel-driving songs.)’ So he sang some of them (i.e. a lyric in harmony with the camels walk). The

  15. Islam’s Challenge: Jihad and Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    concept of separate Muslim nation- states was itself alien to Islam, as it believes in the unity of Muslims everywhere 27 regardless of race, color...the prayers at their early stated fixed times." I asked, "What is next in goodness?" He replied, "To be good and dutiful to your parents ." I further... disinherited , struggling in an ignorant and unbelieving society. Faced with persecution, they had two choices: emigration (hijra) and armed resistance

  16. BOKO HARAM AND JIHAD IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theo

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... It was the first time terrorists in Nigeria attacked a presence of the international community in the form of an office of the UN. The attack was significant in ..... In the recruitment and cohesion of members of Boko Haram, religion plays a significant role. Members behave as if they belong to a religious sect.

  17. The Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    leadership for this world. . . . Third, our ultimate objective of these painful strikes against the head of the serpent was to prompt it to come out of its...work for the spread of shari’a science and worldly sciences, (7) construct an intelligence agency, (8) unite the people through money and shari’a...the frontier region between Afghanistan and Pakistan, from where he has been studying Western intelligence services. 30. Al-Suri, p. 1392. 31. Ibid

  18. The Failure of Jihad in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    during the 1990-1991 Gulf Crisis, which Bin Ladin considered totally unacceptable, for several reasons. First, the infidel presence ran counter to...regime or any of its individual members were infidels , but he went a very long way toward denying the political and religious legitimacy of the Al...not the case.45 The regime also made an effort to appear merciful and forgiving toward repentant militants. This began with abstaining from

  19. Obstacles to researching the researchers: a case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Herbison, G Peter; Roth, Paul; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-03-21

    Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in turn, evidence based clinical practice guidelines.In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons. In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions. Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research. Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential

  20. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  1. Conditions and Motivations to Undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Ángela Marulanda Valencia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at deepening in the analysis of motivations shown by a group of entrepreneurs in Medellin, Antioquia. It also describes the different perceptions about the enablers and obstacles for the development of entrepreneurship in appropriate environments to promote it. It was found that independence was the principal motivation for entrepreneurship and that the city offered the most favourable environment to foster it. Additionally, it was found that the most important obstacle to develop it was the difficulties to access a bank credit.

  2. Perpetual War: The Philippine Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    their behalf. 16 These community leaders were called cabezas de barangay or gobernadorcillos. The actual number of Spaniards in the islands was...Filipino communists to keep a low profile and limited their contact with others. This was a great disappointment to Sison who hoped to use the event...and reactive strategy that aimed to secure the villages ( barangays ) from NPA infiltration and the adoption of search-and-destroy campaigns against

  3. An evaluation of the transformation of the perpetual usufruct right to the real estate property right Ocena opłacalności przekształcenia prawa użytkowania wieczystego w prawo własności nieruchomości

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wielicki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of profitability of the transformation of the perpetual usufruct right into the property right, at various moments of binding of this right, on the basis of the empirical formula presented in the respective act of law – the Ordinance of the Council of Ministers, concerning real estate appraisal and the estimate statement. It has been analysed how the fee for the transformation method of the perpetual usufruct right to the property is modified depending on the adopted rate of capitalization, the interest rate on the annual fee, and the number of remaining years of the unused perpetual usufruct right.

  4. 'You have to be mindful of whose story it is': the challenges of undertaking life story work with people with dementia and their family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Jane; Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Clarke, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    Life story work is increasingly being used with people with dementia; this work offers a critical appraisal of some challenges that may be faced in practice. An in-depth case study analysis was undertaken to understand the experiences of people with dementia, family carers and care staff in using life story work in an NHS Mental Health and Social Care Trust. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, observation, conversations and field notes. Private memories were sometimes recalled by the person with dementia that were not for inclusion in any written product; enabling the person with dementia to tell their own life story could be a challenge; quality of the life story books was variable and; at times, life story work may be overused with the person with dementia. Services should not be deterred from undertaking life story work with people with dementia, but there is a need to adopt a planned approach to its implementation that includes facilitation, education and supervision. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. A prospective phase II randomized study of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in patients undertaking induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Glen A; Morris, Kirk L; Subramonpillai, Elango; Curley, Cameron; Butler, Jason; Durrant, Simon

    2013-06-01

    This prospective randomized phase II study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of deferasirox in preventing iatrogenic iron overload in patients receiving induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) ize. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and CRP were measured pre-, mid- and post- each chemotherapy cycle. Patients were randomized to receive either therapy with deferasirox vs. no deferasirox therapy once serum ferritin increased to >500 μg/l. The trial was stopped prematurely due to excess gastrointestinal (GI) and infectious toxicity demonstrable in the deferasirox arm, after 10 patients had been randomized to deferasirox and 6 patients to the control arm. Overall, deferasirox was poorly tolerated, with median maximum tolerated dose only 13·8 mg/kg/d and no patient able to tolerate doses >20 mg/kg/d. Median duration of deferasirox therapy was only 72 d (range 19-130 d), with 9/10 patients requiring unplanned dose interruptions and 4/10 patients unable to continue the drug predominantly due to GI effects. Although all 3 treatment-related deaths occurred in the deferasirox arm (P = 0·25), median overall survival was similar between treatment arms. Use of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in AML patients undertaking induction/consolidation is poorly tolerated and appears to be associated with excess GI and infectious toxicity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. PATRIMONIAL INTEGRITY, PERPETUITY, MEMORY. THE CONTRADICTIONS OF ENTAILED ESTATES IN EARLY MODERN VALENCIA Integridad patrimonial, perpetuidad, memoria. Contradicciones de los mayorazgos valencianos en la época moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Catalá Sanz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The practice of entail, a key source of stability for the patrimony of thenobility over the centuries, nonetheless created its own contradictions. Several of thesearose, in the case of Valencia, from the normative changes that followed the decrees ofthe Nueva Planta, due to the differences between Castilian law and the abolished Valencian fueros. But many other contradictions resulted from the inconsistent regulation ofentail under the fueros; from debates over the law; from the sometimes confused stipulations of the founders; and even from uncertainty over the purpose of the entailedproperties. This article, drawing on disputes over entailed estates brought before theAudiencia of Valencia, will analyze problems including ambiguity in terminology; the contention between primogeniture and appeals for plural inheritance; the difficultyin defining the established order of succession; the incompatibility question; the extinction of inheritance for lack of descendants; the acceptance of illegitimate children and clerics;previously arranged disinheritance; the extension of the encumbrance in perpetuity; therecognition of real rights against entailed properties; and the alienation of parts of entailedestates under certain circumstances.Cimiento fundamental de la estabilidad patrimonial de la nobleza a través de los siglos, el mayorazgo generaba, no obstante, sus propias contradicciones. Algunas de ellas traían origen, en el caso valenciano, de los cambios normativos que siguieron a los decretos de Nueva Planta, al diferir en la determinación de ciertos aspectos las leyesde Castilla de los fueros abolidos. Pero otras muchas se derivaban de la escasa regulación foral en la materia, de las dudas de la doctrina, de las disposiciones, en ocasiones confusas, de los fundadores, e incluso de los mismos fines a que servía la propiedad vinculada. Apartir del estudio de los pleitos sobre posesión de vínculos sustanciados ante la Audiencia de Valencia se

  7. A comparison of classroom and online asynchronous problem-based learning for students undertaking statistics training as part of a Public Health Masters degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Verstegen, D M L; Tan, F E S; O'Connor, S J

    2013-05-01

    This case-study compared traditional, face-to-face classroom-based teaching with asynchronous online learning and teaching methods in two sets of students undertaking a problem-based learning module in the multilevel and exploratory factor analysis of longitudinal data as part of a Masters degree in Public Health at Maastricht University. Students were allocated to one of the two study variants on the basis of their enrolment status as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students (n = 11) followed the classroom-based variant and part-time students (n = 12) followed the online asynchronous variant which included video recorded lectures and a series of asynchronous online group or individual SPSS activities with synchronous tutor feedback. A validated student motivation questionnaire was administered to both groups of students at the start of the study and a second questionnaire was administered at the end of the module. This elicited data about student satisfaction with the module content, teaching and learning methods, and tutor feedback. The module coordinator and problem-based learning tutor were also interviewed about their experience of delivering the experimental online variant and asked to evaluate its success in relation to student attainment of the module's learning outcomes. Student examination results were also compared between the two groups. Asynchronous online teaching and learning methods proved to be an acceptable alternative to classroom-based teaching for both students and staff. Educational outcomes were similar for both groups, but importantly, there was no evidence that the asynchronous online delivery of module content disadvantaged part-time students in comparison to their full-time counterparts.

  8. Further improvements in conducting and transparent properties of ZnO:Ga films with perpetual c-axis orientation: Materials optimization and application in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • ZnO:Ga film with perpetual c-axis orientation at low T{sub S} by RF magnetron sputtering. • High conductivity (200 S cm{sup −1}) and elevated transmission (∼93% at 500 nm) in nano-sheet like structure. • Si solar cell on ZnO:Ga with efficiency comparable to similar cell on U-type SnO{sub 2} coated Asahi glass. • Higher open circuit voltage and better fill factor with ZnO:Ga than SnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Technologically appropriate device friendly ZnO:Ga films have been prepared at a low growth temperature (100 °C) by changing the RF power (P) applied to the magnetron plasma. Structurally preferred c-axis orientation of the ZnO:Ga network has been attained with I{sub 〈002〉}/I{sub 〈103〉} > 5. The c-axis oriented grains of wurtzite ZnO:Ga grows geometrically and settles in tangentially, providing favorable conduction path for stacked layer devices. Nano-sheet like structures produced at the surface are interconnected and provide conducting path across the surface; however, those accommodate a lot of pores in between that help better light trapping and reduce the reflection loss. The optimized ZnO:Ga thin film prepared at RF power of 200 W has 〈002〉 oriented grains of average size ∼10 nm and exhibits a very high conductivity ∼200 S cm{sup −1} and elevated transmission (∼93% at 500 nm) in the visible range. The optimized ZnO:Ga film has been used as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) window layer of RF-PECVD grown silicon thin film solar cells in glass/TCO/p-i-n-Si/Al configuration. The characteristics of identically prepared p-i-n-Si solar cells are compared by replacing presently developed ZnO:Ga TCO with the best quality U-type SnO{sub 2} coated Asahi glass substrates. The ZnO:Ga coated glass substrate offers a higher open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and the higher fill factor (FF). The ZnO:Ga film being more stable in hydrogen plasma than its SnO{sub 2} counterpart, maintains a high transparency to the solar

  9. Motivations for undertaking DNA sequencing-based non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy: a qualitative study with early adopter patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huso; Hallowell, Nina; Griffiths, Sian; Yeung Leung, Tak

    2013-01-01

    A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT) detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women's motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS). Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then further development of guidelines and quality assurance will be

  10. Motivations for undertaking DNA sequencing-based non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy: a qualitative study with early adopter patients in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huso Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women's motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS. Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. CONCLUSIONS: DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then

  11. "Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…": actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Whitmore, Rebecca; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2017-05-22

    When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists' caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one's own health. Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists' caregiver companions. While additional research is required to finalize

  12. Jihad Cool/Jihad Chic”: The Roles of the Internet and Imagined Relations in the Self-Radicalization of Colleen LaRose (Jihad Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Joan S. Picart

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The internet provides the means through which a “self-activating terrorist” may first self-radicalize through some imaginary or sympathetic connection with an organized terrorist network. Additionally, the internet allows such a self-activating terrorist to move into the stage of radical violent action. The internet serves both functions by providing the lone wolf with not only a rhetorical medium for self-justification and communication through the use of “monster talk” and its converse, the rhetoric about the “good citizen,” but it is also a source for relatively inexpensive and more unpredictable technologies of mass destruction. Crucial to this analysis is the distinction between radicalization of thought and radicalization of action, as a theoretical rhetoric of radicalization does not automatically convert into a rhetoric of radical action unless there are catalysts at work. The internet, as well as imagined relations cemented by the rhetorics of “jihadi cool” or “jihadi chic,” function as these crucial catalysts, galvanizing monster talk into monstrous action. The article focuses specifically on the case of self-activating terrorist Colleen LaRose to analyze how different factors—mental, psychological, social, and economic—interact with imaginative elements, such as surrogate father-mentor-lover relations for LaRose, and contribute to the formation of a self-activating terrorist, and what ultimately motivates and galvanizes her to move from a rhetoric of radical talk to a rhetoric of radical action, using Silber and Bhatt’s model of radicalization as an initial heuristic. In the case of Colleen LaRose, the romance of “jihadi chic” or “jihadi cool” (the converse of the rhetoric of the monstrous “infidel” or “lone wolf terrorist” was an essential factor to her self-radicalization. It is this imagined status of “jihadi chic” or “jihadi cool” (that nevertheless must somehow have a look of “reality” or “authenticity” and command a response from its audience that continues to be a crucial component of the success of recruitment strategies of radical jihadi groups, such as ISIS.

  13. Jet Joint Undertaking. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Joint European Torus is the largest project in the coordinated fusion programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). A brief general introduction provides an overview of the planning of the Report. This is followed by a description of JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes, which summarize the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, this relates and compares JET to other large fusion devices throughout the world. The following section reports on the technical status of the machine including: technical changes and achievements during 1989; details of the operational organization of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operation. This is followed by the results of JET operations in 1990 under various operating conditions, including ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; the overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards reactor conditions. In particular, the comparative performance between JET and other tokamaks, in terms of the triple fusion product, shows the substantial achievements made by JET since the start of operations in 1983. The second part of the Report explains the organization and management of the Project and describes the administration of JET. In particular, it sets out the budget situation; contractual arrangements during 1990; and details of the staffing arrangements and complement

  14. Jet joint undertaking. Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    After a presentation of the Jet and nuclear fusion, the results of Jet operations in 1985 are given: energy confinement, MHD activity and disruptive instabilities, impurities and radiation losses, plasma evolution, plasma boundary phenomena, control of plasma current, position and shape, RF heating. Technical achievements in 1985 are summarized: vacuum systems, first wall, multi-pellet injection for fuelling and re-fuelling, containment of forces during vertical instabilities, magnet systems, safety systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radio-frequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition, diagnostic systems are implied

  15. Benchmark analysis of railway networks and undertakings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark analysis of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international railway benchmarking

  16. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  17. Jet Joint Undertaking Progress Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The report sets out an overview of progress on JET during 1992 and with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1992 sets these advances in their general context. This summary is specifically cross-referenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1992. The last section is devoted to future plans and certain developments which might enable enhancements of the machine to further improve its overall performance. The Appendices contain a list of work topics which have been carried out under Task Agreements with various Association Laboratories. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published by JET authors in 1992

  18. Jet joint undertaking annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The 1988 activity report of the Joint European Torus (JET) project, is presented. The report provides an overview of the scientific, technical and administrative status of the program. The background of the project, the description of JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programs are explained. The technical status of the machine is given and it includes: technical changes and achievements during 1988; details of the operational organisation of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operations. The results of JET operations in 1988, under various conditions of heating and combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations, are provided. The project budget situation, contractual arrangements, in 1988, and staff complements, are included

  19. Jet Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This JET Progress Reports provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1990. In addition, the Report is supplemented by appendices of contributions (in preprint form) of the more important JET articles published during the year, which set out the details of JET activities

  20. Jet joint undertaking. Progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A brief introduction and some background information relevant to the Report is first provided. Progress on JET during 1984 is overviewed and, with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1984, these advances are set in their general context. This summary is specifically crossreferenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1985. The more important of these articles, which are of general interest, are reproduced as appendices to this Report. Certain developments are considered, which might enable additional improvements/modifications of the machine to further improve its overall performance. These improvements are considered to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokmaks, particularly concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. Some attention has been devoted to methods of surmounting these limitations and these are detailed in this section. In the Appendices, selected articles prepared by JET authors are reproduced in detail, and provide more details of the activities and achievements made on JET during 1985. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published in 1985

  1. Undertaking midwifery studies: commencing students' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina

    2011-10-01

    to explore the motivations and beliefs of commencing midwifery students against a background of high course demand and high student attrition. a qualitative analysis of student reflective essays. Melbourne, Australia. all commencing midwifery students, in 2008, were invited to participate (n = 41). three primary motivations for choosing midwifery were identified, including: notions of altruism (wanting to help), a fascination with pregnancy and birth, and a view of midwifery as a personally satisfying career. Bachelor of Midwifery programmes attract students with idealised views about midwifery practice. Such views may lead to student disillusionment, tensions with educators and clinicians, and higher rates of student attrition. Students need greater support to examine their views about midwifery practice. More meaningful support may assist the students' successful socialisation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Applied Method for Undertaking Phenomenological Explication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    knotted line rather than catching fish. I needed something which would group related material together in an ordered and meaningful fashion, and which ..... being “in pain ... on the inside of my heart and mind.” On another occasion he was strumming his guitar and singing a worship song entitled,. 'Jesus what a beautiful ...

  3. [Human milk: a perpetual (re)appreciation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhendries, J P

    2002-05-01

    Based upon recent studies, it appears more and more evident that exclusive breast-feeding can be said as the best functional food, the last being defined as: "a food that has components or ingredients bringing a specific medical or physiological benefit to the host, other than purely nutritional effects". In particular, human breast milk does favour optimal bacterial intestinal colonization with bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in the neonates and contains a large number of components with antimicrobial activity.

  4. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  5. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  6. Shaping Jihadism: How Syria Molded the Muslim Brotherhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krummrich, Seth

    2007-01-01

    In February 1982, Syrian President Assad's military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled the fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks...

  7. Taking Jihad Out of the Hands of Infidels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    freedom of belief; and to defend the mission (al-da’wah) of Islam.”47 Warfare was primarily for the purpose of “securing peace, justice and equity .”48...152 Azzam, 1. 153 Ibid., 5. 154 Wright, 97. 155 Gabriel A. Almond, R. Scott Appleby, and Emmanuel Sivan, “Fundamentalisms: Genus and Species

  8. Russia’s Homegrown Insurgency: Jihad in the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Razdobudko and Marina Khorosheva, who carried out separate suicide bombings in Gubden, Dagestan, on February 14, 2011, and Viktor Dvorakovskii, who...Kadyrov was elevated to the post of Prime Minister, replacing Sergey Abramov . Less than a year later, Alkhanov was dismissed and Kadyrov appointed...addressing the root causes of the problem will require a dialogue with Moscow, the prospects of which are dim. ENDNOTES - CHAPTER 3 1. Marina Kamenev, “Has

  9. Global Jihad: The Role of Europe’s Radical Muslims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Instituto Nacional de Estadistica , Population and Housing Census 2001, (Madrid, Spain: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica , 2001), http://www.ine.es...accessed October 2007). Instituto Nacional de Estadistica . Population and Housing Census 2001. http://www.ine.es/inebase/cgi/um?M=%2Ft20%2Fe242&O= inebase

  10. CONFLICT, JIHAD, AND RELIGIOUS IDENTITY IN MALUKU, EASTERN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrus Sholeh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of Suharto’s New Order is a starting point of the quest of religious identity for Indonesian Muslims. A lot of radical groups are founded under the umbrella of liberty and democracy. However, many of them have destroyed the structure of democracy and multicultural society. Conflicts of Maluku (and Poso (1999-2003 are the best local context of how religious groups (Muslims and Christians fighted severely in the name of God. The conflict is also a good case to understand the weakening of state and the involvements of military (para-military forces in instigating the conflicts, which impacted to thousands people killed, and destroyed the ethnic and religious harmony in the region. This paper will analyse the conflicts of Maluku and compare it to other religious conflicts in Poso, Central Sulawesi and ethnic conflicts in West Kalimantan, Southern Thailand and Southern Philippines. I argue the growth of local nationalism and unstability of States in Southeast Asian regions brings the rise of civil society and paramilitary forces, which challenges the entities of harmony, peace and multiculturalism in the region.

  11. Gender Jihad: Muslim Women, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Women's Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie P. Mejia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz

  12. Global Insurgency Strategy and the Salafi Jihad Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    operations included two other critical activities: 1)  addressing the material and social  inequalities  that were important  causes of the insurgency...included two other critical activities: 1)  addressing the material and social  inequalities  that were important  causes of the insurgency.  Parallel... Globalisation  and Insurgency, (London: The International  Institute for Strategic Studies, 2002); and Michael Fowler, Amateur  Soldiers, Global Wars: Insurgency

  13. Global Salafist Jihad in UK -- Strategies of Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    unwitting killing of an innocent 27-year-old I , Brazilian man by anti-terrorist officers of the Metropolitan Police as part of their response to a...issues within Islk and British society. Isolation of extremist theology and practice will pe enhanced when the concepts are countered head on in a

  14. Boko Haram and Jihad in Nigeria | Brinkel | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has recently been confronted with increased terrorist activity by a group called Boko Haram. This group has been able to survive counterterrorist measures by the Nigerian government and has increased its attacks on targets inside and outside its traditional area of operation. On Christmas 2011, at least 25 ...

  15. Targeting, Rhetoric and the Failure of Grassroots Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Ramsay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 'In this paper I examine the apparent failure of Al Qaeda ideologues, not for want of trying, to incite a widespread campaign of ‘individual jihad’. Not only are instances of genuinely ‘leaderless’ jihadist violence rare, they also tend to be more discriminate and less lethal in their targeting than the operations which Al Qaeda expresses a discursive preference for, and which it attempts to carry out. I argue that an explanation for the rather constrained nature of grassroots jihadist violence can be found, rather paradoxically, in the logic of collective action, which seems to underlie the rhetorical attempts of jihadist ideologues to incite violence. I then briefly examine the possible implications of this for understanding what makes for a successful ‘leaderless’ terrorist campaign.'

  16. The interpretation of Jihad in Islam | Alani Seriki | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Journal of Philosophy and Culture Vol. 2 (2) July 2005: 110-117. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jpc.v2i2.36462 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. The interpretation of Jihad in Islam | Alani Seriki | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Philosophy and Culture. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  18. The Role of Moderate Muslims in Combating Violent Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    buyers in the job market, where a premium was placed on speaking French instead. This led to large-scale protests in universities and became the...Bhutto strengthened the Islamic identity not only out of domestic political compulsion , but also to forge ties with the oil rich Gulf States. He tried to

  19. Decentralised Leadership in Contemporary Jihadism: Towards a Global Social Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bartolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On October 19th 2003, nearly six months after the outset of the invasion of Iraq by US troops, a video was released by al-Qaeda media arm 'al-Sahab' showing Osama bin Laden directly threatening Spain. In his words, Spain, then governed by Prime Minister José Maria Aznar from the 'Partido Popular' (PP, may face a terrorist attack should Spanish military forces continue to be part of the coalition that invaded Iraq[1] and toppled the Saddam Hussein regime. Less than six months later, on March 11th 2004, Madrid was shaken by coordinated bomb attacks in several commuter trains at peak hours, killing 191 people and wounding thousands. The “first well-known al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist conspiracy in Europe”[2] had been in preparation for years thanks to the long-term presence of radical Islamists on Spanish soil. The first jihadist bombing on this continent since 9/11[3] seemed to have answered Osama bin Laden’s warning call. Those who later claimed responsibility for these attacks pointed out Iraq as their main source of motivation. Symbolically the bombings were carried out a few days before the first anniversary of Iraq’s invasion. On the national scene, because “terrorism is meant to terrify”[4] and affect an audience, terrorists clearly intended to affect the outcome of the national general elections scheduled three days later. The Madrid terrorists were not self-starters, nor were they members of al-Qaeda who had performed an oath of allegiance to bin Laden. Instead, they were mostly first-generation immigrants from Northern Africa or the Near East who had been settled in Spain for years, had decent jobs and for some of them wives and children[5]. The setting up of the Madrid bombings was an illustration of the rising context of the contemporary jihadist movement, targeting a country and blaming it for what was happening thousands of kilometres away. This example is highly valuable to describe the continuously evolving nature of the jihadist movement up to now.

  20. Islamismo e terrore: Un grande jihad contro il senso comune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koensler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Che cosa comporta la conversione all’islam più integralista? Quali sono gli effetti e le implicazioni dell’‘islam politico’ in contesti specifici? Il rapporto tra islamismo, violenza e democrazia viene rappresentato spesso in maniera distorta o semplicistica. Al fine di contribuire  a un dibattito ragionato su queste domande pressanti, il saggio percorre alcuni momenti etnografici  chiave delle dinamiche di conversione al neo-salafismo tra cittadini arabo-beduini nel sud di Israele, collocandoli nel contesto degli sviluppi contemporanei del pensiero politico islamico. Lo sguardo etnografico, combinato con le voci di alcuni eminenti intellettuali musulmani, permetterà di andare oltre sia la retorica della complessità culturale dell’islam sia l’opinione secondo cui il terrorismo islamico sarebbe una sorta di ‘anti-imperalismo dei perdenti’, argomentazioni indirizzate spesso al tentativo di confutare il pensiero neo-orientalista. L’essay afferma la necessità di fare i conti con coordinate e categorie interpretative che sono poste non in maniera essenzialmente diversa ma in modo spesso inaspettato.

  1. Shari’ah Compliant Finance: Toward Economic Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    He is the best of judges.” 69 Similarly, “Let the people of the gospel judge by what God hath revealed therein…”70 Clearly, these Qur’anic verses...corporategovernance/data/tarp/tarp_pr_3q09.pdf?ieNocache=221 (accessed November 30, 2009). 113 Matthew Ericson, “Tracking the $700 Billion Bailout,” The New York...centerpercent20publicationpercent20pdfs/ale xievpercent20islamicpercent20finance.pdf (accessed September 10, 2009). Ericson, Matthew . Tracking the $700 Billion

  2. Interview with Ramadan Shallah, Secretary General, Palestinian Islamic Jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Atran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On December 14-16, 2009, a delegation from the World Federation of Scientists, including the authors, traveled to Damascus to interview senior Syrian and Palestinian leaders from Syria and various Palestinian factions, including the members of the leadership of Hamas and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The objective was to gain insight from field interviews into how to further advance scientific understanding of cultural and political conflict in order to create new theoretical and practical frameworks for negotiation and cooperation.

  3. Deradicalization or Disengagement : A Framework for Encouraging Jihad Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    recommendations for a framework for a United States-sponsored de-radicalization/disengagement program, domestically and with partner nations overseas . 15...sponsored de-radicalization/disengagement program, domestically and with partner nations overseas . vi (INTENTIONALLY BLANK...8 Defining Success 9 Case Selection Rationale 12 Limitations of Case Studies 14 Chapter 3 – Case #1: Saudi Arabian Counseling

  4. Delegitimizing Al-Qaeda: A Jihad-Realist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    seeking the destruction of Western civilization .” While relevant to some targets—those for whom Western cultural modernity is a value, and the shari’a...the momentous event that shook the world and created an 24 alternative one rooted in war-footing and a threatened “clash of civilizations ” was the...62, 2966, 2972, 3022, 3043, 3051, 3076, 3077; 2966, 3025 (“Paradise 32 under the Shade of Swords”); 2792-2798 (“Martyrdom, and Para- dise ”); 2833

  5. The Legality of al-Qaeda’s Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    children, monks and hermits, the aged, blind, and insane, were excluded from molestation. If the aged and monks indirectly helped their people, they...passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of...costly to the Mujahideen (holy warriors ) in terms of casualties.” 97 93 Usama bin Laden

  6. The development and evaluation of the use of a virtual learning environment (Blackboard 5) to support the learning of pre-qualifying nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sue M; Weaver, Mike; Voegeli, David; Fitzsimmons, Debs; Knowles, Jess; Harrison, Maureen; Shephard, Kerry

    2006-07-01

    Students commence nurse education with varying levels of understanding of human anatomy and physiology due to a wide range of previous exposure to the topic. All students, however, are required to attain a broad knowledge of this topic prior to qualification. This paper describes the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), Blackboard 5, and the associated development of appropriate resources aimed at supporting nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module at Higher Education Level 1. The VLE was used as part of a blended learning approach. The results suggested that the majority of students utilised the VLE throughout the academic year. Opportunities for independent and self-directed learning were available in that students chose when and where to learn. Students generally commented favourably on ease of use and type of resources available. Frequency of use of the VLE, however, did not correlate strongly with the final examination mark achieved. Overall the VLE and the associated available resources appeared useful in supporting student learning and has been adopted for use in subsequent years.

  7. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association Between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-01-01

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. A decrease in ceramide C18:0 concentration was significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  8. Social and environmental assessment: a preliminary data base on population and territory in the undertakings pipelines: a natural gas pipeline GASBEL II; Avaliacao socioambiental - base de dados preliminar sobre populacao e territorio em empreendimentos de dutos - estudo de caso: avaliacao socioambiental GASBEL II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Marcia; Bach, Vanessa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ismerio, Marcia [Pallos Consultorias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Edna Mara [Camargo Correa Engenharia (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The social environmental assessment consists in an instrument of planning which principal objective is to know the social ambient that will be changed by the PETROBRAS' pipe undertakings, that are planning to be implemented and will be analyzed by the licensers environmental organs. When pipeline projects are planned, their route cross some regions and ecological sensitive areas, therefore, the attitude of consider the social environmental aspects at the planning stage through the use of valuation instruments, anticipating, the potential social and environmental impacts, assumes more importance in integrating management of these undertakings. This presentation has the main objective to stand out the relevance of the social environmental assessment realization as preliminary knowledge base to the undertakings, since the research results developed represents a support of information about the regions where the undertakings install themselves in distinct stages: environmental permits, assembly and construction and operating. The social environmental assessment of the project named GASBEL II is presented as a case study once it allow to observe a gas pipeline transport project to be implemented at different regions and areas. The Pipeline will cross two different federal states, where the local research boarded many communities with different ways and conditions of life, territory use, cultural expressions and other aspects. (author)

  9. “Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…”: actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie A. Crooks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists’ caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. Methods To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Results Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one’s own health. Conclusion Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists

  10. Islamizarea generației a doua.De la Europa all-inclusive la jihad (The second-generation islamization. From all-inclusive Europe to jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CONDUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the summer of 2015, the massive arrival of asylum seekers in Europe opened a debate about the political, economical and security consequences of immigration in European Union. A hidden ideological conflict was transformed into a linguistic controversy: should the new-comers be named migrants or refugees? During time and development of the crisis, more and more journalists and political leaders switched from ‘refugees’ to ‘migrants’, as it became clear that many asylum seekers weren’t even from war zones. However, the main concern of the most people was related to potential security risks. An investigation into the November 13 attacks in Paris has already found that at least two of the terrorists used the Balkan route to arrive in France. But massive immigration could have further repercussions in not many years, if the hypothesis of a “second-generation islamization phenomenon”, somehow similar to Dole’s “second-generation indigenization”, is true. Having lower level needs in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs already satisfied, the children of the present Muslim migrants could seek to satisfy higher needs, as self-actualization, through religious identity of their parents and radicalization. Due to denial of the separation of religion and state in Islam, this could seriously threaten the Western secular state and cultural model. Being din wa dawla (religion and state, Islam is more than a religion; it is a hybrid we can call ‘relideology’, which seems to be quite attractive for young Muslims seeking self-actualization.

  11. Metropolitan researchers undertaking rural research: benefits and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, L

    1999-08-01

    Can or should metropolitan residents research their rural counterparts and if they do are there inherent pitfalls or benefits? Throughout the history of social and anthropological research there has been debate on the insider-outsider/native-stranger controversy as to who should carry out the field work. This discourse will explore the author's personal experiences in the context of planning a rural health project, entering the field, accessing the informants, interviewing the informants and leaving the field.

  12. Undertaking research on people who lack decision-making capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2017-10-02

    The Declaration of Helsinki requires that health care research takes place with the informed consent of those who participate in the study. This approach upholds the autonomy of the participants, but restricts research to subjects who have decision-making capacity. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 introduced safeguards that enable researchers to investigate the care and treatment of people with incapacity, while protecting this vulnerable patient group. These safeguards allow people who lack decision-making capacity to benefit from research findings. In this article, Richard Griffith outlines the requirements that must be met when district nurses conduct research on subjects who lack decision-making capacity.

  13. Climate-protection policy: New taxes or corporate undertaking?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluge, W.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the climatological effects of CO 2 emissions have resulted in the concept of reducing energy consumption, and therefore also CO 2 emissions, by means of taxation. The concepts proposed for this are discussed in this article. It is shown that the concept of CO 2 energy taxes is based on a series of pseudo-plausibilities. The German gas industry's voluntary commitment is illustrated as the most suitable instrument for efficient reduction of CO 2 emissions. (orig.) [de

  14. When Innovation Holds Learning and Undertaking in a Close Embrace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Piero

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Piero Formica considers how new approaches to the notion of the university exemplify the value of creative ignorance in driving entrepreneurship and promoting a new culture of innovation based on blue sky science and open-mindedness. He takes the examples of the Minerva Schools, the Unreasonable Institute and the Singularity…

  15. 31 CFR 248.4 - Undertaking of indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the circumstances set forth below, a corporate surety authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury... disbursing officer is satisfied as to the identity of the check presented and that any missing portions are...

  16. Jet joint undertaking progress report 1988 volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) is presented. It covers the fifth year of JET's operation and provides an overview of the scientific and technical advances made on JET. The JET most important articles, published during 1988, are included. The background of JET project, the main objectives and design aspects of the machine are summarized. Most of 1988 was devoted to machine operations: the number of pulses was 4673. The introduction, commissioning and operation of the JET second beam injector is reported. Planned developments on enhancements in the machine for future operations are included

  17. Undertaking safe medicine administration with children: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentin, Jayne; Green, Michelle; Smith, Joanna

    2016-07-08

    This is the first of two articles that aim to provide children's nurses with an opportunity to develop their skills and knowledge of medicines management when caring for children and young people. This first article outlines the principles of effective medicines management including the pharmacology language required to accurately read prescriptions, the way children respond to medicines, managing risk, including the concept of human error, and working in partnership with children, young people and families. The second article, to be published in September, will focus on numeracy and calculation skills, identified as an important risk factor associated with medication errors in children.

  18. Undertaking safe medicine administration with children part 2: essential numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentin, Jayne; Green, Michelle; Smith, Joanna

    2016-09-12

    This is the second of two articles which aim to provide children's nurses with an opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills of medicines management when caring for children and young people. The first article considered the processes associated with effective medicines management, including the concept of human error. This article addresses essential numeracy and calculation skills that have been identified as an important risk factor associated with medication errors in children. The range of activities throughout the article will help you develop and practise numeracy skills, with the answers for each activity at the end of the article.

  19. Jet joint undertaking. Progress report 1989. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The first section of this Report provides a brief introduction and background information relevant to the Report. The second and third sections set out an overview of progress on JET during 1989 and with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1989 sets these advances in their general context. This summary is specifically cross-referenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1989. The more important of these articles, which are of general interest, are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The fourth section is devoted to future plans and certain developments which might enable enhancements of the machine to further improve its overall performance. Some attention has been devoted to methods of surmounting certain limitations and these are detailed in this section. The Appendices contain a list of work topics carried out under Task Agreements with various Association Laboratories, and selected articles prepared by JET authors are reproduced in detail, providing some details of the activities and achievements made on JET during 1989. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published by JET authors in 1989

  20. JET Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1991 - volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The ninth JET Progress Report provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1991. The report contains a brief summary of the background to the project, and describes the basic objectives of JET and the principal design aspects of the machine

  1. Should we undertake surveillance for HCC in patients with NAFLD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Ramy; Bugianesi, Elisabetta

    2018-02-01

    The pandemic of obesity and its related complications is rapidly changing the epidemiology of many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a major cause of HCC, with a steadily rising trend compared to viral or alcohol-induced chronic hepatitis. The much greater prevalence of the underlying liver disease in the general population and the chance of HCC occurrence in non-cirrhotic liver are the most worrisome aspects of HCC in NAFLD. Effective screening programmes are currently hampered by limited knowledge of the pathways of carcinogenesis and a lack of tools able to stratify the risk of HCC in the NAFLD population. Hence, poor surveillance has prevented the development of an adequate treatment for NAFLD-related HCC. Systemic and hepatic molecular mechanisms involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as potential early markers of HCC are being extensively investigated. This review describes the current clinical impact of HCC in NAFLD and discusses the most important unmet needs for its effective management. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Commission on Employment Conditions, an ambitious undertaking !

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year, the Commission on Employment Conditions has had much success in the number and ability of its participants. It has mostly worked on salaries, the only compulsory subject of the 2010 five-yearly review. In the framework of this review, the Commission has analysed the results of the comparison carried out by the OECD (see Echo 104 and 105). Through its research and analysis, the Commission has clearly shown that our salaries are lower than those of the comparators. It is there necessary to adjust the salary grid with a salary catch-up and not an increase. In 20 years, no five-yearly review has ended with a significant catch-up. Today it is essential to inform our colleagues that this subject needs to be dealt with and that measures must be taken to finance it, as is the case for restoring the equilibrium of the Pension Fund and Health Insurance schemes. The Commission has established an argumentation to help our fellow delegates talk about the delicate subject of salary catch-...

  3. The University of Utah Urban Undertaking (U4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Bares, R.; Mendoza, D. L.; Fasoli, B.; Bowling, D. R.; Garcia, M. A.; Buchert, M.; Pataki, D. E.; Crosman, E.; Horel, J.; Catharine, D.; Strong, C.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Utah is leading efforts to understand the spatiotemporal patterns in both emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) and criteria pollutants within urban systems. The urbanized corridor in northern Utah along the Wasatch Front, anchored by Salt Lake City, is undergoing rapid population growth that is projected to double in the next few decades. The Wasatch Front offers multiple advantages as an unique "urban laboratory": urban regions in multiple valleys spanning numerous orders of magnitude in population, each with unique airsheds, well-defined boundary conditions along deserts and tall mountains, strong signals during cold air pool events, seasonal contrasts in pollution, and a legacy of productive partnerships with local stakeholders and governments. We will show results from GHG measurements from the Wasatch Front, including one of the longest running continuous CO2 records in urban areas. Complementing this record are comprehensive meteorological observations and GHG/pollutant concentrations on mobile platforms: light rail, helicopter, and research vans. Variations in the GHG and pollutant observations illustrate human behavior and the resulting "urban metabolism" taking place on hourly, weekly, and seasonal cycles, resulting in a coupling between GHG and criteria pollutants. Moreover, these observations illustrate systematic spatial gradients in GHG and pollutant distributions between and within urban areas, traced to underlying gradients in population, energy use, terrain, and land use. Over decadal time scales the observations reveal growth of the "urban dome" due to expanding urban development. Using numerical models of the atmosphere, we further link concentrations of GHG and air quality-relevant pollutants to underlying emissions at the neighborhood scale as well as urban planning considerations.

  4. Alternative sources of financing entrepreneurial undertakings in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficiency of internal financial resources and limited access to external sources of capital, as one of the key problems, local agricultural producers - entrepreneurs usualy describe with high cost of capital, complicated procedures, lack of transparency in regard to the settlement of credit requests and problems with security of loans. The aim of this study is to analyze the possibilities of facilitating access to increased volume of capital for domestic entrepreneurs in agriculture by using funding sources that are applied in developed economies for financing entrepreneurs. In order to achieve the stated aim, the subject of investigation in this paper is the analysis of alternative sources of financing, which use or increased adoption in Serbia would provide greater availability of capital for agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrobusiness complex and thus the promotion of entrepreneurial activity, and consequently, greater competitiveness and greater income of domestic agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrbusiness indirectly leading to increased economic growth and improvement of the welfare.

  5. Valuation of the Prepayment Option of a Perpetual Corporate Loan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothee Papin

    2013-01-01

    margin of the loan is defined by the credit quality of the borrower and the liquidity cost that reflects the funding cost of the bank. Two frameworks are discussed: firstly a loan margin without liquidity cost and secondly a multiregime framework with a liquidity cost dependent on the regime. The prepayment option needs specific attention as the payoff itself is an implicit function of the parameters of the problem and of the dynamics. In the unique regime case, we establish quasianalytic formulas for the payoff of the option; in both cases we give a verification result that allows for the computation of the price of the option. Numerical results that implement the findings are also presented and are completely consistent with the theory; it is seen that when liquidity parameters are very different (i.e., when a liquidity crisis occurs in the high liquidity cost regime, the exercise domain may entirely disappear, meaning that it is not optimal for the borrower to prepay during such a liquidity crisis. The method allows for quantification and interpretation of these findings.

  6. : John Wilkins' mathematical magic and the perpetuity of invention

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyck,, Maarten; Vermeir, Koen

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Akin to the mathematical recreations, John Wilkins' Mathematicall Magick (1648) elaborates the pleasant, useful and wondrous part of practical mathematics, dealing in particular with its material culture of machines and instruments. We contextualize the Mathematicall Magick by studying its institutional setting and its place within changing conceptions of art, nature, religion and mathematics. We devote special attention to the way Wilkins inscribes mechanical innovati...

  7. Radiation-induced hypoxia may perpetuate late normal tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Feng, Q.-F.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Amin, Khalid; Samulski, Thaddeus S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Haroon, Zishan A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not hypoxia develops in rat lung tissue after radiation. Methods and Materials: Fisher-344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax using a single dose of 28 Gy. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the changes in respiratory rate every 2 weeks, for 6 months after irradiation. The hypoxia marker was administered 3 h before euthanasia. The tissues were harvested at 6 weeks and 6 months after irradiation and processed for immunohistochemistry. Results: A moderate hypoxia was detected in the rat lungs at 6 weeks after irradiation, before the onset of functional or histopathologic changes. The more severe hypoxia, that developed at the later time points (6 months) after irradiation, was associated with a significant increase in macrophage activity, collagen deposition, lung fibrosis, and elevation in the respiratory rate. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed an increase in TGF-β, VEGF, and CD-31 endothelial cell marker, suggesting a hypoxia-mediated activation of the profibrinogenic and proangiogenic pathways. Conclusion: A new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury should consider postradiation hypoxia to be an important contributing factor mediating a continuous production of a number of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

  8. Perpetuating the 'Third World'? Evaluating knowledge production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Mont Cameroun. 1. Introduction. What does it mean when we refer to or use the term “Third World”, particularly within an. African context and from an African point of ..... group and culture. This brings me to the second part of this paper, in which the parameters of knowledge production in an African context are explored by ...

  9. Perpetuating Nigerian Cultures in Musical Arts Education within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    within the threshold of current global environment. The study reviews the advantages or gains of consistent advancement of musical arts education and practice in the Nigerian traditional societies in the ..... Anambra State College of Education Awka, Nigeria. Weman, H. (1960). African Music and the Church in Africa: Uppsala.

  10. Nanotechnology in Agriculture: Propagating, Perpetuating, and Protecting Life

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhartha S. Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Natural agricultural production is an open system, both energy and matters are exchanged freely in this system involving interactions of geosphere (especially pedosphere), biosphere, and atmosphere. Agriculture provides crops for food and industry, fiber, fuel, auto-fuel and drugs. On one hand it faces ever escalating food prices and farmer’s suicides, and on the other hand input use efficiency is low. Present agricultural practices have made harvests toxic, mother’s milk a pois...

  11. Perpetuating the 'Third World'? Evaluating knowledge production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Third World' by tracing its historical origins with reference to the Three Worlds Theory, and investigates the reasons for the persistent implied or direct usage of the term in public and scientific discourse when referring to contexts which are ...

  12. Building on existing institutions to perpetuate knowledge of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzberg, A.

    1982-08-01

    Purpose of this report is to examine the function of several existing institutions and to show how they could be effectively used to transmit information about waste repositories for long times into the future. Scope of this report is limited to a discussion of four institutional approaches to the dissemination and retention of information: Widely distributed maps, the marker system of the National Geodetic Survey, the archiving of documents, and one-call systems designed to protect underground utility installations from inadvertent damage by the public. Each of these approaches is discussed in an independent section that describes the background of the institutional approach, discusses methods for applying it to waste repositories, and assesses its potential value. The sole intent of this report is to present supporting data for future decisions about the kinds of communication measures that should be implemented to advise future generations about the locations and hazards of waste repositories

  13. Against a Perpetuating Fiction: Disentangling Art from Hyperreality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikian, Garen J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the aesthetic and social origins of a postmodern phenomenon labeled hyperreality, and the development and role of art, in order to recognize the division between these two incompatible illusions. Whereas hyperreality limits a person's engagement to reality, art strengthens that unity. To establish the distinction between the…

  14. Perpetuating Nigerian Cultures in Musical Arts Education within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. The Power Dynamics Perpetuating Unsafe Abortion in Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper emphasises the central role of patriarchy in shaping the ways power plays itself out in individual relationships, and at social, economic and political levels. The ideology of male superiority denies abortion as an important issue of status and frames the morality, legality and socio-cultural attitudes towards abortion.

  16. Towards a Perpetual Sensor Network Testbed without Backchannel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Aslak; Bonnet, Philippe; Sørensen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The sensor network testbeds available today rely on a communication channel different from the mote radio - a backchannel - to facilitate mote reprogramming, health monitoring and performance analysis. Such backchannels are either supported as wired communication channels (USB or Ethernet), or via...... an extra board coupled to the mote under test and thus introduce significant constraint on the testbed setup and on the mote power budget. With Greenlab, we wish to study the performance behavior of outdoor sensor networks where energy is harvested from the environment. We thus cannot rely on a backchannel...

  17. Child Pornography: Perpetuating the Sexual Victimization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R. P.; Stone, Lore E.

    1985-01-01

    The history of child pornography photography is briefly reviewed and the current problem is examined and partially attributed to the profit motive. The authors urge changing child abuse reporting statutes to include photofinishing laboraties. (CL)

  18. Do Social and Cultural Factors Perpetuate Gender Based Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the ...

  19. War and perpetual peace: Hegel, Kant and contemporary war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the views of two classical authors about the possibility of peace and the inevitability of war: Kant and Hegel. The paper will argue that the main lines of these two schools are still alive today in our contemporary international politics. The Kantian school, with the possibility of peace, based on a league of nations, has inspired the creation of the United Nations. The Hegelian way of thinking (there is no judge above the national states, besides the history of the world has proven to be as contemporary as ever, once one analyzes some recent events of the international politics. Both Kantian and Hegelian views have weak and strong points, and it is a difficult task to reconcile both of them in a reasonable international politics. At the end, the paper will present JohnRawls´ doctrine of international politics, as stated in The Laws of Peoples, arguing that this doctrine follows the Kantian tradition of a foedus pacificum, while giving room to some Hegelian philosophical conceptions.

  20. Pax Americana: America's Bid Perpetual Peace and Hegemony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutherland, John

    1999-01-01

    .... Finally operational art is defined using A.A. Svechin and FM 100-7 Decisive Operations. The fall of the Roman Empire and the failure of Pax Romana is reviewed to identify long term trends and draw parallels to late 20st Century America...

  1. Can Racially Unbiased Police Perpetuate Long-Run Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunzel, H.; Marcoul, P.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a stylized dynamic model of highway policing in which a non-racist police officer is given incentives to arrest criminals, but faces a per stop cost of stop which increases when the racial mix of the persons he stops di.ers from the racial mix of the population.We define the fair jail

  2. Majade igavik = Perpetuity of buildings / Tõnu Õnnepalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õnnepalu, Tõnu, 1962-

    2012-01-01

    Majade juures ei ole igavene mitte maja ise, vaid tema asukoht ja otstarve. Stiil, kui rääkida majadest, on autori sõnul koha ja otstarbe ajatuse tunnetamine. Kõik, mis langeb stiilist välja, langeb või lükatakse varem või hiljem kokku

  3. Perpetuating Nigerian Cultures in Musical Arts Education within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, articulation of traditional musical arts offered the Nigerian child opportunity for demonstrating sense of belonging with his environment. Participation in traditional music unveiled to him, key aspects of socio-cultural expression and behavior that stimulated new levels of appreciation of his culture. The current trend ...

  4. The Role of Nursing Education in the Perpetuation of Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    Australian nursing students were surveyed at the beginning (n=793) and end (n=521) of studies. Beginning students expressed career preferences for pediatrics, midwifery, intensive care, and surgery. Psychiatric, community health, and elder care nursing were least popular. At graduation the most popular choices remained the same (in different…

  5. Social Media and Perpetuation of Violence against Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Learning Styles and Teacher Training: Are We Perpetuating Neuromyths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethaby, Carol; Harries, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that brain-based teaching, as exhibited in the idea of teaching to address perceptual learning styles, has no basis in what scientists are learning about the brain and how it works. This article questions whether training teachers to assess and accommodate learning styles is harmless or potentially poor educational…

  7. Modern discrimination: How perperators and targets interactively perpetuate social disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; Barreto, M

    Stereotypes and discriminatory behavior do not necessarily imply that people are explicitly devalued or actively excluded from attractive positions in society. Instead, these often implicitly communicate that any social disadvantages are due to individual shortcomings. Recent research has uncovered

  8. La fin du risque zéro : du homegrown jihadism au terrorisme du loup solitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Baudouï

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Le risque zéro représente un moment historique particulier dans la conceptualisation de la socio-politique du risque. Son application repose au début des années 1980 sur l’hypothèse de la possibilité de progresser dans le domaine de l’anticipation et de la gestion sécuritaire des crises potentielles au point de pouvoir prémunir les populations contre toute forme de menace. Il fut employé dans les domaines de la protection civile et de la sécurité militaire. Comme élément de gouvernance politique, il réfutait l’idée selon laquelle le risque existe en préalable comme catégorie d’acceptabilité collective de la menace.

  9. Encrypted Jihad: Investigating the Role of Telegram App in Lone Wolf Attacks in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shehabat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to capture links between the use of encrypted communication channel -Telegram and lone wolf attacks occurred in Europe between 2015-2016. To understand threads of ISIS communication on Telegram we used digital ethnography approach which consists of the self-observation of information flows on four of ISIS’s most celebrated telegram Channels. We draw on public sphere theory and coined the term terror socio-sphere 3.0 as the theoretical background of this study. The collected data is presented as screenshots to capture a visual evidence of ISIS communication threads. This study shows that ISIS Telegram channels play critical role in personal communication between potential recruits and dissemination of propaganda that encourage ‘lone wolves’ to carry attacks in the world at large. This study was limited to the number of the channels that have been widely celebrated.

  10. An Investigation into Islamic Fundamentalism and an Assessment of Its Relationship with the Concept of Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    under Hudaybils leaderhip , they perceived them to be a purely religious organization. But it was also because initially Nasser was not in a position...Shiism the official sect. In the end they were not able to satisfy the hopes of messianic fulfilment, implicit in the doctrine of the return of the...to the holy shrines helped to identify him with the messianic hope implicit in the Shia doctrine of the Hidden Imam. It is revealing that he enjoyed

  11. Jihadism and Suicide Attacks : al-Qaeda, al-Sahab and the Meanings of Martyrdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift onderzoekt waarom zelfmoordaanslagen zo’n belangrijke rol spelen binnen de jihadistische beweging, en in het bijzonder binnen het al-Qaeda van Osama bin Laden en Ayman al-Zawahiri. Dit doet het op basis van de martelarenvideo’s van al-Qaeda’s mediagroep al-Sahab: vrij professionele

  12. Policing Toward a De-Clawed Jihad: Antiterrorism Intelligence Techniques for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    private residence or post office box. An apparently devout Muslim (particularly one dressed and groomed in Salafi manner) purchasing beer - brewing ...Supplier, Scientific Equipment Supplier, or Brewing Equipment Supplier Source Type: Open Contact Source Access

  13. Salafi Jihadism: A 1,400-Year-Old Idea Rises Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    transmitted by companions of the Prophet Muhammad, and their legitimization of Ali as the rightful heir to Muhammad, Salafists refer to Shi’a as infidels ...showed no mercy against the infidel Shiites of the east.”23 Additionally, another motivating factor behind al-Utaybi’s decision to besiege the Grand...Islamic organizations and the Saudi educational system. With support from the Muslim Brotherhood, King Faisal created state- financed , international

  14. Would the U.S. Benefit from a Unified National Strategy to Combat Violent Salafi Jihadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    community leaders “to prevent violent extremists and their supporters from inspiring, radicalizing, financing , or recruiting individuals or groups in the...from the worship of God to be sacrilege, or “shirk,” and try to keep to themselves so as not to be corrupted by infidels . Moussalli comments, “For the...believe as they do as “takfiri.”209 Moussalli specifies, “Under the takfiri doctrine, al-Wahhab and his followers could deem fellow Muslims infidels

  15. Video games, terrorism, and ISIS’s Jihad 3.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study discusses different media strategies followed by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). In particular, the study attempts to understand the way ISIS’s video game that is called “Salil al-Sawarem” (The Clanging of the Swords) has been received by the online Arab public.

  16. A pós-graduação e suas interlocuções com a educação básica: (Desencontros históricos e manutenção do apartheid socioeducacional Graduate studies and their dialogues with basic education: historical (disencounters and the perpetuation of the socio-educational apartheid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilvo I. Ristoff

    2012-11-01

    education, in the 1950s, whereas only in the early 2000's a concern is shown with the lower social strata, with the creation of the New CAPES, this time for basic education. Before that, the structural dualities that predominate show that the inclusion of the qualified and privileged few represents the exclusion or marginal inclusion of many. It is this privileging or primacy, in educational terms - but not only! - this attention to those who occupy the upper strata of the Brazilian educational system-which allows us to speak of low or no dialogue between graduate studies and basic education and to characterize this movement as a history of disencounters and also of perpetuation of a socio-educational apartheid. Data on the little that was done and the many things that still need to be done are unmistakable.

  17. Micro-negocios asociativos campesinos: análisis económico de un sistema de producción ovina, Región del Maule, Chile Undertaking associative small holding business: economic analysis of the sheep production system, Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2005-08-01

    the size of the farm (hectares. For the normal price scenario, the VAN (10.8% was estimated at $ 4.12 millions, the TIR at 14.5% and the IVAN at 0.37. The main conclusion suggests that undertaking associative micro-scale enterprise can contribute to improve the life conditions of the small holding, in a better way than the average individual business.

  18. Strategic Culture and Strategic Studies: An Alternative Framework for Assessing al-Qaeda and the Global Jihad Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    of Sunni Muslims drawn mainly from the Hanbali theological school. Of the four Sunni theological schools the Han- bali is considered the most...cessful in 1995 in bombing the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad. The attack resulted in 16 deaths and another 60 wounded. The goal in carrying out...Malahim contained an assessment of the failed 2010 Christmas day suicide bomb attack by Omar Farouk Abdulmutallab on a Detroit-bound flight from

  19. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 6, May 2008. Abu Yahya al-Libi's Human Shields in Modern Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachman, Jarret; Warius, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    ... by an enemy during a time of war. Al-Tatarrus is a religiously legitimate, albeit obscure, Islamic concept that al-Qa'ida ideologues have been increasingly using in order to exculpate themselves from charges of apostasy...

  20. Filling the Gap Between NIMS/ICS and the Law Enforcement Initial Response in the Age of the Urban Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    issues. The worst- case scenarios depicting paramilitary terrorism more closely conform to Quarentelli’s concept of less predictable, agent... eyewitnesses , including but not limited to the several cited in this thesis. Kasab later offered a second confession and was thereafter convicted in 2010...mutating threat. Oklahoma City, OK: Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism. Johnson, J. (March 2, 1997). Gunfight fuels debate over

  1. JIHAD AKADEMIK KALANGAN PERGURUAN TINGGI ISLAM MELAWAN KORUPSI (PEMAKNAAN AKADEMISI ATAS KERANCUAN FIQIH DAN BUDAYA TERHADAP KORUPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Khamdan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ACADEMIC  JIHAD  OF  ISLAMIC  COLLEGE CIVITAS ACADEMICA TO AGAINST CORRUPTION: ACADEMICS THOUGHT ON ‘FIQH’ AND CULTURAL CONFUSION TOWARD CORRUPTION. Paradox reality in Indonesia shows the rise of  social diversity, but the achievements of corruption also increased. It shows that the diversity of  social patterns is still in the theoretical-formalistic stage. This paper intends to conduct discourse criticism studies toward doctrin with thinking “jihad” to shift the thinking sacret ‘fiqh’ which is formalized. In promoting the eradication of corruption, Islam can play a role in various forms. Moral values taught at least provide answers about the spread of  corruption with interpretation radicalization toward Islamic moral values. This new social ethic can encourage people to prevent, monitor, report and fix a number of social sanctions mechanisms in the community in the form of anti-corruption ‘fiqh’. This anti-corruption ‘fiqh’ becomes a kind of corruption prevention efforts in the form of Islamic study. keywords: Paradox, The Criticism Of  Discourse, Social Ethics, Anti-Corruption ‘Fiqh’ Realitas paradoks dalam kehidupan bangsa Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa keberagamaan masyarakat meningkat, namun prestasi korupsi juga meningkat. Hal ini menunjukkan pola keberagamaan masyarakat masih dalam tahap teoritik-formalistik. Tulisan ini bermaksud melakukan kajian kritik wacana terhadap doktrin dengan “jihad” pemikiran untuk menggeser sakralitas doktrin dalam fiqih yang terformalkan. Dalam menggalakkan pemberantasan korupsi, Islam dapat berperan dalam beragam bentuk. Nilai-nilai moralitas yang diajarkan setidaknya memberikan jawaban semakin menyebarnya praktik korupsi dengan radikalisasi interpretasi terhadap nilai moralitas Islam. Etika social baru ini dapat mendorong masyarakat untuk senantiasa mencegah, mengawasi, melaporkan dan memperbaiki sejumlah mekanisme sanksi sosial yang hidup di masyarakat dalam wujud fiqih anti korupsi. Fiqih anti-korupsi menjadi semacam upaya pencegahan korupsi dalam melalui kajian keagamaan. kata kunci: Paradoks, Kritik Wacana, Etika Sosial, Fiqih Anti-Korupsi.

  2. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 6, May 2008. Abu Yahya al-Libi’s Human Shields in Modern Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    shot to death in 1969.”1 Yet, as a lyrical sample from Lord Jamar (a prominent Five Percenter and hip - hop artist) reads in his Greatest Story Never...high- profile hip - hop artists. The FOIA FBI file on Clarence Smith reveals some of the details pertaining to their concern over his activities...chemical and electromagnet technologies offer the ability to improve rescue odds. The second axis may be more difficult, as tremendous emotional

  3. The Late Sheikh Abdullah Azzam’s Books. Part 3: Radical Theories on Defending Muslim Land through Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    tribalism and nationalism), geographic boundaries add further restrictions as  well as international treaties like the  Sykes ‐ Picot   Agreement  (The 1916... agreement   between France, England, Italy, and Russia to divide the Ottoman Empire and  the Middle East into spheres of influence, it was leaked by

  4. Towards Global Jihadism: Al-Qaeda’s Strategic, Ideological and Structural Adaptations since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    racism from American history.[13] In follow-on editions, Inspire amplified examples of Islamophobia in the West, such as proposed Qur’an burnings and...diversify risk across a portfolio of plots, thereby increasing the likelihood of at least partial tactical success while maintaining the psychology impact of

  5. United States Counterterrorism Strategy In the Trans-Sahara and the Rise of Salafi-Jihadism In the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    evident in the Terrorist Screening and Interdiction programs conducted throughout the region.58 Meanwhile, the Counterterrorism Finance program...fight against an infidel power in a Muslim nation, coupled with their fighting acumen (gained after a decade of fighting Soviets) emboldened them...control over its borders makes the region highly susceptible for transnational operations like smuggling, kidnapping, and human trafficking, which finance

  6. Sharia as ‘Desert Business’: Understanding the Links between Criminal Networks and Jihadism in Northern Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    How can we understand the social and economic dynamics that enable the operative space of the militant networks in northern Mali? This article argues that jihadist militant groups are actors in local power struggles rather than ‘fighters’ or ‘terrorists’ with extremist ideological motivations. I ...

  7. Sovereign wealth fund investments and the need to undertake socially responsible investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wei

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing consensus that, beyond financial returns, investors should also consider the environmental and social impacts of their business activities. Major institutional investors currently are entering the realm of socially responsible investment (SRI), which incorporates environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors into decision-making based on internationally recognized standards and principles. As influential institutional investors, sovereign wealth funds ...

  8. 20 years of leptin: leptin and reproduction: past milestones, present undertakings, and future endeavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F

    2014-10-01

    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin-responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin and these could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing for a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, while puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. The mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged; however, the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the following decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Designing and Undertaking a Health Economics Study of Digital Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion environment and conditions. Materials and materials technologies (fabrication, welding, joining) have to be fully qualified in front of a rigorous licensing process within the next decade. Therefore, materials development for DEMO is based on present technologies and knowledge with some reasonable extrapolation. The 9% Cr steel EUROFER steel is the primary EU candidate structural material. For increased thermal efficiency the temperature window of the structural materials needs to be enlarged. Various ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Fe-Cr-steels are candidates for higher temperature application. The large fraction of high energy neutrons in the fusion neutron spectrum results in gaseous transmutations (He and H) that are more than one order of magnitude higher than in fission. Even though fission based material test reactors are the essential and indispensable pillar of the current and future irradiation qualification programme, they can not provide sufficient data for a successful licensing process towards DEMO. For this reason, the construction and use of a facility called IFMIF, designed for simulating as closely a possible the fusion neutron spectrum, is mandatory. Meantime, and complimentary, an enhanced material science programme should increase knowledge and understanding of radiation effects. The focus of this programme for the next decade should be on the development and validation of predictive capabilities for modelling micro-structural evolution and mechanical properties of EUROFER-type steels under fusion reactor relevant conditions, addressing in particular the Helium issue. In a longer term perspective, this should result in the implementation of an integrated approach involving modelling and model-oriented experimental validation into a strategy of accelerated development and testing of candidate fusion materials, material systems and material technologies. (author)

  11. Collaborative Action Research: A Democratic Undertaking or a Web of Collusion and Compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion; Stanley, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Raising standards in education has been the mantra for educational stakeholders in England for the past two decades and has informed national, regional and local agendas for school improvement. In the relentless pursuit of finding solutions to pedagogical problems, action research has been promoted as an effective strategy. Informed by an…

  12. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  13. What factors impact upon a woman’s decision to undertake genetic cancer testing?

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Anne Quinlivan; Julie Anne Quinlivan; Zain eBattikhi; Rodney Waldemar Petersen; Rodney Waldemar Petersen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The advent of human genome project has lead to genetic tests that identify high-risk states for certain cancers. Many are privately marketed on the Internet. Despite the availability of tests, limited data has evaluated factors that lead to test uptake. The aim of the present study was to explore the attitudes of a cohort of new mothers towards uptake of a genetic cancer test with a 50% predictive value of cancer.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. The project targ...

  14. Narratives of Choice amongst white Australians who undertake Surrogacy Arrangements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on a rhetorical analysis of interviews with fifteen white Australian citizens who had undertaken offshore commercial surrogacy in India. Extending previous research, the findings suggest that genetic relatedness was valorized, and surrogacy constructed as a less tenuous route to family formation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the need for further research on 1) how the contentious nature of offshore commercial surrogacy may prevent full consideration of its ethical implications, 2) the differing belief systems between India and Australia in terms of children as alienable objects, and 3) ongoing consideration of how and when genetic-relatedness is made to matter.

  15. The Perspectives of Students Undertaking Masters' Degrees by Coursework on Career Development Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Shari P.; Tucker, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Master's degree by coursework students have been identified as a "forgotten" cohort by the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Careers and Employment service. Traditionally, these students have been included in undergraduate career development activities. Master's degree students are arguably a specialised group due to the advanced…

  16. The Interrelationship of Emotion and Cognition when Students Undertake Collaborative Group Work Online: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine how emotions and cognition are experienced during collaborative group work online students' descriptions of their learning experience were interpreted using a qualitative approach. A common feature of these accounts was reference to difficulties and problems. Four main themes were identified from this data set. Two of the…

  17. Physical Fitness and its Relationship to Depressive Traits in Older Adults Undertaking Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mynor Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between physical fitness and levels of depression in older persons involved in physical activity programs in San Ramon, Alajuela. A total of 138 older adults aged 60 to 86 years (67.94 ± 5.26 were assessed on the physical fitness using the SFT and levels of depression were measured using the GDS. Results suggest that about 97.8% of persons tested were within normal parameters and excellent on their physical fitness. Additionally, 86.2% of the cohort was found in a normal stage of depression. In addition, geriatric depression was negatively correlated with physical fitness on variables such as lower body muscle strength and endurance, arm muscle strength endurance, physical agility and dynamic balance, and lower body flexibility (p<0.05.  It is concluded that higher levels of physical fitness are associated with lower depression status in older adults.

  18. A participative model for undertaking and evaluating scientific communication in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Public communication of Science and Technology (PCST) is an integral part of the mission of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and widely carried out among the scientific community. Recently it has also become a research field investigating practices, channels, tools and models of public engagement and their impact on the relation between Science and Society. Understanding such aspects is increasingly considered relevant for an effective and aware outreach. Within this context, CNR has adopted some innovative communication approaches addressed to different publics, such as stakeholders, users, media, young people and the general public, using participative methodologies. Besides being practices of communication promoting the scientific culture, such initiatives aim at understanding the models at the basis of the relationship between the scientific community and the public. To what extent do scientists put their communication and involvement strategies in discussion? Do they use to have a real exchange with their publics in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the participatory techniques they adopt in communicating and disseminating their activities? In this paper we present a case study of a communication and educational proposal recently developed by CNR in order to promote a mutual exchange between Education/School and Research, that are the most important actors in the production and the revision of the scientific knowledge. The proposal brings an ongoing CNR research project (its steps, subjects, tools, activities, costs etc) in classrooms, making use of interactive Earth Sciences workshops conducted directly by researchers. The ongoing CNR project shared with students studies Innovative Methodologies of Earth Observation supporting the Agricultural sector in Lombardy. It aims at exploiting the Aerospace Earth Observation (EO) tools to develop dedicated agricultural downstream services that will bring added economic value and benefits for Lombardy public administrations and citizens. This initiative aims at introducing students to the world of the research and scientific production and vice versa to connect scientists with the educational world, its language and its teaching models. The exchange Research-School is mutual and real. The goal is so twofold: introducing students to a critical/concrete vision of the scientific process and inviting scientists to reflect on PCST activities, participative models and their critical aspects Doing so, in fact, researchers have the chance to open a dialogue with the educational world - to better understand it, its lacks, needs, reasoning and, as a result, improve their own communication/involvement approaches. At the same time, schools, being co-players of a scientific research project and following side by side scientists in their procedures, can actively participate, give personal contributions and feedbacks. The initiative represents an attempt of 'participative research' in which researchers and students can freely express their expectations, acquire information, test new approaches and build together a piece of knowledge. The proposal makes use of participative methodologies and qualitative tools for evaluating the involvement of students, teachers and researchers and analyzing the communication model implied in the relation among them. In EGU presentation the first results of this evaluation process will be reported.

  19. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kopcakova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity (PA during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys. Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  20. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We

  1. The Influence of Work-Integrated Learning on Motivation to Undertake Graduate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegwaard, Karsten E.; McCurdy, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There has been concern around the lack of postgraduate qualified scientists and engineers (e.g., Gago et al., 2004; Koslow, 2005; Lovitts & Nelson, 2000). However, to be effective in increasing the number of science postgraduates, a greater understanding of why students go on to do graduate studies must be developed. Presented here is a study…

  2. Reflections and Experiences of Student Paramedics Undertaking International Work-Integrated Learning Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Paul; Thyer, Liz; Van Nugteren, Ben; Mitchell, Glen; Werner, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    International work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly common in health-related programs in Australian universities. Paramedicine programs are beginning to explore international WIL in line with the globalization of paramedicine as a profession and the national higher education emphasis on outward bound learning experiences. Using…

  3. Resolution on procedures for applying for work permits to undertake professional training, 10 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Resolution contains procedures for applying for professional training work permits. It provides that those foreigners who wish to come to Spain for a limited period of time in order to become fully qualified in Spanish commercial and professional customs while occupying a training work position are eligible to apply for this permit. The permit is not valid for more than 12 months, although in exceptional cases the permit will be extended for an additional six months. After the period of training has ended, the workers may not remain in Spain in order to exercise another activity. Further provisions of the Resolution deal with when and where applications are to be presented, the form of applications and documentation accompanying applications, and notification of decisions on applications, among other things. full text

  4. Do progressive goverments undertake different debt burdens? partisan vs. electoral cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Sanchez Isabel-Maria I.M

    2011-01-01

    The empirical evidence obtained points to the need to perfect internal and external control mechanisms in order to avoid a breakdown in the stability policy and the risk of debt becoming untenable, thus achieving greater budgetary discipline.

  5. Do progressive goverments undertake different debt burdens? Partisan vs. electoral cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. García-Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public debt has traditionally been explained mainly by two political factors: a progressive ideology and the electoral cycle. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how these two factors influence the behavior of Spanish local governments as regards indebtedness, and also how indebtedness is influenced by the interaction of ideology and the electoral cycle.Different dependence models were estimated using panel data methodology based on a sample comprised of Spanish provincial capitals and towns with populations over 50,000, for a total of 148 town councils. The time frame corresponds to the fiscal years 1988 to 2008, inclusive. The results show that in an electoral year all politicians behave opportunistically, giving rise to an important increase in public debt in relation to municipal revenue, although progressive incumbents incur three times more debt than those of the opposite ideology. Moreover, the presence of conservative parties in government has tended to significantly attenuate this behavior in years prior to elections, whereas progressive or left-wing parties have not. It must also be noted that partisan and electoral business cycles have been mitigated since 2002, when the Budgetary Stability Law came into effect, imposing limits on the debt of subnational administrations.The empirical evidence obtained points to the need to perfect internal and external control mechanisms in order to avoid a breakdown in the stability policy and the risk of debt becoming untenable, thus achieving greater budgetary discipline.RESUMENEl nivel de endeudamiento público ha sido explicado mediante dos factores políticos, principalmente, la ideología progresista y el ciclo electoral. El objetivo de este trabajo es evidenciar como influyen ambos factores en el comportamiento de los municipios españoles en relación con la deuda que estos asumen dada su capacidad, y como este esfuerzo se ve influenciado por la interacción entre los ciclos partidista y electoral.Se han estimado diversos modelos de dependencia, mediante metodologías de datos de panel, a partir de una muestra integrada por las capitales de provincia y los municipios españoles con una población superior a 50.000 habitantes, incluyendo un total de 148 ayuntamientos. El ámbito temporal analizado es el correspondiente a los ejercicios 1988 a 2008, ambos inclusive.Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que durante el año electoral, los políticos se comportan de manera oportunista, lo que conlleva un importante incremento de la deuda pública en relación con los ingresos municipales, aunque los partidos de ideología progresista realizan un esfuerzo tres veces mayor que los conservadores. Además, los gobiernos locales conservadores tienden a atenuar significativamente este comportamiento en los años previos a los comicios, mientras que los partidos de izquierdas no. Igualmente, se ha observado que los ciclos partidista y electoral han sido mitigados desde 2002 con la entrada en vigor de la Ley de estabilidad presupuestaria que impuso límites al endeudamiento que pueden asumir las administraciones subnacionales.La evidencia empírica obtenida pone de manifiesto la necesidad de perfeccionar los mecanismos de control internos y externos con el objetivo de evitar la ruptura de la política de estabilidad y el riesgo de insostenibilidad de la deuda, logrando una mayor disciplina presupuestaria.

  6. Challenges to Undertake and Innovate in Colombia: Is the New Problematic of the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Hurtado, Saul Rick; Martinez Martinez, Luz Angela

    2018-01-01

    Entrepreneurship in general brings with it certain challenges and risks, which generate a long learning path before reaching success; Colombia for example, there is a complex panorama, the entrepreneurs are limited, and the entrepreneurship projects are not executed with totality. Therefore, the article's objective is to identify the main factors…

  7. Dodging the Literary Undertaker – Biographic Metafiction in Hanif Kureishi’s The Last Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalupský Petr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hanif Kureishi’s 2014 novel, The Last Word, involves most of the author’s idiosyncratic themes, such as ethnicity, racism, sexual identity, examination of interpersonal relationships and the crucial role of the creative imagination in human life. Its focal concern, however, is to explore the process of writing a literary biography of a living person and the character and dynamics of the relationship between the biographer and his subject - a writer. As such, the novel can be taken as being representative of biographic metafiction, a subcategory of historiographic metafiction, which, following the postmodernist questioning of our ability to know and textually represent historical truth, presents biographic writing critically or even mockingly, rendering its enthusiastic practitioners’ efforts with ironic scepticism. The aim of this article is to present The Last Word as a particular example of biographic metafiction that has all the crucial features of this genre, yet which differs from its predecessors through the complexity and thoroughness of its portrayal of the biographer-biographee relationship.

  8. Undertaking Experiments in Social Sciences: Sequential, Multiple Time Series Designs for Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.

    2017-01-01

    In social sciences, the use of stringent methodological approaches is gaining increasing emphasis. Researchers have recognized the limitations of cross-sectional, non-manipulative data in the study of causality. True experimental designs, in contrast, are preferred as they represent rigorous standards for achieving causal flows between variables.…

  9. Lifelong memory responses perpetuate humoral TH2 immunity and anaphylaxis in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Chu, Derek K; Mandur, Talveer S; Walker, Tina D; Gordon, Melissa E; Chaudhary, Roopali; Koenig, Joshua; Saliba, Sarah; Galipeau, Heather J; Utley, Adam; King, Irah L; Lee, Kelvin; Ettinger, Rachel; Waserman, Susan; Kolbeck, Roland; Jordana, Manel

    2017-12-01

    A number of food allergies (eg, fish, shellfish, and nuts) are lifelong, without any disease-transforming therapies, and unclear in their underlying immunology. Clinical manifestations of food allergy are largely mediated by IgE. Although persistent IgE titers have been attributed conventionally to long-lived IgE + plasma cells (PCs), this has not been directly and comprehensively tested. We sought to evaluate mechanisms underlying persistent IgE and allergic responses to food allergens. We used a model of peanut allergy and anaphylaxis, various knockout mice, adoptive transfer experiments, and in vitro assays to identify mechanisms underlying persistent IgE humoral immunity over almost the entire lifespan of the mouse (18-20 months). Contrary to conventional paradigms, our data show that clinically relevant lifelong IgE titers are not sustained by long-lived IgE + PCs. Instead, lifelong reactivity is conferred by allergen-specific long-lived memory B cells that replenish the IgE + PC compartment. B-cell reactivation requires allergen re-exposure and IL-4 production by CD4 T cells. We define the half-lives of antigen-specific germinal centers (23.3 days), IgE + and IgG 1 + PCs (60 and 234.4 days, respectively), and clinically relevant cell-bound IgE (67.3 days). These findings can explain lifelong food allergies observed in human subjects as the consequence of allergen exposures that recurrently activate memory B cells and identify these as a therapeutic target with disease-transforming potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma auricularium ticks in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: isolation, transovarial transmission, and transstadial perpetuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Horta, Maurício C; Soares, Herbert S; Nicola, Patricia A; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma auricularium ticks from the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. An engorged female of A. auricularium collected from a skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) was sent alive to the laboratory, where the female was found through molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This engorged female oviposited, and its offspring was reared through three consecutive generations, always using tick-naïve rabbits to feed the ticks. PCR performed on five egg pools, 10 larvae, 10 nymphs, and 10 adults of each of the three generations always yielded rickettsial DNA, indicating maintenance of rickettsial infection in the ticks by transstadial and transovarial passages. DNA sequences of random PCR products from eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults were identified as R. amblyommii. All infested rabbits seroconverted to R. amblyommii antigens at the 21(st) day after infestation, indicating that larvae, nymphs, and adults transmitted R. amblyommii through parasitism. However, no infested rabbit presented fever or any clinical alteration during the experimental period. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from the two A. auricularium females, and the isolates were established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed R. amblyommii by sequencing partial gltA, ompA, and ompB genes. From another sample of 15 A. auricularium adult ticks collected from two armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus), eight (53.3%) were infected by R. amblyommii. This study reports R. amblyommii infecting the tick A. auricularium for the first time. This is also the first report of rickettsia infecting ticks in the northeastern region of Brazil.

  11. Why National Narratives Are Perpetuated: A Literature Review on New Insights from History Textbook Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grever, Maria; van der Vlies, Tina

    2017-01-01

    National narratives have often served to mobilize the masses for war by providing myths and distorted interpretations of the past, while conversely wars were major sources for producing national narratives. Because national history is very likely to remain a central topic in history education, albeit in ways that differ from how the topic was used…

  12. An analytical model for perpetual network codes in packet erasure channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Crisostomo, Sergio; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    is highly dependent on a parameter called the width (ωω), which represents the number of consecutive non-zero coding coefficient present in each coded packet after a pivot element. We provide a mathematical analysis based on the width of the coding vector for the number of transmitted packets and validate...... it with simulation results. The simulations show that for ω=5ω=5, generation size g=256g=256, and low erasure probability on the link, a destination can receive up to 70%70% overhead in average. Moreover, increasing the width, the overhead contracts, and for ω≥60ω≥60 it becomes negligible....

  13. Change alone is eternal, perpetual, immortal : pharmacological immortality in science fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Victor E.; Vassallo, Clare; Callus, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Immortality is a common feature in science-fiction (SF). This paper lists the ways in which the pharmacological induction of immortality has been depicted in SF, and the resultant outcomes. Immortality or extreme longevity are often melded with infertility in order to eliminate the overpopulation issues that would inevitably arise. This is only one way in which theoretical utopias which afford life extension become dystopias, cautionary tales that admonish against hubris. In this fashion, SF ...

  14. Brutality under cover of ambiguity: activating, perpetuating, and deactivating covert retributivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-05-01

    Five studies tested four hypotheses on the drivers of punitive judgments. Study 1 showed that people imposed covertly retributivist physical punishments on extreme norm violators when they could plausibly deny that is what they were doing (attributional ambiguity). Studies 2 and 3 showed that covert retributivism could be suppressed by subtle accountability manipulations that cue people to the possibility that they might be under scrutiny. Studies 4 and 5 showed how covert retributivism can become self-sustaining by biasing the lessons people learn from experience. Covert retributivists did not scale back punitiveness in response to feedback that the justice system makes false-conviction errors but they did ramp up punitiveness in response to feedback that the system makes false-acquittal errors. Taken together, the results underscore the paradoxical nature of covert retributivism: It is easily activated by plausible deniability and persistent in the face of false-conviction feedback but also easily deactivated by minimalist forms of accountability. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Hating the Neighbors: The Role of Hate Crime in the Perpetuation of Black Residential Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami M. Lynch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in group conflict theory and the defended neighborhoods thesis, this nationwide empirical study of cities and their residential segregation levels examines the occurrence of hate crime using data for all U.S. cities with populations over 95,000 and Uniform Crime Reporting data for hate crime, in conjunction with 2000 census data. Hate crime is any illegal act motivated by pre-formed bias against, in this case, a person’s real or perceived race. This research asks: Do hate crime levels predict white/black segregation levels? How does hate crime predict different measures of white/black segregation? I use the dissimilarity index measure of segregation operationalized as a continuous, binary, and ordinal variable, to explore whether hate crime predicts segrega- tion of blacks from whites. In cities with higher rates of hate crime there was higher dissimilarity between whites and blacks, controlling for other factors. The segregation level was more likely to be “high” in a city where hate crime occurred. Blacks are continually multiply disadvantaged and distinctly affected by hate crime and residential segregation. Prior studies of residential segregation have focused almost exclusively on individual choice, residents’ lack of finances, or discriminatory actions that prevent racial minorities from moving, to explore the correlates of segregation. Notably absent from these studies are measures reflecting the level of hate crime occurring in cities. This study demonstrates the importance of considering hate crime and neighborhood conflict when contemplating the causes of residential segregation.

  16. Hating the Neighbors: The Role of Hate Crime in the Perpetuation of Black Residential Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Ami M. Lynch

    2008-01-01

    Grounded in group conflict theory and the defended neighborhoods thesis, this nationwide empirical study of cities and their residential segregation levels, examines the occurrence of hate crime using data on for all U.S. cities with populations over 95,000, and data compiled from the Uniform Crime Report for hate crime, in conjunction with 2000 census data. Hate crime is any illegal act motivated by pre-formed bias against, in this case, a person’s real or perceived race. This research asks:...

  17. Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elizabeth N; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although the medical profession strives for equal treatment of all patients, disparities in health care are prevalent. Cultural stereotypes may not be consciously endorsed, but their mere existence influences how information about an individual is processed and leads to unintended biases in decision-making, so called "implicit bias". All of society is susceptible to these biases, including physicians. Research suggests that implicit bias may contribute to health care disparities by shaping physician behavior and producing differences in medical treatment along the lines of race, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics. We review the origins of implicit bias, cite research documenting the existence of implicit bias among physicians, and describe studies that demonstrate implicit bias in clinical decision-making. We then present the bias-reducing strategies of consciously taking patients' perspectives and intentionally focusing on individual patients' information apart from their social group. We conclude that the contribution of implicit bias to health care disparities could decrease if all physicians acknowledged their susceptibility to it, and deliberately practiced perspective-taking and individuation when providing patient care. We further conclude that increasing the number of African American/Black physicians could reduce the impact of implicit bias on health care disparities because they exhibit significantly less implicit race bias.

  18. Improving global health - is tourism's role in poverty elimination perpetuating poverty, powerlessness and 'ill-being'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of challenges for public health in a global context is ever expanding. It is difficult for health professionals to keep informed about details of key issues affecting global health determinants such as poverty. Tourism is seen as one strategy to eliminate poverty in developing countries and to improve global health, but the industry struggles with keeping its promise. Apart from often negative impacts on the well-being of local communities, it also turns out not to be as altruistic as it appears at first sight. Discourses largely focus on power and control of the non-poor over the poor despite all the rhetoric to the contrary. Economic aspects still dictate the debate rather than local people's understanding of well-being. Only with a major shift in the approach to local populations, acknowledging the communities' right to self-determination and accepting them as equal partners with access to genuine benefits, will this disturbing imbalance be redressed and allow better health for more people possible. Public health professionals should question claims about the beneficial influence of tourism in poor regions and not lower their vigilance for poverty-related health problems, so that the poor are not overlooked when all other stakeholders are busy with their own agenda.

  19. Legal Consideration of Future Generations and its Influence on Land Ownership: Perpetuity for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Basso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly common legal provisions that expressly deal with future generations and their necessary protection. The combination of issues concerning future generations and agricultural activities, despite their undeniable relevance, has been a gap in scientific research in the legal area. The objective of this article is to discuss the legal consideration of future generations and determine their influence on the Agrarian Law, in particular with regard to land ownership. We conclude that the legal consideration of future generations is imperative observance in the context of sustainability and is able to reframe the notion of land ownership.

  20. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  1. Longitudinal holes in debunched particle beams in storage rings, perpetuated by space-charge forces

    CERN Document Server

    Koscielniak, Shane Rupert; Lindroos, M

    2001-01-01

    Stationary, self-consistent, and localized longitudinal density perturbations on an unbunched charged-particle beam, which are solutions of the nonlinearized Vlasov-Poisson equation, have recently received some attention. In particular, we address the case that space charge is the dominant longitudinal impedance and the storage ring operates below transition energy so that the negative mass instability is not an explanation for persistent beam structure. Under the customary assumption of a bell-shaped steady-state distribution, about which the expansion is made, the usual wave theory of Keil and Schnell (1969) for perturbations on unbunched beams predicts that self-sustaining perturbations are possible only (below transition) if the impedance is inductive (or resistive) or if the bell shape is inverted. Space charge gives a capacitive impedance. Nevertheless, we report numerous experimental measurements made at the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster that plainly show the longevity of holelike structures in coast...

  2. The Perpetuation of a System of Conflicts in Darfur: Caught Between Local Violence and Regional Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Gnanguênon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En muchos casos en África, los conflictos locales armados y no armados, considerados por separado, interactúan hasta el punto de crear lo que puede llamarse "complejos" o "sistemas". Si bien algunos de los conceptos nos pueden ayudar a definir la dimensión regional de los conflictos locales, no nos proporcionan una mejor comprensión acerca de la superposición de varios conflictos. Tomando el ejemplo de Darfur en el periodo entre 2003 y 2011, este artículo contribuye a aclarar cómo la violencia y el desorden surgieron y se desarrollaron, tanto a nivel local como nacional y regional. El artículo propone una demostración empírica de la originalidad y la pertinencia del concepto de sistema de conflictos, con el objetivo de abrir un debate en la investigación actual sobre las definiciones de conflicto y guerra desde un prisma africano.

  3. Legitimacy and Penetration in Stability Operations; Setting the Conditions for Perpetual Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    Delusion; How the American Army Screwed Up the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (Minneapolis: Zenith Press, 2009), 20-23 26 Michel Foucault ...Michel Foucault , Discipline and Punishment the Birth of the Prison, translated by Alan Sheridan (New York: Vintage Books, 1995) 69 Stathis Kalyvas...Bottom Up. Working Paper, London: Development Studies Institute, 2003. Foucault , Michel. Discipline and Punishment the Birth of the Prison. New York

  4. The health insurance industry: perpetuating the opioid crisis through policies of cost-containment and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatman ME

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Schatman1, Lynn R Webster21Foundation for Ethics in Pain Care, Bellevue, WA, USA; 2PRA Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA"People don’t trust private health insurance companies for all the right reasons." – Senator Bernie Sanders.Throughout the world, industrialized nations look at the USA and are befuddled by its opioid crisis. Between 1999 and 2011, we witnessed the number of opioid deaths in the USA increase from 4,030 to 16,917,1 with these figures having seemingly stabilized over the past several years.2 Many agree regarding the root causes of the crisis, with an analysis by Webster et al3 identifying health comorbidities (most prominently substance use disorders, payer policies mandating methadone as a first-line treatment option, physician error due to a lack of knowledge, patient nonadherence, unanticipated medical and mental health issues, concomitant utilization of other central nervous system depressants such as benzodiazepines, and sleep-disordered breathing as contributory.

  5. Ties that Blind: Perpetuation of Racial Comfort and Discomfort at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Douglas B.; Hyle, Adrienne E.; Jordan, Kitty V.

    2009-01-01

    Interviews with 17 African American students and 19 White students were employed to examine interracial relations at a predominantly White community college campus. Seen through the lens of Granovetter's strength of ties theory, the interview findings revealed that strong intraracial ties and the absence of weak interracial ties inhibited…

  6. Sleep disturbances and post-traumatic stress disorder; a perpetual circle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Disrupted sleep has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of PTSD, possibly interfering with fear

  7. The perpetual search for parsimony: enhancing the epistemological and practical utility of qualitative research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Harder, Henry G

    2009-10-01

    While it appears that the term parsimony has been used in the context of qualitative research and qualitative research methodology, there is a distinct absence of writing that actually explores, seeks to define, understand, critique, apply and/or evaluate the concept in qualitative research literature. This paper explores a number of issues pertaining to parsimony in qualitative research. It is the hope of the authors that this paper might raise awareness of the hitherto unexplored issues, stimulate some further interest in these and prompt other qualitative researchers to contribute to the ensuing debate. While there are currently no definitive criteria for determining the parsimony of qualitative research findings, it would be epistemologically inappropriate and philosophically incongruent to import and translate quantitative notions of parsimony. However, the ideas, principles and epistemological functions that parsimony serves can and should be applied to the qualitative paradigm. The authors suggest that more than one type of qualitative parsimony is required. The authors advance the argument that there is a relationship between the degree of parsimony and the elegance, ease of accessibility and straightforwardness (some might say - beauty) of the writing/findings; the level of expertise of the researcher; and the quality of the data collection interview. The authors also assert that there are a number of practices which, when adhered to, can enhance the parsimony of the findings and that here are a number of major implications arising from qualitative findings that lack parsimony.

  8. Lost in Translation? Pussy Riot Solidary Activism and the danger of perpetuating North/Western Hegemonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Wiedlack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article critically discusses solidarity actions in support of Pussy Riot within the global North/West, arguing that most solidarity projects within popular culture as well as within the queer-feminist counterculture are based on a lopsided interpretation of Pussy Riot as Russian version of Riot Grrrl feminists. This one-dimensional interpretation of the performance art group as Riot Grrrl-identities further leads to labelling their performance at the Christ the Saviour Cathedral as anti-religious. Within this framework the group’s negotiation of Orthodox religion within their song lyrics, performances as well as statements is ignored, supporting the binary construction of The North/West as progressive – tolerant and secular – and Russia as backward – dogmatic and fundamentalist religious. We attempt to complicate the view on Pussy Riot’s performances and reread them within the Russian context, highlighting several political statements that got lost in North/Western translations. The focus of the analysis concentrates on the ‘Punk Prayer, its mimicry of religious language and references to the leadership of the Russian Orthodox Church as well as the local public critical discourses.

  9. Regulating Mining in South Africa and Zimbabwe: Communities, the Environment and Perpetual Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumai Murombo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining as an extractive activity has the potential to promote sustainable economic growth in developing countries; however this largely depends on how the activities are regulated. Mining contributes to environmental pollution and degradation, and the social degeneration of local communities. Corporate social responsibility initiatives are often self-serving short-term programs that in the long term do not benefit mining communities. In this article, the mining, environment and community trilemma is investigated through the lens of what is happening in South Africa and Zimbabwe. It is argued that continued calls for nationalisation and indigenisation are the sequel of the failure of postcolonial mineral law and policy reforms. Regulatory continuity from colonial laws has seen mining companies continue to treat mineral rich developing countries as sources of raw materials. Little is done to develop the communities impacted by mining activities. Recommendations are made on how mining can support sustainable development without creating a cycle of poverty within mining communities. This can happen through effective regulation embedded within sustainable development, transparency and accountability and equitable access to mineral wealth.

  10. Life-as-Lived Today: Perpetual (Undesired Liminality of the Half-widows of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul DSouza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Victor Turner, all liminality must eventually dissolve, for it is a state of great intensity that cannot exist very long without some sort of structure to sta-bilize it. This paper takes his lead and attempts to describe the liminal status of those women, the whereabouts of whose husbands are not known (they are locally re-ferred to as 'half-widows' in the conflict zone of Kashmir, India. The article ex-amines the concept of liminality based on life as lived today by these half-widows and shows how the effects of liminality operate in their day to day life, making them extremely vulnerable victims. In this, it is an attempt to expand upon the concept of liminality, originally linked almost exclusively to rites of passage. Furthermore, this paper reflects on the idea of permanent liminality that has been elaborated by soci-ologist Arpad Szakolczai. The narratives of the half-widows of Kashmir provide an example of how they are trapped in a form of 1permanent liminality1 far beyond what was initially defined as a 'temporal state'.

  11. The Gonyaulax spinifera (Dinophyceae) "complex": Perpetuating the paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, André; Lewis, Jane; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Specimens of dinoflagellate cysts referable to the cyst-species Spiniferites ramosus (Ehrenberg 1838) Mantell 1854 and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (Ostenfeld 1903) Reid 1974 have been produced in the same crossed-strain of Gonyaulax spinifera-type (Claparède and Lachmann 1857) Diesing 1866 moti...

  12. Lost in Translation? Pussy Riot Solidary Activism and the danger of perpetuating North/Western Hegemonies

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Wiedlack; Nasha Neufeld

    2014-01-01

    This article critically discusses solidarity actions in support of Pussy Riot within the global North/West, arguing that most solidarity projects within popular culture as well as within the queer-feminist counterculture are based on a lopsided interpretation of Pussy Riot as Russian version of Riot Grrrl feminists. This one-dimensional interpretation of the performance art group as Riot Grrrl-identities further leads to labelling their performance at the Christ the Saviour Cathedral as anti-...

  13. The Moral Logic of Perpetual Evolution: A Schoolteacher Looks at Technology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, John Taylor

    1998-01-01

    Examines technology in education as social engineering that discourages intellectual development and accustoms children to accepting without question a hidden stranger's mind-altering drills. Relates this perspective to Greek philosophers Thales and Heraclitus' differing thoughts on the purpose of education: solving the universal human dilemma of…

  14. An evaluation of mental health stigma perpetuated by horror video gaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickens, E. G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Video games often feature mental patients in their storylines. This review is intended to test the hypothesis that these depictions potentially contribute to stigma surrounding mental health communities, and may negatively reflect on those with mental health difficulties. The criteria for evaluating the chosen games were created by combining elements from four separate academic papers. The games were analyzed via screenshots from online videos detailing a playthrough of chosen games, and text from the games themselves. The research within this paper suggests stigma can exist outside of conventional media platforms and highlights the availability of stigma-related horror video games inside the gaming market. This study also emphasizes how the depictions of those with mental health difficulties inside of video games have the capacity to harm mental health communities.

  15. Evaluation of great deserts of the world for perpetual radiowaste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.M.; Wurtele, M.G.; Whipple, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Desert sites with a history of seismic stability were studied for storage of radioactive wastes because of the attractive meteorology, proven longterm geological stability, and distance from human population centers. Specific deserts were to be representative of various kinds of world deserts, if substantial information about each desert was available, to examine with respect to transporting, handling, storing, and cooling the radioactive waste, and the site suitability as to geological conditions, water availability, alternative land use, airborne emissions of heat, accidental radioactive emission, and possible socioeonomic impacts. No significant technical obstacles to the use of the world deserts as sites for a retrievable storage facility for 500 years were found. However, given the relatively low level of effort that was allocated between the many technical issues listed above, this study is neither a full risk assessment nor a full environmental impact analysis of such a facility. Assessments for siting the facility were made for five deserts, chosen to be representative of Old World, New World, Australian, interior, coastal, foggy, hot and cold: the Nullarbor Plain of Australia, the Namib in Africa, the Great Basin of the United States represented by the Nevada Test Site, the North Slope of Alaska and Canada, and the Egyptian desert

  16. Drosophila Perpetuates Nutritional Mutualism by Promoting the Fitness of Its Intestinal Symbiont Lactobacillus plantarum

    OpenAIRE

    Storelli, Gilles; Strigini, Maura; Grenier, Théodore; Bozonnet, Loan; Schwarzer, Martin; Daniel, Catherine; Matos, Renata; Leulier, François

    2018-01-01

    Summary Facultative animal-bacteria symbioses, which are critical determinants of animal fitness, are largely assumed to be mutualistic. However, whether commensal bacteria benefit from the association has not been rigorously assessed. Using a simple and tractable gnotobiotic model— Drosophila mono-associated with one of its dominant commensals, Lactobacillus plantarum—we reveal that in addition to benefiting animal growth, this facultative symbiosis has a positive impact on commensal bacteri...

  17. Perpetuating 'New Public Management' at the expense of nurses' patient education: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the conditions for nurses' daily patient education work by focusing on managers' way of speaking about the patient education provided by nurses in hospital care. An explorative, qualitative design with a social constructionist perspective was used. Data were collected from three focus group interviews and analysed by means of critical discourse analysis. Discursive practice can be explained by the ideology of hegemony. Due to a heavy workload and lack of time, managers could 'see' neither their role as a supporter of the patient education provided by nurses, nor their role in the development of nurses' pedagogical competence. They used organisational, financial, medical and legal reasons for explaining their failure to support nurses' provision of patient education. The organisational discourse was an umbrella term for 'things' such as cost-effectiveness, which were prioritised over patient education. There is a need to remove managerial barriers to the professional development of nurses' patient education. Managers should be responsible for ensuring and overseeing that nurses have the prerequisites necessary for providing patient education as well as for enabling continuous reflective dialogue and opportunities for learning in practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Economic Inequality, Educational Inequity, and Reduced Career Opportunity: A Self-Perpetuating Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torraco, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Economic inequality--the income gap between the wealthy and the poor--is increasing. Educational inequity has also increased with low-income students less likely to complete college than their wealthier counterparts. As the gap widens between the education "haves" and "have-nots," those with inadequate education are faced with…

  19. The use of expensive technologies instead of simple, sound and effective lifestyle interventions: a perpetual delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin; Hanley, Matt; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-09-01

    A dangerous distortion of priorities seems to be currently apparent in the dominant approaches to major public health problems, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer and some infectious diseases. Relevant examples suggest an apparently inappropriate tendency to prioritise technocratic, partial solutions rather than confronting their true behavioural and structural determinants. Technically oriented preventive medicine often takes excessive precedence over simpler, more sensible approaches to modify lifestyles, the environment and the social structure. Structural factors (social, cultural, financial, familiar, educational, political or ideological factors) that act as determinants of individual behaviours should be effectively addressed to confront the essential causes of the most prevalent and important health problems. Some consumer-directed commercial forces seem to be increasingly driving many aspects of the current sociocultural environment, and may eventually compromise the main pursuits of public health. Population-wide strategies are needed to create a healthy sociocultural environment and to empower individuals and make themselves resistant to these adverse environmental and structural pressures. Otherwise most public health interventions will most likely end in failures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Visual Portrayals of Obesity in Health Media: Promoting Exercise without Perpetuating Weight Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, R. L.; Dovidio, J. F.; Puhl, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Health education campaigns for preventing and reducing obesity often contain weight-stigmatizing visual content, which may have unintended negative health consequences. The goal of the present research was to identify non-stigmatizing visual content for health education materials that can promote exercise among people of diverse weight statuses.…

  1. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  2. Perpetual Enterprise Management Service (PEMS) for Next Generation SOA-based Command & Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Erik

    2005-01-01

    ...) systems that are based on highly distributed Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) applications. These new systems do not have end-to-end monitoring and reporting capabilities to establish realistic Service Level Objectives...

  3. Perpetuating "scientific motherhood": infant feeding discourse in Parents magazine, 1930-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Katherine A

    2010-05-01

    Although breastfeeding initiation rates have recently been at an all-time high, duration continues to be considerably low. Given the health benefits associated with extended breastfeeding, this discrepancy is cause for concern. This research examined the messages conveyed about infant feeding in a popular parenting magazine, Parents magazine, from 1930 through 2007. Findings indicated that the messages about infant feeding shifted in accordance with changing ideologies about the means of infant feeding-from bottle-feeding to breastfeeding. However, even with changing attitudes toward infant feeding, writers used scientific evidence and the advice of "experts" to justify the dominant form of feeding. The absence of practical advice regarding breastfeeding challenges, especially from "real" women set up false expectations about the breastfeeding experience, painting it as "natural" and best for the baby. The dependency on experts and lack of practical advice in popular media, like Parents magazine, may help explain a societal trend that downplays breastfeeding obstacles, giving insight into the vast discrepancy between breastfeeding initiation and duration.

  4. Perpetuated Human-Wildlife Wars: A Case Study of the Marauding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Building Castles Together: A sustainable collaboration as a perpetual work-in-progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Vazquez Jacobus

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Building Castles Together project is a multidisciplinary collaboration between the University of Southern Maine at Lewiston-Auburn College and Sandcastle Clinical and Educational Services that aims to build solidarity and resilience in vulnerable young children, their families and their community. This article explores how the partnership exemplifies five key areas impacting the sustainability of community-university collaborations. 1 Mutuality and reciprocity are foundational elements in establishing trust and ensuring project relevance to both organisations. 2 Interdisciplinarity and diversity are constructs related to the core mission of both the University and Sandcastle. The multiple perspectives offer a range of holistic strategies for addressing complex social problems, but also create the potential for misunderstandings between disciplines and organisations. 3 Community integration at multiple levels is critical to the partnership’s sustainability as well as to achievement of its ideals. 4 Dynamic interaction is an evolutionary process, both internal and external to both organisations, that impacts their relative contributions and necessitates flexibility in planning and outcomes. 5 Asset enhancement describes the potential to increase capacity, but also the concern for overextension and resource exhaustion. We conclude that sustainability in university-community partnerships is not a goal in itself, but an ongoing process, and an attribute of a partnership based on common principles, continuous input and constant change. Keywords Community-university partnership, sustainability, diversity, vulnerable youth

  6. [Guilty victims: a model to perpetuate impunity for work-related accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; Iguti, Aparecida Mari; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes reports and data from the investigation of severe and fatal work-related accidents by the Regional Institute of Criminology in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Some 71 accident investigation reports were analyzed from 1998, 1999, and 2000. Accidents involving machinery represented 38.0% of the total, followed by high falls (15.5%), and electric shocks (11.3%). The reports conclude that 80.0% of the accidents are caused by "unsafe acts" committed by workers themselves, while the lack of safety or "unsafe conditions" account for only 15.5% of cases. Victims are blamed even in situations involving high risk in which not even minimum safety conditions are adopted, thus favoring employers' interests. Such conclusions reflect traditional reductionist explanatory models, in which accidents are viewed as simple, unicausal phenomena, generally focused on slipups and errors by the workers themselves. Despite criticism in recent decades from the technical and academic community, this concept is still hegemonic, thus jeopardizing the development of preventive policies and the improvement of work conditions.

  7. "That's so Gay": Heterosexual Male Undergraduates and the Perpetuation of Sexual Orientation Microagressions on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R.; Howell, Michael L.; Kulick, Alex; Silverschanz, Perry

    2013-01-01

    "That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who…

  8. University, e-portfolio and students: perpetuating a sense of failure?

    OpenAIRE

    Bardy, Helen; Loveland-Armour, Lorraine; Parkes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Newman University embraces partnership work according to the principles of a pedagogy of partnership, evidenced through development of Student Academic Partnership, Student Research Partnership and Student Community Partnership projects.\\ud \\ud Driving enhancement of digital literacy in its graduates, the Youth and Community Work programme embraced the open source e-portfolio platform Mahara for use on study skills and placement modules. Staff, however, became aware of the difficulties encoun...

  9. A Self-Perpetuating Catalyst for the Production of Complex Organic Molecules in Protostellar Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of abundant carbonaceous material in meteorites is a long standing problem and an important factor in the debate on the potential for the origin of life in other stellar systems. Many mechanisms may contribute to the total organic content in protostellar nebulae, ranging from organics formed via ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the cold dark clouds from which such nebulae collapse, to similar ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the dark regions of the nebula far from the proto star, to gas phase reactions in sub-nebulae around growing giant planets and in the nebulae themselves. The Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalytic reduction of CO by hydrogen was once the preferred model for production of organic materials in the primitive solar nebula. The Haber-Bosch catalytic reduction of N2 by hydrogen was thought to produce the reduced nitrogen found in meteorites. However, the clean iron metal surfaces that catalyze these reactions are easily poisoned via reaction with any number of molecules, including the very same complex organics that they produce and both reactions work more efficiently in the hot regions of the nebula. We have demonstrated that many grain surfaces can catalyze both FTT and HB-type reactions, including amorphous iron and magnesium silicates, pure silica smokes as well as several minerals. Although none work as well as pure iron grains, and all produce a wide range of organic products rather than just pure methane, these materials are not truly catalysts.

  10. The Portrayal of EFL Teachers in Official Discourse: The Perpetuation of Disdain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to offer an interpretation of the images of Colombian English teachers constructed in official discourse, particularly (but not exclusively in the document "Estándares básicos de competencias en lenguas extranjeras: inglés. Formar en lenguas extranjeras, el reto". This is part of a larger critical discourse analysis research study whose main data source is the aforementioned document. The analysis was conducted following a Hallidayan "clause as representation" approach combined with Fairclough's methodology for a critical discourse analysis. Three main images were found: teachers are invisible; teachers as clerks; and teachers as technicians/marketers. The conclusions show that official discourse plays into folk concepts of Colombian teachers and feeds into them to validate official unilateral decisions.

  11. Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuumba, M B

    1993-01-01

    Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction.

  12. Kissing Brides and Loving Hot Vampires: Children's Construction and Perpetuation of Heteronormativity in Elementary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores notions of (hetero)sexuality circulating in elementary school classrooms through an analysis of students' own talk and interactions. Data collected during a multi-site ethnography in a diverse set of elementary schools demonstrate that while curricular silences and teachers contribute to heteronormative classroom environments,…

  13. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population.

  14. Why national narratives are perpetuated: A literature review on new insights from history textbook research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.R. Grever (Maria); T. Van der Vlies (Tina)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractNational narratives have often served to mobilize the masses for war by providing myths and distorted interpretations of the past, while conversely wars were major sources for producing national narratives. Because national history is very likely to remain a central topic in history

  15. 'Why National Narratives are Perpetuated: Promising Reorientations in History Textbook Research'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.R. Grever (Maria); Vlies, T.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractNational narratives have often served to mobilize the masses for war by providing myths and distorted interpretations of the past, while conversely wars were major sources for producing national narratives. Because national history is very likely to remain a central topic in history

  16. Perpetuating Social Movements amid Declining Opportunity: The Survival Strategies of Two Argentine Piquetero Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Epstein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the recent behaviour in Argentina of two national protest groups of socalled ‘piqueteros’ or picketers (impoverished unemployed individuals who used the blockage of strategic roads and bridges to force government concessions that emerged politically in the buildup to the crisis of 2001-2002. Using theoretical concepts developed by McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly in understanding social movements, the author analyses what he calls the ‘survival strategy’ adopted by their leaders as the political opportunities that produced their initial growth gave way to a more hostile environment with the normalization of Argentine politics under the Kirchner administration. While the two piquetero groups studied differ considerably in terms of their politics and ideology, both ended up depending on the same traditional tactic of utilizing important government contacts to obtain the resources necessary for organizational maintenance, despite their nominal identity as radical protesters against the present political system.Resumen: Perpetuando movimientos sociales y oportunidades decrecientes: las estrategias de sobrevivencia de dos grupos de piqueteros argentinesEste artículo examina el comportamiento reciente de dos grupos nacionales de protesta argentinos llamados ‘piqueteros’ (desempleados empobrecidos que usaron el bloqueo de calles y puentes estratégicos para forzar concesiones gubernamentales que aparecieron durante la crisis de 2001- 2002. Utilizando conceptos teóricos creados por McAdam, Tarrow, y Tilly en su discusión sobre los movimientos sociales, el autor analiza lo que describe como ‘estrategias de sobrevivencia’ adoptadas por sus dirigentes cuando las oportunidades que ocasionaron su crecimiento inicial cedieron ante un ambiente más hostil en el contexto de la normalización de la política argentina durante la administración de Kirchner. Aunque los dos grupos piqueteros estudiados se diferencian mucho en términos de su política e ideología, ambos terminaron dependiendo de la misma táctica tradicional consistente en el recurso a contactos políticos oficiales indispensables para lograr los recursos necesarios para el mantenimiento organizacional del grupo, pese a su identidad nominal como radicales detractores del sistema político imperante.

  17. H7N9 avian influenza A virus and the perpetual challenge of potential human pandemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morens, David M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Fauci, Anthony S

    2013-07-09

    ABSTRACT The ongoing H7N9 influenza epizootic in China once again presents us questions about the origin of pandemics and how to recognize them in early stages of development. Over the past ~135 years, H7 influenza viruses have neither caused pandemics nor been recognized as having undergone human adaptation. Yet several unusual properties of these viruses, including their poultry epizootic potential, mammalian adaptation, and atypical clinical syndromes in rarely infected humans, suggest that they may be different from other avian influenza viruses, thus questioning any assurance that the likelihood of human adaptation is low. At the same time, the H7N9 epizootic provides an opportunity to learn more about the mammalian/human adaptational capabilities of avian influenza viruses and challenges us to integrate virologic and public health research and surveillance at the animal-human interface.

  18. H7N9 Avian Influenza A Virus and the Perpetual Challenge of Potential Human Pandemicity

    OpenAIRE

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ongoing H7N9 influenza epizootic in China once again presents us questions about the origin of pandemics and how to recognize them in early stages of development. Over the past ~135 years, H7 influenza viruses have neither caused pandemics nor been recognized as having undergone human adaptation. Yet several unusual properties of these viruses, including their poultry epizootic potential, mammalian adaptation, and atypical clinical syndromes in rarely infected humans, suggest tha...

  19. Perpetuating the Technological Ideology: An Ellulian Critique of Feenberg's Democratized Rationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Andrew Feenberg, in his book "Questioning Technology", offers his theory of "democratized rationalization" as a critical alternative to Jacques Ellul's essentialist perspective. Feenberg argues that Ellul has confused the tendency toward efficiency in technological discourse with the essence of technology, thereby disallowing for a "positive…

  20. Promoting justice or perpetuating prejudice? Interrupting external motivation in multicultural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V; Hinman, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories. The results indicate that locomotion was negatively associated with external motivation to respond without prejudice, while assessment and prevention were positively associated with external motivation. Taken together, findings highlight the importance of cultivating locomotion (action oriented) motivation and inhibiting prevention (loss oriented) and assessment (preoccupation with finding the correct answer) motivations in multicultural training. Implications for training, effective action for justice, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Male honor and female fidelity: implicit cultural scripts that perpetuate domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandello, Joseph A; Cohen, Dov

    2003-05-01

    Two studies explored how domestic violence may be implicitly or explicitly sanctioned and reinforced in cultures where honor is a salient organizing theme. Three general predictions were supported: (a) female infidelity damages a man's reputation, particularly in honor cultures; (b) this reputation can be partially restored through the use of violence; and (c) women in honor cultures are expected to remain loyal in the face of jealousy-related violence. Study 1 involved participants from Brazil (an honor culture) and the United States responding to written vignettes involving infidelity and violence in response to infidelity. Study 2 involved southern Anglo, Latino, and northern Anglo participants witnessing a "live" incident of aggression against a woman (actually a confederate) and subsequently interacting with her.

  2. Mapping Me: Mapping Identity among Academically High-Performing Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flennaugh, Terry K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scholars have argued that far too little research has examined the complex processes that many Black males undertake in constructing identities that function in schools (Howard & Flennaugh, 2011; Howard, Flennaugh, & Terry, 2012; Terry, Flennaugh, Blackmon, & Howard, 2014). Some have highlighted the perpetuation of a false…

  3. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka al-Qaida of the Jihad in the... Organization Base of Jihad/Mesopotamia, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in the Land of...

  4. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka al-Qaida of the Jihad in the... Organization Base of Jihad/Mesopotamia, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in the Land of...

  5. THE INTERPRETATION OF “JIHAD” IN ISLAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. It is unfortunate that misconceptions have been given to the meaning and duty of Jihad by some European writers, by assuming that the word is supposed to be synonymous with war. This paper therefore focuses attention on the true meaning and duty of Jihad . It also aims at stating the different kinds of Jihad ...

  6. An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of east Azerbaijan province

    OpenAIRE

    Habibeh Ayagh; Hassan Darvish

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992) [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992). Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and ch...

  7. An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of east Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Ayagh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992 [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992. Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and chooses 255 employees for this study. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire and different tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Pearson correlation test are used to examine different hypotheses of this survey. The results indicate there is positive and meaningful relationship between thinking style and emotional intelligence. We can also confirm that four thinking style’s components including functions, levels, scope and learning have meaningful impact on emotional intelligence when the level of significance is five or even one percent. However, forms did not have any meaningful impact on emotional intelligence.

  8. 77 FR 74265 - In the Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... the Order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States would render ineffectual the... determination who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do so would render... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8114] In the Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity...

  9. Islamic Concept of Just War and Laws of Armed Conflict (LoAC): A Contemplative Perspective towards Better Understanding of Jihad and Humanistic Dimensions of Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    perverted information, and the misinformed education etc. 17 Khattab (God be pleased with them) reiterated their responsibility towards the non...Hashim, Human Dignity in Islam, Malaysia : International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies, 2007 available at http://www.iais.org.my/e...race, color, language, sex , religious belief, political affiliation, social status or other considerations. b. No one has superiority over another

  10. Does an integrated information technology system provide support for community pharmacists undertaking Discharge Medicines Reviews? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzourani, Efthymia; Way, Cheryl M; Hodson, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the views of community pharmacists participating in the pilot of a secure online platform in Wales, the Choose Pharmacy application (CPA), with particular interest in the electronic Discharge Advice Letters (e-DALs) and online Discharge Medicines Review (DMR) form. A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was adopted. A gatekeeper from National Health Service Wales Informatics Service identified 35 pharmacies, of the 43 pharmacies where the CPA had been implemented, that had completed at least one DMR, and these were therefore invited to an interview. A total of 17 pharmacists were interviewed. Overall, the results were positive and CPA and e-DAL were perceived to facilitate continuity of care between care settings. The design and usability were perceived as good as pharmacists could navigate the CPA without problems; many felt this was due to the level of training they had received. Many pharmacists were happy for other services to be included on the platform due to its ease of use and automatic reimbursement. Several pharmacists felt that communication between primary and secondary care can be further improved as the uptake of e-DAL increases. CPA was found to streamline the completion of online DMR improving continuity of care between primary and secondary sectors, which in turn should improve patient safety on discharge from hospital.

  11. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, M.; Afonso, A.

    2017-01-01

    cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together with a high production of brain monoamine and cortisol levels, suggests that tryptophan might mediate regulatory mechanisms of neuroendocrine and immune systems...... the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2x dietary requirement level) or a control......, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led...

  12. Estimation of skin, organ and effective doses of patients who undertake head CT scan in 4 medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.T.; Khalilpour, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. CT was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and has since grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In this work we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in four hospitals in Mashhad. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 123 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. 'ImPACT' version 0.99w was used to estimate organ and effective dose. ESD of same patients were measured by TLD-100. Brain examinations were performed with fixed kV, mA and T (slice thickness) for each scanner. The CT Scanners investigated in this study were GE HiLight, Siemens Somatom AR-T, Somatom Balance and Shimadzu SCT. Summary of our findings are as follows: Application of 'ImPACT' software enabled us to compute Bone marrow (red), Brain, Thyroid and effective doses of all patients. Table 1 shows the average organ dose (Brain, Bone marrow (red), Thyroid), mean effective dose and mean ESD were measured by TLD for each patients. Patients, who were scanned by Siemens Somatom AR-T, received maximum organ dose (brain) equal to 25.64 mGy and minimum organ dose equal to 0.21 mGy was delivered to thyroid of patients who were scanned by GE HiLight Scanner. Our average effective dose (0.54 ± 0.02 mSv) is smaller than the corresponding value (0.75 ± 0.03 mSv) obtained by Peter F. Caracappa (M.Sc dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York April 2004). Scanning by Siemens Somatom AR-T, gave rise to maximum ESD (equal to 16.22 mGy). On the other hand minimum ESD (5.51 mGy) was achieved when patients were scanned by GE HiLight machine. ESD values and organ doses acquired in this work by two different methods, TLD measurement and computing by 'ImPACT' software; are in good agreement and this is an indication of the accuracy and validity of both sets of results.

  13. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  14. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL. Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together with a high production of brain monoamine and cortisol levels, suggests that tryptophan might mediate regulatory mechanisms of neuroendocrine and immune systems cooperation. Overall, more studies are needed to ascertain the role of methionine and tryptophan in modulating (stimulate or regulate fish immune and neuroendocrine responses.

  15. Pacific students undertaking the first year of health sciences at the University of Otago, and factors associated with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopoaga, Faafetai; Zaharic, Tony; Kokaua, Jesse; Ekeroma, Alec J; Murray, Greg; van der Meer, Jacques

    2013-10-18

    To describe Pacific students in the first year of health sciences at tertiary level, their academic performance, and factors associated with academic outcomes. Routinely collected data for students who enrolled in the Health Sciences First Year (HSFY) programme at the University of Otago between 2007 and 2011, including their school National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA) results were obtained in anonymous form. Descriptive statistics were calculated and regression analyses were undertaken using SAS v9.2 software. A small but increasing number of Pacific students are enrolling in health sciences at tertiary level. Pacific students had poorer performance compared to non-Pacific students in both NCEA and the HSFY programme. Factors associated with academic performance were gender, NCEA results, school decile, accommodation type, ethnicity, international status and disability. Pacific students are under-represented in health sciences and would benefit from better preparation from school. Pacific solutions are required to improve academic outcomes over and above mainstream policy solutions. Tertiary institutions need to engage prospective students earlier to ensure they are well informed of requirements, and are appropriately prepared for study at the tertiary level.

  16. Facilitating knowledge of mental health nurses to undertake physical health interventions: a pre-test/post-test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Steve; Clifton, Andrew; Stephenson, John; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this project was to develop and deliver an evidence-based educational package with a physical and mental health focus to clinicians and other health care workers in mental health settings. For individuals who experience mental disorders, pharmacotherapy is often considered as a first line of treatment. However, owing to adverse drug reactions and pre-existing physical conditions, outcomes for clients/service users may be compromised. Mortality and morbidity rates of people diagnosed with a serious mental illness caused by physical health conditions do not compare favourably with the general population. This paper reports on a physical skills project that was developed in collaboration between the University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust. Pre-post study design: five workshops were conducted in the fields of intramuscular injections, diabetes, health improvement, oral health and wound care. A total of 180 pairs of questionnaires to assess practitioner and student skills and knowledge were administered to participants before and after workshops. All workshops resulted in a statistically significant improvement in subject skills and knowledge scores (P Mental health nurses are the largest group of registered practitioners working in the mental health setting and thus need to be harnessed to make a positive contribution to the improvement of the physical health status of service users with a serious mental illness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nursing as a scientific undertaking and the intersection with science in undergraduate studies: implications for nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Patricia A; Angel, Lyndall

    2011-04-01

    To explore the science-nursing tension and impact for nursing students studying bioscience. Several studies have examined why nursing students struggle to be successful in bioscience subjects. Undeveloped science background and theory-practice gaps are noted as contributing factors. A qualitative study explored the science-nursing tension with 100 Australian Registered Nurses using focus groups and a survey. The survey response rate was 85 from 550. Of survey respondents, 88% viewed nursing as an applied science. An emphasis on procedural skills and task busyness undermines theoretical understanding of care and can be a negative influence upon the student bioscience experience. Practicum mentors confident in scientific knowledge enhance the student experience of bioscience by providing opportunities for integration with practice. Competing philosophies that reinforce the science-nursing tension have an impact upon student endeavours yet the nexus created by practice can be used to activate student curiosity and scientific understanding. Nurse managers need to structure the student practicum to encompass scientific theory applied to practice with equal emphasis on task efficiency. This improves student attitudes to learning bioscience and potentially minimizes the impact of the science-nursing tension on student learning. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  19. Why Start a Higher Degree by Research? An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Motivations to Undertake Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of candidates embarking on higher degrees by research (HDRs, e.g., PhD, professional doctorate, practice-based doctorate), we still have limited knowledge about why they are choosing this path. What are the factors that motivate students to embark on research degrees? Given that many of those who succeed in…

  20. Preparing Medical Students to Undertake a Cultural Immersion Experience: Introducing Frameworks for Preparatory and Post-Immersion Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Donna B.; Watson, Rashmi; Hadden, John

    2011-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining practitioners to rural and remote locations is a challenge for many industries including health and education. The medical, nursing and teaching professions have utilized immersion experiences for trainees and students to better prepare them and to address workforce shortages in crosscultural and underserved areas. This…

  1. Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: application for nurse education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Fenella J; Leslie, Gavin D; Grech, Carol; Latour, Jos M

    2013-11-01

    The Internet is increasingly being used as a data collection medium to access research participants. This paper reports on the experience and value of using web-survey software to conduct an eDelphi study to develop Australian critical care course graduate practice standards. The eDelphi technique used involved the iterative process of administering three rounds of surveys to a national expert panel. The survey was developed online using SurveyMonkey. Panel members responded to statements using one rating scale for round one and two scales for rounds two and three. Text boxes for panel comments were provided. For each round, the SurveyMonkey's email tool was used to distribute an individualized email invitation containing the survey web link. The distribution of panel responses, individual responses and a summary of comments were emailed to panel members. Stacked bar charts representing the distribution of responses were generated using the SurveyMonkey software. Panel response rates remained greater than 85% over all rounds. An online survey provided numerous advantages over traditional survey approaches including high quality data collection, ease and speed of survey administration, direct communication with the panel and rapid collation of feedback allowing data collection to be undertaken in 12 weeks. Only minor challenges were experienced using the technology. Ethical issues, specific to using the Internet to conduct research and external hosting of web-based software, lacked formal guidance. High response rates and an increased level of data quality were achieved in this study using web-survey software and the process was efficient and user-friendly. However, when considering online survey software, it is important to match the research design with the computer capabilities of participants and recognize that ethical review guidelines and processes have not yet kept pace with online research practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The experience of final year medical students undertaking a general practice run with a distance education component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Steven; Gibbons, Veronique; Lawrenson, Ross

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of the difficulties posed for New Zealand medical students by travel during rural general practice attachments, a system of distance teaching was devised for final year medical students at the Waikato Clinical School. In place of weekly small group teaching using reflection on practice at the central campus led by a tutor, students participated in reflective learning via an electronic web based message board and once weekly brief individual discussion with a tutor. Moodle and Skype, both freeware applications, were used as the methods of facilitating asynchronous and synchronous learning environments. Students experienced significantly less travel time as a result of the innovation. They also reported enthusiasm for the modes of teaching and the technology. A small increase in tutor time commitment was necessary. Distance education initiatives can be undertaken with minimal expense in the general practice setting. The educational opportunities it offers can be similar to, but not identical to small group teaching.

  4. PENGATURAN PRINSIP TRANSFER OF UNDERTAKING PROTECTION OF EMPLOYMENT (TUPE DALAM DUNIA KETENAGAKERJAAN INDONESIA (DIANTARA POTENSI DAN HAMBATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Agus Sudiarawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed identifying the advantages of the regulation of TUPE principles, as well as inhibiting factors for outsourcing companies to apply the TUPE principles after the Decision of the  Constitutional Court Number 27/PUU-IX/ 2011. The research was conducted by using normative-empirical method. The data of the research consisted of primary data and secondary data. All of the collected data were analyzed using qualitative method. The results of this research were presented in a descriptive analysis report. The results of the research indicated he advantages that could be obtained by workers in relation with regulation of the TUPE principles included protection of wages, welfare and working requirements, protection of workers when the company was taken over, protection of workers when there is a change of outsourcing company and regulation of the right to file a lawsuit to the industrial relations court. The inhibiting  factors in the application of the TUPE principles in the  outsourcing companies after the  Decision of Constitutional Court  were the lack of socialization and supervision of the government, various legal loopholes of discrepancies between the implementing regulation and  the Decision of Constitutional Court, uncertainty severance regulation, assumptions that TUPE was a new burden which may disadvantage employers, and the lack of understanding of the workers related to their rights.

  5. Predictors of career progression and obstacles and opportunities for non-EU hospital doctors to undertake postgraduate training in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Ella; Keegan, Conor; Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Brugha, Ruairí

    2016-06-30

    The World Health Organization's Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel urges Member States to observe fair recruitment practices and ensure equality of treatment of migrant and domestically-trained health personnel. However, international medical graduates (IMGs) have experienced difficulties in accessing postgraduate training and in progressing their careers in several destination countries. Ireland is highly dependent on IMGs, but also employs non-European Union (EU) doctors who qualified as doctors in Ireland. However, little is known regarding the career progression of these doctors. In this context, the present study assesses the determinants of career progression of non-EU doctors with particular focus on whether barriers to progression exist for those graduating outside Ireland compared to those who have graduated within. The study utilises quantitative data from an online survey of non-EU doctors registered with the Medical Council of Ireland undertaken as part of the Doctor Migration Project (2011-2013). Non-EU doctors registered with the Medical Council of Ireland were asked to complete an online survey about their recruitment, training and career experiences in Ireland. Analysis was conducted on the responses of 231 non-EU hospital doctors whose first post in Ireland was not permanent. Career progression was analysed by means of binary logistic regression analysis. While some of the IMGs had succeeded in accessing specialist training, many experienced slow or stagnant career progression when compared with Irish-trained non-EU doctors. Key predictors of career progression for non-EU doctors working in Ireland showed that doctors who qualified outside of Ireland were less likely than Irish-trained non-EU doctors to experience career progression. Length of stay as a qualified doctor in Ireland was strongly associated with career progression. Those working in anaesthesia were significantly more likely to experience career progression than those in other specialities. The present study highlights differences in terms of achieving career progression and training for Irish-trained non-EU doctors, compared to those trained elsewhere. However, the findings herein warrant further attention from a workforce planning and policy development perspective regarding Ireland's obligations under the Global Code of hiring, promoting and remunerating migrant health personnel on the basis of equality of treatment with the domestically-trained health workforce.

  6. A study on the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks when undertaking a three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) allows the possibility of modifying some of the diagnostic tools used in orthodontics, such as cephalometry. The first step must be to study the characteristics of these devices in terms of accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used landmarks. The aims were 1- To assess intra and inter-observer reliability in the location of anatomical landmarks belonging to hard tissues of the skull in images taken with a CBCT device, 2- To determine which of those landmarks are more vs. less reliable and 3- To introduce planes of reference so as to create cephalometric analyses appropriated to the 3D reality. Study design: Fifteen patients who had a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. To assess the reproducibility on landmark location and the differences in the measurements of two observers at different times, 41 landmarks were defined on the three spatial axes (X,Y,Z) and located. 3.690 measurements were taken and, as each determination has 3 coordinates, 11.070 data were processed with SPSS® statistical package. To discover the reproducibility of the method on landmark location, an ANOVA was undertaken using two variation factors: time (t1, t2 and t3) and observer (Ob1 and Ob2) for each axis (X, Y and Z) and landmark. The order of the CBCT scans submitted to the observers (Ob1, Ob2) at t1, t2, and t3, were different and randomly allocated. Multiple comparisons were undertaken using the Bonferroni test. The intra- and inter-examiner ICC´s were calculated. Results: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was high, both being ICC ≥ 0.99, with the best frequency on axis Z. Conclusions: The most reliable landmarks were: Nasion, Sella, Basion, left Porion, point A, anterior nasal spine, Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton, frontozygomatic sutures, first lower molars and upper and lower incisors. Those with less reliability were the supraorbitals, right zygion and posterior nasal spine. Key words:Cone Beam Computed Tomography, cephalometry, landmark, orthodontics, reliability. PMID:22322503

  7. Wastes treatment: Naskeo undertakes on the way of methanization; Traitement des effluents: Naskeo mise sur la methanisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-15

    Naskeo proposes to cleanse the organic effluents of the chemical or pharmaceutical firms by methanization. A process which produces a renewable biogas, directly valorizable at the level of the process of the manufacturer. (O.M.)

  8. Using a Personal Development Plan for Different Purposes: Its Influence on Undertaking Learning Activities and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausaert, Simon A. J.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Today, organizations are increasingly implementing assessment tools such as Personal Development Plans. Although the true power of the tool lies in supporting the employee's continuing professional development, organizations implement the tool for various different purposes, professional development purposes on the one hand and promotion/salary…

  9. Determination of the Index of Consumption of Petroleum of the Calcining Kiln of the Ernesto Che Guevara Commander Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarilys Gaínza-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained in carrying out the mass and energy balances in the calcining kiln of the company commander Ernesto Che Guevara, for determining the consumption index of petroleum used for obtaining nickel oxide through thermal decomposition of the basic nickel carbonate. It was shown that for a production of basic nickel carbonate of              12 t / h with 69% moisture, it is necessary to feed about 1100 kg / h of fuel, for an consumption index of 91.67 kg of fuel per ton of load.

  10. Undertaking a Collaborative Rapid Realist Review to Investigate What Works in the Successful Implementation of a Frail Older Person's Pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-25

    We addressed the research question "what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person\\'s pathway within the acute setting". A rapid realist review (RRR) was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources)-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE) study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person\\'s pathway.

  11. Is faculty practice valuable? The experience of Western Australian nursing and midwifery academics undertaking faculty clinical practice - A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amanda C; Baker, Melanie; Geraghty, Sadie

    2017-09-01

    The faculty clinical practice model provides dedicated time for nursing lecturers and educators in a university school of nursing to work with supervision in the clinical environments for an agreed amount of time each year. Allowing academics to partake in faculty clinical practice this way has been shown to update skills and retain clinical competency. Some nursing and midwifery academics believe it is essential to remain clinically current and up-to-date with professional issues in the clinical environments, whereas other academics believe reading current research maintains clinical competency. This discussion paper will explore the authors' own experiences of faculty clinical practice as an opportunity to enhance their learning. Narrative accounts of time spent in the clinical areas being expressed as invaluable as it allowed the authors to become part of the health professional team, refine clinical skills, gain clinical confidence, and share knowledge. This, in turn, impacted upon the academic's teaching style as well as redefined it by introducing incidents and stories from their experience. It has been concluded by the authors that faculty clinical practice allows academics to increase confidence, encourage leadership skills, and improve their teaching abilities in their clinical area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evading the Endgame in an Insurgency Undertaking: The Case of the Lord’s Resistance Army and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    wood to hurt a person. Concealment, on the other hand, refers to achieving protection by blending with the surrounding area through camouflage or...leaders of the insurgency. This may include phone tracking, human intelligence, signal intelligence, and drones , among other methods. The most cost

  13. Systematic Review: Predisposing, Precipitating, Perpetuating, and Present Factors Predicting Anticipatory Distress to Painful Medical Procedures in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R.; Khan, Maria; Calic, Masa; Taddio, Anna; Tablon, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of the factors predicting anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures in children. Methods A systematic search was conducted to identify studies with factors related to anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures in children aged 0–18 years. The search retrieved 7,088 articles to review against inclusion criteria. A total of 77 studies were included in the review. Results 31 factors were found to predict anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures in children. A narrative synthesis of the evidence was conducted, and a summary figure is presented. Conclusions Many factors were elucidated that contribute to the occurrence of anticipatory distress to painful medical procedures. The factors that appear to increase anticipatory distress are child psychopathology, difficult child temperament, parent distress promoting behaviors, parent situational distress, previous pain events, parent anticipation of distress, and parent anxious predisposition. Longitudinal and experimental research is needed to further elucidate these factors. PMID:26338981

  14. The Japan House Tax Case, 1899-1905: leases in perpetuity and the myth of international equality / Douglas Howland

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Howland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Võrdsusest, eksterritoriaalsuse põhimõttest ja lepingutingimustest 19. saj. Jaapani ning Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa ja Suurbritannia vahel sõlmitud lepingutes välismaalastele maa rentimise ja omandi maksustamise kohtuvaidluse taustal

  15. Working to Design: The Self-Perpetuating Ideology of Rock or ... ‘The New Bob Dylan’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scannell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This premise of this article is that music and the writing process have no inherent kinship, and that the often ill-conceived merger of these activities as the “music writing” process, is generally destined for failure. That is because writing about music subsumes its affective power into a foreign modality; it is captured and rendered into the printed word, made to signify, made to represent something, where that something is generally resolved within the presuppositions of the writers’ often-limited referential framework. At the heart of the matter is that writing about music often does not attempt to capture the affective processes that inspired creation in the first place, and in this respect, the paper argues that it may be more appropriate for the music writer/journalist to respond in kind, or as Deleuze and Guattari might say, that the music writing process should pursue a ‘becoming-music’ itself. For rather than subjecting music to the realm of representation, or subsuming its creative power within the realm of opinion and cliché, the writer should instead be concerned with harnessing and re-channelling those forces of sensation or affect that gave rise to it in the first place, and which might, in turn, inspire a literary creativity that is commensurate to the power of the music at hand.

  16. Perpetual memory. Episode Review «The entire history of you« of Black Mirror (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Natacha Salomé LIMA

    2015-01-01

    What would happen if man could store and recovered all its memories at will? The entire history of you is an episode of the British television drama series which presents a futuristic scenario of a very old situation: jealousy. Human passions disturb our soul, trouble our reflections, and pushes us to action. Memory will be a privileged object for our analysis; not organic memory, but significant memory: this means the trace of memories that perform our body. We will try to analyze the possib...

  17. Short communication. Platform for bee-hives monitoring based on sound analysis. A perpetual warehouse for swarms daily activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atauri Mezquida, D.; Llorente Martinez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Bees and beekeeping are suffering a global crisis. Constant information on swarms conditions would be a key to study new diseases like colony collapse disorder and to develop new beekeeping tools to improve the hive management and make it more efficient. A platform for beehives monitoring is presented. It is based on the analysis of the colonies buzz which is registered by a bunch of sensors sending the data to a common database. Data obtained through sound processing shows plenty of patterns and tendency lines related to colonies activities and their conditions. It shows the potential of the sound as a swarm activity gauge. The goal of the platform is the possibility to store information about the swarms activity. The objective is to build a global net of monitored hives covering apiaries with different climates, razes and managements. (Author) 21 refs.

  18. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pisano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of our recent paper ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work’ (Pisano & Bussotti 2014a. In the first paper—which discussed some aspects of the relations between science and technology from Antiquity to the Renaissance—we highlighted the differences between the Aristotelian/Euclidean tradition and the Archimedean tradition. We also pointed out the way in which the two traditions were perceived around the Renaissance. The Archimedean tradition is connected with machines: its relationship with science and construction of machines should be made clear. It is enough to think that Archimedes mainly dealt with three machines: lever, pulley and screw (and a correlated principle of mechanical advantage. As underlined in the first part, our thesis is that many machines were constructed by people who ignored theory, even though, in other cases, the knowledge of the Archimedean tradition was a precious help in order to build machines. Hence, an a priori idea as to the relations between the Archimedean tradition and construction of machines cannot exist. In this second part we offer some examples of functioning machines constructed by people who ignored any physical theory, whereas, in other cases, the ignorance of some principles—such as the impossibility of a perpetuum mobile—induced the attempt to construct impossible machines. What is very interesting is that these machines did not function, of course, as a perpetuum mobile, but anyway had their functioning and were useful for certain aims, although they were constructed on an idea which is completely wrong from a theoretical point of view. We mainly focus on the Renaissance and early modern period, but we also provide examples of machines built before and after this period. We have followed a chronological order in both parts, starting from the analysis of the situation in ancient Greece. Therefore, in the first part, we have examined the relations between the Aristotelian/Euclidean and Archimedean traditions from ancient Greece to the early modern age. In this second part, we analyse the relations of Archimedean tradition/ construction of machines from ancient Greece to the 19th century, focusing on the mentioned period. We remind the reader that our aim is to prove an epistemological thesis, not to provide a complete historical endeavour. As a correlated article, the reader will find three previous paragraphs in the first above-mentioned article (Pisano & Bussotti, 2014a.

  19. The Black Family---Perpetuating the Myths: An Analysis of Family Sociology Textbook Treatment of Black Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marie Ferguson

    1974-01-01

    A serious issue in the family sociology field is the inadequacies of both research and textbooks in the treatment of Black American families. College family sociology textbooks in the family sociology field are analyzed. A guide is presented for evaluating other college family sociology textbooks. (Author)

  20. A review of the predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievesley, Kate; Rimes, Katharine A; Chalder, Trudie

    2014-04-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a condition characterised by severe mental and physical fatigue coupled with profound disability. The purpose of this review was to investigate psychological, social and physiological factors associated with fatigue and disability in CFS in children and adolescents. The review aimed to gain an overview of the strength of evidence for the relationship between these different factors and CFS in young people. Seventy-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. A narrative synthesis of these studies was conducted. The strongest and most consistent finding was that rates of psychiatric co-morbidity, predominantly anxiety and depressive disorders, were higher in young people with CFS compared to healthy controls or illness control groups. Studies suggested that many children and adolescents with CFS reported that their illness began with an infection and there was some objective and prospective evidence to support this. Preliminary evidence suggested a link between CFS and a family history of CFS, high expectations from both the parent and child, personality traits such as conscientiousness and physical illness attributions. The evidence was limited by methodological problems. Few studies were prospective in nature and future research should address this. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed and a hypothesised model of the factors associated with CFS in children and adolescents is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Cultural Cover-Up of College Athletics: How Organizational Culture Perpetuates an Unrealistic and Idealized Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Uma M.; Comeaux, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Using a combined grounded theory and case study methodology, Jayakumar and Comeaux examined the role of organizational culture in shaping the lives of college athletes, particularly related to negotiating dual roles as both student and athlete. Data collection involved 20 interviews with athletes and stakeholders in the affairs of intercollegiate…

  2. The weakness of family ties and their perpetuating effects on gender violence: a qualitative study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoff, Carolina; Herrera, Cristina; Castro, Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Research into intimate partner violence has shown that social isolation constitutes a risk factor, and the presence of social networks can be an important source of social support. This research note presents some results of an empirical study carried out in Mexico into women's social relations, especially their family relations, and their role in the promotion of traditional gender norms. Findings indicate that some of the main conditions that are associated with the production of violence against women are either generated or reinforced within the realm of what can be regarded as women's "strong ties."

  3. Perpetuating stigma or reducing risk? Perspectives from naloxone consumers and pharmacists on pharmacy-based naloxone in 2 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Case, Patricia; Fiske, Haley; Baird, Janette; Cabral, Shachan; Burstein, Dina; Schwartz, Victoriana; Potter, Nathan; Walley, Alexander Y; Bratberg, Jeffrey

    Little is known about attitudes of pharmacists and consumers to pharmacy naloxone. We examined perceptions and experiences of pharmacy naloxone from people with opioid use disorder, patients taking chronic opioids for pain, caregivers of opioid users, and pharmacists from 2 early pharmacy naloxone adopter states: Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Eight focus groups (4 per state) were held in October to December 2015. Participants were recruited from pharmacies, health clinics, and community organizations; pharmacists were recruited from professional organizations and pharmacy colleges. Focus groups were led by trained qualitative researchers using a topic guide, and recorded and transcribed for analysis. Five analysts developed and applied a coding scheme to transcripts. Thematic analysis involved synthesis of coded data and connections between key themes, with comparisons across the groups. Sixty-one participants included patients with chronic pain (n = 15), people with opioid use disorders (n = 19), caregivers (n = 16), and pharmacists (n = 11). A majority of pharmacists had dispensed naloxone to patients; a minority of all consumer participants had obtained pharmacy naloxone. Four themes emerged: consumer fear of future consequences if requesting naloxone; pharmacists' concerns about practice logistics related to naloxone; differing perceptions of how opioid safety is addressed in the pharmacy; and solutions to addressing these barriers. Whereas consumer groups differed in awareness of naloxone and availability at pharmacies, all groups expressed support for the pharmacist's role and preferences for a universal offer of naloxone based on clear criteria. Pharmacies complement community naloxone provision to patients and caregivers. To overcome stigma of naloxone receipt, increased public awareness of naloxone and pharmacist training about naloxone and addiction are required. Pharmacists should offer naloxone via universal opt-out strategies-where all patients meeting evidence-based criteria are offered naloxone-rather than targeted or opt-in strategies-where only patients perceived as high risk or patients who request it are offered naloxone. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Institutional Perpetuation of Rape Culture: A Case Study of the University of Colorado Football Rape and Recruiting Scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Folchert, Kristi Engle

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual rape among university students is neither new nor uncommon. Research in rape prevention is largely limited to two areas: (1) what women can do to protect themselves from rape, which continues to place the burden of prevention on women; and (2) understanding why men rape. The studies in these fields have added to the body of knowledge surrounding rape on university campuses. The current study takes this information into consideration while using a different lens to examine the...

  5. The Stealth Inequities of School Funding: How State and Local School Finance Systems Perpetuate Inequitable Student Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Corcoran, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    In the education world, the existence of funding inequities has long been a known fact, but the sources of these inequities have not always been obvious. Typically, local property tax variation has been blamed as the sole, or at least primary, cause of inequalities and called for greater state funding as the solution. In practice, however, it is…

  6. Racial Diversity in the Suburbs: How Race-Neutral Responses to Demographic Change Perpetuate Inequity in Suburban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Welton, Anjalé D.; Frankenberg, Erica; Jellison Holme, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Suburbs across the US are experiencing dramatic demographic shifts, yet there is little research available on how suburban school districts are dealing with these changes. In this article, we examine the discourses surrounding race and demographic change in three suburban school districts that have been undergoing rapid demographic changes and…

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    , first Volume University Jihad publication, winter. 1985. [2] Admit, Fereydoon, concentrational Nehzat ideology, Tehran, Payam, 1973. [3] Abrahamian, Yerevand, Iran between 2 revolution of Mashrooteh to Islamic revolution,.

  8. Parents' experience of undertaking an intensive cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) group for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Froude, Elspeth

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who participated in an intensive cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) group program addressing child chosen goals. Participants were six parents of children with CP who participated in a CO-OP upper limb task-specific training program. Parents participated in semi-structured interviews conducted via phone. A grounded theory approach was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded to identify categories and overarching themes of the parent experience of CO-OP. The theory of CO-OP for children with CP was one of offering a unique and motivating learning experience for both the child and the parent, differing from other therapeutic approaches that families had previously been involved in. Five categories were identified: the unique benefits of CO-OP; the importance of intensity; the child's motivation; challenging the parent role; and the benefits and challenges of therapy within a group context. Parents felt that CO-OP was a worthwhile intervention that leads to achievement of goals involving upper limb function and had the capacity to be transferred to future goals. Intensity of therapy and a child's motivation were identified as important factors in improvements. Further studies using quantitative research methods are warranted to investigate the benefits of CO-OP for children with neurological conditions. Implications for rehabilitation The cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) is a promising upper limb cognitive motor training intervention for children with cerebral palsy. In a small sample, parents perceived that CO-OP leads to achievement of upper limb goals. Intensity of therapy, the child's motivation and the parents' ability to "step-back" were identified as important to the success of CO-OP.

  9. Conversational Analysis as a Method for Research on Intercultural Learning: A Report on a Project with the Aim of "Learning by Undertaking Research"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berkenbusch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversational analysis—situated between pragmatic linguistics and qualitative empirical research—is a complex method, which needs a lot of time and dedication. It is necessary to develop a so-called “analytical mentality”. The aim of the project presented in this paper was to develop the theoretical insights and the practical skills of a group of students for this kind of research. They worked together throughout the duration of the project, especially in the collec¬tion of empiric material: i.e. the recording of conversations between foreign and German stu¬dents, the transcription of the material, a group discussion on the data and finally its analysis. This articles aims at showing what students can learn by doing this kind of work, based on examples of the collected empirical material: (1 they will be introduced to the different levels and stages of the research process and have the chance to develop a methodical and methodological competence; (2 their general communicative competences and their special competences of the foreign language will increase, as well as (3 their knowledge of intercultural learning by working with authentic data of intercultural communication. So, for instance, stereotypes and how they have been constructed during the interaction may be analysed and precisely described on a micro-analytical level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901335

  10. Report and recommendations to the Minister regarding the environmental assessment report for Polsky Energy Corporation's proposed undertaking Brooklyn Energy Centre, Queens County, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beanlands, G.; Glover, D.; Beviss, H.

    1993-01-01

    A public consultation review was undertaken to assess the suitability and environmental compatibility of Polsky Energy Corporation's proposal for a wood-fired cogeneration plant in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. The plant would supply 21.3 MW of power to the provincial utility and steam to a local paper company. Public hearings were held in January 1993 and presentations were received from the project proponent and various intervenors. The concerns identified in the hearing included adequacy of the supply of wood wastes and the percentage of supplementary fuels required; air emissions and water-related effluents; ash disposal; monitoring; noise and traffic; socioeconomic impacts; and decommissioning. The hearing panel, appointed by the Nova Scotia Environmental Control Council, considered all the information received and concluded that the proposed facility will not cause significant or unacceptable risks to the natural and social environments of the surrounding community. This is contingent upon effective monitoring, appropriate guidance by regulatory agencies, and opportunities for continued liaison with the community. Conditions recommended by the panel include no operation of the plant using less than 70% wood as the principal fuel supply; conducting of a fuel audit every two years; reduction of the safety risk associated with the projected increase in truck traffic; continuous monitoring of stack emissions; and a requirement for a decommissioning plan as part of the permitting process. 3 refs., 1 fig

  11. Undertaking a Collaborative Rapid Realist Review to Investigate What Works in the Successful Implementation of a Frail Older Person’s Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éidín Ní Shé

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed the research question “what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person’s pathway within the acute setting”. A rapid realist review (RRR was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person’s pathway.

  12. Preparation and certification of two new bulk welding fume reference materials for use in laboratories undertaking analysis of occupational hygiene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Owen; Musgrove, Darren; Stacey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Workers can be exposed to fume, arising from welding activities, which contain toxic metals and metalloids. Occupational hygienists need to assess and ultimately minimize such exposure risks. The monitoring of the concentration of particles in workplace air is one assessment approach whereby fume, from representative welding activities, is sampled onto a filter and returned to a laboratory for analysis. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are generally employed as instrumental techniques of choice for the analysis of such filter samples. An inherent difficulty, however, with inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques is that they typically require a sample to be presented for analysis in the form of a solution. The efficiency of the required dissolution step relies heavily upon the skill and experience of the analyst involved. A useful tool in assessing the efficacy of this dissolution step would be the availability and subsequent analysis of welding fume reference materials with stated elemental concentrations and matrices that match as closely as possible the matrix composition of welding fume samples submitted to laboratories for analysis. This article describes work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory to prepare and certify two new bulk welding fume reference materials that can be routinely used by analysts to assess the performance of the digestion procedures they employ in their laboratories.

  13. A Prospective Investigation of Biomechanical Risk Factors for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. The Joint Undertaking to Monitor and Prevent ACL Injury (JUMP-ACL) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-24

    varus were determined during the stance phase. The stance phase was defined as the period between initial ground contact with the force plate until...BW·ht) −0.06 ± 0.03 −0.08 ± 0.05 4.64 .03 Knee extension moment (%BW·ht) −0.21 ± 0.05 −0.23 ± 0.05 4.70 .03 Knee varus moment (%BW·ht) 0.05 ± 0.03...0.69,4.42 6.37 .23 1.54 0.54,4.37 8.09 .42 Knee extension moment (%BW·ht) 2.00 0.79,5.05 6.38 .14 1.69 0.57,5.01 8.80 .34 Knee varus moment

  14. Undertakings executed with oil energy related specialists invited from Japan and the European Union; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren senmonka shohei jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Four energy related specialists were invited from the European Union countries for a period of about three weeks to execute opinion exchange through orientations, corporation visits, and seminars. Discussions were carried out during visits to the following organizations: the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy and the Agency of industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the New Energy Foundation, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Engineering Research Association for Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Systems, the Coal Liquefaction PSU Research Center, the Coal Research Institute of Idemitsu Kosan Co. the Central Research Institute of Power Industry, Nippon Steel Corporation, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD. A Seminar was conducted on the following subjects: a German speaker described the research and development of a hydrogenation liquefying process to manufacture liquid fuel from coal and solid wastes, a coal hydrogenation liquefying technology, a technology to recover fuel and petrochemical materials from chemical and plastics wastes; a British speaker explained the state of R and D on clean coal and the roles of ETSU in England; and a Danish speaker announced the energy policies in Denmark, and the R and D on a plant that uses coal dust combustion under super critical pressure. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. ‘Why do an MPH?’ Motivations and intentions of physicians undertaking postgraduate public health training at the University of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia E.M. Zweigenthal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public health (PH approaches underpin the management and transformation of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the Master of Public Health (MPH rarely being a prerequisite for health service employment in South Africa, many physicians pursue MPH qualifications. Objectives: This study identifies their motivations and career intentions and explored MPH programme strengths and gaps in under- and post-graduate PH training. Design: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was completed by physicians graduating with an MPH between 2000 and 2009 and those enrolled in the programme in 2010 at the University of Cape Town. Results: Nearly a quarter of MPH students were physicians. Of the 65 contactable physicians, 48% responded. They were mid-career physicians who wished to obtain research training (55%, who wished to gain broader perspectives on health (32%, and who used the MPH to advance careers (90% as researchers, policy-makers, or managers. The MPH widened professional opportunities, with 62% changing jobs. They believed that inadequate undergraduate exposure should be remedied by applying PH approaches to clinical problems in community settings, which would increase the attractiveness of postgraduate PH training. Conclusions: The MPH allows physicians to transition from pure clinical to research, policy and/or management work, preparing them to innovate changes for effective health systems, responsive to the health needs of populations. Limited local job options and incentives are important constraining factors. Advocacy for positions requiring qualifications and benchmarking exit competencies of programmes nationally may promote enrolment.

  16. The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--chapter 2: Source pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2009-01-01

    An islet xenotransplantation product includes live cells from a non-human source, in this study, a pig source. A live product cannot be subjected to conventional disinfection, and therefore the source pig must be depleted of infectious agents that can transmit to the recipient and cause disease. Among other requirements, regulatory guidances specify that donor animals fulfill the designated pathogen-free (DPF) status. Donor pigs fulfilling DPF status are generally bred and maintained in biosecure facilities, where they are shielded from the outside by filtered air, disinfected water, and irradiated food that is certified free of any mammalian protein. All materials are autoclaved upon entry, and personnel enter by shower-in/shower-out, and are wearing special clothes. The operation of such facilities is in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices. To ensure DPF status, pigs are brought into such facilities via Cesarean section, and the source pigs are kept as a closed herd. The DPF status cannot be realized for endogenous viruses, such as porcine endogenous retrovirus. Therefore, regulatory authorities require patient monitoring after xenotransplantation. Considering the infectious pathogen status and necessary regulatory compliance, it is recommended that organ procurement be conducted at the animal facility and that cell manufacturing facilities be located nearby. To enable assessment of as-yet unknown pathogens long after xenotransplantation, regulatory guidances mandate archiving donor materials for at least 50 yr. As this is essentially a public health issue, governmental institutions are urged to be responsible for the archive.

  17. Psychological distress in student nurses undertaking an educational programme with professional registration as a nurse: their perceived barriers and facilitators in seeking psychological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2018-03-06

    The present study adds to the existing international evidence on psychological distress in the student population by focusing on student nurses. It quantitatively assesses psychological distress with comparative norms and investigates service uptake in in a single study. Investigate the level of psychological distress in students and compare this with population norms and highlight potential facilitators and barriers to help seeking. This study recruited N=121 student nurses from one university in a cross sectional design. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and one-way ANOVA's. The key findings show high levels of psychological distress which is above levels seen in the general population. The main barriers to seeking support was fear of disclosure and the perceived impact on their suitability as a student nurse. The study highlights that high levels of distress identified in the literature are seen in student nurses and that fear of disclosure may account for some not seeking support. The fear of disclosure and low levels of seeking support suggest there is a need for mental health nurses and academics to play a key role in mental health literacy and evidence-based interventions such as mindfulness to combat these issues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Experiences of persons with spinal cord injury undertaking a physical activity programme as part of the SCIPA 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Allyson; Nunnerley, Jo; Mulligan, Hilda; Ahmad Ali, Nordawama; Kensington, Gemma; McVicar, Tim; van Schaik, Olivia

    2018-04-01

    For individuals with spinal cord injury the long term benefits of physical activity are well documented, however the majority of this population report inactivity secondary to participatory barriers. Research investigating physically intensive exercise programs for people with spinal cord injury is limited, with even less attention paid to the experience of the participants. To explore the experiences of persons with spinal cord injury of their participation in the New Zealand arm of the Spinal Cord Injury and Physical Activity (SCIPA) 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial. Eight participants recruited to SCIPA Full-On completed individual virtual video diary interviews three times across the duration of their twelve week Full-On trial. Expectations and highs and lows of the program were recorded via a webcam. The video diary data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively for themes. Three independent themes were identified from the data: the participants' excitement of opportunity to participate in SCIPA Full-On' randomized controlled trial, personal rewards from participation and also the frustrations to participation they experienced. This study provides valuable information on factors that motivate participation in physical activity for individuals with spinal cord injury, within a research setting. The findings highlighted the importance of accessibility and a supportive network which may be a way to provide individuals with spinal cord injury the means to become self-efficacious to participate in community physical activity outside of the research environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Motivations for undertaking: an analysis of differences between men and women; Motivaciones para emprender: un analisis de diferencias entre hombre y mujeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fernandez, M.; Romero Fernandez, P. M.; Diaz Carrion, R.

    2012-11-01

    Over the last years, empirical evidence shows that, although the entrepreneurial activity of women has increased, it is still lower than that of their male counterparts. Recent works analyze the factors that explain this difference detailing two main barriers: external (related to the environment) and personal (socio demographic and perceptual aspects). Our purpose is to contribute in order to explain the way these factors determine entrepreneurial behaviour, either creating or transforming an enterprise, and if certain organizational aspects of their previous employment might have direct implications on the transformation or the creation decision too. (Author) 58 refs.

  20. Effects and safety of GnRH-a as a luteal support in women undertaking assisted reproductive technology procedures: follow-up results for pregnancy, delivery, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiqin; Zhuang, Yanyan; Pan, Yanping; Xia, Fei

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects and safety of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) as an addition to progesterone luteal support in women who underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) and achieved a clinical pregnancy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 214 patients who underwent IVF/ICSI-ET procedures with standard long mid-luteal protocol, of which 123 received GnRH-a-free protocol and 91 received GnRH-a-added protocol. The patients' pregnancy and delivery course, and their neonates' status at birth and growth/development after birth were statistically compared. There was no significant difference between both study groups regarding embryo risks and maternal complications during early pregnancy. as well as fetal risks during the middle and late stages and neonate risks during birth, except that the twin pregnancies of the GnRH-a-added group had a considerably greater male/female ratio, and a significantly higher rate of premature delivery and low birth weight than those of the GnRH-a-free group. In addition, there was no significant difference in neonate risks within 2 years after birth between both cohorts. With precautions taken to control the number of implanted embryos and reduce the incidence of twinning pregnancy, the addition of GnRH-a to luteal support is relatively safe and effective.

  1. Impact of pharmacists assisting with prescribing and undertaking medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T; Taylor, S E; Hardidge, A; Findakly, D; Aminian, P; Elliott, R A

    2017-10-01

    Overprescribing of oxycodone is a contributor to the epidemic of prescription opioid misuse and deaths. Practice models to optimize oxycodone prescribing and supply need to be evaluated. We explored the impact of pharmacist-assisted discharge prescribing and medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards. A retrospective audit was conducted on two surgical inpatient wards following a 16-week prospective pre- and post-intervention study. During the pre-intervention period, discharge prescriptions were prepared by hospital doctors and then reviewed by a ward pharmacist (WP) before being dispensed. Post-intervention, prescriptions were prepared by a project pharmacist in consultation with hospital doctors and then reviewed by a WP and dispensed. Proportion of patients who were prescribed, and proportion supplied, oxycodone on discharge; Median amount (milligrams) of oxycodone prescribed and supplied, for patients who were prescribed and supplied at least one oxycodone-containing preparation, respectively. A total of 320 and 341 patients were evaluated pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Pre-intervention, 75.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 60.3% were supplied oxycodone (P<.01); the median amount both prescribed and supplied was 100 milligrams/patient. Post-intervention, 68.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 57.8% were supplied oxycodone (P<.01); median amount prescribed and supplied was 50 milligrams/patient (difference in amount prescribed and supplied: 50 milligrams, P<.01). WP review of doctor-prepared prescriptions reduced the proportion of patients who were supplied oxycodone but not the amount supplied/patient. Having a pharmacist assist with prescribing reduced the amount of oxycodone supplied. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Undertaking high impact strategies: The role of national efficiency measures in long-term energy and emission reduction in steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tengfang; Karali, Nihan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluate long-term effects of national energy efficiency in steel making. • Use bottom-up optimization for projection in China, India and the U.S. • The effects include changes in steel production, energy use, emissions, and costs. • Three emission targets induce different structural changes and investments. • Projected energy and CO 2 intensity declines in each country from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: In this paper, we applied bottom-up linear optimization modeling to analyze long-term national impacts of implementing energy efficiency measures on energy savings, CO 2 -emission reduction, production, and costs of steel making in China, India, and the U.S. We first established two base scenarios representing business-as-usual steel production for each country from 2010 to 2050; Base scenario (in which no efficiency measure is available) and Base-E scenario (in which efficiency measures are available), and model scenarios representing various emission-reduction targets that affects production, annual energy use and costs with the goal of cost minimization. A higher emission-reduction target generally induces larger structural changes and increased investments in nation-wide efficiency measures, in addition to autonomous improvement expected in the Base scenario. Given the same emission-reduction target compared to the base scenario, intensity of annual energy use and emissions exhibits declining trends in each country from year 2010 to 2050. While a higher emission-reduction target result in more energy reduction from the base scenario, such reduction can become more expensive to achieve. The results advance our understanding of long-term effects of national energy efficiency applications under different sets of emission-reduction targets for steel sectors in the three major economies, and provide useful implications for high impact strategies to manage production structures, production costs, energy use, and emission reduction in steel making

  3. Correlation Between the Efficiency of Machinery and Equipment and the Productivity of Workers and its Effect on the Performance of a Metallurgical Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulawik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the example of procedure of life and objectify work effectiveness analysis in metallurgical enterprise were presented. Besides, on the example of chosen units of metallurgical enterprise, results of analysis - based on methodic proposed in the article - were discussed.

  4. Decree of 1 August 1981 on examinations for qualified experts and physicians authorised to undertake physical surveillance for protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. This Decree of the Minister of labour and Social Affairs of 1 August 1981 concerns the procedure for admission to examinations, for inclusion in the national list, of qualified experts and approved medical practitioners who are competent in radiation protection matters. the Decree replaces a former Decree of 24 June 1978 on the same subjec [fr

  5. Industrial Guidelines for Undertaking a Hard-Core Employment Program: An Analytic Case Study of the Experience of an Urban Industrial Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Irwin; And Others

    Based on an analytically evaluative case study of a New York City furniture department store's experiences with a Manpower Administration contract, this report deals with the development and progress of the program as analyzed by one investigator through interviews with almost all of the participants in the program. As a result of the study,…

  6. The concept of abusive clauses/unfair terms in contracts concluded between the undertakings, on the one hand, and the consumers, on the other hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Teodora Stănescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the concept of unfair terms characterized only the contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Currently, the concept is also incident in other types of contracts. This study only concerns the concept of unfair terms applicable to contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Main regulations applicable are represented by Law no. 193/2000 on unfair terms in contracts concluded between professionals and consumers and Directive 93/13 / EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts (interpreted by the ECJ. Scientific work is proposed to set up the concept of unfair terms. In order to do so, several steps are to be followed: 1. determining the scope (contracts on the sale of goods or services concluded between professionals and consumers 2. analysis of unfair terms defining features: (a the absence of negotiation between the contracting parties, (b the presence of a significant imbalance between the rights and obligations of the parties, to the detriment of consumers and (c the breach of good faith 3. the identification of the incident sanctions 4. the highlighting of some procedural features (especially in terms of the effects of court decisions finding the unfairness of a contractual term.

  7. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  8. An experiential model of education introduced to improve the confidence of student midwives in undertaking second stage management of the perineum (SSMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Teresa; Coxon, Kirstie

    2018-02-13

    the limited availability of high quality evidence related to second stage management of the perineum (SSMP) combined with a perceived shift in UK practice towards a 'hands off' the perineum/fetal head approach are likely to have impacted significantly on student midwives' understanding of SSMP. This paper presents a classroom based educational session using low fidelity simulation, which was designed in response to student feedback and aimed to improve confidence in this skill. reflective teaching practice, based on evaluation of SSMP teaching. an undergraduate midwifery programme based at an inner city university in London UK. student midwives. the education session based on Kolb's experiential approach to learning appeared to address gaps in the previous teaching which was identified by students. The Classroom setting offered students a supportive setting in which to experiment with different SSMP approaches with a view to personalising care and without compromising safety. although further longitudnal research is needed, the experiential model appears to offer a low resource approach to teaching SSMP and has potential application in other countries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Causes of Their Death Appear (Unto Our Shame Perpetual): Why Root Cause Analysis Is Not the Best Model for Error Investigation in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrklevski, Lila Petar; McKechnie, Leanne; OʼConnor, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is the model of accident investigation mandated by the New South Wales Ministry of Health in Australia to review all serious incidents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the RCA model is not suitable for reviewing adverse events in mental health services such as suicides and homicides. The aims of the research were to evaluate the impact of RCA on improving patient outcomes in a regional mental health service in New South Wales, Australia, and to discover whether the RCA model is the most appropriate model in mental health. The literature on RCA was reviewed. The effectiveness of implementation of RCA recommendations was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative data. Suicides and homicides, which constitute 90% of serious critical incidents in mental health, do not always lend themselves well to identification of a root cause. There is evidence for low clinician engagement in the recommendations that arise from RCAs and a poor level of evidence that implementation of RCA recommendations results in safer patient care. Most troubling is the finding that RCAs frequently make recommendations that repeat existing policy or previous recommendations. Although the RCA model offers a formal and systematic approach to the review of serious critical incidents in mental health, it is not the model of best fit. Only 65% of recommendations made through RCA reviews are implemented within 12 months.

  10. The perfect storm: incarceration and the high-risk environment perpetuating transmission of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altice, Frederick L; Azbel, Lyuba; Stone, Jack; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Dvoriak, Sergii; Taxman, Faye S; El-Bassel, Nabila; Martin, Natasha K; Booth, Robert; Stöver, Heino; Dolan, Kate; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-09-17

    Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons. Evidence-based primary and secondary prevention of HIV using opioid agonist therapies such as methadone and buprenorphine is available in prisons in only a handful of EECA countries (methadone or buprenorphine in five countries and needle and syringe programmes in three countries), with none of them meeting recommended coverage levels. Similarly, antiretroviral therapy coverage, especially among people who inject drugs, is markedly under-scaled. Russia completely bans opioid agonist therapies and does not support needle and syringe programmes-with neither available in prisons-despite the country's high incarceration rate and having the largest burden of people with HIV who inject drugs in the region. Mathematical modelling for Ukraine suggests that high levels of incarceration in EECA countries facilitate HIV transmission among people who inject drugs, with 28-55% of all new HIV infections over the next 15 years predicted to be attributable to heightened HIV transmission risk among currently or previously incarcerated people who inject drugs. Scaling up of opioid agonist therapies within prisons and maintaining treatment after release would yield the greatest HIV transmission reduction in people who inject drugs. Additional analyses also suggest that at least 6% of all incident tuberculosis cases, and 75% of incident tuberculosis cases in people who inject drugs are due to incarceration. Interventions that reduce incarceration itself and effectively intervene with prisoners to screen, diagnose, and treat addiction and HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are urgently needed to stem the multiple overlapping epidemics concentrated in prisons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Post transplant urinary tract infection in Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease a perpetual diagnostic dilema - 18-fluorodeoxyglucose - Positron emission computerized tomography - A valuable tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainaresh, VV; Jain, SH; Patel, HV; Shah, PR; Vanikar, AV; Trivedi, HL

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection contracted by renal allograft recipients. In patients of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cyst infection presents a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge especially in the post transplant period. Accurate diagnosis forms the cornerstone in salvaging the graft from potentially catastrophic outcome. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) in the native kidney in a patient of post transplant ADPKD which presented as frequently relapsing UTI with graft dysfunction where in accurate diagnosis was made possible with the aid of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) - Positron emission computerized tomography (PET/CT)

  12. A qualitative study of perpetuating factors for long term sick leave and promoting factors for return to work: chronic work disabled patients in their own words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M.; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic work disability generates high financial costs for society and causes personal suffering to patients and their families; however, crucial knowledge about the factors associated with long-term sick leave is still missing. This study provides insight, from the perspective of chronic

  13. Culpa da vítima: um modelo para perpetuar a impunidade nos acidentes do trabalho Guilty victims: a model to perpetuate impunity for work-related accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia Vilela

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisam-se os laudos e dados obtidos das investigações de acidentes graves e fatais do trabalho efetuadas pelo Instituto de Criminalística (IC, Regional de Piracicaba. Foram analisados 71 laudos de acidentes ocorridos em 1998, 1999 e 2000. Os acidentes envolvendo máquinas representam 38,0%, seguido pelas quedas de altura (15,5% e em terceiro lugar os causados por corrente elétrica (11,3%. Os laudos concluem que 80,0% dos acidentes são causados por "atos inseguros" cometidos pelos trabalhadores, enquanto que a falta de segurança ou "condição insegura" responde por 15,5% dos casos. A responsabilização das vítimas ocorre mesmo em situações de elevado risco em que não são adotadas as mínimas condições de segurança, com repercussão favorável ao interesse dos empregadores. Observa-se que estas conclusões refletem os modelos explicativos tradicionais, reducionistas, em que os acidentes são fenômenos simples, de causa única, centrada via de regra nos erros e falhas das próprias vítimas. A despeito das críticas que tem recebido nas duas últimas décadas no meio técnico e acadêmico, esta concepção mantém-se hegemônica prejudicando o desenvolvimento de políticas preventivas e a melhoria das condições de trabalho.This article analyzes reports and data from the investigation of severe and fatal work-related accidents by the Regional Institute of Criminology in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Some 71 accident investigation reports were analyzed from 1998, 1999, and 2000. Accidents involving machinery represented 38.0% of the total, followed by high falls (15.5%, and electric shocks (11.3%. The reports conclude that 80.0% of the accidents are caused by "unsafe acts" committed by workers themselves, while the lack of safety or "unsafe conditions" account for only 15.5% of cases. Victims are blamed even in situations involving high risk in which not even minimum safety conditions are adopted, thus favoring employers' interests. Such conclusions reflect traditional reductionist explanatory models, in which accidents are viewed as simple, unicausal phenomena, generally focused on slipups and errors by the workers themselves. Despite criticism in recent decades from the technical and academic community, this concept is still hegemonic, thus jeopardizing the development of preventive policies and the improvement of work conditions.

  14. Chapter 4: Contesting the Model Minority and Perpetual Foreigner Stereotypes--A Critical Review of Literature on Asian Americans in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jennifer C.; Lee, Sharon S.; Pak, Yoon K.

    2007-01-01

    There are several aims of this literature review. At its basic level, the authors' goal is to provide readers with content knowledge of the educational research on Asian Americans, highlighting important findings and key studies in the field. It is their goal to identify themes and trends and look to important future directions as a whole,…

  15. Further improvements in conducting and transparent properties of ZnO:Ga films with perpetual c-axis orientation: Materials optimization and application in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti

    2017-07-01

    Technologically appropriate device friendly ZnO:Ga films have been prepared at a low growth temperature (100 °C) by changing the RF power (P) applied to the magnetron plasma. Structurally preferred c-axis orientation of the ZnO:Ga network has been attained with I〈002〉/I〈103〉 > 5. The c-axis oriented grains of wurtzite ZnO:Ga grows geometrically and settles in tangentially, providing favorable conduction path for stacked layer devices. Nano-sheet like structures produced at the surface are interconnected and provide conducting path across the surface; however, those accommodate a lot of pores in between that help better light trapping and reduce the reflection loss. The optimized ZnO:Ga thin film prepared at RF power of 200 W has 〈002〉 oriented grains of average size ∼10 nm and exhibits a very high conductivity ∼200 S cm-1 and elevated transmission (∼93% at 500 nm) in the visible range. The optimized ZnO:Ga film has been used as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) window layer of RF-PECVD grown silicon thin film solar cells in glass/TCO/p-i-n-Si/Al configuration. The characteristics of identically prepared p-i-n-Si solar cells are compared by replacing presently developed ZnO:Ga TCO with the best quality U-type SnO2 coated Asahi glass substrates. The ZnO:Ga coated glass substrate offers a higher open circuit voltage (VOC) and the higher fill factor (FF). The ZnO:Ga film being more stable in hydrogen plasma than its SnO2 counterpart, maintains a high transparency to the solar radiation and improves the VOC, while reduced diffusion of Zn across the p-layer creates less defects at the p-i interface in Si:H cells and thereby, increases the FF. Nearly identical conversion efficiency is preserved for both TCO substrates. Excellent c-axis orientation even at low growth temperature promises improved device performance by extended parametric optimization.

  16. Intrusion of Subarctic Currents into a Perpetual Sub-zero Cold Pool Allows Recruitment and Export of Snow Crabs in the Northern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolts, J. M.; Lovvorn, J. R.; North, C. A.; Janout, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) are quite productive at suitable temperatures, but can also be abundant in water cold enough to depress settlement of larvae, growth, and reproduction. In much of the northern Bering Sea, bottom water temperatures are 0°C, so we found high densities of juveniles only where intruding warm currents deposited larvae in localized areas. After settlement, maturing crabs appeared to exhibit ontogenetic migration toward deeper, warmer water. Cold temperatures excluded key predators, but decreased fecundity by restricting females to small body size (with associated small clutches) and to breeding every 2 years. Migration to warmer water may allow females to breed annually, and to encounter more adult males needed to fertilize subsequent clutches. Because older males also emigrate, remaining adolescent males probably inseminate newly maturing females. Without localized intrusion of warmer currents, snow crabs might not persist at high densities in such cold waters. However, they are currently very abundant there, and export many pelagic larvae and adults. In this region of Arctic temperatures, the combination of localized intrusion of warm, Subarctic currents and ontogenetic migration toward warmer Subarctic waters allows this area to contribute importantly to adult crab populations in adjacent areas.

  17. Using ethnicity as a classification variable in health research: perpetuating the myth of biological determinism, serving socio-political agendas, or making valuable contributions to medical sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S S

    1999-11-01

    There is a need for a valid way to classify the human species consistently and reliably, be it to highlight similarities between human populations such as intelligence or physical capacity, to dispel myths about group differences, or to discover 'novel' risk factors for diseases. In contrast to racial divisions, which are usually based on differences in skin colour and physical features, ethnicity is a complex concept which has both socio-cultural and biological components. However, because of the relative vagueness of the term, the interpretation of the 'Ethnicity' construct is not simple, and its definition is often unique to the research project at hand. Therefore conducting ethnicity-research necessitates being aware of the differences between the concept of ethnicity and race, acknowledgement of the complexity of the ethnicity construct, and requires that a clear definition of the use of this term be made explicit by the researcher.

  18. Tricks of the Trade: State Legislative Actions in School Finance Policy that Perpetuate Racial Disparities in the Post-Brown Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Green, Preston C., III

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the tricks of the trade that legislatures in formerly de jure segregated states might use to maintain racial funding disparities in existence before Brown and whether such ploys might be vulnerable to legal challenges. The first section provides an overview of modern school finance formulas and explains how legislatures in…

  19. Exploring the Role of BET Bromodomain Proteins in AR Transcriptional Regulation: A Perpetuating Cycle of JQ1 Resistance in CRPC Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    cells acquire resistance to anti-androgens. Paradoxically, despite the prolonged AR antagonist treatment, expression of AR is not abated in CRPCs...Paradoxically, despite the prolonged AR antagonist treatment, expression of AR is not abated, signifying AR as the Achilles heel to achieve realistic...mutations in HOXB13 and prostate-cancer risk. The New England journal of medicine . 2012;366:141-9. 5. Cai C, He HH, Chen S, Coleman I, Wang H, Fang

  20. Is physical deconditioning a perpetuating factor in chronic fatigue syndrome? A controlled study on maximal exercise performance and relations with fatigue, impairment and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazelmans, H.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients often complain that physical exertion produces an increase of complaints, leading to a greater need for rest and more time spent in bed. It has been suggested that this is due to a bad physical fitness and that physical deconditioning is a

  1. E-banking Complexities and the Perpetual Effect on Customer Satisfaction in Rwandan Commercial Banking Industry: Gender as a Moderating Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Machogu AM; Okiko L

    2015-01-01

    The marvelous kinds of innovation in technology and hard line blend of it with information technology has made a paradigm shift in the banking industry. Transformation from traditional, bricks-and-mortar banking to E-banking has been momentous. The major innovation in technology have been a major force in the radical transformation that has led to the geographical, legal and industrial barriers and has led to the creation of new products and services more so in the banking industry. E-banking...

  2. Do Professors Really Perpetuate the Gender Gap in Science? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in a French Higher Education Institution. CEE DP 138

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Thomas; Ly, Son Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypes, role models played by teachers and social norms influence girls' academic self-concept and push girls to choose humanities rather than science. Do recruiters reinforce this strong selection by discriminating more against girls in more scientific subjects? Using the entrance exam of a French higher education institution (the Ecole…

  3. Reparative Substitution and the ‘Efficacy Objection’: Toward a Modified Satisfaction Theory of Atonement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farris Joshua R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine of the atonement is a subject of perpetual curiosity for a number of contemporary theologians. The penal substitution theory of atonement in particular has precipitated a great deal of recent interest, being held up by many (mostly evangelical Protestants as ‘the’ doctrine of atonement. In this essay, we make a defense against the objection to the Anselmian theory of atonement that is often leveled against it by exponents of the Penal Substitution theory, namely, that Christ’s work does not accomplish anything for those whom it appears he undertakes his atoning work, but merely makes provision for salvation.

  4. "I Caught It at the Movies": Reflections on Medical History, Movie Theaters, and the Cinema of Contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    Undertaking an examination of the precarious places of the movies and movie theaters in queer lives in the 20th century, this article takes up a series of anecdotal episodes and feature-length films to consider how the space-related stakes of LGBT health have been best understood in literal cinema houses and the narrative cinema projections inside of them. The author argues for an appreciation of LGBT-themed motion pictures as oscillating between perpetuator of queer pathology and its potential solution.

  5. Countermobilization: Unconventional Social Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    of neoliberal economic policies and the poor distribution practices of income . 88 The EZLN view the consequences of neoliberalism as the principal...jihad until the world was purified from the ideals of infidels . 168 When the enemy enters that land of the Muslims, jihad becomes individually

  6. 77 FR 4082 - Review and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka al-Qaida of the... Organization Base of Jihad/Mesopotamia, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in the Land of...

  7. 77 FR 4083 - Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Specially Designated Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka al-Qaida of the Jihad in the Land of the Two.../Mesopotamia, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka Tanzeem...

  8. Now Is the Time for CVE-2. Updating and Implementing a Revised U.S. National Strategy to Counter Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Global to Micro Jihad: Three Trends of Grassroots Terrorism,” 2. 206 “Majalah Jihad Al-Qaeda Berbahasa Inggris Baru , Resurgence,” YouTube video...Al-Qaeda Berbahasa Inggris Baru , Resurgence,” YouTube video. 65 historical 600 CE era religious centric issue to a social “awakening” more similar to...http://www.malcolm-x.org/speeches/spc_021465.htm. 212 “Majalah Jihad Al-Qaeda Berbahasa Inggris Baru , Resurgence,” YouTube video. 66 that VE is

  9. The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    ... of a nuclear power reactor at Bushehr -- and to a 1994-1995 spate of terrorist attacks in Israel by the Islamist organizations Hamas and Palestine Islamic Jihad, both of which receive some financial...

  10. The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    ... of a nuclear power reactor at Bushehr -- and to a 1994-1995 spate of terrorist attacks in Israel by the Islamist organizations Hamas and Palestine Islamic Jihad, both of which receive some financial...

  11. Ayman Al-Zawahiri: The Ideologue of Modern Islamic Militancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aboul-Enein, Youssef H

    2004-01-01

    .... Understanding Al-Zawahiri is to understand the most violent form of Islamic radicalism, one where there is no negotiation and an uncompromising attitude in waging an offensive jihad on those he...

  12. Insurgency in Thailand: Time to Tame the Islamist Tiger?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vavich, Nicholas P

    2007-01-01

    .... While the insurgency is not currently aligned to the global jihad movement, the United States' response should be based on the potential the southern Thailand insurgency poses if left to take its own course...

  13. After Zarqawi: The Dilemmas and Future of Al Qaeda in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fishman, Brian

    2006-01-01

    ... different conceptions of jihad. The U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq minimized the magnitude of that ideological clash, enabling Zarqawi's limited cooperation with Al Qaeda in the Iraqi arena...

  14. Beyond al-Qaeda. Part 1. The Global Jihadist Movement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel; Chalk, Peter; Cragin, Kim; Daly, Sara A; Gregg, Heather S; Karasik, Theodore W; O'Brien, Kevin A; Rosenau, William

    2006-01-01

    ... the United States today. The global jihadist movement can be distinguished from traditional or local jihads, which are armed campaigns conducted by Islamist groups against local adversaries with usually limited aims...

  15. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  16. The Impact of Duty to Warn (And Other Legal Theories) on Countering Violent Extremism Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Max Kwiatkowski, and Joy Wundersitz, Police Drug Diversion: A Study of Criminal Offending Outcomes, Research and Public Policy Series, no. 97...Source: TheDenverChannel.com Team, “Shannon Conley, Arvada Teen Who Tried to Join ISIS to Wage Jihad, Sentenced to 4 Years in Prison,” 7NEWS, January 24...2015, http://www.thedenverchannel. com/news/local-news/sentencing-for-shannon-conley-arvada- teen -who-tried-to-join-isis-to-wage-jihad. 2 Church

  17. Convergence And Exploitation: Transnational Organized Crime, Terrorism And The Threat To America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    terrorist organization with long-known ties to Iran. Al Qaeda and Associated Movements. Sunni terrorist organization with associated franchises ...terrorist franchise with aspirations to destroy America, her interests and her people. Founded in 1988 after the successful jihad (or Muslim holy war...lands, citing the United States specifically as a main aggressor.20 Four years after UBL’s death, the al Qaeda franchise continues its global jihad

  18. Yemen: Comparative Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    judged to be kafir is an apostate or infidel . Finally, Jihadi-Salafism emphasizes the importance of a classic, early Islam definition of jihad to the...faith. Muslims must wage jihad against infidel and apostate regimes.125 The movement in Yemen has at times fused their Jihadi-Salafism with another...lasting effects. First, many southerners still bear a grudge against bin Laden (and al Qaeda) because of his role as a financer of IJY ($20 million

  19. Diagnosing the Boko Haram Conflict: Grievances, Motivations, and Institutional Resilience in Northeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    corrupt yan boko (elites trained at secular schools) who are currently in positions of power.52 Underemployed northern youth In concert with income ... incomers .” See: Alex Perry, “Boko Haram: Terror’s Insidious New Face,” Newsweek, online, 9 July 2014, accessed 15 July 2014 at http://www.newsweek.com...completely, and wage active jihad against infidels , was unfit to rule.122 Today Boko Haram argues that a jihad against the state and an Islamization of

  20. 2018-03-07T09:47:38Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obscurantisme, islamisme, jihad, théocratie s'installent. Le siècle exprime en fait un nouveau concept de révolutions postmodernes ou la société se trouve en intersection entre philosophie, politique et religion. Les trois pivots de tous les faits sociaux.Mots clés: révolution, Islam, globalisation, démocratie, jihad, volonté de ...