WorldWideScience

Sample records for undertake experimental analysis

  1. Benchmark analysis of railway networks and undertakings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark analysis of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international railway benchmarking

  2. Technology transfer in the hydropower industry: An analysis of Chinese dam developers’ undertakings in Europe and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial

    2018-01-01

    Technology transfer is essential for transitioning to a low carbon economy which can include hydropower. Chinese dam developers allegedly dominate the global hydropower industry. Studies have been carried out on technology transfer in their undertakings in Africa and Asia. However, such work is

  3. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  4. Public Undertakings and Imputability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    exercised by the State, imputability to the State, and the State’s fulfilment of the Market Economy Investor Principle. Furthermore, it is examined whether, in the absence of imputability, public undertakings’ market behaviour is subject to the Market Economy Investor Principle, and it is concluded...... that this is not the case. Lastly, it is discussed whether other legal instruments, namely competition law, public procurement law, or the Transparency Directive, regulate public undertakings’ market behaviour. It is found that those rules are not sufficient to mend the gap created by the imputability requirement. Legal......In this article, the issue of impuability to the State of public undertakings’ decision-making is analysed and discussed in the context of the DSBFirst case. DSBFirst is owned by the independent public undertaking DSB and the private undertaking FirstGroup plc and won the contracts in the 2008...

  5. Jet Joint Undertaking. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The scientific, technical, experimental and theoretical investigations related to JET tokamak are presented. The JET Joint Undertaking, Volume 2, includes papers presented at: the 15th European Conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating, the 15th Symposium on fusion technology, the 12th IAEA Conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research, the 8th Topical Meeting on technology of fusion. Moreover, the following topics, concerning JET, are discussed: experience with wall materials, plasma performance, high power ion cyclotron resonance heating, plasma boundary, results and prospects for fusion, preparation for D-T operation, active gas handling system and remote handling equipment

  6. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  7. JET joint undertaking. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. After an introductive part on the controlled nuclear fusion research and an historical survey of the JET project, are presented: the JET joint undertaking (members of council and committee...) with its administration (finance, personnel, external relations), and the scientific and technical department with its divisions for systems (experimental, magnet, plasma, assembly, power supplies, control and data acquisition, and site and building). In appendix is described the Euratom fusion research programme

  8. Experimental Analysis of Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    analysis tools for benchmark studies of heuristics for the Traveling Salesman Problem. Crowder, Dembo , and Mulvey[17] discuss issues in the presentation of...H. P. Crower, R. S. Dembo , and J. M. Mulvey. Reporting computational experiments in mathematical programming. Mathematical Programming 15:316-329

  9. Conditions and Motivations to Undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Ángela Marulanda Valencia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at deepening in the analysis of motivations shown by a group of entrepreneurs in Medellin, Antioquia. It also describes the different perceptions about the enablers and obstacles for the development of entrepreneurship in appropriate environments to promote it. It was found that independence was the principal motivation for entrepreneurship and that the city offered the most favourable environment to foster it. Additionally, it was found that the most important obstacle to develop it was the difficulties to access a bank credit.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Wireless networking is currently being deployed for various applications. However, the application of wireless networking in healthcare remains a challenge mainly because of security and reliability concerns. This paper presents experimental results of performance analysis of a wireless network for healthcare ...

  11. Preparation and certification of two new bulk welding fume reference materials for use in laboratories undertaking analysis of occupational hygiene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Owen; Musgrove, Darren; Stacey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Workers can be exposed to fume, arising from welding activities, which contain toxic metals and metalloids. Occupational hygienists need to assess and ultimately minimize such exposure risks. The monitoring of the concentration of particles in workplace air is one assessment approach whereby fume, from representative welding activities, is sampled onto a filter and returned to a laboratory for analysis. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are generally employed as instrumental techniques of choice for the analysis of such filter samples. An inherent difficulty, however, with inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques is that they typically require a sample to be presented for analysis in the form of a solution. The efficiency of the required dissolution step relies heavily upon the skill and experience of the analyst involved. A useful tool in assessing the efficacy of this dissolution step would be the availability and subsequent analysis of welding fume reference materials with stated elemental concentrations and matrices that match as closely as possible the matrix composition of welding fume samples submitted to laboratories for analysis. This article describes work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory to prepare and certify two new bulk welding fume reference materials that can be routinely used by analysts to assess the performance of the digestion procedures they employ in their laboratories.

  12. Conversational Analysis as a Method for Research on Intercultural Learning: A Report on a Project with the Aim of "Learning by Undertaking Research"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berkenbusch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversational analysis—situated between pragmatic linguistics and qualitative empirical research—is a complex method, which needs a lot of time and dedication. It is necessary to develop a so-called “analytical mentality”. The aim of the project presented in this paper was to develop the theoretical insights and the practical skills of a group of students for this kind of research. They worked together throughout the duration of the project, especially in the collec¬tion of empiric material: i.e. the recording of conversations between foreign and German stu¬dents, the transcription of the material, a group discussion on the data and finally its analysis. This articles aims at showing what students can learn by doing this kind of work, based on examples of the collected empirical material: (1 they will be introduced to the different levels and stages of the research process and have the chance to develop a methodical and methodological competence; (2 their general communicative competences and their special competences of the foreign language will increase, as well as (3 their knowledge of intercultural learning by working with authentic data of intercultural communication. So, for instance, stereotypes and how they have been constructed during the interaction may be analysed and precisely described on a micro-analytical level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901335

  13. Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings Management: A Case Study. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... It concludes that the current accounting systems such as financial accounting, cost accounting and reporting systems are not suitable for the effective and efficient management.

  14. Experimental analysis of armouring process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Alberto; Paris, Ennio

    Preliminary results from an experimental investigation on armouring processes are presented. Particularly, the process of development and formation of the armour layer under different steady flow conditions has been analyzed in terms of grain size variations and sediment transport rate associated to each size fraction.

  15. On Experimental Thermal Analysis of Solid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koštial Pavel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the presentation of a method for measurement of thermal conductivity k, specific heat capacity cp, and thermal diffusivity applying the lumped capacitance model (LCM as a special case of Newton’s model of cooling. At the specific experimental conditions resulting from the theoretical analysis of the used model, we present a method for experimental determination of all three above mentioned thermal parameters for materials with different thermal transport properties. The input experimental data provide a cooling curve of the tested material. The evaluation of experimental data is realized by software, the fundamental features of which are presented here. The statistical analysis of experimental data was performed.

  16. Data Analysis in Experimental Biomedical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitriy

    This thesis covers two non-related topics in experimental biomedical research: data analysis in thrombin generation experiments (collaboration with Novo Nordisk A/S), and analysis of images and physiological signals in the context of neurovascular signalling and blood flow regulation in the brain...

  17. On Experimental Thermal Analysis of Solid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Koštial Pavel; Špička Ivo; Jančikova Zora; Valiček Jan; Harničarova Marta; Hlinka Josef

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the presentation of a method for measurement of thermal conductivity k, specific heat capacity cp, and thermal diffusivity applying the lumped capacitance model (LCM) as a special case of Newton’s model of cooling. At the specific experimental conditions resulting from the theoretical analysis of the used model, we present a method for experimental determination of all three above mentioned thermal parameters for materials with different thermal transport properties. T...

  18. Experimental research on English vowel errors analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Qiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Our paper analyzed relevant acoustic parameters of people’s speech samples and the results that compared with English standard pronunciation with methods of experimental phonetics by phonetic analysis software and statistical analysis software. Then we summarized phonetic pronunciation errors of college students through the analysis of English pronunciation of vowels, we found that college students’ English pronunciation are easy occur tongue position and lip shape errors during pronounce vow...

  19. Organelle proteomics experimental designs and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Laurent; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Huber, Wolfgang; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2010-11-01

    In biology, localisation is function: knowledge of the localisation of proteins is of paramount importance to assess and study their function. This supports the need for reliable protein sub-cellular localisation assignment. Concomitant with recent technological advances in organelle proteomics, there is a requirement for more rigorous experimental and analysis design planning and description. In this review, we present an overview of current experimental designs in qualitative and quantitative organelle proteomics as well as associated data analysis. We also consider the major benefits associated with careful description and dissemination of the experiment and analysis designs, namely (i) comparison and optimisation of experimental designs and analysis pipelines, (ii) data validation, (iii) reproducible research, (iv) efficient repository submission and retrieval and (v) meta analysis. Formalization of experimental design and analysis work flows is of direct benefit for the organelle proteomics researchers and will result in providing organelle localisation data of highest quality for the wider research community. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Experimental research on English vowel errors analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzed relevant acoustic parameters of people’s speech samples and the results that compared with English standard pronunciation with methods of experimental phonetics by phonetic analysis software and statistical analysis software. Then we summarized phonetic pronunciation errors of college students through the analysis of English pronunciation of vowels, we found that college students’ English pronunciation are easy occur tongue position and lip shape errors during pronounce vowels. Based on analysis of pronunciation errors, we put forward targeted voice training for college students’ English pronunciation, eventually increased the students learning interest, and improved the teaching of English phonetics.

  1. Experimental data base for containment thermalhydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Bazin, P.; Cornet, P.; Hittner, D.; Jackson, J.D.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Naviglio, A.; Oriolo, F.; Petzold, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the joint research project DABASCO which is supported by the European Community under a cost-shared contract and participated by nine European institutions. The main objective of the project is to provide a generic experimental data base for the development of physical models and correlations for containment thermalhydraulic analysis. The project consists of seven separate-effects experimental programs which deal with new innovative conceptual features, e.g. passive decay heat removal and spray systems. The results of the various stages of the test programs will be assessed by industrial partners in relation to their applicability to reactor conditions

  2. Jet Joint Undertaking. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Joint European Torus is the largest project in the coordinated fusion programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). A brief general introduction provides an overview of the planning of the Report. This is followed by a description of JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes, which summarize the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, this relates and compares JET to other large fusion devices throughout the world. The following section reports on the technical status of the machine including: technical changes and achievements during 1989; details of the operational organization of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operation. This is followed by the results of JET operations in 1990 under various operating conditions, including ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; the overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards reactor conditions. In particular, the comparative performance between JET and other tokamaks, in terms of the triple fusion product, shows the substantial achievements made by JET since the start of operations in 1983. The second part of the Report explains the organization and management of the Project and describes the administration of JET. In particular, it sets out the budget situation; contractual arrangements during 1990; and details of the staffing arrangements and complement

  3. Undertaking midwifery studies: commencing students' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina

    2011-10-01

    to explore the motivations and beliefs of commencing midwifery students against a background of high course demand and high student attrition. a qualitative analysis of student reflective essays. Melbourne, Australia. all commencing midwifery students, in 2008, were invited to participate (n = 41). three primary motivations for choosing midwifery were identified, including: notions of altruism (wanting to help), a fascination with pregnancy and birth, and a view of midwifery as a personally satisfying career. Bachelor of Midwifery programmes attract students with idealised views about midwifery practice. Such views may lead to student disillusionment, tensions with educators and clinicians, and higher rates of student attrition. Students need greater support to examine their views about midwifery practice. More meaningful support may assist the students' successful socialisation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complexity analysis of experimental cardiac arrhythmia

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Binbin; Binczak, Stéphane; Jacquir, Sabir; Pont, Oriol; Yahia, Hussein

    2014-01-01

    International audience; To study the cardiac arrhythmia, an in vitro experimental model and Multielectrodes Array (MEA) are used. This platform serves as an intermediary of the electrical activities of cardiac cells and the signal processing / dynamics analysis. Through it the extracellular potential of cardiac cells is acquired, allowing a real-time monitoring / analyzing. Since MEA has 60 electrodes / channels dispatched in a rectangular region, it allows real-time monitoring and signal acq...

  5. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  6. Non-financial reporting, CSR frameworks and groups of undertakings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Dániel Gergely; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    The recently adopted Directive on non-financial reporting (Directive 2014/95/EU) and several CSR frameworks are based on the assumption that groups of undertakings adopt, report and implement one group policy. This is a very important but also rather unique approach to groups. This article first...

  7. Using an undertaker's data to assess changing patterns of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key informant interviews were done to support the undertaker's data and determine how families bear the burden of burying deceased relatives. Despite a disproportionate increase in deaths in certain age categories and evidence of worsening poverty, funerals remain large and elaborate affairs. Keywords: AIDS, burial ...

  8. Analysis of the interaction between experimental and applied behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Cox, Alison D; Pear, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    To study the influences between basic and applied research in behavior analysis, we analyzed the coauthorship interactions of authors who published in JABA and JEAB from 1980 to 2010. We paid particular attention to authors who published in both JABA and JEAB (dual authors) as potential agents of cross-field interactions. We present a comprehensive analysis of dual authors' coauthorship interactions using social networks methodology and key word analysis. The number of dual authors more than doubled (26 to 67) and their productivity tripled (7% to 26% of JABA and JEAB articles) between 1980 and 2010. Dual authors stood out in terms of number of collaborators, number of publications, and ability to interact with multiple groups within the field. The steady increase in JEAB and JABA interactions through coauthors and the increasing range of topics covered by dual authors provide a basis for optimism regarding the progressive integration of basic and applied behavior analysis. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Original article Personality determinants of motivation to undertake vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Godlewska-Werner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, at a time of frequent changes in the economic and socio-economic circumstances, knowledge acquired in the course of formal education is insufficient. Especially, the education system is still criticized for a lack of flexibility and strong resistance to change. Therefore, regular participation in various forms of training is required. Employee education and training are becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges. The aim of this study was to determine which personality traits are responsible for the strength of motivation to undertake vocational training and other educational forms. Participants and procedure The study included 104 staff members of Polish companies (60 women and 44 men. The study used Cattell’s 16 PF Questionnaire and the scales of readiness to undertake training and further education as a measure of the strength of motivation (Kawecka, Łaguna & Tabor, 2010. Results The study showed that openness to change and tension (primary traits had the greatest impact on the intention and planning to take vocational training. Additionally, the intention and planning to take vocational training were found to be associated with mindedness, independence, self-control, and anxiety (secondary traits. Such traits as rule-consciousness [G], social-boldness [H], abstractedness [M], and apprehension [O] (primary traits, were important in some aspects, which could constitute a background for further research and discussion of the results. Conclusions The obtained results lead to the conclusion that some of the individual differences in personality determine the motivation to undertake vocational training.

  10. Experimental design matters for statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Onofri, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the evaluation of effects of pesticides often relies on experimental designs that involve multiple concentrations of the pesticide of interest or multiple pesticides at specific comparable concentrations and, possibly, secondary factors of interest. Unfortunately, the experi...

  11. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  12. Experimental analysis of current conduction through thermally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SiC substrate by wet thermal oxidation technique have been experimentally investigated in metal oxide–silicon carbide (MOSiC) structure with varying oxide thicknesses employing. Poole–Frenkel (P–F) conduction mechanism. The quality of ...

  13. Fundamentals of statistical experimental design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Easterling, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Professionals in all areas - business; government; the physical, life, and social sciences; engineering; medicine, etc. - benefit from using statistical experimental design to better understand their worlds and then use that understanding to improve the products, processes, and programs they are responsible for. This book aims to provide the practitioners of tomorrow with a memorable, easy to read, engaging guide to statistics and experimental design. This book uses examples, drawn from a variety of established texts, and embeds them in a business or scientific context, seasoned with a dash of humor, to emphasize the issues and ideas that led to the experiment and the what-do-we-do-next? steps after the experiment. Graphical data displays are emphasized as means of discovery and communication and formulas are minimized, with a focus on interpreting the results that software produce. The role of subject-matter knowledge, and passion, is also illustrated. The examples do not require specialized knowledge, and t...

  14. Application of covariance analysis to feed/ ration experimental data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use Analysis of Covariance (ANOCOVA) to feed/ration experimental data for birds was examined. Correlation and Regression analyses were used to adjust for the covariate – initial weight of the experimental birds. The Fisher's F statistic for the straight forward Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed significant ...

  15. Numerically and experimentally analysis of creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanive, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    The problems of creep in concrete are analyzed experimentally and numerically, comparing with classical methods and suggesting a numerical procedure for the solution of these problems. Firstly, fundamentals of viscoelasticity and its application to concrete behaviour representation are presented. Then the theories of Dischinger and Arutyunyan are studied, and a computing numerical solutions are compared in several examples. Finally, experiences on creep and relaxation are described, and its result are analyzed. Some coments on possible future developments are included. (Author) [pt

  16. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    8.75 83.36 8 =where, tObserved YPD = 53.75 YSD = 62.00 3.6.5. Within-Subjects t-Test (Cont’d) (Click in this red rectangle to see SAS calculations...expands computer experience into 3 levels, High, Medium , and Low, as compared to the original example that used only 2 levels of computer experience...High and Low. In this example, each of the 80 subjects who used the experimental text editor rated their computer experience as high, medium , or

  17. Experimental analysis of ratchetting in elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, D.; Touboul, F.; Brouard, D.

    1991-01-01

    Despite of their apparent simplicity, elbows or curved tubes are one of the most tested and analyzed structures to the last years when a large effort has been done by CEA in the framework of the European Structural Integrity Working Group in order to reassess the RCC-MR (1985) piping design rules for elbows and straight parts (TOUBOUL (1988-1989)). It is impossible to mention all the authors and an extensive bibliography has been done by BENDJEDIDIA (1987). But nobody in our knowledge has taken care in experimental validation of design rules against ratcheting. With such objectives, an experimental test program has been performed at CEA, in order to appraise the design methods based on shakedown model like 3 S m rule used by ASME section III (1989) in USA or RCC-M (1988) in FRANCE, or based on the efficiency Diagram used by the french design code for Fast Breeder reactors RCC-MR (1985). The first results were published by M. BENDJEDIDIA (1987). They have been completed by additional tests and improved by a better material characterisation

  18. A Short Guide to Experimental Design and Analysis for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    2011) Statistical Analysis : Microsoft Excel 2010. Indianapolis, Que Publishing Coakes, S. J. and Ong, C. (2011) SPSS : Analysis without Anguish ...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Short Guide to Experimental Design and Analysis for Engineers Edward H. S. Lo, T. Andrew Au and...Peter J. Hoek Joint and Operations Analysis Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TN-1291 ABSTRACT An experiment

  19. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  20. Organization of DELPHI experimental data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, E.N.; Vodop'yanov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The philosophy of the DELPI off-line interactive centre at CERN is presented briefly. The main purpose of this centre is to provide a fast turn-around and graphics support for the express analysis line. It should comprise 2 medium power computers of VAX type, 2-3 emulators 2-3 high resolution graphics facilities and 2-3 personal computers. The processing of the events at the DELPHI interactive centre will include the following steps: full processing of a small sample of events, futher reduction of this samples by physics analysis programs, detailed scanning and correction of the reduced sample, physics analysis of the sample of events. The DELPHI off-line software is considered

  1. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  2. Experimental and principal component analysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is aimed at determining through principal component analysis the most important variables affecting bacterial degradation in ponds. Data were collected from literature. In addition, samples were also collected from the waste stabilization ponds at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and analyzed to ...

  3. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    OpenAIRE

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should public undertakings be considered as public sector bodies in the meaning of the Directive? Are there public undertakings holding "interesting" PSI? Are there different definitions of national legisl...

  4. Experimental analysis of nature-nurture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Robert J

    2005-06-01

    The presumed opposition of nature and nurture has been a major concern of western civilization since its beginnings. Christian theologians interpreted Adam and Eve's eating of the forbidden fruit as the origin of an inherited 'original sin'. Saint Augustine explicitly applied the concept to human mental development, arguing that, because of original sin, children are inclined toward evil and education requires physical punishment. For centuries, it was considered parents' moral and religious obligation, not to nurture their children, in our current sense of that word, but to beat the willfulness out of them. 16thC humanists fought back, arguing that "schools have become torture chambers" while it is adults "who corrupt young minds with evil". Locke's (1690) statement that children are born as a 'white paper' was crucial in rejecting the dogma of an inborn (and sinful) nature. The original sin vs. white paper argument merged with another ancient dichotomy: inborn instinct (which controls animal behavior) vs. the reason and free will which humans have. Darwin made the concept of inherited instinct, common to both man and animals, one cornerstone of his theory of evolution. The 20(th)C saw scientists recast the debate as instinct vs. learning, bitterly argued between behaviorists and ethologists. Laboratory experimentation and field observation showed that behavior could develop without learning but also that conditioning paradigms could powerfully mold behavior. The progress of genetics and neurobiology has led to the modern synthesis that neural development, and hence behavior, results from the interdependent action of both heredity and environment. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. 42 CFR 137.165 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake annual audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.165 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...-Governance Tribes must undertake annual audits pursuant to the Single Audit Act, 31 U.S.C. 7501 et seq. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...

  6. User's manual of JT-60 experimental data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takashi; Morishima, Soichi; Yoshioka, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency Naka Fusion Institute, a lot of experiments have been conducted by using the large tokamak device JT-60 aiming to realize fusion power plant. In order to optimize the JT-60 experiment and to investigate complex characteristics of plasma, JT-60 experimental data analysis system was developed and used for collecting, referring and analyzing the JT-60 experimental data. Main components of the system are a data analysis server and a database server for the analyses and accumulation of the experimental data respectively. Other peripheral devices of the system are magnetic disk units, NAS (Network Attached Storage) device, and a backup tape drive. This is a user's manual of the JT-60 experimental data analysis system. (author)

  7. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  8. Cross-impact analysis experimentation using two techniques to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-impact analysis relies on decision makers to provide marginal probability estimates of interdependent events. Generally, these have to be revised in order to ensure overall system coherency. This paper describes cross-impact analysis experimentation in which a Monte Carlo based approach and a dierence equation ...

  9. Applications of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, J. : Ph.D.

    The present thesis "Application of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics" has been prepared as a part of Janus Lyngbyes Ph.D. study during the period December 1988 to June 1992 at the Department of Building technology and Structural Engineering, University of Aalborg, Denmark....... In this thesis attention will be focused on optimal use and analysis of the information of digital images. This is realized during investigation and application of parametric methods in digital image analysis. The parametric methods will be implemented in applications representative for the area of experimental...

  10. Experimentally Validated Nonlinear Analysis of Bridge Plate Girders with Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kużawa Mieszko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive methodology of numerical nonlinear analysis of the consecutive phases in the structural behaviour of bridge plate girders with deformations is presented. The analysis concerns all stages of structure loading until failure and especially determination of the ultimate shear load capacity. Verification and validation of the numerical procedures proposed is based on comparison of the calculated results with effects of experimental laboratory shear capacity tests of plate girders carried out at the University of Ljubljana.

  11. Experimental analysis of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The booklet presents abstracts of papers from the Euromech Colloqium No. 152 held from Sept. 20th to 24th, 1982 in Wuppertal, Federal Republic of Germany. All the papers are dealing with Experimental Analysis of Nonlinear Problems in Solid Mechanics. (RW)

  12. Experimental Data and Geometric Analysis Repository-EDGAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aras, K.; Good, W.; Tate, J.; Burton, B.; Brooks, D.; Coll-Font, J.; Doessel, O.; Schulze, W.; Potyagaylo, D.; Wang, L.; Dam, P.M. van; MacLeod, R.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The "Experimental Data and Geometric Analysis Repository", or EDGAR is an Internet-based archive of curated data that are freely distributed to the international research community for the application and validation of electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) techniques. The EDGAR project

  13. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator – Determining stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Elmegård, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We propose and investigate three different methods for assessing stability of dynamical equilibrium states during experimental bifurcation analysis, using a control-based continuation method. The idea is to modify or turn off the control at an equilibrium state and study the resulting behavior...

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kaushal

    using experimental data, multiple regression analysis car- ried out by the software has given the following polynomial equations in terms of actual factors ... compounded amalgamation with autonomous variables which involves first and second order polynomials and can have abounding maxima points. Also, Eqs. (9) and ...

  15. Experimental Performance Analysis of Wireless Links for Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless networking is currently being deployed for various applications. However, the application of wireless networking in healthcare remains a challenge mainly because of security and reliability concerns. This paper presents experimental results of performance analysis of a wireless network for healthcare application ...

  16. Mathematical Models and the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of mathematical models in the experimental analysis of behavior has increased over the years, and they offer several advantages. Mathematical models require theorists to be precise and unambiguous, often allowing comparisons of competing theories that sound similar when stated in words. Sometimes different mathematical models may make…

  17. The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" at Fifty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, Victor G.

    2008-01-01

    The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is women. Other changes in the…

  18. An Experimental Metagenome Data Management and AnalysisSystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Korzeniewski, Frank; Palaniappan, Krishna; Szeto, Ernest; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2006-03-01

    The application of shotgun sequencing to environmental samples has revealed a new universe of microbial community genomes (metagenomes) involving previously uncultured organisms. Metagenome analysis, which is expected to provide a comprehensive picture of the gene functions and metabolic capacity of microbial community, needs to be conducted in the context of a comprehensive data management and analysis system. We present in this paper IMG/M, an experimental metagenome data management and analysis system that is based on the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system. IMG/M provides tools and viewers for analyzing both metagenomes and isolate genomes individually or in a comparative context.

  19. 12 CFR 980.2 - Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 980.2 Section 980.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.2 Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities. No Bank shall undertake any new business activity except in accordance with the...

  20. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should

  1. Analysis of coincidence-time loopholes in experimental Bell tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. G.; Hill, A.; Kwiat, P. G.; Knill, E.; Nam, S. W.; Coakley, K.; Glancy, S.; Shalm, L. K.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    We apply a distance-based Bell-test analysis method [E. Knill et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 032105 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032105] to three experimental data sets where conventional analyses failed or required additional assumptions. The first is produced from a classical source exploiting a "coincidence-time loophole" for which standard analysis falsely shows a Bell violation. The second is from a source previously shown to violate a Bell inequality; the distance-based analysis agrees with the previous results but with fewer assumptions. The third data set does not show a violation with standard analysis despite the high source quality, but is shown to have a strong violation with the distance-based analysis method.

  2. SiSn diodes: Theoretical analysis and experimental verification

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2015-08-24

    We report a theoretical analysis and experimental verification of change in band gap of silicon lattice due to the incorporation of tin (Sn). We formed SiSn ultra-thin film on the top surface of a 4 in. silicon wafer using thermal diffusion of Sn. We report a reduction of 0.1 V in the average built-in potential, and a reduction of 0.2 V in the average reverse bias breakdown voltage, as measured across the substrate. These reductions indicate that the band gap of the silicon lattice has been reduced due to the incorporation of Sn, as expected from the theoretical analysis. We report the experimentally calculated band gap of SiSn to be 1.11 ± 0.09 eV. This low-cost, CMOS compatible, and scalable process offers a unique opportunity to tune the band gap of silicon for specific applications.

  3. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Charles P.

    1984-01-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCE OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra Kishore; Anirban Nandy*; O.P. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an insight solar PV Stand Alone system which is a practical model with a halogen light source. At different situations the performance of solar PV cells are analyzed. The system produces power with depending on the change in halogen light intensity & temperature. A theoretical & experimental analysis of the PV cell can be achieved. In this paper the I-V & P-V characteristic of the solar photovoltaic cells with changes in temperature and isolation have been showed. With...

  5. Experimental and numerical analysis of a knee endoprosthesis numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create and verify a numerical model for a Medin Modular orthopedic knee-joint implant by investigating contact pressure, its distribution and contact surfaces. An experiment using Fuji Prescale pressure sensitive films and a finite element analysis (FEA using Abaqus software were carried out. The experimental data were evaluated using a special designed program and were compared with the results of the analysis. The designed evaluation program had been constructed on the basis of results obtained from a supplementary calibration experiment. The applicability of the numerical model for the real endoprosthesis behavior prediction was proven on the basis of their good correlation.

  6. Regression Model Optimization for the Analysis of Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2009-01-01

    A candidate math model search algorithm was developed at Ames Research Center that determines a recommended math model for the multivariate regression analysis of experimental data. The search algorithm is applicable to classical regression analysis problems as well as wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration analysis applications. The algorithm compares the predictive capability of different regression models using the standard deviation of the PRESS residuals of the responses as a search metric. This search metric is minimized during the search. Singular value decomposition is used during the search to reject math models that lead to a singular solution of the regression analysis problem. Two threshold dependent constraints are also applied. The first constraint rejects math models with insignificant terms. The second constraint rejects math models with near-linear dependencies between terms. The math term hierarchy rule may also be applied as an optional constraint during or after the candidate math model search. The final term selection of the recommended math model depends on the regressor and response values of the data set, the user s function class combination choice, the user s constraint selections, and the result of the search metric minimization. A frequently used regression analysis example from the literature is used to illustrate the application of the search algorithm to experimental data.

  7. DMFC anode polarization: Experimental analysis and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R.

    Anode two-phase flow has an important influence on DMFC performance and methanol crossover. In order to elucidate two-phase flow influence on anode performance, in this work, anode polarization is investigated combining experimental and modelling approach. A systematic experimental analysis of operating conditions influence on anode polarization is presented. Hysteresis due to operating condition is observed; experimental results suggest that it arises from methanol accumulation and has to be considered in evaluating DMFC performances and measurements reproducibility. A model of DMFC anode polarization is presented and utilised as tool to investigate anode two-phase flow. The proposed analysis permits one to produce a confident interpretation of the main involved phenomena. In particular, it confirms that methanol electro-oxidation kinetics is weakly dependent on methanol concentration and that methanol transport in gas phase produces an important contribution in anode feeding. Moreover, it emphasises the possibility to optimise anode flow rate in order to improve DMFC performance and reduce methanol crossover.

  8. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis Using Control-Based Continuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Starke, Jens

    The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable and unsta......The focus of this thesis is developing and implementing techniques for performing experimental bifurcation analysis on nonlinear mechanical systems. The research centers around the newly developed control-based continuation method, which allows to systematically track branches of stable...... procedure is applied to our test rig, resulting in a reliable non-invasive, locally stabilizing control. The use of stabilizing control makes it difficult to determine the stability of the underlying uncontrolled equilibrium. Based on the idea of momentarily modifying or disabling the control and study...... the resulting behavior, we propose and test three different methods for assessing stability of equilibrium states during experimental continuation. We show that it is possible to determine the stability without allowing unbounded divergence, and that it is under certain circumstances possible to quantify...

  9. Experimental modal analysis of components of the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Guinchard, M; Catinaccio, A; Kershaw, K; Onnela, A

    2007-01-01

    Experimental modal analysis of components of the LHC experiments is performed with the purpose of determining their fundamental frequencies, their damping and the mode shapes of light and fragile detector components. This process permits to confirm or replace Finite Element analysis in the case of complex structures (with cables and substructure coupling). It helps solving structural mechanical problems to improve the operational stability and determine the acceleration specifications for transport operations. This paper describes the hardware and software equipment used to perform a modal analysis on particular structures such as a particle detector and the method of curve fitting to extract the results of the measurements. This paper exposes also the main results obtained for the LHC Experiments.

  10. Experimental software for modeling and interpreting educational data analysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Zorina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems, tasks and processes of educational data mining are considered in this article. The objective is to create a fundamentally new information system of the University using the results educational data analysis. One of the functions of such a system is knowledge extraction from accumulated in the operation process data. The creation of the national system of this type is an iterative and time-consuming process requiring the preliminary studies and incremental prototyping modules. The novelty of such systems is that there is a lack of those using this methodology of the development, for this purpose a number of experiments was carried out in order to collect data, choose appropriate methods for the study and to interpret them. As a result of the experiment, the authors were available sources available for analysis in the information environment of the home university. The data were taken from the semester performance, obtained from the information system of the training department of the Institute of IT MTU MIREA, the data obtained as a result of the independent work of students and data, using specially designed Google-forms. To automate the collection of information and analysis of educational data, an experimental software package was created. As a methodology for developing the experimental software complex, a decision was made using the methodologies of rational-empirical complexes (REX and single-experimentation program technologies (TPEI. The details of the program implementation of the complex are described in detail, conclusions are given about the availability of the data sources used, and conclusions are drawn about the prospects for further development.

  11. Complex experimental analysis of rifle-shooter interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Taraszewski, M.ScEng, PhD. candidate

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a complex analysis of a man-weapon interaction based on experimental effort is presented. The attention is focused on how a shooter can influence on a rifle, opposite to generally considered in literature rifle's impact on a shooter. It is shown, based on the kbk AKM weapon, that each support point of the rifle has an substantial impact on the system. It is said that identifying human reactions on weapon may let to describe gun movement and thus may be applied to weapon accuracy determination.

  12. Remote Experimental Site: A command and analysis center for ''Big Physics'' experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T.A.; Lennon, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The next generation of tokamaks, ITER or BPX, will be characterized by an even greater emphasis on joint operation and experimentation. With anticipation of an increased number and diversity of collaborations, we are preparing for such shared facilities by developing a systematic approach to remote, joint physics operation involving experimental teams at several locations. The local area network of computers used for control and data acquisition on present and future experiments can be extended over a wide area network to provide a mechanism for remote operation of subsystems required for physics experiments. The technology required for high bandwidth (≥45Mbps) connections between multiple sites either exists or will be available over the next few years. With the rapid development of high performance workstations, network interfaces, distributed computing, and video conferencing, we can proceed with the development of a system of control and analysis sites to provide for consistent, efficient, and continuing collaborations. Early establishment of such sites could also enhance existing joint design and development efforts. 2 refs., 3 figs

  13. Desiccant wheels for air humidification: An experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Antonellis, Stefano; Intini, Manuel; Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Molinaroli, Luca; Romano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of desiccant wheel to humidify an air stream is investigated. • Air humidification is obtained by extracting water vapour from outdoor air. • Experimental tests in winter humidification conditions are performed. • The design of the proposed humidification system is numerically analyzed. • Effects of boundary conditions on humidification capacity are investigated. - Abstract: In this work the use of a desiccant wheel for air humidification is investigated through a numerical and experimental approach. In the proposed humidification system, water vapour is adsorbed from outdoor environment and it is released directly to the air stream supplied to the building. Such a system can be an interesting alternative to steam humidifiers in hospitals or, more generally, in applications where air contamination is a critical issue and therefore adiabatic humidifiers are not allowed. Performance of the proposed system is deeply investigated and optimal values of desiccant wheel configuration parameters are discussed. It is shown that in the investigated conditions, which are representative of Southern Europe winter climate, the system can properly match the latent load of the building. Finally, power consumption referred to the primary source of the proposed humidification system is compared to the one of steam humidifiers. The present analysis is carried out through experimental tests of a desiccant wheel in winter humidification conditions and through a phenomenological model of the device, based on heat and mass transfer equations.

  14. Thermoelectric Generation Of Current - Theoretical And Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruciński, Adam; Rusowicz, Artur

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology) was used.

  15. Thermoelectric Generation Of Current – Theoretical And Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruciński Adam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology was used.

  16. Comparative Analysis Program for Experimental and Calculated Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an interactive in-house tool to quickly asses the stress in the critical points of the aeronautical structures. The software compares the results between the stress values obtained from the experimental tests using the resistive electrical tensometry technique (RET and the stress values calculated with FEM software. RET refers to the stress and strains measured by strain gauges applied to the critical points of the structures. The finite element analysis was carried-out with MSC. PATRAN/ NASTRAN using shell and solid elements in order to identify the critical points based on the stress and strain results. The validation of the results obtained by the finite element modelling has been made experimentally using the resistive electrical tensometry method. The results from these two methods have been compared with the in-house software developed in Visual Basic with Excel interface. The program evaluates the relative error between the experimental and calculated data at critical points.

  17. The Commission on Employment Conditions, an ambitious undertaking !

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year, the Commission on Employment Conditions has had much success in the number and ability of its participants. It has mostly worked on salaries, the only compulsory subject of the 2010 five-yearly review. In the framework of this review, the Commission has analysed the results of the comparison carried out by the OECD (see Echo 104 and 105). Through its research and analysis, the Commission has clearly shown that our salaries are lower than those of the comparators. It is there necessary to adjust the salary grid with a salary catch-up and not an increase. In 20 years, no five-yearly review has ended with a significant catch-up. Today it is essential to inform our colleagues that this subject needs to be dealt with and that measures must be taken to finance it, as is the case for restoring the equilibrium of the Pension Fund and Health Insurance schemes. The Commission has established an argumentation to help our fellow delegates talk about the delicate subject of salary catch-...

  18. Alternative sources of financing entrepreneurial undertakings in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficiency of internal financial resources and limited access to external sources of capital, as one of the key problems, local agricultural producers - entrepreneurs usualy describe with high cost of capital, complicated procedures, lack of transparency in regard to the settlement of credit requests and problems with security of loans. The aim of this study is to analyze the possibilities of facilitating access to increased volume of capital for domestic entrepreneurs in agriculture by using funding sources that are applied in developed economies for financing entrepreneurs. In order to achieve the stated aim, the subject of investigation in this paper is the analysis of alternative sources of financing, which use or increased adoption in Serbia would provide greater availability of capital for agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrobusiness complex and thus the promotion of entrepreneurial activity, and consequently, greater competitiveness and greater income of domestic agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrbusiness indirectly leading to increased economic growth and improvement of the welfare.

  19. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howman, Mary; Jones, Melvyn

    2011-02-03

    Intercalated BScs (iBScs) are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year) exams. A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276). A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance). The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without). Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01). (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300). There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66). (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed"). Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance) undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this confounding in unadjusted results is that students who do better

  20. Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered.

  1. Analysis of experimental biosensor/FIA lactose measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Whey is an abundant effluent in the production of cheese and casein. The biotechnological utilization of this economically important and nutritive source is limited mainly because of the presence of high percentages of lactose. This disaccharide has poor solubility, which can cause crystallization and insufficient sweetness in dairy food; additionally, part of the adult population suffers from associated lactose intolerance diseases. There are several methods to determine lactose such as spectrophotometry, polarimetry, infrared spectroscopy, titrimetry and chromatography. However these methods are tedious and time-consuming due to long sample preparation. These disadvantages stimulated the development of an enzymatic lactose biosensor. It employs two immobilized enzymes, beta-galactosidase and glucose oxidase and the quantitative analysis of lactose is based on determination of oxygen consumption in the enzymatic reaction. The influence of temperature on the biosensor signal was experimentally studied. It was observed that a nonlinear relationship exists between the electric response of the biosensor - provided by CAFCA (Computer Assisted Flow Control & Analysis - ANASYSCON, Hannover - and lactose concentration. In this work, attempts were made to correlate these variables using a simple nonlinear model and multilayered neural networks, with the latter providing the best modeling of the experimental data.

  2. Experimental analysis with numerical comparison for different thermoelectric generators configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favarel, Camille; Bédécarrats, Jean-Pierre; Kousksou, Tarik; Champier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3 experimental TE generators are tested and compared to a numerical model. • Different mass flow rates and temperatures ranges were used. • Maximum output electrical power is guaranty by the use of MPPT DC/DC controllers. • The importance of the occupancy rate for the design of TEG is demonstrated. • The importance of the location of the TE modules is shown. - Abstract: Thermoelectric (TE) energy harvesting is a promising perspective to use waste heat. Due to the low efficiency of thermoelectric materials many analytical and numerical optimization studies have been developed. To be validated, an optimization must necessarily be linked to the experience. There are a lot of results on thermoelectric generators (TEG) based on experiments or model validations. Nevertheless, the validated models concern most of the time one TE module but rarely an entire system. Moreover, these models of complete system mainly concern the optimization of fluid flow rates or of heat exchangers. Our choice is to optimize the number of these modules in a whole system point of view. A numerical model using a software for numerical computation, based on multi-physics equations such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics and thermoelectricity was developed to predict both thermal and electrical powers of TEG. This paper aims to present the experimental validation of this model and shows interesting experimental results on the location of the TE modules. In parallel, an experimental set-up was built to compare and validate this model. This set-up is composed of a thermal loop with a hot gas source, a cold fluid, a hot fin exchanger, a cold tubular exchanger and thermoelectric modules. The number and the place of these modules can be changed to study different configurations. A specific maximum power point tracker DC/DC converter charging a battery is added in order to study the electrical power produced by the TEG. The analysis of the influence of the number of

  3. Identifying Effective Spelling Interventions Using a Brief Experimental Analysis and Extended Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Merilee; Clure, Lynne F.; Bleck, Amanda A.; Schmitz, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is an important skill that is crucial to effective written communication. In this study, brief experimental analysis procedures were used to examine spelling instruction strategies (e.g., whole word correction; word study strategy; positive practice; and cover, copy, and compare) for four students. In addition, an extended analysis was…

  4. Experimental Data and Geometric Analysis Repository-EDGAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Kedar; Good, Wilson; Tate, Jess; Burton, Brett; Brooks, Dana; Coll-Font, Jaume; Doessel, Olaf; Schulze, Walther; Potyagaylo, Danila; Wang, Linwei; van Dam, Peter; MacLeod, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The "Experimental Data and Geometric Analysis Repository", or EDGAR is an Internet-based archive of curated data that are freely distributed to the international research community for the application and validation of electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) techniques. The EDGAR project is a collaborative effort by the Consortium for ECG Imaging (CEI, ecg-imaging.org), and focused on two specific aims. One aim is to host an online repository that provides access to a wide spectrum of data, and the second aim is to provide a standard information format for the exchange of these diverse datasets. The EDGAR system is composed of two interrelated components: 1) a metadata model, which includes a set of descriptive parameters and information, time signals from both the cardiac source and body-surface, and extensive geometric information, including images, geometric models, and measure locations used during the data acquisition/generation; and 2) a web interface. This web interface provides efficient, search, browsing, and retrieval of data from the repository. An aggregation of experimental, clinical and simulation data from various centers is being made available through the EDGAR project including experimental data from animal studies provided by the University of Utah (USA), clinical data from multiple human subjects provided by the Charles University Hospital (Czech Republic), and computer simulation data provided by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). It is our hope that EDGAR will serve as a communal forum for sharing and distribution of cardiac electrophysiology data and geometric models for use in ECGI research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...

  6. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults. PMID:28793697

  7. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormady, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  8. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers. For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  9. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-11-27

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L'Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  10. Analysis and Experimental Research of a Multilayer Linear Piezoelectric Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmei Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To lower the operating voltage and improve the output performance of piezoelectric actuators, a multilayer monolithic ultrasonic linear piezoelectric actuator was analyzed with the method of finite element analysis (FEA, and a prototype was fabricated and experimentally researched in this study. Experimental results show that the actuator with a multilayer piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT structure (size: 30 × 7.5 × 3 mm3, mass: 5.49 g can output a pulling force of 5.0 N maximum and a linear velocity up to 270 mm/s at the voltage of 100 Vpp (Vpp means the peak-to-peak value of the voltage volts, showing a relatively good velocity controllability at the same time. The temperature rise characteristic of the actuator at various voltages was studied. The results indicate that: the temperature of this actuator rises rapidly but tends to saturate at some value; applying an offsetting voltage or decreasing the amplitude of the voltage would reduce the heat production.

  11. Analysis of Elektrogorsk 108 test facility experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbonas, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper an evaluation of experimental data obtained at Russian Elektrogorsk 108 (E-108) test facility is presented. E-108 facility is a scaled model of Russian RBMK design reactor. An attempt to validate state-of-the-art thermal hydraulic codes on the basis of E-108 test facility was made. Originally these codes were developed and validated for BWRs and PWRs. Since state-of-art thermal hydraulic codes are widely used for simulation of RBMK reactors further codes' implementation and validation is required. The facility was modelled by employing RELAP5 (INEEL, USA) thermal hydraulic system analysis best estimate code. The results show dependence from number of nodes used in the heated channels, frictional and form losses employed. The obtained oscillatory behaviour is resulted by density wave and critical heat flux. It is shown that codes are able to predict thermal hydraulic instability and sudden heat structure temperature excursion, when critical heat flux is approached, well. In addition, an uncertainty analysis of one of the experiments was performed by employing GRS developed System for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis (SUSA). It was one of the first attempts to use this statistic-based methodology in Lithuania.(author)

  12. Experimental analysis of plastic materials containing radionuclides for decontamination viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Nakano, Mikio; Takehara, Teruaki; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March, 2011, the high radioactive dosage was found in polluted water for agriculture use at Baba, Haramachi, Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Field experiment for decontamination of water had been studied by using commercial plastic materials. The agricultural water comes from Tetsuzan dam is full of radioactive-contaminated water. Experimental analysis showed that the plastic materials can take up radioactive elements for several months soaked in the polluted agricultural water. The quantitative analyses using X-ray fluorescence analysis, Ge semiconductor and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), revealed the detection of the radionuclides on the plastic materials with diatom and clays. The results suggest the adsorption of radionuclides on the surface of plastic materials due to FDNPP accident. The plastic materials associated with clays and diatoms could be stronger carriers of radionuclides in the polluted water. Adherence of diatoms to the plastic fiber in the water for 7 months suggested that some plastic materials were taking up heavy metals (Zn, Ba, Pb, Sb) with radioactive elements (Cs etc.). Mechanisms by which radioactive pollutants and microorganisms are adsorbed onto and desorbed from clays at aqueous interface can be understood by combining chemical analysis with electron microscopy observation. (author)

  13. Laser-Based Lighting: Experimental Analysis and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Nicola; Yushchenko, Maksym; Buffolo, Matteo; De Santi, Carlo; Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico

    2017-10-11

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of the operating principles, theoretical background, advantages and limitations of laser-based lighting systems. In the first part of the paper we discuss the main advantages and issues of laser-based lighting, and present a comparison with conventional LED-lighting technology. In the second part of the paper, we present original experimental data on the stability and reliability of phosphor layers for laser lighting, based on high light-intensity and high-temperature degradation tests. In the third part of the paper (for the first time) we present a detailed comparison between three different solutions for laser lighting, based on (i) transmissive phosphor layers; (ii) a reflective/angled phosphor layer; and (iii) a parabolic reflector, by discussing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach. The results presented within this paper can be used as a guideline for the development of advanced lighting systems based on laser diodes.

  14. Laser-Based Lighting: Experimental Analysis and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Trivellin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive analysis of the operating principles, theoretical background, advantages and limitations of laser-based lighting systems. In the first part of the paper we discuss the main advantages and issues of laser-based lighting, and present a comparison with conventional LED-lighting technology. In the second part of the paper, we present original experimental data on the stability and reliability of phosphor layers for laser lighting, based on high light-intensity and high-temperature degradation tests. In the third part of the paper (for the first time we present a detailed comparison between three different solutions for laser lighting, based on (i transmissive phosphor layers; (ii a reflective/angled phosphor layer; and (iii a parabolic reflector, by discussing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach. The results presented within this paper can be used as a guideline for the development of advanced lighting systems based on laser diodes.

  15. Analysis and experimental study of MIMO control in refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jian; Feng Quanke; Zhu Ruiqi

    2008-01-01

    For various operating conditions and loads of refrigeration systems, converters are used to change the compressor's speed, and electronic expansion valves are adopted to regulate refrigerant flow rates. The refrigeration system, as a process under control, is a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and nonlinear complex system. Based on the analysis of fuzzy and neural networks control, a self organized fuzzy neural network controller with the capacity of construction and parameter learning is proposed according to the simplified fuzzy control algorithm and the similarity between structure and function of a counter propagation network (CPN). This controller is easily structured with the feature of fuzzy control, and it also possesses the learning ability of neutral networks. The air cooled refrigeration experimental results show that the present controller can modulate the evaporation pressure and the superheating

  16. Experimental analysis of particle sizes for PIV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overbrüggen, Timo; Klaas, Michael; Soria, Julio; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    The right choice of seeding particles strongly influences the outcome of a particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. Particles have to scatter enough light to be seen by cameras and follow the flow faithfully. As the flow following behavior depends on the inertia and therefore the size of the particle, smaller particles are desirable. Unfortunately, larger particles possess better light scattering behavior, which is especially important for volumetric PIV measurements. In this paper, the particle response of two exemplary solid particles to an oscillatory air flow created by a piston movement is analyzed and compared to analytic results by Hjelmfelt and Mockros (1966 Appl. Sci. Res. 16 149-61) concerning phase lag and amplitude ratio between particle movement and flow field. To achieve realistic experimental boundary conditions, polydispersed particles are used for the analysis. The analytic results show a strong dependence on the diameter. That is, using the volumetric mean diameter an overestimation of the phase lag of the particles is determined, whereas an underestimation of phase lag is computed for the number mean diameter. Hence, for polydispersed particles a more general analysis than that based on the particle mean diameter is required to determine in detail the particle following behavior.

  17. Experimental analysis of particle sizes for PIV measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Overbrüggen, Timo; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang; Soria, Julio

    2016-01-01

    The right choice of seeding particles strongly influences the outcome of a particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. Particles have to scatter enough light to be seen by cameras and follow the flow faithfully. As the flow following behavior depends on the inertia and therefore the size of the particle, smaller particles are desirable. Unfortunately, larger particles possess better light scattering behavior, which is especially important for volumetric PIV measurements. In this paper, the particle response of two exemplary solid particles to an oscillatory air flow created by a piston movement is analyzed and compared to analytic results by Hjelmfelt and Mockros (1966 Appl. Sci. Res . 16 149–61) concerning phase lag and amplitude ratio between particle movement and flow field. To achieve realistic experimental boundary conditions, polydispersed particles are used for the analysis. The analytic results show a strong dependence on the diameter. That is, using the volumetric mean diameter an overestimation of the phase lag of the particles is determined, whereas an underestimation of phase lag is computed for the number mean diameter. Hence, for polydispersed particles a more general analysis than that based on the particle mean diameter is required to determine in detail the particle following behavior. (paper)

  18. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  19. Experimental Tritium Cleanup System availability analysis from 1984 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the availability percentage of the Experimental Tritium Cleanup System (ETC) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report. Sample calculations of the failure rates obtained from these data are given in the appendices. While future fusion experiments might use different or more advanced means to detritiate room air, the analysis of this system gives a data point for an actual detritiation system. Such a data point can be extrapolated for comparison with fault tree results on system designs, or can be used in a Bayesian failure rate analysis for estimating reliability of a new type of system. The nine years of testing operations on TSTA's ETC result in a reasonable average availability value of 92% for the maximal tritium release event. The failure rates for new systems are expected to be lower than for the TSTA ETC, since improvements will be made in the design of the room air detritiation system based on the TSTA system experiences. Nonetheless, these TSTA data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks

  20. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RULES ON COMPETITION GOVERNING UNDERTAKINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad – Teodor Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the general rules on competition between undertakings in the EU. The author paid attention primarly to matters on the prohibition of agreements that aim to distort or impair competition on the internal market. Moreover, he examined in detail the matter concerning the regulation and interdiction of the abuse of a dominant position. The work also reviews doctrinal opinions, as well as the jurisprudential solutions in the area. The author’s concern to summarize and develop the conditions for the implementation of each of the two legal mechanisms is worth noting: the prohibition of agreements between undertakings and the abuse of a dominant position. The essential considerations taken into account by the Court of Justice of the European Union in settling a case whose subject consisted of assessing the manner in which an undertaking reflected on competition on the internal market were selected at the end of the work.

  2. Identifying potential academic leaders: Predictors of willingness to undertake leadership roles in an academic department of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-01

    To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. A total of 687 faculty members. Variables related to respondents' willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one's current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members.

  3. How Do Pseudocapacitors Store Energy? Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Porter, Thomas R; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2017-03-15

    Batteries and electrochemical double layer charging capacitors are two classical means of storing electrical energy. These two types of charge storage can be unambiguously distinguished from one another by the shape and scan-rate dependence of their cyclic voltammetric (CV) current-potential responses. The former shows peak-shaped current-potential responses, proportional to the scan rate v or to v 1/2 , whereas the latter displays a quasi-rectangular response proportional to the scan rate. On the contrary, the notion of pseudocapacitance, popularized in the 1980s and 1990s for metal oxide systems, has been used to describe a charge storage process that is faradaic in nature yet displays capacitive CV signatures. It has been speculated that a quasi-rectangular CV response resembling that of a truly capacitive response arises from a series of faradaic redox couples with a distribution of potentials, yet this idea has never been justified theoretically. We address this problem by first showing theoretically that this distribution-of-potentials approach is closely equivalent to the more physically meaningful consideration of concentration-dependent activity coefficients resulting from interactions between reactants. The result of the ensuing analysis is that, in either case, the CV responses never yield a quasi-rectangular response ∝ ν, identical to that of double layer charging. Instead, broadened peak-shaped responses are obtained. It follows that whenever a quasi-rectangular CV response proportional to scan rate is observed, such reputed pseudocapacitive behaviors should in fact be ascribed to truly capacitive double layer charging. We compare these results qualitatively with pseudocapacitor reports taken from the literature, including the classic RuO 2 and MnO 2 examples, and we present a quantitative analysis with phosphate cobalt oxide films. Our conclusions do not invalidate the numerous experimental studies carried out under the pseudocapacitance banner but

  4. Uniaxial Fatigue of HDPE-100 Pipe. Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental analysis for determining the fatigue strength of PE-100, one of the most used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE materials for pipes, under cyclic axial loadings is presented. HDPE is a thermoplastic material used for piping systems, such as natural gas distribution systems, sewer systems and cold water systems, which provides a good alternative to metals such as cast iron or carbon steel. One of the causes for failures of HDPE pipes is fatigue which is the result of pipes being subjected to cyclic loading, such as internal pressure, weight loads or external loadings on buried pipes, which generate stress in different directions: circumferential, longitudinal and radial. HDPE pipes are fabricated using an extrusion process, which generates anisotropic properties. By testing in the Laboratory a series of identical specimens obtained directly from PE-100 HDPE pipes in longitudinal directions, the relationships between amplitude stress and number of cycles (S-N curve test frequency 2 Hz and stress ratio R = 0.0 are established.

  5. Station Blackout Analysis of HTGR-Type Experimental Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarip; Zuhdi, Aliq; Falah, Sabilul

    2018-01-01

    The National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia has decided to build an experimental power reactor of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) type located at Puspiptek Complex. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate a small modular nuclear power plant that can be operated safely. One of the reactor safety characteristics is the reliability of the reactor to the station blackout (SBO) event. The event was observed due to relatively high disturbance frequency of electricity network in Indonesia. The PCTRAN-HTR functional simulator code was used to observe fuel and coolant temperature, and coolant pressure during the SBO event. The reactor simulated at 10 MW for 7200 s then the SBO occurred for 1-3 minutes. The analysis result shows that the reactor power decreases automatically as the temperature increase during SBO accident without operator’s active action. The fuel temperature increased by 36.57 °C every minute during SBO and the power decreased by 0.069 MW every °C fuel temperature rise at the condition of anticipated transient without reactor scram. Whilst, the maximum coolant (helium) temperature and pressure are 1004 °C and 9.2 MPa respectively. The maximum fuel temperature is 1282 °C, this value still far below the fuel temperature limiting condition i.e. 1600 °C, its mean that the HTGR has a very good inherent safety system.

  6. An Experimental Analysis Device for Obtaining Skid Line Limit Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanintradul, Chatchai; Gurumurthy, Gopinath T.; Smith, L. M.; Du, Changqing; Geng, Lumin; Zhou, D. J.; Hsiung, Ching-Kuo; Chen, Jizhou; Feng, Chao

    2011-08-01

    A novel design for a machine intended to measure directly various in-plane and contact normal forces acting upon a sheet metal specimen during a stretch-bend-draw process is proposed, in order to gain insight into the formation of skid line defects in sheet metal. The new machine, called a Stretch-Bend-Draw Simulator (SBDS) is designed specifically to be integrated into a typical laboratory tensile testing machine, thereby making it accessible to those researchers lacking the resources to acquire expensive additional tooling. As the strip of sheet metal is pulled over a round tool radius, the SBDS is shown to be capable of collecting pulling force, back force, tool normal force, and the corresponding draw bead clamping force. Analysis of the force data in conjunction with visual observations of the actual pulled specimens allows researchers to ascertain the conditions under which so-called skid lines arise. Experimental results, including a newly unveiled Skid Line Limit Diagram (SLLD), are provided and discussed. The SBDS appears to be a promising new electro-mechanical laboratory device for improving researchers' knowledge of the physical phenomena associated with skid lines in sheet metal products created in stamping dies.

  7. Genetic analysis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.; Rosenwasser, O.A.; O`Neill, J.K.; Turk, J.L. [Royal College of Surgeons of England, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-15

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that exhibits many pathologic similarities with multiple sclerosis. While products of the MHC are known to control the development of EAE, it is clear that non-MHC products also influence susceptibility. The chromosomal locations of these were investigated in selective crosses between MHC class II-compatible, EAE-susceptible Biozzi ABH, and low responder nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The disease was dominant and highly influenced by gender in the backcross one (BC{sub 1}) generation. Female mice were significantly more susceptible than male mice. Segregation of disease frequency of female animals in this cross suggested that EAE was controlled by a major locus. Although microsatellite-based exclusion mapping indicated that a number of regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 18 showed evidence of linkage (p<0.05) compared with expected random distributions of alleles, disease susceptibility was most strongly linked (p<0.05) to chromosome 7. However, by selectively analyzing animals that were either severely affected or almost normal, additional susceptibility loci were mapped on chromosomes 18 and 11 that were linked (p<0.001) to resistance and the development of severe disease, respectively. The data indicate a major locus on chromosome 7, affecting initiation and severity of EAE that is probably modified by several other unlinked loci. These localizations may provide candidate loci for the analysis of human autoimmune-demyelinating disease. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Experimental analysis of precursors to severe problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jennifer N; Iwata, Brian A; Hammond, Jennifer L; Bloom, Sarah E

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals engage in both mild and severe forms of problem behavior. Research has shown that when mild behaviors precede severe behaviors (i.e., the mild behaviors serve as precursors), they can (a) be maintained by the same source of reinforcement as severe behavior and (b) reduce rates of severe behavior observed during assessment. In Study 1, we developed an objective checklist to identify precursors via videotaped trials for 16 subjects who engaged in problem behavior and identified at least 1 precursor for every subject. In Study 2, we conducted separate functional analyses of precursor and severe problem behaviors for 8 subjects, and obtained correspondence between outcomes in 7 cases. In Study 3, we evaluated noncontingent reinforcement schedule thinning plus differential reinforcement of alternative behavior to reduce precursors, increase appropriate behavior, and maintain low rates of severe behavior during 3 treatment analyses for 2 subjects. Results showed that this treatment strategy was effective for behaviors maintained by positive and negative reinforcement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Development of an experimental apparatus for nucleate boiling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.J.A. de.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental apparatus is developed for the study of the parameters that affect nucleate boiling. The experimental set up is tested for nucleate boiling in an annular test section with subcooled water flow. The following parameters are analysed: pressure, fluid velocity and the fluid temperature at the test section entrance. The performance of the experimental apparatus is analysed by the results and by the problems raised by the operation of the setup. (Author) [pt

  10. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table... applicable to the data requirements for experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis as... method and data would suffice to support an experimental use permit. For full registration, generally an...

  11. Micro-negocios asociativos campesinos: análisis económico de un sistema de producción ovina, Región del Maule, Chile Undertaking associative small holding business: economic analysis of the sheep production system, Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2005-08-01

    the size of the farm (hectares. For the normal price scenario, the VAN (10.8% was estimated at $ 4.12 millions, the TIR at 14.5% and the IVAN at 0.37. The main conclusion suggests that undertaking associative micro-scale enterprise can contribute to improve the life conditions of the small holding, in a better way than the average individual business.

  12. Who Assists the Faculty? The Need for Mentorship Programs for Faculty Undertaking Global Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Yasmin; London, Chad; Carston, Cathy; Salyers, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the expectations, motivations, and experiences of Canadian faculty members undertaking development and implementation of global education initiatives (GEI) for students in the form of exchange and study abroad programs, supervised practical coursework, and experiential learning in international settings. Findings revealed that…

  13. The Complexities of Supporting Asian International Pre-Service Teachers as They Undertake Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Tangen, Donna; Campbell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Asian international students are choosing to undertake their tertiary studies in English-speaking countries. For universities, international students are an important source of revenue. However, Asian international students face multiple challenges in adapting to a foreign culture, understanding the expectations of their…

  14. 31 CFR 248.5 - Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form 2244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception to requirement of... POSSESSIONS Action to Be Taken by Claimants § 248.5 Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form... and agents, of and from any and all liability, loss, expense, claim, and demand whatsoever, arising in...

  15. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana : Transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.

    The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users), and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for

  16. Best practice in undertaking and reporting health technology assessments : Working Group 4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, R.; Orvain, J.; Velasco, M.; Perleth, M.; Drummond, M.; Gurtner, F.; Jorgensen, T.; Jovell, A.; Malone, J.; Ruther, A; Wild, C.

    2002-01-01

    [Executive Summary] The aim of Working Group 4 has been to develop and disseminate best practice in undertaking and reporting assessments, and to identify needs for methodologic development. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary activity that systematically examines the technical performance, safety, clinical efficacy, and effectiveness, cost, costeffectiveness, organizational implications, social consequences, legal, and ethical considerations of the application of a heal...

  17. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of solution quality, runtime and other measures; and the third part collects advanced methods from experimental design for configuring and tuning algorithms on a specific class of instances with the goal of using the least amount of experimentation. The contributor list includes leading scientists...

  18. Research Directions for Cyber Experimentation: Workshop Discussion Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWaard, Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deccio, Casey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fritz, David Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tarman, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on August 11, 2017 entitled "Research Directions for Cyber Experimentation," which focused on identifying and addressing research gaps within the field of cyber experimentation , particularly emulation testbeds . This report mainly documents the discussion toward the end of the workshop, which included research gaps such as developing a sustainable research infrastructure, exp anding cyber experimentation, and making the field more accessible to subject matter experts who may not have a background in computer science . Other gaps include methodologies for rigorous experimentation, validation, and uncertainty quantification, which , if addressed, also have the potential to bridge the gap between cyber experimentation and cyber engineering. Workshop attendees presented various ways to overcome these research gaps, however the main conclusion for overcoming these gaps is better commun ication through increased workshops, conferences, email lists, and slack chann els, among other opportunities.

  19. Experimental sensitivity analysis of oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Christina M; Cirpka, Olaf A; Rolle, Massimo; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe (CF) is of primary importance for a wide variety of biogeochemical processes occurring in shallow groundwater systems. In case of a fluctuating groundwater table two distinct mechanisms of oxygen transfer within the capillary zone can be identified: vertical predominantly diffusive mass flux of oxygen, and mass transfer between entrapped gas and groundwater. In this study, we perform a systematic experimental sensitivity analysis in order to assess the influence of different parameters on oxygen transfer from entrapped air within the CF to underlying anoxic groundwater. We carry out quasi two-dimensional flow-through experiments focusing on the transient phase following imbibition to investigate the influence of the horizontal flow velocity, the average grain diameter of the porous medium, as well as the magnitude and the speed of the water table rise. We present a numerical flow and transport model that quantitatively represents the main mechanisms governing oxygen transfer. Assuming local equilibrium between the aqueous and the gaseous phase, the partitioning process from entrapped air can be satisfactorily simulated. The different experiments are monitored by measuring vertical oxygen concentration profiles at high spatial resolution with a noninvasive optode technique as well as by determining oxygen fluxes at the outlet of the flow-through chamber. The results show that all parameters investigated have a significant effect and determine different amounts of oxygen transferred to the oxygen-depleted groundwater. Particularly relevant are the magnitude of the water table rise and the grain size of the porous medium. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Development of an experimental apparatus for boiling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.J.A. de.

    1984-04-01

    The nucleate boiling is the most interesting boiling regime for practical appliccations, including nuclear reactor engineering. such regime is characterized by very high heat transfer rates with only small surface superheating. An experimental apparatus is developed for studying parameters which affect nucleate boiling. The following parameters are analysed: pressure, fluid velocity and the fluid temperature at the test section entrance. The performance of experimental apparatus is analysed by results and by problems raised by the oeration of setup. (Author) [pt

  1. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the induction generators; Analise teorica e experimental do gerador de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Marcel; Martins Neto, Luciano; Calixto, Wesley Pacheco; Gontijo, Andre Luiz; Alves, Aylton Jose [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (LMEE/FEELT/UFU), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica. Lab. de Maquinas Eletricas Especiais], E-mails: marcel@mestrado.ufu.br, lmn@ufu.br, wpcalixto@ieee.org, aja@cefetgo.br

    2009-10-15

    Due to its lower costs, robustness, reduced maintenance and easy operation, the induction generator shows to be an economic alternative in small power generator systems. This work presents the initial phase of pertinent studies about the employment of the induction generator directly connected to the electrical power grid in a pilot project to be implemented at the Santa Luzia SHP. A project that aims to raise relevant operational aspects and to evidence some advantages about the employment of the induction generator in small power generator systems. This phase comprises the experimentation of an induction generator directly connected to the power grid in a laboratorial scale, plus a computational modeling which represents the same. This computational modeling takes into account loads variations which are being supplied by the generator, unbalance between phases and magnetic saturation effects, such as harmonic distortions in the generated currents. From the experimental model collected data, a theoretical-experimental confrontation of the computational modeling is made, where quantitative and qualitative analyses about the operational characteristics of the machine are made. The results of this work will head the operation and supervision of the SHP induction machine. (author)

  2. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of solution quality, runtime and other measures; and the third part collects advanced methods from experimental design for configuring and tuning algorithms on a specific class of instances with the goal of using the least amount of experimentation. The contributor list includes leading scientists......In operations research and computer science it is common practice to evaluate the performance of optimization algorithms on the basis of computational results, and the experimental approach should follow accepted principles that guarantee the reliability and reproducibility of results. However......, computational experiments differ from those in other sciences, and the last decade has seen considerable methodological research devoted to understanding the particular features of such experiments and assessing the related statistical methods. This book consists of methodological contributions on different...

  3. Be my guest! Challenges and practical solutions of undertaking interviews with children in the home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Gibson, Faith; Horstman, Maire; Milnes, Linda; Randall, Duncan; Carter, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to share critical debate on undertaking interviews with children in the home setting and draws on the authors' extensive research fieldwork. The article focuses on three key processes: planning entry to the child's home, conducting the interviews and exiting the field. In planning entry, we include children's engagement and issues of researcher gender. In conducting the interviews, we consider issues such as the balance of power, the importance of building a rapport, the voluntary nature of consent and the need for a flexible interview structure. Finally, we address exiting from the child's home with sensitivity at the end of the interview and/or research study. Undertaking research in the child's home provides a known and familiar territory for the child, but it means that the researcher faces a number of challenges that require solutions whilst they are a guest in a child's home. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Experimental analysis of pressurised humidification tower for humid air gas turbine cycles. Part A: Experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedemonte, A.A.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most interesting methods of water introduction in a gas turbine circuit is represented by the humid air turbine cycle (HAT). In the HAT cycle, the humidification can be provided by a pressurised saturator (i.e. humidification tower or saturation tower), this solution being known to offer several attractive features. This part A is focused on an experimental study of a pressurised humidification tower, with structured packing inside. After a description of the test rig employed to carry out the measuring campaign, the results relating to the thermodynamic process are presented and discussed. The experimental campaign was carried out over 162 working points, covering a relatively wide range of possible operating conditions. Details about measured data are provided in the appendix. It is shown that the saturator's behaviour, in terms of air outlet humidity and temperature, is primarily driven by, in decreasing order of relevance, the inlet water temperature, the inlet water over inlet dry air mass flow ratio and the inlet air temperature. Finally, the exit relative humidity is shown to be consistently over 100%, which may be explained partially by measurement accuracy and droplet entrainment, and partially by the non-ideal behaviour of air-steam mixtures close to saturation

  5. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In operations research and computer science it is common practice to evaluate the performance of optimization algorithms on the basis of computational results, and the experimental approach should follow accepted principles that guarantee the reliability and reproducibility of results. However, c...

  6. Experimental Analysis and Model Validation of an Opaque Ventilated Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, F. Peci; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Natural ventilation is a convenient way of reducing energy consumption in buildings. In this study an experimental module of an opaque ventilated façade (OVF) was built and tested for assessing its potential of supplying free ventilation and air preheating for the building. A numerical model was ...

  7. RABR Analysis - Rating Degrees of Openness in Experimental Repertory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2017-01-01

    "Openness" in experimental music is an imprecise notion. Works may be characterised according to Random Access and Broadness. The first describes whether, and how much, elements may be played independently of a fixed sequence. The second, how much latitude can exist in the interpretation of indiv...

  8. Experimental and mechanical analysis of cement–nanotube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction Researchers have attempted to estimate the mechanical properties of multi- and single-walled nanotubes (MWNTs and SWNTs, respectively) in manyways, including experimental, molecular dynamics (MD) and elastic continuum modelling methods. The discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) brings with it the ...

  9. Experimental Analysis of Voicing Contrast in Igbo Linda Chinelo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Linda Chinelo Nkamigbo*. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ujah.v12i2.9. Abstract. This study presents experimental evidence to support the two- way voicing contrast of Igbo stops and fricatives. It also focuses on the phonetic details of Igbo stops and fricatives. Digital recordings of the stops and fricatives were made at a.

  10. Wrinkling in Sheet metal Forming: Experimental Testing vs. numerical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selman, A.; Atzema, Eisso H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Huetink, Han

    2003-01-01

    Following a number of publications on numerical prediction of wrinkling in thin sheet metal forming, the present part of our work is devoted to the comparison of numerical results with those obtained through experimental testing. A number of hemispherical product samples have been used with various

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this context, response surface methodology is employed by aid of design of experiment approach. Later, the response surface curves are studied using ANOVA. Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are beneficent in furtherance of designing ...

  12. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in algorithm design, statistical design, optimization and heuristics, and most chapters provide theoretical background and are enriched with case studies. This book is written for researchers and practitioners in operations research and computer science who wish to improve the experimental assessment...

  13. Experimental Analysis of Voicing Contrast in Igbo Linda Chinelo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Abstract. This study presents experimental evidence to support the two- way voicing contrast of Igbo stops and fricatives. It also focuses on the phonetic details of Igbo stops and fricatives. Digital recordings of the stops and fricatives were made at a sample rate of 44,100Hz and subsequently analysed in Praat. The study ...

  14. Experimental Analysis of Voicing Contrasts in Igbo | Nkamigbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents experimental evidence to support the twoway voicing contrast of Igbo stops and fricatives. It also focuses on the phonetic details of Igbo stops and fricatives. Digital recordings of the stops and fricatives were made at a sample rate of 44,100Hz and subsequently analysed in Praat. The study looked into ...

  15. Analysis of experimental data sets for local scour depth around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of soft computing techniques to analyse and interpret the experimental data of local scour depth around bridge abutment, measured at different laboratory conditions and environment, is presented. The scour around bridge piers and abutments is, in the majority of cases, the main reason for bridge failures.

  16. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  17. Researcher or nurse? Difficulties of undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Susan

    2014-09-01

    To reflect on the author's personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. When discussing care at the end of life, researchers must accept that some participants may become distressed or emotional, depending on their previous experiences. Interviews that involve sensitive topics require careful planning. The semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of the author's PhD study examining the experiences of advance care planning among family caregivers of people with advanced dementia. A reflection on my personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. The frustration and tragedy of dementia, as experienced by the family caregivers, were powerful and required the author to exert self-control to avoid being overly sympathetic and offering words of reassurance, agreement and comfort. This blurring of roles between researcher and nurse has implications for all nurse researchers who undertake qualitative interviews, particularly when an intense emotional response is likely. Nurse researchers should plan and prepare for potential blurring of roles during emotional interviews and should never automatically assume that they are sufficiently prepared as a result of their previous experience and nurse training.

  18. application of covariance analysis to feed/ ration experimental data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    animals (the covariate or the independent variable) and the final weight (the dependent or response variable). Asiedu-Ansah ... The objective of this study was to demonstrate the abuse of the ANOVA for the analysis of feed/ration .... classification analysis of variance and a regression coefficient β as in regression analysis.

  19. Experimental Design for Sensitivity Analysis of Simulation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory tutorial gives a survey on the use of statistical designs for what if-or sensitivity analysis in simulation.This analysis uses regression analysis to approximate the input/output transformation that is implied by the simulation model; the resulting regression model is also known as

  20. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill KD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Keith D Hill,1,2 Lesley Day,3 Terry P Haines4,5 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Falls Prevention Research Unit, Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash University, VIC, Australia; 4Allied Health Research Unit, Southern Health, Cheltenham, VIC, Australia; 5Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Monash University, VIC, Australia Purpose: To investigate previous, current, or planned participation in, and perceptions toward, multifactorial fall prevention programs such as those delivered through a falls clinic in the community setting, and to identify factors influencing older people’s intent to undertake these interventions.Design and methods: Community-dwelling people aged >70 years completed a telephone survey. Participants were randomly selected from an electronic residential telephone listing, but purposeful sampling was used to include equal numbers with and without common chronic health conditions associated with fall-related hospitalization. The survey included scenarios for fall prevention interventions, including assessment/multifactorial interventions, such as those delivered through a falls clinic. Participants were asked about previous exposure to, or intent to participate in, the interventions. A path model analysis was used to identify factors associated with intent to participate in assessment/multifactorial interventions.Results: Thirty of 376 participants (8.0% reported exposure to a multifactorial falls clinic-type intervention in the past 5 years, and 16.0% expressed intention to undertake this intervention. Of the 132 participants who reported one or more falls in the past 12 months, over one-third were undecided or disagreed that a falls clinic type of intervention would be of benefit to them. Four elements

  1. An Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Puff Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi MS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of a tobacco rod in a cigarette increases as it converts into char and ash in the coal. The hot coal introduces a significant resistance to the air flow when air passes through. Through a series of experiments, the cigarette burn line and burn rate, the centerline temperature, and the pressure drop were measured for continuous puffing conditions. The gas viscosity was calculated from the temperature distribution inside the cigarette and applying Sutherland's law. Then, the experimental setup was mathematically modeled from a commercially available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics code and, by matching the numerical and experimental results, the changes in coal and filter permeability during puffing were estimated. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the results of experiments on the air flow through the coal, ventilation holes and paper wrapper.

  2. CFD analysis and experimental comparison of novel roof tile shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bottarelli

    2017-06-01

    Using an experimental rig, the air pressure difference and the volumetric flow rate between tiles have been measured for an existing Portoghese tile design over a range of pressures. Then, in order to understand the air flows under different conditions, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD model has been implemented to recreate the full geometry of the rig. The model was calibrated against the aforementioned experimental results, and run with boundary conditions simulating different wind directions. Even in the low velocities typical of average local wind patterns, the fluid dynamic problem remains complex because of the geometry of the gaps between the tiles. However, it has been possible to assess the coefficient of local head loss and then apply it in an analytical relationship between pressure drop and flow rate, taking into account the open area. The results have shown how the wind direction affects the air permeability and, therefore, important insights have been gathered for the design of novel tiles.

  3. Spectroscopic Analysis of Neurotransmitters: A Theoretical and Experimental Raman Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Matthew

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was applied to investigate the feasibility in the detection and monitoring of the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 10-11 molar, a concentration far below physiological levels. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were obtained with the Gaussian-09 analytical suite software to generate the theoretical molecular configuration of DA in its neutral, cationic, anionic, and dopaminequinone states for the conversion of computer-simulated Raman spectra. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results show good agreement and imply the presence of dopamine in all of its molecular forms in the experimental setting. The dominant dopamine Raman bands at 750 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 suggest the adsorption of dopaminequinone onto the silver nanoparticle surface. The results of this experiment give good insight into the applicability of using Raman spectroscopy for the biodetection of neurotransmitters.

  4. Experimental and Mathematical Analysis of Multilayer Insulation below 80 K

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Parente, C; Riddone, G

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider [1], presently under construction at CERN, will make an extensive use of multilayer insulation system (MLI). The total surface to be insulated will be of about 80000 m2. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the heat flux through MLI from 80 K to 4.2 K. The total heat flux between the layers is the result of three distinct heat transfer modes: radiation, residual gas conduction and solid conduction. The mathematical model enables prediction of MLI behavior with regard to different MLI parameters, such as gas insulation pressure, number of layers and boundary temperatures. The calculated values have been compared to the experimental measurements carried out at CERN. Theoretical and experimental results revealed to be in good agreement, especially for insulation vacuum between 10-5 Pa and 10-3 Pa.

  5. Performance analysis of small-scale experimental facility of TWDEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawana, Ryoh; Ishikawa, Motoo [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Takeno, Hiromasa; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The objective of the present paper is to analyze small-scale experimental facilities of TWDEC (Travelling Wave type Direct Energy Converter) and to propose a modification in regard to a measuring device of the facilities by means of numerical simulation with the axisymmetrical two-dimensional approximation (a PIC method). The numerical simulation has given the following results: (1) tendency of the numerical results agree with the experimental results on the measured deceleration efficiency, (2) the deceleration efficiency measured in the experiment will increase if the radius of Faraday cup installed in the experiment increases and (3) the wave of condensation and rarefaction of measured electric charge density, which is averaged in the r-direction below the radius of Faraday cup, is not formed enough with a small radius of Faraday cup because of the r component of electric field which is induced by the electrode geometry. (author)

  6. Birefringence of cellotape: Jones representation and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Frances, Jorge; Neipp, Cristian [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we analyse a simple experiment to study the effects of polarized light. A simple optical system composed of a polarizer, a retarder (cellotape) and an analyser is used to study the effect on the polarization state of the light which impinges on the setup. The optical system is characterized by means of a Jones matrix, and a simple procedure based on Jones vectors is used to obtain an expression for the intensity after the light passes through the optical system. The light intensity is measured by a photodetector and the expression obtained theoretically is experimentally validated. By fitting the experimental intensity data, the value of the retardation introduced by the retarder can also be obtained.

  7. The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" at Zero, Fifty, and One Hundred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A. Charles

    2008-01-01

    The experimental content areas represented in "JEAB" in its first volume (1958) and fifty 50 years later in Volume 87 are in many ways similar with regard to research on schedules of reinforcement, research with human subjects, and several other topics. Experimental analysis has not been displaced by quantitative analysis. Much less research on…

  8. Experimental analysis of injection characteristics using biodiesel fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Hribernik, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with injection characteristics using different fuels at different fuel temperatures. The fuels under consideration are neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil and some blends with diesel as well as neat mineral diesel D2. The fuel and fuel temperature influences are investigated experimentally in the mechanically controlled diesel fuel injection M system. At first, attention is focused on the injection characteristics, especially on fuelling, mean injection rate, mean injection pres...

  9. Experimental Analysis of Team Performance: Methodological Developments and Research Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-06

    most consistent sleep periods across days, and S3 showed a clear reorientation in his sleep episodes that persisted throughout Days 7-10. These latter...shifted her sleep pattern on Day 8, and she thereafter commenced sleep periods in the early hours (e.&., 1200) of an experimental "day." Finally, the...experiment. The novitiate participant is identified as "S4." Although the behavioral program was not oriented to time markers, sleep periods were generally

  10. Analysis of some experimental data for high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L.P.; Kopin, N.B.

    1988-04-01

    Experimental data on new superconductors, YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)Cu/sub 4/, are analyzed with the objective of estimating the width of the fluctuation region near Tc and electron band parameters. The data are not inconsistent with the presence of delocalized electrons and indicate the narrowness of the fluctuation region. 16 references.

  11. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation.

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Causal Attribution for Consumer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    杉本, 徹雄

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to find out the causes of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction in consumer decision process. The causes of satisfaction/dissatisfaction were identified in the recent purchasing occasions for the four product classes. Then, sixteen scenarios of decesion making were drawn up by combining the ways of information search, price, manufacturer, and assortment in a retail store in the outcomes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Subjects were asked to attri...

  13. The Role of Emotions on Risk Preferences : An Experimental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Anna; Levati, M. Vittoria; Nardi, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, there has been a large volume of research showing that emotions do have relevant effects on decision-making. We contribute to this literature by experimentally investigating the impact of four specific emotional states - joviality, sadness, fear, and anger - on risk attitudes. In order to do so, we fit two models of behaviour under risk: the Expected Utility model (EU) and the Rank Dependent Expected Utility model (RDEU), assuming several functional forms of the weighting...

  14. Experimental methods for the analysis of optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Paquete, Luis; Preuss, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In operations research and computer science it is common practice to evaluate the performance of optimization algorithms on the basis of computational results, and the experimental approach should follow accepted principles that guarantee the reliability and reproducibility of results. However, computational experiments differ from those in other sciences, and the last decade has seen considerable methodological research devoted to understanding the particular features of such experiments and assessing the related statistical methods. This book consists of methodological contributions on diffe

  15. Humidification tower for humid air gas turbine cycles: Experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traverso, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the HAT (humid air turbine) cycle, the humidification of compressed air can be provided by a pressurised saturator (i.e. humidification tower or saturation tower), this solution being known to offer several attractive features. This work is focused on an experimental study of a pressurised humidification tower, with structured packing. After a description of the test rig employed to carry out the measuring campaign, the results relating to the thermodynamic process are presented and discussed. The experimental campaign was carried out over 162 working points, covering a relatively wide range of possible operating conditions. It is shown that the saturator behaviour, in terms of air outlet humidity and temperature, is primarily driven by, in decreasing order of relevance, the inlet water temperature, the inlet water over inlet dry air mass flow ratio and the inlet air temperature. The exit relative humidity is consistently over 100%, which may be explained partially by measurement accuracy and droplet entrainment, and partially by the non-ideal behaviour of air-steam mixtures close to saturation. Experimental results have been successfully correlated using a set of new non-dimensional groups: such a correlation is able to capture the air outlet temperature with a standard deviation σ = 2.8 K.

  16. Sensible Heat Transfer during Droplet Cooling: Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Teodori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the numerical reproduction of the entire surface temperature field resulting from a water droplet spreading on a heated surface, which is compared with experimental data. High-speed infrared thermography of the back side of the surface and high-speed images of the side view of the impinging droplet were used to infer on the solid surface temperature field and on droplet dynamics. Numerical reproduction of the phenomena was performed using OpenFOAM CFD toolbox. An enhanced volume of fluid (VOF model was further modified for this purpose. The proposed modifications include the coupling of temperature fields between the fluid and the solid regions, to account for transient heat conduction within the solid. The results evidence an extremely good agreement between the temporal evolution of the measured and simulated spreading factors of the considered droplet impacts. The numerical and experimental dimensionless surface temperature profiles within the solid surface and along the droplet radius, were also in good agreement. Most of the differences were within the experimental measurements uncertainty. The numerical results allowed relating the solid surface temperature profiles with the fluid flow. During spreading, liquid recirculation within the rim, leads to the appearance of different regions of heat transfer that can be correlated with the vorticity field within the droplet.

  17. Experimental analysis of humidification process by air passing through seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.; Abugderah, M.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of humidification process by air passing through seawater is presented. The main objective of this work was to determine the humid air behaviour through single-stage of heating-humidifying processes. This experimental work studied the influence of the operating conditions such as the water temperature, the headwater difference, the air velocity and the inlet air temperature to evaporator chamber on the vapour content difference and humidification efficiency. Two cases of different inlet conditions of ambient and heated air cases are studied. The experimental results show that, the vapour content difference and the humidification efficiency of the system is strongly affected by the saline water temperature in the evaporator chamber, headwater difference and the air velocity. The inlet air temperature to evaporator chamber variation was found to have a small affect on the vapour content difference. The obtained maximum vapour content difference of the air was about 222 gr w /kg a at 75 deg. C for water and air. The obtained vapour content is high compared to that obtained in literature for single-stage and very similar for multi-stage

  18. Non proliferation regimes undertakings: Benefits and limits of synergies in verification technologies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Thirty years ago the NPT was entering into force. Therewith, when a State became party to the NPT, it had, in accordance with article III.1 of the Treaty, an undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Safeguards agreement with the IAEA and accept safeguards verification on source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territories in order to verify that such material is not diverted. This multilateral instrument was the foundation stone of the non-proliferation regime and marked the actual birth of internationally accepted measures to verily compliance with politically stringent agreements. Since that time several important multilateral or bilateral instruments on non-proliferation and disarmament have been negotiated and adopted to curb the development and the acquisition of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) most of them since the middle of the eighties and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Amongst the multilateral instruments are the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological Weapon and Toxin Weapons (1972), the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (1993), the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996), the Strengthening of the IAEA Safeguards and the Additional Protocol (1997), with some still in negotiation like the Protocol of the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons, and some on which negotiation is still a wish like the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. Bilateral disarmament agreements between the United States of America and the Russian Federation such as the INF Treaty, START I and II, the agreements on the elimination of excess defence nuclear material as well as the Trilateral Initiative with the IAEA pave the way to nuclear disarmament with the reduction of both the number of nuclear weapons arsenal and the fissile material inventories. The politically stringent undertakings of States that have become parties to those agreements would not be possible without the

  19. Theoretical and experimental analysis of fast reactor fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummerer, K.R.; Freund, D.; Steiner, H.

    1982-09-01

    In order to predict behavior, performance, and capability of prototypic fuel pins a standard operational scheme for the SNR-300 fast breeder reactor is established considering besides normal operation unscheduled power changes and shutdowns. The behavior during the whole lifetime is calculated using the updated SATURN codes and - for special conditions as power transients and skewed fuel rod power - the new TRANSIENT and TEXDIF codes. The results of these calculations are compared to experimental findings. It is demonstrated that the level of modeling and the knowledge of material properties under irradiation are sufficient for a quantitative description of the fuel pin performance under the above mentioned conditions. (orig.) [de

  20. Experimental Analysis of Grease Friction Properties on Sliding Textured Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease lubricated sliding contact under mixed lubrication conditions. The influences of surface texture parameters on the frictional properties were investigated using a disc-on-ring tribometer. The results showed that the friction coefficient is largely dependent on texture parameters, with higher and lower texture density resulting in a higher friction coefficient at a fixed texture depth. The sample with texture density of 15% and texture depth of 19 μm exhibited the best friction properties in all experimental conditions because it can store more grease and trap wear debris. The reduction of friction is mainly attributable to the formation of a stable grease lubrication film composed of oil film, transfer film and deposited film, and the hydrodynamic pressure effect of the surface texture, which increases the mating gap and reduces the probability of asperity contact. This result will help in understanding the tribological behaviour of grease on a textured surface and in predicting the lubrication conditions of sliding bearings for better operation in any machinery.

  1. Two-channel analysis of QUELL experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C

    2000-01-01

    We have improved the model presently used in the thermo-hydraulic code Gandalf, adapting it to cable-in-conduit conductors with central cooling channel such as those developed for the model coils of ITER. In particular the helium flow in an arbitrary number of parallel channels have now independent velocity and thermodynamic state (pressure and temperature). We demonstrate the capability of the new model by means of comparison to measurements taken during the QUELL experiment in SULTAN. We compare in particular data on heat slug at zero current and field in a broad range of energy inputs, as well as data on quench propagation, to simulation results obtained with the single channel approximation and the newly implemented two-channel model. The latter achieves significantly better agreement with experimental data, in particular in the case of slow heating transients such as in heat slug propagation tests. (10 refs).

  2. Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics.

  3. Numerical and experimental analysis of a solid desiccant wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koronaki Irene P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotary desiccant dehumidifier is an important component which can be used in air conditioning systems in order to reduce the electrical energy consumption and introduce renewable energy sources. In this study a one dimensional gas side resistance model is presented for predicting the performance of the desiccant wheel. Measurements from two real sorption wheels are used in order to validate the model. One wheel uses silica gel as desiccant material and the other lithium chloride. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is used to compare the counter flow with the co-current wheel arrangements and to explain why the counter flow one is more efficient for air dehumidification.

  4. Analytical analysis and experimental verification of interleaved parallelogram heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Long; Wang, Chi-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel air-cooled heat sink profile (IPFM) is proposed to compete with the typical design. • It features two different perimeters with odd fin being rectangular and the rest being parallelogram. • A new modified dimensionless parameter characterized the flow length in triangular region is proposed. • The analytical predictions are in line with the experiments for both conventional and IPFM design. • IPFM design shows a much lower pressure drop and a superior performance especially for dense fins. - Abstract: In this study, a novel air-cooled heat sink profile is proposed to compete with the conventional design. The new design is termed as IPFM (Interleaved Parallelogram Fin Module) which features two different geometrical perimeter shapes of fins. This new design not only gains the advantage of lower pressure drop for power saving; but also gains a material saving for less fin surface area. An assessment of flow impedance and performance between the conventional and IPFM heat sink is analytically investigated and experimentally verified. A new modified dimensionless friction factor for triangular region is proposed. The analytical predictions agree with experimental measurements for both conventional and IPFM design. In electronic cooling design, especially for cloud server air-cooled heat sink design, the flow pattern is usually laminar with Reynolds number being operated less than 2000. In this regime, the IPFM design shows 8–12% less of surface than conventional design when the flow rate is less than 10 CFM; yet the thermal performance is slightly inferior to the conventional design when the flowrate is raised towards 25 CFM. Yet in the test range of 5–25 CFM, a 10–15% lower flow impedance is observed. The smaller fin spacing, the more conspicuous reduction of flow impedance is observed. The optimization of cutting angle is around 35° for 10 CFM, and it is reduced to 15° at a larger flowrate of 20 CFM.

  5. A comparison of classroom and online asynchronous problem-based learning for students undertaking statistics training as part of a Public Health Masters degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Verstegen, D M L; Tan, F E S; O'Connor, S J

    2013-05-01

    This case-study compared traditional, face-to-face classroom-based teaching with asynchronous online learning and teaching methods in two sets of students undertaking a problem-based learning module in the multilevel and exploratory factor analysis of longitudinal data as part of a Masters degree in Public Health at Maastricht University. Students were allocated to one of the two study variants on the basis of their enrolment status as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students (n = 11) followed the classroom-based variant and part-time students (n = 12) followed the online asynchronous variant which included video recorded lectures and a series of asynchronous online group or individual SPSS activities with synchronous tutor feedback. A validated student motivation questionnaire was administered to both groups of students at the start of the study and a second questionnaire was administered at the end of the module. This elicited data about student satisfaction with the module content, teaching and learning methods, and tutor feedback. The module coordinator and problem-based learning tutor were also interviewed about their experience of delivering the experimental online variant and asked to evaluate its success in relation to student attainment of the module's learning outcomes. Student examination results were also compared between the two groups. Asynchronous online teaching and learning methods proved to be an acceptable alternative to classroom-based teaching for both students and staff. Educational outcomes were similar for both groups, but importantly, there was no evidence that the asynchronous online delivery of module content disadvantaged part-time students in comparison to their full-time counterparts.

  6. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biggs

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental burn plot (EBP trial initiated in 1954 is one of few ongoing long-termfire ecology research projects in Africa. The trial aims to assess the impacts of differentfire regimes in the Kruger National Park. Recent studies on the EBPs have raised questions as to the experimental design of the trial, and the appropriate model specificationwhen analysing data. Archival documentation reveals that the original design was modified on several occasions, related to changes in the park's fire policy. These modifications include the addition of extra plots, subdivision of plots and changes in treatmentsover time, and have resulted in a design which is only partially randomised. The representativity of the trial plots has been questioned on account of their relatively small size,the concentration of herbivores on especially the frequently burnt plots, and soil variation between plots. It is suggested that these factors be included as covariates inexplanatory models or that certain plots be excluded from data analysis based on resultsof independent studies of these factors. Suggestions are provided for the specificationof the experimental design when analysing data using Analysis of Variance. It is concluded that there is no practical alternative to treating the trial as a fully randomisedcomplete block design.

  7. Undertaking and writing research that is important, targeted, and the best you can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-04-01

    Conducting and writing research is a privilege. It is a privilege because researchers can change lives through their findings and can influence public knowledge and debate. It is also a privilege because researchers are reliant on the time and goodwill of participants (and colleagues), and research is often underpinned by funding raised by the public, either through taxes or philanthropic donations. This privilege comes with responsibility. Researchers have a responsibility to undertake research that is important, targeted, and of high quality. This editorial aims to inspire, challenge, and bolster the research efforts of individuals and teams.

  8. Training staff to empower people with long-term conditions to undertake self care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mandy

    Self care can help people with long-term conditions take control of their lives. However, their interest and ability to engage with it may fluctuate over the course of an illness and many need support to undertake self care activities. A team of community matrons in NHS South of Tyne and Wear helped to develop and pilot an e-learning tool for staff, to remind them of the importance of self care and give advice on ways to support patients. The tool has since been rolled out to all staff groups.

  9. Procedure for statistical analysis of one-parameter discrepant experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, Sergey A.; Chechev, Valery P.

    2012-01-01

    A new, Mandel–Paule-type procedure for statistical processing of one-parameter discrepant experimental data is described. The procedure enables one to estimate a contribution of unrecognized experimental errors into the total experimental uncertainty as well as to include it in analysis. A definition of discrepant experimental data for an arbitrary number of measurements is introduced as an accompanying result. In the case of negligible unrecognized experimental errors, the procedure simply reduces to the calculation of the weighted average and its internal uncertainty. The procedure was applied to the statistical analysis of half-life experimental data; Mean half-lives for 20 actinides were calculated and results were compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. On the whole, the calculated half-lives are consistent with the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. However, the uncertainties calculated in this work essentially exceed the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations for discrepant experimental data. This effect can be explained by adequately taking into account unrecognized experimental errors. - Highlights: ► A new statistical procedure for processing one-parametric discrepant experimental data has been presented. ► Procedure estimates a contribution of unrecognized errors in the total experimental uncertainty. ► Procedure was applied for processing half-life discrepant experimental data. ► Results of the calculations are compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations.

  10. Analysis of experimental positron-molecule binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, J R; Surko, C M; Young, J A

    2010-01-01

    Experiments show that positron annihilation on molecules frequently occurs via capture into vibrational Feshbach resonances. In these cases, the downshifts in the annihilation spectra from the vibrational mode spectra provide measures of the positron-molecule binding energies. An analysis of these binding energy data is presented in terms of the molecular dipole polarizability, the permanent dipole moment, and the number of π bonds in aromatic molecules. The results of this analysis are in reasonably good agreement with other information about positron-molecule bound states. Predictions for other targets and promising candidate molecules for further investigation are discussed.

  11. Experimental and mechanical analysis of cement–nanotube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... nanocomposites were then produced by adding functionalized nanotube powder to the colloidal cement nanoparticles sus- pended in ... Keywords. Carbon nanotubes; cement; nanocomposites; finite-element method; modal analysis. 1. .... The time and economic factors have also been taken into account.

  12. Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that to increase societal impact behavioral researchers must do more to address problems of obvious practical importance. The basic science wing of behavior analysis has been described as especially detached from this goal, but is it really necessary that basic science demonstrate social relevance? If so, why hasn't this…

  13. Point Cloud Based Visibility Analysis : first experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Verbree, E.; Bregt, Arnold; Sarjakoski, Tapani; Lammeren, Ron van; Rip, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Visibility computed from a LiDAR point cloud offers several advantages compared to using a gridded digital height-model. With a higher resolution and detailed information, point cloud data can provide precise analysis as well as an opportunity to avoid the process of generating a surface

  14. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis, associated to experimental fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; Moura Neto, C. de; Rosa, M.A.P.

    1980-07-01

    Phenomena associated to the physics of fast neutrons were analysed by linear and nonlinear Kinetics with arbitrary feedback. The theoretical foundations of linear kinetics and transfer functions aiming at the analysis of fast reactors stability, are established. These stability conditions were analitically proposed and investigated by digital and analogic programs. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Rationalization of incisor shape: experimental-numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, P; Versluis, A; Douglas, W H

    1999-03-01

    Moving from the posterior segment in the anterior direction within the dental arch, the process of "incisivization" takes place. The occlusal table is gradually replaced by an incisal edge that has the function of cutting. This study considers these genetically controlled changes by using strain gauge measurements and finite element analyses to rationalize the clinical and biologic advantages of incisal form. A direct clinical link in the common esthetic procedure of anterior veneering is expected. Six maxillary incisors were mounted in a positioning device and equipped with 2 strain gauges bonded to the palatal surface: gauge 1 (G1) in the concavity and gauge 2 (G2) on the cingulum. A 50 N load was applied on the palatal side of the incisal edge, perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. Displacement of the load tip and the palatal strain were recorded after successively removing one third, two thirds, and the total thickness of the facial enamel. The same experiment was reproduced with the finite element method (FEM). Four additional experimental designs were tested with the FEM by simulating the progressive thinning and elimination of palatal enamel and a thickened palatal lobe. Surface tangential stresses and local strain in the area corresponding to gauges 1 and 2 were calculated from the postprocessing files. The FEM was validated by experimental results considering both displacement of the load tip ( approximately 120 +/- 30 microm) and tangential surface strain at G1/G2. Recorded strains were always higher in the concavity when compared with the cingulum; high tensile strains were recorded at G1 after the total removal of the facial enamel. The entire facial surface was submitted to compressive forces. Subsequent compressive stresses were higher ( approximately 150 MPa) when facial enamel was thin or when the palatal enamel was removed. However, their absolute value never reached the elevated and potentially harmful tensile stresses measured in the

  16. Experimental Analysis on Shrinkage and Swelling in Ordinary Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kucharczyková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the experimental determination of shrinkage development during concrete ageing. Three concrete mixtures were made. They differed in the amount of cement in the fresh mixture, 300, 350, and 400 kg/m3. In order to determine the influence of plasticiser on the progress of volume changes, another three concrete mixtures were prepared with plasticiser in the amount of 0.25% by cement mass. Measurements were performed with the goal of observing the influence of cement and plasticiser content on the overall development of volume changes in the concrete. Changes in length and mass losses of the concrete during ageing were measured simultaneously. The continuous measurement of concrete mass losses caused by drying of the specimen’s surface proved useful during the interpretation of results obtained from the concrete shrinkage measurement. During the first 24 hours of ageing, all the concrete mixtures exhibited swelling. Its magnitude and progress were influenced by cement, water, and plasticiser content. However, a loss of mass caused by water evaporation from the surface of the specimens was also recorded in this stage. The measured progress of shrinkage corresponded well to the progress of mass loss.

  17. Study of experimental validation for combustion analysis of GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Yang, S. Y.; Park, K. C.; Jeong, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, present lumped and subdivided GOTHIC6 code analyses of the premixed hydrogen combustion experiment at the Seoul National University and comparison with the experiment results. The experimental facility has 16367 cc free volume and rectangular shape. And the test was performed with unit equivalence ratio of the hydrogen and air, and with various location of igniter position. Using the lumped and mechanistic combustion model in GOTHIC6 code, the experiments were simulated with the same conditions. In the comparison between experiment and calculated results, the GOTHIC6 prediction of the combustion response does not compare well with the experiment results. In the point of combustion time, the lumped combustion model of GOTHIC6 code does not simulate the physical phenomena of combustion appropriately. In the case of mechanistic combustion model, the combustion time is predicted well, but the induction time of calculation data is longer than the experiment data remarkably. Also, the laminar combustion model of GOTHIC6 has deficiency to simulate combustion phenomena unless control the user defined value appropriately. And the pressure is not a proper variable that characterize the three dimensional effect of combustion

  18. Stress analysis of blanket vessel for JAERI experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, K.; Minato, A.

    1979-01-01

    A blanket structure of JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) consists of about 2,300 blanket cells with round cornered rectangular cross sections (twelve slightly different shapes) and is placed in a vacuum vessel. Each blanket vessel is a double-walled thin-shell structure made of Type 316 stainless steel with a spherical domed surface at the plasma side. Ribs for coolant channel are provided between inner and outer walls. The blanket cell contains Li 2 O pebbles and blocks for tritium breeding and stainless steel blocks for neutron reflection. A coolant is helium gas at 10 kgf/cm 2 (0.98 MPa) and its inlet and outlet temperatures are 300 0 C and 500 0 C. The maxima of heat flux and nuclear heating rate at the first wall are 12 W/cm 2 and 2 W/cc. A design philosophy of the blanket structure is based on high tritium breeding ratio and more effective shielding performance. The thin-shell vessel with a rectangular cross section satisfies the design philosophy. We have designed the blanket structure so that the adjacent vessels are mutually supporting in order to decrease the large deformation and stress due to internal pressure in case of the thin-shell vessel. (orig.)

  19. Experimental Dynamic Analysis of a Breathing Cracked Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao-Zhong; Yan, Ji-Hong; Bergman, Lawrence A.

    2017-09-01

    Crack fault diagnostics plays a critical role for rotating machinery in the traditional and Industry 4.0 factory. In this paper, an experiment is set up to study the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack as it passes through its 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/5 subcritical speeds. A cracked shaft is made by applying fatigue loads through a three-point bending apparatus and then placed in a rotor testbed. The vibration signals of the testbed during the coasting-up process are collected. Whirl orbit evolution at these subcritical speed zones is analyzed. The Fourier spectra obtained by FFT are used to investigate the internal frequencies corresponding to the typical orbit characteristics. The results show that the appearance of the inner loops and orientation change of whirl orbits in the experiment are agreed well with the theoretical results obtained previously. The presence of higher frequencies 2X, 3X, 4X and 5X in Fourier spectra reveals the causes of subharmonic resonances at these subcritical speed zones. The experimental investigation is more systematic and thorough than previously reported in the literature. The unique dynamic behavior of the orbits and frequency spectra are feasible features for practical crack diagnosis. This paper provides a critical technology support for the self-aware health management of rotating machinery in the Industry 4.0 factory.

  20. Numerical and experimental analysis of particle dispersion in dust explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Mari G.; Berg, Ann Elin; Balakin, Boris V.; Kosinski, Pawel

    2017-07-01

    Dust explosions take place when small particles of flammable material such as grain, wood, plastic, coal and metal are dispersed in air and ignited. An important research tool that is used for describing dust explosion characteristics is the Hartmann apparatus, where dust is dispersed by a pressure wave. This makes it possible to find e.g. the minimum ignition energy. Nevertheless, there is a question whether the formed dust cloud is uniformly dispersed and how the solid particles behave as they flow. In addition to the scientific curiosity there is also a practical application, namely at what point in time the explosive mixture should be ignited in order to obtain the most representative results. The objective of this research was to run computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, using the commercial software Star CCM+, with the purpose to numerically investigate the dispersion of a single particle in a modified Hartmann tube. Numerical models affecting the particle-wall and the particle-gas interactions were analysed, and the motion of the particle resolved numerically was verified with experimental results obtained using the Positron Emmision Particle Tracking (PEPT) technique.

  1. Full scale experimental analysis of wind direction changes (EOD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2007-01-01

    wind direction gust amplitudes associated with the investigated European sites are low compared to the recommended IEC- values. However, these values, as function of the mean wind speed, are difficult to validate thoroughly due to the limited number of fully correlated measurements....... the magnitudes of a joint gust event defined by a simultaneously wind speed- and direction change in order to obtain an indication of the validity of the magnitudes specified in the IEC code. The analysis relates to pre-specified recurrence periods and is based on full-scale wind field measurements. The wind......A coherent wind speed and wind direction change (ECD) load case is defined in the wind turbine standard. This load case is an essential extreme load case that e.g. may be design driving for flap defection of active stall controlled wind turbines. The present analysis identifies statistically...

  2. Benefits and barriers for registered nurses undertaking post-graduate diplomas in paediatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne; Copnell, Beverley

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents one aspect of a larger study identifying key influences on curriculum redesign and development of a post-graduate diploma in advanced clinical nursing. The focus is on paediatric intensive care and general paediatric streams. Data presented here relate to registered nurses' perceptions of benefits and barriers when undertaking this post-graduate diploma. As well as interviews and focus group discussions with a number of nurses, data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, A total of 885 surveys were distributed to nurses working in paediatric areas in five hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Of these, 391 were completed (response rate 44%). One hundred and thirty (33%) had post-registration or post-graduate paediatric qualifications. Perceived benefits of undertaking the post-graduate diploma mainly related to an increase in knowledge and experience and improvement of employment opportunities. Perceived barriers mainly related to financial and professional issues such as cost of the course, loss of salary, the lack of direct remuneration on completion of the course and a lack of promotional opportunities. It was of concern that several nurses expressed a belief that paediatric qualifications were unnecessary and that many believed their employers did not value the qualification. Several recommendations are suggested to address the main barriers. These include more flexibility in the provision of such courses and opportunities for financial assistance. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental Analysis of Bisbenzocyclobutene Bonded Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwar, Rayyan; Chowdhury, Sazzadur

    2016-06-24

    Experimental measurement results of a 1.75 mm × 1.75 mm footprint area Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) planar array fabricated using a bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB)-based adhesive wafer bonding technique has been presented. The array consists of 40 × 40 square diaphragm CMUT cells with a cavity thickness of 900 nm and supported by 10 µm wide dielectric spacers patterned on a thin layer of BCB. A 150 µm wide one µm thick gold strip has been used as the contact pad for gold wire bonding. The measured resonant frequency of 19.3 MHz using a Polytec™ laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec™ MSA-500) is in excellent agreement with the 3-D FEA simulation result using IntelliSuite™. An Agilent ENA5061B vector network analyzer (VNA) has been used for impedance measurement and the resonance and anti-resonance values from the imaginary impedance curve were used to determine the electromechanical coupling co-efficient. The measured coupling coefficient of 0.294 at 20 V DC bias exhibits 40% higher transduction efficiency as compared to a measured value published elsewhere for a silicon nitride based CMUT. A white light interferometry method was used to measure the diaphragm deflection profiles at different DC bias. The diaphragm center velocity was measured for different sub-resonant frequencies using a Polytec™ laser Doppler vibrometer that confirms vibration of the diaphragm at different excitation frequencies and bias voltages. Transmit and receive operations of CMUT cells were characterized using a pitch-catch method and a -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 23% was extracted from the received signal in frequency domain. From the measurement, it appears that BCB-based CMUTs offer superior transduction efficiency as compared to silicon nitride or silicon dioxide insulator-based CMUTs, and provide a very uniform deflection profile thus making them a suitable candidate to fabricate highly energy efficient CMUTs.

  4. Merit and justice: an experimental analysis of attitude to inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Rustichini

    Full Text Available Merit and justice play a crucial role in ethical theory and political philosophy. Some theories view justice as allocation according to merit; others view justice as based on criteria of its own, and take merit and justice as two independent values. We study experimentally how these views are perceived. In our experiment subjects played two games (both against the computer: a game of skill and a game of luck. After each game they observed the earnings of all the subjects in the session, and thus the differences in outcomes. Each subject could reduce the winnings of one other person at a cost. The majority of the subjects used the option to subtract. The decision to subtract and the amount subtracted depended on whether the game was one of skill or luck, and on the distance between the earnings of the subject and those of others. Everything else being equal, subjects subtracted more in luck than in skill. In skill game, but not in luck, the subtraction becomes more likely, and the amount larger, as the distance increases. The results show that individuals considered favorable outcomes in luck to be undeserved, and thus felt more justified in subtracting. In the skill game instead, they considered more favorable outcomes (their own as well as others' as signal of ability and perhaps effort, which thus deserved merit; hence, they felt less motivated to subtract. However, a larger size of the unfavorable gap from the others increased the unpleasantness of poor performance, which in turn motivated larger subtraction. In conclusion, merit is attributed if and only if effort or skill significantly affect the outcome. An inequality of outcomes is viewed differently depending on whether merit causes the difference or not. Thus, merit and justice are strongly linked in the human perception of social order.

  5. Merit and justice: an experimental analysis of attitude to inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustichini, Aldo; Vostroknutov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Merit and justice play a crucial role in ethical theory and political philosophy. Some theories view justice as allocation according to merit; others view justice as based on criteria of its own, and take merit and justice as two independent values. We study experimentally how these views are perceived. In our experiment subjects played two games (both against the computer): a game of skill and a game of luck. After each game they observed the earnings of all the subjects in the session, and thus the differences in outcomes. Each subject could reduce the winnings of one other person at a cost. The majority of the subjects used the option to subtract. The decision to subtract and the amount subtracted depended on whether the game was one of skill or luck, and on the distance between the earnings of the subject and those of others. Everything else being equal, subjects subtracted more in luck than in skill. In skill game, but not in luck, the subtraction becomes more likely, and the amount larger, as the distance increases. The results show that individuals considered favorable outcomes in luck to be undeserved, and thus felt more justified in subtracting. In the skill game instead, they considered more favorable outcomes (their own as well as others') as signal of ability and perhaps effort, which thus deserved merit; hence, they felt less motivated to subtract. However, a larger size of the unfavorable gap from the others increased the unpleasantness of poor performance, which in turn motivated larger subtraction. In conclusion, merit is attributed if and only if effort or skill significantly affect the outcome. An inequality of outcomes is viewed differently depending on whether merit causes the difference or not. Thus, merit and justice are strongly linked in the human perception of social order.

  6. Mineral analysis in experimental corneal scars. An EDAX study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonafonte, S.; Fernandez del Cotero, J.N.; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Central penetrating excisional wounds were made in the corneas of 12 rabbits and 10 trout. The scar tissue and the surrounding cornea were compared using a new method for assessing inorganic elements in the cornea: the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX). Semiquantitative determination of inorganic elements within the range of atomic numbers 9-93 in the periodic system was performed, comparing the relative concentration of those elements in the scar tissue to the surrounding cornea. Results showed that calcium was the only element higher in the healing wound than in the surrounding cornea.

  7. Using harmonical analysis for experimental verification of reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrstka, V.

    1974-01-01

    The questions are discussed of the accuracy of the method of static programming when applied to digital harmonic analysis, with regard to the variation of the mean value of the analyzed signals, and to the use of symmetrical trapezoidal periodical signals. The evaluation is made of the suitability of the above-mentioned method in determining the frequency characteristic of the SR-OA reactor. The results obtained were applied to planning the start-up experiments of the KS-150 reactor at the A-1 nuclear power station. (author)

  8. Safety analysis of superconducting toroidal field magnet for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Safety analysis of the superconducting toroidal field magnet for a Tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been carried out. Works were accident classification, FMEA and FTA analyses, coil stability and quench behavior calculations, failure detection and coil protection system designs, structure analysis, fracture and fatigue studies, and earthquake response analysis. Accident analysis of cryostat and refrigeration system was also performed. The objective of this work is to reveal technological problems of the toroidal field magnet by safety analysis. (author)

  9. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced experimental tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, O.; Muto, M.; Suzuki, F.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular analysis was made on mouse tumors induced by radiation and chemicals. Expression of oncogenes was studied in 12 types of 178 mouse tumors. Southern blotting was done on tumors in which overexpression of oncogenes was noted. Amplification of the myc oncogene was found in chemically induced sarcomas, but not those induced by radiations. Radiogenic thymomas were studied in detail. These thymomas were induced in two different ways. The first was thymomas induced by direct irradiation of F1 mice between C57BL/6NxC3H/He. Southern analysis of DNA revealed deletion of specific minisatellite bands in these tumors. DNA from directly induced thymomas induced focus formation when transfected into normal Golden hamster cells. The mouse K-ras oncogene was detected in these transformants. The second type of thymomas was induced by X-irradiation of thymectomized B10.thy1.2 mice in which normal thymus from congenic B10,thy1.1. mice was grafted. Thymomas of the donor origin was analysed by transfection and the transformants by DNA from those indirectly induced thymomas did not contain activated ras oncogenes. (author)

  10. Experimental analysis of recombination and neutralization of radiation-induced charges, using isochronal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quittard, O.; Brisset, C.; Joffre, F.; Oudea, C.; Saigne, F.; Dusseau, L.; Fesquet, J.; Gasiot, J.

    1999-01-01

    The experimental analysis described in this paper made use of the isochronal principle to carry out qualitative and quantitative studies of both aspects of the RICN mechanism (radiation-induced charge neutralization) : recombination and compensation. (authors)

  11. Experimental impact testing and analysis of composite fan cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Klok, Andrew Joe

    For aircraft engine certification, one of the requirements is to demonstrate the ability of the engine to withstand a fan blade-out (FBO) event. A FBO event may be caused by fatigue failure of the fan blade itself or by impact damage of foreign objects such as bird strike. An un-contained blade can damage flight critical engine components or even the fuselage. The design of a containment structure is related to numerous parameters such as the blade tip speed; blade material, size and shape; hub/tip diameter; fan case material, configuration, rigidity, etc. To investigate all parameters by spin experiments with a full size rotor assembly can be prohibitively expensive. Gas gun experiments can generate useful data for the design of engine containment cases at much lower costs. To replicate the damage modes similar to that on a fan case in FBO testing, the gas gun experiment has to be carefully designed. To investigate the experimental procedure and data acquisition techniques for FBO test, a low cost, small spin rig was first constructed. FBO tests were carried out with the small rig. The observed blade-to-fan case interactions were similar to those reported using larger spin rigs. The small rig has the potential in a variety of applications from investigating FBO events, verifying concept designs of rotors, to developing spin testing techniques. This rig was used in the developments of the notched blade releasing mechanism, a wire trigger method for synchronized data acquisition, high speed video imaging and etc. A relationship between the notch depth and the release speed was developed and verified. Next, an original custom designed spin testing facility was constructed. Driven by a 40HP, 40,000rpm air turbine, the spin rig is housed in a vacuum chamber of phi72inx40in (1829mmx1016mm). The heavily armored chamber is furnished with 9 viewports. This facility enables unprecedented investigations of FBO events. In parallel, a 15.4ft (4.7m) long phi4.1inch (105mm

  12. Numerical and experimental microscale analysis of the incremental forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyndler, Joanna; Delannay, Laurent; Muszka, Krzysztof; Madej, Lukasz

    2017-10-01

    Development of the 2D concurrent multiscale numerical model of novel incremental forming (IF) process is the main aim of the paper. The IF process is used to obtain light and durable integral parts, especially useful in aerospace or automotive industries. Particular attention in the present work is put on numerical investigation of material behavior at both, macro and micro scale levels. A Finite Element Method (FEM) supported by Digital Material Representation (DMR) concept is used during the investigation. Also, the Crystal Plasticity (CP) theory is applied to describe material flow at the grain level. Examples of obtained results both from the macro and micro scales are presented in the form of strain distributions, grain shapes and pole figures at different process stages. Moreover, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis is used to obtain detailed information regarding material morphology changes during the incremental forming for the comparison purposes.

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Miloš

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experiments carried out in the cavitation tunnel with the rectangular test section of 150 × 150 × 500 mm and the maximum test section inlet velocity of 25 m/s. These experiments have been aimed to visualize the cavitation phenomena as well as to quantify the erosion potential using pitting tests evaluated during the incubation period for the cast-iron prismatic hydrofoil with the modified NACA profile. A bypass section installed in the tunnel has allowed to measure the nuclei content in the inlet flow to the test section using the acoustic spectrometer. The measured data have been compared with the CFD analysis of the cavitation phenomena on the hydrofoil as well as the numerically determined location and magnitude of the first calculated collapses of the cavitating bubbles with a good agreement.

  14. Wireless sensor networks concepts, applications, experimentation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fahmy, Hossam Mahmoud Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the principles of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), their applications, and their analysis tools, with meticulous attention paid to definitions and terminology. This book presents the adopted technologies and their manufacturers in detail, making WSNs tangible for the reader. In introductory computer networking books, chapter sequencing follows the bottom-up or top-down architecture of the 7-layer protocol. This book addresses subsequent steps in this process, both horizontally and vertically, thus fostering a clearer and deeper understanding through chapters that elaborate on WSN concepts and issues. With such depth, this book is intended for a wide audience; it is meant to be a helper and motivator for senior undergraduates, postgraduates, researchers, and practitioners. It lays out important concepts and WSN-relate applications; uses appropriate literature to back research and practical issues; and focuses on new trends. Senior undergraduate students can use it to familiarize themselves...

  15. The Analysis of Experimental Results of Reinforcement Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav E. Poliscuk

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article a reinforcement learning method is analyzed, in which a subject of learning is defined. The essence of this method is the selection of activities by a try and fail process and awarding deferred rewards. If an environment is characterized by the Markov property, then step-by-step dynamics will enable forecasting of subsequent conditions and awarding subsequent rewards on the basis of the present known conditions and actions, relatively to the Markov decision making process. The relationship between the present conditions and values and the potential future conditions are defined by the Bellman equation. Also, the article discussed a method of temporal difference learning, mechanism of eligibility traces, as well as theirs algorithms TD(0 and TD(Lambda. Theoretical analysis were supplemented by the practical studies, with reference to implementation of the Sarsa(Lambda algorithm, with replacing eligibility traces and the Epsilon greedy policy.

  16. STATISTICS, Program System for Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmreich, F.

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The package is composed of 83 routines, the most important of which are the following: BINDTR: Binomial distribution; HYPDTR: Hypergeometric distribution; POIDTR: Poisson distribution; GAMDTR: Gamma distribution; BETADTR: Beta-1 and Beta-2 distributions; NORDTR: Normal distribution; CHIDTR: Chi-square distribution; STUDTR : Distribution of 'Student's T'; FISDTR: Distribution of F; EXPDTR: Exponential distribution; WEIDTR: Weibull distribution; FRAKTIL: Calculation of the fractiles of the normal, chi-square, Student's, and F distributions; VARVGL: Test for equality of variance for several sample observations; ANPAST: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and chi-square test of goodness of fit; MULIRE: Multiple linear regression analysis for a dependent variable and a set of independent variables; STPRG: Performs a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis for a dependent variable and a set of independent variables. At each step, the variable entered into the regression equation is the one which has the greatest amount of variance between it and the dependent variable. Any independent variable can be forced into or deleted from the regression equation, irrespective of its contribution to the equation. LTEST: Tests the hypotheses of linearity of the data. SPRANK: Calculates the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. 2 - Method of solution: VARVGL: The Bartlett's Test, the Cochran's Test and the Hartley's Test are performed in the program. MULIRE: The Gauss-Jordan method is used in the solution of the normal equations. STPRG: The abbreviated Doolittle method is used to (1) determine variables to enter into the regression, and (2) complete regression coefficient calculation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: VARVGL: The Hartley's Test is only performed if the sample observations are all of the same size

  17. An Analysis of Excavation Support Safety Based on Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorska Karolina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of inclinometric measurements and numerical analyses of soldier-pile wall displacements. The excavation under investigation was made in cohesive soils. The measurements were conducted at points located at the edge of the cantilever excavation support system. The displacements of the excavation support observed over the period of three years demonstrated the pattern of steady growth over the first two months, followed by a gradual levelling out to a final plateau. The numerical analyses were conducted based on 3D FEM models. The numerical analysis of the problem comprise calculations of the global structural safety factor depending on the displacement of the chosen points in the lagging and conducted by means of the φ/c reduction procedure. The adopted graphical method of safety estimation is very conservative in the sense that it recognizes stability loss quite early, when one could further load the medium or weaken it by further strength reduction. The values of the Msf factor are relatively high. This is caused by the fact that the structure was designed for excavation twice as deep. Nevertheless, the structure is treated as a temporary one.

  18. An Analysis of Excavation Support Safety Based on Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska, Karolina; Wyjadłowski, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of inclinometric measurements and numerical analyses of soldier-pile wall displacements. The excavation under investigation was made in cohesive soils. The measurements were conducted at points located at the edge of the cantilever excavation support system. The displacements of the excavation support observed over the period of three years demonstrated the pattern of steady growth over the first two months, followed by a gradual levelling out to a final plateau. The numerical analyses were conducted based on 3D FEM models. The numerical analysis of the problem comprise calculations of the global structural safety factor depending on the displacement of the chosen points in the lagging and conducted by means of the φ/c reduction procedure. The adopted graphical method of safety estimation is very conservative in the sense that it recognizes stability loss quite early, when one could further load the medium or weaken it by further strength reduction. The values of the Msf factor are relatively high. This is caused by the fact that the structure was designed for excavation twice as deep. Nevertheless, the structure is treated as a temporary one.

  19. Bayesian latent variable models for the analysis of experimental psychology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C; Wang, Ting

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we address the use of Bayesian factor analysis and structural equation models to draw inferences from experimental psychology data. While such application is non-standard, the models are generally useful for the unified analysis of multivariate data that stem from, e.g., subjects' responses to multiple experimental stimuli. We first review the models and the parameter identification issues inherent in the models. We then provide details on model estimation via JAGS and on Bayes factor estimation. Finally, we use the models to re-analyze experimental data on risky choice, comparing the approach to simpler, alternative methods.

  20. Sound transmission analysis of MR fluid based-circular sandwich panels: Experimental and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatian, Masoud; Sedaghati, Ramin

    2017-11-01

    Magnetorheological Fluids (MR) have been recently utilized in sandwich panels to provide variable stiffness and damping to effectively control vibrations. In this study, the sound transmission behavior of MR based-sandwich panels is investigated through development of an efficient finite element model. A clamped circular sandwich panel with elastic face sheets and MR Fluid as the core layer has been considered. A finite element model utilizing circular and annular elements has been developed to derive the governing equations of motion in the finite element form. The transverse velocity is then calculated and utilized to obtain the sound radiated from the panel and subsequently the sound transmission loss. In order to validate the simulated results, a test setup including two anechoic spaces and an electro-magnet has been designed and fabricated. The magnetic flux density generated inside the electromagnet is simulated using magneto-static finite element analysis and validated with the measured magnetic flux density using Gaussmeter. The results from magneto-static analysis is used to derive an approximate polynomial function to evaluate the magnetic flux density as a function of the plate's radius and applied current. The STL and first axisymmetric natural frequency of the MR sandwich panels with aluminum face sheets are simulated and compared with those obtained experimentally. Finally, a parametric study on the effect of applied magnetic field, the thickness of the core layer and the thickness of face sheets on the STL and natural frequency of the adaptive sandwich panel are presented.

  1. DMFC performance and methanol cross-over: Experimental analysis and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R.

    A combined experimental and modelling approach is proposed to analyze methanol cross-over and its effect on DMFC performance. The experimental analysis is performed in order to allow an accurate investigation of methanol cross-over influence on DMFC performance, hence measurements were characterized in terms of uncertainty and reproducibility. The findings suggest that methanol cross-over is mainly determined by diffusion transport and affects cell performance partly via methanol electro-oxidation at the cathode. The modelling analysis is carried out to further investigate methanol cross-over phenomenon. A simple model evaluates the effectiveness of two proposed interpretations regarding methanol cross-over and its effects. The model is validated using the experimental data gathered. Both the experimental analysis and the proposed and validated model allow a substantial step forward in the understanding of the main phenomena associated with methanol cross-over. The findings confirm the possibility to reduce methanol cross-over by optimizing anode feeding.

  2. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefay, Hagos; Abrha, Atakelti; Kinsman, John; Myléus, Anna; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death) have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  3. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  4. Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

    2009-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

  5. Fuzzy logic analysis optimizations for pattern recognition - Implementation and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hires, Matej; Habiballa, Hashim

    2017-07-01

    The article presents an practical results of optimization of the fuzzy logic analysis method for pattern recognition. The theoretical background of the proposed theory is shown in the former article extending the original fuzzy logic analysis method. This article shows the implementation and experimental verification of the approach.

  6. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole.

  8. experimental analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rapid increased energy prices and the continuous reduction of the Earth's conventional fuels resources as well as the increased world-wide global warming have been the motivation for the recent growing interest in alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy. The development of renewable energy technologies is ...

  9. An analysis of collaborative technological advancements achieved through the Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Quarles, Eric L.

    2008-01-01

    The primary focus of this thesis is to produce an analysis of collaborative technology advancements experienced through the experimental cycles which the members of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation (CENETIX) participate. These experiments, which include Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) and Tactical Network Topology (TNT) scenarios, have advanced a great deal since their inception and there is a need for a detailed study into which c...

  10. Experimental Analysis on Laboratory DC Fast Charging Architecture for Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Capasso, Clemente

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript is aimed to present a complete experimental analysis on DC power architecture for fast charging operations of full electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. The described research activities start from an experimental characterization of energy storage systems of different technologies during their charging and discharging operations. These tests are carried out through a specific laboratory bench, which is properly controlled in order to obtain the required charging/discharging p...

  11. Statistical Approaches in Analysis of Variance: from Random Arrangements to Latin Square Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Radu E. SESTRAŞ; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2009-01-01

    Background: The choices of experimental design as well as of statisticalanalysis are of huge importance in field experiments. These are necessary tobe correctly in order to obtain the best possible precision of the results. Therandom arrangements, randomized blocks and Latin square designs werereviewed and analyzed from the statistical perspective of error analysis.Material and Method: Random arrangements, randomized block and Latinsquares experimental designs were used as field experiments. ...

  12. Finite element analysis and experimental verification of multilayered tissue characterization using the thermal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharalkar, Nachiket M; Valvano, Jonathan W

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop noninvasive techniques to determine thermal properties of layered biologic structures based on measurements from the surface. The self-heated thermistor technique is evaluated both numerically and experimentally. The finite element analyses, which confirm the experimental results, are used to study the temperature profiles occurring in the thermistor-tissue system. An in vitro tissue model was constructed by placing Teflon of varying thickness between the biologic tissue and the self-heated thermistor. The experiments were performed using two different-sized thermistors on six tissue samples. A self-heated thermistor was used to determine the thermal conductivity of tissue covered by a thin layer Teflon. The results from experimental data clearly indicate that this technique can penetrate below the thin layers of Teflon and thus is sensitive to the thermal properties of the underlying tissue. The factors which may introduce error in the experimental data are (i) poor thermal/physical contact between the thermistor probe and tissue sample, and (ii) water loss from tissue during the course of experimentation. The finite element analysis was used to simulate the experimental conditions and to calculate transient temperature profile generated by the thermistor bead. The results of finite element analysis are in accordance with the experimental data.

  13. Advances in the indirect, descriptive, and experimental approaches to the functional analysis of problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Jade; Julio, Flávia; Virués-Ortega, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Experimental functional analysis is an assessment methodology to identify the environmental factors that maintain problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities and in other populations. Functional analysis provides the basis for the development of reinforcement-based approaches to treatment. This article reviews the procedures, validity, and clinical implementation of the methodological variations of functional analysis and function-based interventions. We present six variations of functional analysis methodology in addition to the typical functional analysis: brief functional analysis, single-function tests, latency-based functional analysis, functional analysis of precursors, and trial-based functional analysis. We also present the three general categories of function-based interventions: extinction, antecedent manipulation, and differential reinforcement. Functional analysis methodology is a valid and efficient approach to the assessment of problem behavior and the selection of treatment strategies.

  14. Experimental analysis of stereotypy with applications of nonparametric statistical tests for alternating treatments designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Blair P; Finley, Crystal I; Weaver, Emily S

    2015-11-17

    Stereotypy is common in individuals with developmental disabilities and may become disruptive in the context of instruction. The purpose of this study was to embed brief experimental analyses in the context of reading instruction to evaluate effects of antecedent and consequent variables on latencies to and durations of stereotypy. We trained a reading instructor to implement a trial-based functional analysis and a subsequent antecedent analysis of stimulus features for an adolescent with autism in a reading clinic. We used alternating treatments designs with applications of nonparametric statistical analyses to control Type I error rates. Results of the experimental analyses suggested stereotypy was maintained by nonsocial reinforcement and informed the extent to which features of academic materials influenced levels of stereotypy. Results of nonparametric statistical analyses were consistent with conclusions based on visual analysis. Brief experimental analyses may be embedded in academic instruction to inform the stimulus conditions that influence stereotypy.

  15. Experimental assessment of computer codes used for safety analysis of integral reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkov, A.A.; Kuul, V.S.; Samoilov, O.B. [OKB Mechanical Engineering, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    Peculiarities of integral reactor thermohydraulics in accidents are associated with presence of noncondensable gas in built-in pressurizer, absence of pumped ECCS, use of guard vessel for LOCAs localisation and passive RHRS through in-reactor HX`s. These features defined the main trends in experimental investigations and verification efforts for computer codes applied. The paper reviews briefly the performed experimental investigation of thermohydraulics of AST-500, VPBER600-type integral reactors. The characteristic of UROVEN/MB-3 code for LOCAs analysis in integral reactors and results of its verification are given. The assessment of RELAP5/mod3 applicability for accident analysis in integral reactor is presented.

  16. An investigation in to the impact of acquisition location on error type and rate when undertaking panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, A; Drage, N; Greenall, C; Farnell, D J J

    2017-11-01

    Panoramic radiography is a common radiographic examination carried out in the UK. This study was carried out to determine if acquisition site has an impact on image quality. An image quality audit was carried out in South Wales across a number of dental and general radiology settings. The image quality was assessed retrospectively against national standards. A total of 174 radiographs were assessed from general radiology departments and 141 from dental radiology units. Chi-squared analysis was used to investigate whether there were differences in the grading between dental radiology units and general radiology departments. Differences between the two settings in terms of the number of errors in the radiographs was analysed using the Mann-Whitney test. Chi-squared analysis was used to see if there were differences between the types of errors in the two clinical settings. There was a significant association (p = 0.021) between the quality of the radiograph grading and type of radiology department. However when excellent and diagnostically acceptable radiographs were grouped together there was no significant difference between the two clinical settings. Although the vast majority of radiographs were diagnostic (89% for general radiology and 92% for dental radiology units), neither reached the required standards. The most common errors were patient positioning errors (54.6% radiographs affected) and preparation/instructional errors (47.9% radiographs affected). Errors in panoramic radiography are relatively high and further instruction to staff undertaking these procedures is required to ensure the targets are reached. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Introduction to Sensitivity Analysis for Unobserved Confounding in Non-Experimental Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite that randomization is the gold standard for estimating causal relationships, many questions in prevention science are left to be answered through non-experimental studies often because randomization is either infeasible or unethical. While methods such as propensity score matching can adjust for observed confounding, unobserved confounding is the Achilles heel of most non-experimental studies. This paper describes and illustrates seven sensitivity analysis techniques that assess the sensitivity of study results to an unobserved confounder. These methods were categorized into two groups to reflect differences in their conceptualization of sensitivity analysis, as well as their targets of interest. As a motivating example we examine the sensitivity of the association between maternal suicide and offspring’s risk for suicide attempt hospitalization. While inferences differed slightly depending on the type of sensitivity analysis conducted, overall the association between maternal suicide and offspring’s hospitalization for suicide attempt was found to be relatively robust to an unobserved confounder. The ease of implementation and the insight these analyses provide underscores sensitivity analysis techniques as an important tool for non-experimental studies. The implementation of sensitivity analysis can help increase confidence in results from non-experimental studies and better inform prevention researchers and policymakers regarding potential intervention targets. PMID:23408282

  18. Experimental analysis models for studying the dynamic behaviour of turbine shrouded bladed disk assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, B.

    1996-05-01

    The study presented concerns the final blade assembly of a low-pressure body in an electric power station. The ultimate objective of the study is to check whether the fatigue damage is acceptable and that the actual stresses do not excite the bladed disk assembly in its own modes. A combined methodology of calculations and tests was adopted to carry out this test. The calculation part involves modelization, by finite elements, of the bladed disk assembly. This paper presents only the experimental part, i.e. the tests, and experimental analysis methods and models. Experimental analysis poses special problems on account of the complexity of the dynamic behaviour of this type of structure and the limited number of available measuring points. (author). 9 refs

  19. Analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cell metabolism through a combined computational and experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Bennett, Mark H; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of cell culture processes can benefit from the systematic analysis of experimental data and their organization in mathematical models, which can be used to decipher the effect of individual process variables on multiple outputs of interest. Towards this goal, a kinetic model of cytosolic glucose metabolism coupled with a population-level model of Chinese hamster ovary cells was used to analyse metabolic behavior under batch and fed-batch cell culture conditions. The model was parameterized using experimental data for cell growth dynamics, extracellular and intracellular metabolite profiles. The results highlight significant differences between the two culture conditions in terms of metabolic efficiency and motivate the exploration of lactate as a secondary carbon source. Finally, the application of global sensitivity analysis to the model parameters highlights the need for additional experimental information on cell cycle distribution to complement metabolomic analyses with a view to parameterize kinetic models.

  20. Analysis and presentation of experimental results with examples, problems and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulides, Costas

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended as a guide to the analysis and presentation of experimental results. It develops various techniques for the numerical processing of experimental data, using basic statistical methods and the theory of errors. After presenting basic theoretical concepts, the book describes the methods by which the results can be presented, both numerically and graphically. The book is divided into three parts, of roughly equal length, addressing the theory, the analysis of data, and the presentation of results. Examples are given and problems are solved using the Excel, Origin, Python and R software packages. In addition, programs in all four languages are made available to readers, allowing them to use them in analyzing and presenting the results of their own experiments. Subjects are treated at a level appropriate for undergraduate students in the natural sciences, but this book should also appeal to anyone whose work involves dealing with experimental results.

  1. Experimental display of Fourier analysis through the optical physics and its didatical utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.M. de.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of Fourier analysis through physical optics are displayed experimentally. Within physical optics topics that illustrate didactically Fourier analysis, a subject usually considered purely mathematical are selected. The most important properties of Fourier transform and their utilization in cleaning up images through spatial filtering are presented, in this way the properties of convolution to analyse image formation and characterize some diffraction patterns are also used. (Author) [pt

  2. Reflections on the glass ceiling: women in the experimental analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, A L

    2000-01-01

    McSweeney and Swindell (1998) sought to determine whether men and women are treated equitably in the experimental analysis of behavior. They purported to show that women participate less in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior than in similar journals and that the participation of women decreases with increases in selectivity. Their data were difficult to interpret, however, because they did not present the variability in the mean data drawn from different individuals over time. My analyses were not in accord with their conclusions. When the percentage of associate editors who are women was considered along with the mean percentages McSweeney and Swindell reported for other measures, participation did not systematically decrease with increases in selectivity in recent years. As quantified in terms of their number of publications in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, women who were editorial board members and associate editors were not more highly selected than their male counterparts. Finally, in the recent period from 1996 to 1998, although women submitted fewer manuscripts to the journal, rejection ratios did not differ for men and women. Efforts to increase the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior may best be directed toward recruitment and retention rather than some of the suggestions proposed by McSweeney and Swindell (1998), which could inadvertently create different standards for women's work.

  3. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  4. The Impact of Probe Variability on Brief Experimental Analysis of Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Mitchell, Rachel R.; McLemore, Chandler; Hardy, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of probe variability on the ability to replicate results in brief experimental analysis (BEA) of reading. In the first phase of the study, 41 first- and second- grade students completed 16 oral reading fluency probes. Calculations of probe difficulty were used to identify Low and High Variability…

  5. Stratified spherical model for microwave imaging of the brain: Analysis and experimental validation of transmitted power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelogrlic, Mina; Volery, Maxime; Fuchs, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the analysis of power transmission of a radiating field inside the human head for microwave imaging applications. For this purpose, a spherical layered model composed of dispersive biological tissues is investigated in the range of (0.5–4) GHz and is confronted to experimental...

  6. Comparing Brief Experimental Analysis and Teacher Judgment for Selecting Early Reading Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dana L.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Deris, Aaron R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify early reading interventions for students in the primary grades and to compare teachers' judgments about their students' early reading intervention needs to BEA results. In addition, the research was conducted to explore how teachers make decisions…

  7. "Golden Oldies" in a Laboratory Course in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G. E.

    2005-01-01

    A common problem in teaching undergraduate courses in the experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) is that the contemporary research literature is largely not comprehensible to most undergraduates. A suggested solution is the use of research articles from the early days of EAB. These are not only easy to understand but provide additional…

  8. The Utility of a Brief Experimental Analysis for Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Shanholtzer, Alison; Mezhoudi, Nabil; Scherbak, Bailey; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a useful tool for quickly evaluating intervention strategies for individuals with academic deficits and minor behavior problems. However, there is a lack of research investigating BEA for intervention strategies with individuals who emit severe problem behavior to avoid academic demands. For the current study,…

  9. Experimental Demonstration and Theoretical Analysis of Slow Light in a Semiconductor Waveguide at GHz Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Kjær, Rasmus; Poel, Mike van der

    2005-01-01

    Experimental demonstration and theoretical analysis of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at GHz frequencies slow-down of light by a factor of two in a semiconductor waveguide at room temperature with a bandwidth of 16.7 GHz using the effect of coherent pulsations of the carrier density...

  10. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 3. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an example of ecosystem response during solar eclipse 2010. Tania Guha Prosenjit Ghosh. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 623-638 ...

  11. F.E. analysis of seismic isolators: comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, K.N.G.; Gough, J.; Ahmadi, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of seismic isolators is performed by the ABAQUS code. The force deformation behaviour of a circular layer of rubber bonded to rigid surface was investigated. This model is chosen because of its simplicity and the relatively short processing time required. A 3-dimensional model was used for finite element calculations. Comparison of calculated values with experimental results is shown

  12. Finite Element Analysis and Experimentation of an Icosahedron Frame under Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    iv AFIT-ENY-MS-15-S-051 Abstract A nonlinear analysis of a 3D icosahedron frame was conducted using ABAQUS , under a...of the data that was collected. The results of both studies are analyzed to compare against and verify the results of numerical computational model...23 Table 2: Mean Experimental Data [12

  13. Experimental determination of the fluid velocity by spectral analysis of temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucrier, M.J.; Faya, A.J.G.

    1988-12-01

    Local velocities of turbulent closed channel flow were measured applying the noise analysis technique to signals coming from two sensors separated by a know distance. Good agreement was found when comparing experimental data to more accurate measurements. Ranges of Reynolds number and thermocouple spacial separation are recommended. (author) [pt

  14. Tackling calibration problems of spectroscopic analysis in high-throughput experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, Susana C.; Rothenberg, Gadi; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Smilde, Age K.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput experimentation and screening methods are changing work flows and creating new possibilities in biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and catalysis. However, many high-throughput systems rely on off-line chromatography methods that shift the bottleneck to the analysis stage.

  15. Building capacity to use and undertake research in health organisations: a survey of training needs and priorities among staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J

    2016-12-07

    Efforts to improve healthcare and population health depend partly on the ability of health organisations to use research knowledge and participate in its production. We report the findings of a survey conducted to prioritise training needs among healthcare and public health staff, in relation to the production and implementation of research, across an applied health research collaboration. A questionnaire survey using a validated tool, the Hennessy-Hicks Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire. Participants rated 25 tasks on a five-point scale with regard to both their confidence in performing the task, and its importance to their role. A questionnaire weblink was distributed to a convenience sample of 35 healthcare and public health organisations in London and South East England, with a request that they cascade the information to relevant staff. 203 individuals responded, from 20 healthcare and public health organisations. None. Training needs were identified by comparing median importance and performance scores for each task. Individuals were also invited to describe up to three priority areas in which they require training. Across the study sample, evaluation; teaching; making do with limited resources; coping with change and managing competing demands were identified as key tasks. Assessing the relevance of research and learning about new developments were the most relevant research-related tasks. Participants' training priorities included evaluation; finding, appraising and applying research evidence; and data analysis. Key barriers to involvement included time and resources, as well as a lack of institutional support for undertaking research. We identify areas in which healthcare and public health professionals may benefit from support to facilitate their involvement in and use of applied health research. We also describe barriers to participation and differing perceptions of research between professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  16. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 2006 through 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center)

    2011-08-22

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. A report released in January 2011 examined the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. This report continues the analysis and examines the financial implications of the experimental flows conducted at the GCD from 2006 to 2010. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western

  17. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  18. Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2003-08-01

    This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

  19. Treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yusen; Chen Xiaoliang

    2009-01-01

    The theory of treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis was described. Not only the reactivity, but also the effective neutron source intensity could be calculated by this method. Computer code was compiled base on the inverse kinetic method and unitary linear regression analysis. The data of zero power facility BFS-1 in Russia were processed and the results were compared. The results show that the reactivity and the effective neutron source intensity can be obtained correctly by treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method using unitary linear regression analysis and the precision of reactivity measurement is improved. The central element efficiency can be calculated by using the reactivity. The result also shows that the effect to reactivity measurement caused by external neutron source should be considered when the reactor power is low and the intensity of external neutron source is strong. (authors)

  20. Theoretical and experimental analysis of inverter fed induction motor system under DC link capacitor failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeed A. Sher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper theoretical and experimental analysis of an AC–DC–AC inverter under DC link capacitor failure is presented. The failure study conducted for this paper is the open circuit of the DC link capacitor. The presented analysis incorporates the results for both single and three phase AC input. It has been observed that the higher ripple frequency provides better ride through capability for this fault. Furthermore, the effects of this fault on electrical characteristics of AC–DC–AC inverter and mechanical properties of the induction motor are also presented. Moreover, the effect of pulsating torque as a result of an open circuited DC link capacitor is also taken into consideration. Theoretical analysis is supported by computer aided simulation as well as with a real time experimental prototype.

  1. An experimental-numerical method for comparative analysis of joint prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claramunt, R.; Rincon, E.; Zubizarreta, V.; Ros, A.

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty that exists in the analysis of mechanical stresses in bones is high due to its complex mechanical and morphological characteristics. This complexity makes generalists modelling and conclusions derived from prototype tests very questionable. In this article a relatively simple comparative analysis systematic method that allow us to establish some behaviour differences in different kind of prosthesis is presented. The method, applicable in principle to any joint problem, is based on analysing perturbations produced in natural stress states of a bone after insertion of a joint prosthesis and combines numerical analysis using a 3-D finite element model and experimental studies based on photoelastic coating and electric extensometry. The experimental method is applied to compare two total hip prosthesis cement-free femoral stems of different philosophy. One anatomic of new generation, being of oblique setting over cancellous bone and the other madreporique of trochantero-diaphyseal support over cortical bone. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Development of a thermal-hydraulic code for reflood analysis in a PWR experimental loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Sabrina P.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C., E-mail: sabrinapral@gmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.brm, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A process of fundamental importance in the event of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) is the reflood of the core or rewetting of nuclear fuels. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been developing since the 70’s programs to allow Brazil to become independent in the field of reactor safety analysis. To that end, in the 80’s was designed, assembled and commissioned one Rewetting Test Facility (ITR in Portuguese). This facility aims to investigate the phenomena involved in the thermal hydraulic reflood phase of a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PWR nuclear reactor. This work aim is the analysis of physical and mathematical models governing the rewetting phenomenon, and the development a thermo-hydraulic simulation code of a representative experimental circuit of the PWR reactors core cooling channels. It was possible to elaborate and develop a code called REWET. The results obtained with REWET were compared with the experimental results of the ITR, and with the results of the Hydroflut code, that was the old program previously used. An analysis was made of the evolution of the wall temperature of the test section as well as the evolution of the front for two typical tests using the two codes calculation, and experimental results. The result simulated by REWET code for the rewetting time also came closer to the experimental results more than those calculated by Hydroflut code. (author)

  3. Development of a thermal-hydraulic code for reflood analysis in a PWR experimental loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Sabrina P.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C.; Palma, Daniel A.P.

    2017-01-01

    A process of fundamental importance in the event of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) is the reflood of the core or rewetting of nuclear fuels. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been developing since the 70’s programs to allow Brazil to become independent in the field of reactor safety analysis. To that end, in the 80’s was designed, assembled and commissioned one Rewetting Test Facility (ITR in Portuguese). This facility aims to investigate the phenomena involved in the thermal hydraulic reflood phase of a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PWR nuclear reactor. This work aim is the analysis of physical and mathematical models governing the rewetting phenomenon, and the development a thermo-hydraulic simulation code of a representative experimental circuit of the PWR reactors core cooling channels. It was possible to elaborate and develop a code called REWET. The results obtained with REWET were compared with the experimental results of the ITR, and with the results of the Hydroflut code, that was the old program previously used. An analysis was made of the evolution of the wall temperature of the test section as well as the evolution of the front for two typical tests using the two codes calculation, and experimental results. The result simulated by REWET code for the rewetting time also came closer to the experimental results more than those calculated by Hydroflut code. (author)

  4. Experimental stress analysis for reactor coolant pump case of PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xinsun

    1997-11-01

    The contents of experimental stress analysis in development for reactor coolant pump (RCP) case of PWR NPP are described. The RCP case is classified nuclear safety class 1. The electrometry and photoelastic tests provided a complete basis for the structural design and functional integrity of reactor coolant pressure foundry. The test was carried out in internal pressure, deadweight and earthquake loading and connected pipe system loading with a geometrical similarity model pump case. The detailed experimental results are provided to analyse and evaluate according to ASME code

  5. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Fracture in 41Cr4 Steel - Issues of the Stationary Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graba, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the process of fracture in 41Cr4 steel on the basis of experimental and numerical data obtained for non-propagating cracks. The author's previous and latest experimental results were used to determine the apparent crack initiation moment and fracture toughness for the material under plane strain conditions. Numerical simulations were carried out to assess changes in the J-integral, the crack tip opening displacement, the size of the plastic region and the distribution of stresses around the crack tip. A complex numerical analysis based on the true stress-strain curve was performed to determine the behavior of 41Cr4 steel under increasing external loads.

  6. An experimental and theoretical analysis of void fraction dynamics in a boiling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental and theoretical investigation of the void fraction dynamics at the exit of a test boiling channel which is operated near the 'instability threshold power' (the power level at which coolant flow instabilities occur). Dynamic measurements of the perturbations in channel inlet flow-rate, power input and exit void fraction are analysed using multivariate spectral analysis. The resulting experimental cross-spectral density functions between flow-rate/exit void fraction and power input/exit void fraction agree favourably with those calculated by a linearised hydrodynamic model in the frequency domain. (Author)

  7. Density functional theoretical analysis with experimental, invitro bioactivity and molecular docking investigations on the pesticide Albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, P.; Bena Jothy, V.

    2018-03-01

    Optimized structural parameters of Albendazole and corresponding vibrational assignments have been studied using infrared and Raman spectroscopy combined with quantum-chemical calculations. Results of these spectroscopic studies have been successfully compared against obtained experimental data. Difference between experimental and calculated CH3 group wavenumbers was blue-shifted by 58 cm-1 and 43 cm-1, respectively due to electronic effects. In NBO analysis the increase in energies and the shortening of Csbnd N and Cdbnd O bonds gives clear evidence that the resonance of the benzimidazole ring is increased by the groups. Best binding score of Albendazole was obtained with protein 4NQ6 (-5.58 kcal/mol).

  8. Experimental investigations on a fuel element transportation vessel for analysis of mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diersch, R.; Ulrich, N.; Huggenberg, R.; Janberg, K.; Ettemeyer, A.

    1995-01-01

    During approval of fuel element transportation vessels extensive proofs have to be made to qualify the theoretical calculations. In order to get maximum information about the behaviour of the components of the vessels and the real boundary conditions holographic measuring techniques are used. The application of holography on the experimental analysis of a fuel element transportation vessel is shown on a THTR-CASTOR-container. As an example, the deformation of a lifting lug is analysed and the flexible bending of the vessel cap is measured. The experimental results are compared with analytical calculation results. (orig.)

  9. 1988 Progress report of the EDF department for the analysis of experimental data and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 activity report of the department for the analysis of experimental data and measurements (Department of Retour d'Experience Mesures-Essais, of EDF, France), is presented. The mission of the department is to collect and investigate data from the nuclear power plant operations. The investigations started before 1988, were carried on in 1988. The department main activities are: technology and information transfer from experimental activities, the construction of a standard data acquisition and processing system, the actions involving the N4 turbine, and the modelling and construction of new non-destructive methods of control. The most important facts and activities carried out in 1988 are presented [fr

  10. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  11. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Aircraft Wing Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Rahim Wasmi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the aircraft wing analysis (numerical and experimental which subjected to fatigue loading in order to analyze the aircraft wing numerically by using ANSYS 15.0 software and experimentally by using loading programs which effect on fatigue test specimens at laboratory to estimate life of used metal (aluminum alloy 7075-T651 the wing metal and compare between numerical and experimental work, as well as to formulate an experimental mathematical model which may find safe estimate for metals and most common alloys that are used to build aircraft wing at certain conditions. In experimental work, a (34 specimen of (aluminum alloy 7075-T651 were tested using alternating bending fatigue machine rig. The test results are ; (18 Specimen to establish the (S-N curve and endurance limit and the other specimens used for variable amplitude tests were represented by loading programs which represents actual flight conditions. Also it has been obtained the safe fatigue curves which are described by mathematical formulas. ANSYS results show convergence with experimental results about cumulative fatigue damage (D, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the life; this model gives good results in case of actual loading programs. Also, Miner and Marsh rules are applied to the specimens and compared with the proposal mathematical model in order to estimate the life of the wing material under actual flight loading conditions, comparing results show that it is possible to depend on present mathematical model than Miner and Marsh theories because the proposal mathematical model shows safe and good results compared with experimental work results.

  13. Improvement or selection? A longitudinal analysis of students' views about experimental physics in their lab courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory courses represent a unique and potentially important component of the undergraduate physics curriculum, which can be designed to allow students to authentically engage with the process of experimental physics. Among other possible benefits, participation in these courses throughout the undergraduate physics curriculum presents an opportunity to develop students' understanding of the nature and importance of experimental physics within the discipline as a whole. Here, we present and compare both a longitudinal and pseudolongitudinal analysis of students' responses to a research-based assessment targeting students' views about experimental physics—the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS)—across multiple, required lab courses at a single institution. We find that, while pseudolongitudinal averages showed increases in students' E-CLASS scores in each consecutive course, analysis of longitudinal data indicates that this increase was not driven by a cumulative impact of laboratory instruction. Rather, the increase was driven by a selection effect in which students who persisted into higher-level lab courses already had more expertlike beliefs, attitudes, and expectations than their peers when they started the lower-level courses.

  14. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a hybrid solar thermoelectric generator with forced convection cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Pradeepkumar; Taylor, Robert A.; Banerjee, Debosmita; Maity, Dipak; Sinha Roy, Susanta

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar thermoelectric generators (HSTEGs) have garnered significant research attention recently due to their potential ability to cogenerate heat and electricity. In this paper, theoretical and experimental investigations of the electrical and thermal performance of a HSTEG system are reported. In order to validate the theoretical model, a laboratory scale HSTEG system (based on forced convection cooling) is developed. The HSTEG consists of six thermoelectric generator modules, an electrical heater, and a stainless steel cooling block. Our experimental analysis shows that the HSTEG is capable of producing a maximum electrical power output of 4.7 W, an electrical efficiency of 1.2% and thermal efficiency of 61% for an average temperature difference of 92 °C across the TEG modules with a heater power input of 382 W. These experimental results of the HSTEG system are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. This experimental/theoretical analysis can also serve as a guide for evaluating the performance of the HSTEG system with forced convection cooling.

  15. Experimental saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers using automated image analysis: Applications to homogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.; Ahmed, Ashraf A.; Hamill, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the applications of a novel methodology to quantify saltwater intrusion parameters in laboratory-scale experiments. The methodology uses an automated image analysis procedure, minimising manual inputs and the subsequent systematic errors that can be introduced. This allowed the quantification of the width of the mixing zone which is difficult to measure in experimental methods that are based on visual observations. Glass beads of different grain sizes were tested for both steady-state and transient conditions. The transient results showed good correlation between experimental and numerical intrusion rates. The experimental intrusion rates revealed that the saltwater wedge reached a steady state condition sooner while receding than advancing. The hydrodynamics of the experimental mixing zone exhibited similar traits; a greater increase in the width of the mixing zone was observed in the receding saltwater wedge, which indicates faster fluid velocities and higher dispersion. The angle of intrusion analysis revealed the formation of a volume of diluted saltwater at the toe position when the saltwater wedge is prompted to recede. In addition, results of different physical repeats of the experiment produced an average coefficient of variation less than 0.18 of the measured toe length and width of the mixing zone.

  16. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Cooperative Experimental System Development - cooperative techniques beyound initial design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1995-01-01

    , however, not limited to this development context, it may be applied for in-house or contract development as well. In system development, particularly in cooperative and experimental system development, we argue that it is necessary to analytically separate the abstract concerns, e.g. analysis, design......This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis...

  18. Experimental study on the operators' cognitive behavior analysis for the plant anomaly diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Kubo, Osamu; Yasuta, Akira

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a method of human cognitive state estimation based on physiological measures has been applied to the analysis of cognitive behavior during anomaly diagnosis observed with nuclear power plant simulator. This method has also been combined with the conventional experimental protocol such as operational sequence and questionnaire results. The simulator experiments have been performed using plant experts and the results demonstrate that the cognitive state estimation method can be an effective way for understanding cognitive behavior during the anomaly diagnosis of the nuclear power plant. It has also been shown from the results that the combined use of the human cognitive state estimation and the conventional experimental protocol can provide effective information in decreasing the ambiguity of the analysis results. (author)

  19. Effect of solids loading on ethanol production: Experimental, economic and environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Haider Jawad; Rajendran, Karthik; Murthy, Ganti S

    2017-11-01

    This study explores the effect of high-solids loading for a fed batch enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The solids loading considered was 19%, 30% and 45% using wheat straw and corn stover as a feedstock. Based on the experimental results, techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessments were performed. The experimental results showed that 205±25.8g/L glucose could be obtained from corn stover at 45% solids loading after 96h which when fermented yielded 115.9±6.37g/L ethanol after 60h of fermentation. Techno-economic analysis showed that corn stover at 45% loading yielded the highest ROI at 8% with a payback period less than 12years. Similarly, the global warming potential was lowest for corn stover at 45% loading at -37.8gCO 2 eq./MJ ethanol produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporating nonoverlap indices with visual analysis for quantifying intervention effectiveness in single-case experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossart, Daniel F; Vannest, Kimberly J; Davis, John L; Patience, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuropsychological rehabilitation frequently employs single case experimental designs (SCED) in research, but few if any, of the published studies use the effect sizes recommended by the American Psychological Association. Among the available methods for analysing single case designs, this paper focuses on nonoverlap methods. This paper provides examples and suggestions for integrating visual and statistical analysis, pointing out where contradictions may occur and how to be a critical consumer.

  1. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis, associated to experimental fast reactors. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; Moura Neto, C. de; Rosa, M.A.P.

    1980-07-01

    The nonlinear effects in fast reactors kinetics and their stability are studied. The Lyapunov criteria and the Lurie-Letov functions for nonlinear systems were established and simulated. Small oscillations were studied by a Fourier analysis to clarify particular aspects of feedback and load functions in fast reactor at zero power, or/and in normal power level. The results were in agreement with the experimental data existing in the literature. (E.G.) [pt

  2. An experimental magnetic moment determination method based on spatial harmonic analysis of magnetic flux density signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Getman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of an experimental determination method for residual and inductive magnetic moments of a technical object are considered. As input data, the technical object magnetic induction signatures obtained under its linear movement near a pair of three-component sensors are used. A magnetic signature integration technique based on spatial harmonic analysis of the magnetic field represented by twenty-four multipole coefficients is introduced.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COMPRESSION OF A THIN-WALLED COMPOSITE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Falkowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a rectangular plate with a cut-out subjected to regular compression. The plate articulately supported on the short side edges, made of a composite with high strength properties. The study concerned the numerical finite element analysis linear and nonlinear stability of the structure and the experimental validation of the results. The instrument used was a numerical program ABAQUS®.

  4. Chemometrics in analytical chemistry-part I: history, experimental design and data analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Richard G; Jansen, Jeroen; Lopes, João; Marini, Federico; Pomerantsev, Alexey; Rodionova, Oxana; Roger, Jean Michel; Walczak, Beata; Tauler, Romà

    2017-10-01

    Chemometrics has achieved major recognition and progress in the analytical chemistry field. In the first part of this tutorial, major achievements and contributions of chemometrics to some of the more important stages of the analytical process, like experimental design, sampling, and data analysis (including data pretreatment and fusion), are summarised. The tutorial is intended to give a general updated overview of the chemometrics field to further contribute to its dissemination and promotion in analytical chemistry.

  5. CFD and Experimental Analysis of a Falling Film outside Smooth and Helically Grooved Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Onan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous heat and mass transfer are investigated in a falling film outside grooved and smooth tubes. A numerical analysis of the helically trapezoidal-grooved and reference smooth tube was performed in the computational fluid dynamics program “Ansys Fluent 14.” The three-dimensional model drawings in the x, y, and z coordinates are used, and the effects of the falling film outside the helically grooved tube on the surface temperature and surface heat transfer coefficient are determined. The average surface temperature, heat transfer coefficient, and Nu values are determined experimentally for a constant heat flux. An uncertainty analysis and Nu correlation for the grooved tube are also provided in this study. The Reynolds number varied between 50 and 350 for the falling film and between 1500 and 3500 for air. Using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis for the reference smooth tube, the experimental results are validated within 2–12% difference. The experimental results are also within 6–13% of the grooved tubes.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  7. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This report provides background information on safeguards and explains procedures for States to conclude Additional Protocols to comprehensive Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA. Since the IAEA was founded in 1957, its safeguards system has been an indispensable component of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and has facilitated peaceful nuclear cooperation. In recognition of this, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) makes it mandatory for all non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) party to the Treaty to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus allow for the application of safeguards to all their nuclear material. Under Article III of the NPT, all NNWS undertake to accept safeguards, as set forth in agreements to be negotiated and concluded with the IAEA, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of the States' obligations under the NPT. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreements (reproduced in INFCIRC/540(Corr.)) which provided for an additional legal authority. In States that have both a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force, the IAEA is able to optimize the implementation of all safeguards measures available. In order to simplify certain procedures under comprehensive safeguards agreements for States with little or no nuclear material and no nuclear material in a facility, the IAEA began making available, in 1971, a 'small quantities protocol' (SQP), which held in abeyance the implementation of most of the detailed provisions of comprehensive safeguards agreements for so long as the State concerned satisfied these criteria. The safeguards system aims at detecting and deterring the diversion of nuclear material. Such material includes enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium-233, which could be used directly in nuclear weapons. It also includes natural uranium and depleted uranium, the latter of which is

  8. Experimental and finite element analysis of bond-slip in reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. V. WOLENSKI

    Full Text Available Abstract The modeling of reinforced concrete structures has taken advantage of the increasing progress on Computational Mechanics, in such way that complex phenomena, such as cracking and crushing, creep, reinforcement yielding, steel-concrete bond loss, can be modeled in a reasonable realistic way, using the proper set of numerical and computational resources. Among several options, the ones based on the Finite Element Method (FEM allow complex analysis simulations of reinforced concrete structures, including the interaction of different nonlinear effects. This paper deals with the nonlinear finite element analysis of the bond-slip between reinforcing steel and concrete, taking into account an experimental study previously performed. The FEM analysis presented uses a combination of resources where the material behavior of concrete is described by the Microplane Constitutive Model, and an embedded reinforcement model is used to represent steel inside the concrete and take into account the effect of bond-slip. The FEM models were created using the INSANE (INteractive Structural ANalysis Environment computational system, open source software that has a set of FEM tools for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures. The correlations between numerical-experimentals results and several parameters validate the proposed combination of resources and identifies the significance of various effects on the response.

  9. Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: brief review and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Gast, David L

    2014-01-01

    Visual analysis of graphic displays of data is a cornerstone of studies using a single case experimental design (SCED). Data are graphed for each participant during a study with trend, level, and stability of data assessed within and between conditions. Reliable interpretations of effects of an intervention are dependent on researchers' understanding and use of systematic procedures. The purpose of this paper is to provide readers with a rationale for visual analysis of data when using a SCED, a step-by-step guide for conducting a visual analysis of graphed data, as well as to highlight considerations for persons interested in using visual analysis to evaluate an intervention, especially the importance of collecting reliability data for dependent measures and fidelity of implementation of study procedures.

  10. Undertaking Experiments in Social Sciences: Sequential, Multiple Time Series Designs for Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.

    2017-01-01

    In social sciences, the use of stringent methodological approaches is gaining increasing emphasis. Researchers have recognized the limitations of cross-sectional, non-manipulative data in the study of causality. True experimental designs, in contrast, are preferred as they represent rigorous standards for achieving causal flows between variables.…

  11. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Luczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results and aspects of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research oriented for the experimental and numerical study of the structural dynamics of a bend-twist coupled full scale section of a wind turbine blade structure. The main goal of the conducted research is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement outcomes.

  12. Experimental and numerical analysis of a small-scale turbojet engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, M.; Nuccio, P.; Signoretto, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical and experimental activity was performed on a small scale turbojet. • The small turbojet shows the typical CO, UHC and NO x trends of aero-engines emissions. • The comparison between the CFD and experimental results show a quite good agreement. • The CFD analysis permitted to interpret some unexpected behaviour of thermodynamic parameters. • This essential knowledge of the research will be applied in a subsequent research on the use of alternative fuels. - Abstract: Since experimental activities on real aeronautical turbines can be very complex and expensive, the use of parts of real engines or small-size turbojets can be very useful for research activities. The present paper describes the results of an experimental and numerical activity that was conducted on a research turbojet engine, with a nominal thrust of 80 N at 80,000 rpm. The aim of the research was to obtain detailed information on the thermodynamic cycle and performance of the engine in order to use it in subsequent activities on the benefits of using alternative fuels in gas turbine engines. A specific characterization of each component of the engine has been performed by means of thermodynamics and CFD analyses and several measured parameters have been critically analyzed and compared with theoretical ones, with the purpose of increasing the knowledge of these kinds of small turbo-engines

  13. Experimental design and instability analysis of coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of drugs and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ting; Zhang, Leilei; Li, Guangbin; Roberts, Cynthia J; Yin, Xiezhen; Xu, Ronald

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy requires multilayered microparticles that encapsulate several imaging and therapeutic agents in the same carrier. However, commonly used microencapsulation processes have multiple limitations such as low encapsulation efficiency and loss of bioactivity for the encapsulated biological cargos. To overcome these limitations, we have carried out both experimental and theoretical studies on coaxial electrospray of multilayered microparticles. On the experimental side, an improved coaxial electrospray setup has been developed. A customized coaxial needle assembly combined with two ring electrodes has been used to enhance the stability of the cone and widen the process parameter range of the stable cone-jet mode. With this assembly, we have obtained poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles with fine morphology and uniform size distribution. On the theoretical side, an instability analysis of the coaxial electrified jet has been performed based on the experimental parameters. The effects of process parameters on the formation of different unstable modes have been studied. The reported experimental and theoretical research represents a significant step toward quantitative control and optimization of the coaxial electrospray process for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy.

  14. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  15. Gender role affects experimental pain responses: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabas, O A; Tashani, O A; Tabasam, G; Johnson, M I

    2012-10-01

    Gender role refers to the culturally and socially constructed meanings that describe how women and men should behave in certain situations according to feminine and masculine roles learned throughout life. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between gender role and experimental pain responses in healthy human participants. We searched computerized databases for studies published between January 1950 and May 2011 that had measured gender role in healthy human adults and pain response to noxious stimuli. Studies were entered into a meta-analysis if they calculated a correlation coefficient (r) for gender role and experimental pain. Searches yielded 4465 'hits' and 13 studies were eligible for review. Sample sizes were 67-235 participants and the proportion of female participants was 45-67%. Eight types of gender role instrument were used. Meta-analysis of six studies (406 men and 539 women) found a significant positive correlation between masculine and feminine personality traits and pain threshold and tolerance, with a small effect size (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Meta-analysis of four studies (263 men and 297 women) found a significant negative correlation between gender stereotypes specific to pain and pain threshold and tolerance, with a moderate effect size (r = -0.41, p Gender stereotypes specific to pain scales showed stronger associations with sex differences in pain sensitivity response than masculine and feminine personality trait scales. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  16. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K 1 values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  17. Several experimental applications of gamma ray spectrometry on the analysis of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korob, Ricardo O.; Blasiyh Nuno, Guillermo A.

    2002-01-01

    Several experimental applications of gamma ray spectrometry on the analysis of uranium compounds and materials containing it are studied. Special attention is devoted to the correlation between experimental spectra and the decay chains of 235 U and 238 U contained in the analyzed samples. The following applications are discussed: enrichment determination without using calibration standards, determination of uranium concentration, intensities of the gamma rays emitted by the nuclides present in the decay chains of study and the activity of such nuclides. Because of its importance, detailed discussion about the former one is shown. In addition, preliminary results regarding the emission probabilities of the most important gamma rays of 234m Pa are also informed. (author)

  18. Experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting of sheet materials - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Yadava, Vinod

    2018-01-01

    Cutting of sheet material is considered as an important process due to its relevance among products of everyday life such as aircrafts, ships, cars, furniture etc. Among various sheet cutting processes (ASCPs), laser beam cutting is one of the most capable ASCP to create complex geometries with stringent design requirements in difficult-to-cut sheet materials. Based on the recent research work in the area of sheet cutting, it is found that the Nd-YAG laser is used for cutting of sheet material in general and reflective sheet material in particular. This paper reviews the experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting process, carried out to study the influence of laser cutting parameters on the process performance index. The significance of experimental modeling and different optimization approaches employed by various researchers has also been discussed in this study.

  19. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Water-Droplet Formation and Ejection Process Using Hollow Microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Norihisa; Oka, Ryotaro; Sakai, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nagai, Moeto; Mineta, Takashi; Makino, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of liquid delivery using fabricated hollow silicon dioxide microneedles of approximately 2 µm in diameter. As a fundamental study, the water-droplet formation and ejection process was examined via dynamic observations during water ejection tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The experimental results indicated that fluid flow in a microneedle follows the Hagen-Poiseuille law, i.e., the flow rate is approximately directly proportional to the fourth power of the inner diameter. Moreover, the ejection pressure and maximum droplet curvature obtained using the proposed microfluid ejection model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The resulting ejection pressure is equal to the theoretical pressure difference of a spherical droplet, which is determined using the Young-Laplace equation. The maximum curvature of a droplet formed at the tip of a microneedle can be estimated on the basis of the contact angle theory expressed by the Young equation.

  20. FLICA III. A digital computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of reactors and experimental loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Roger.

    1975-05-01

    This computer program describes the flow and heat transfer in steady and transient state in two-phase flows. It is the present stage of the evolution about FLICA, FLICA II and FLICA II B codes which have been used and developed at CEA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of reactors and experimental loops with heating rod bundles. In the mathematical model all the significant terms of the fundamental hydrodynamic equations are taken into account with the approximations of turbulent viscosity and conductivity. The two-phase flow is calculated by the homogeneous model with slip. In the flow direction an implicit resolution scheme is available, which make possible to study partial or total flow blockage, with upstream and downstream effects. A special model represents the helical wire effects in out-of pile experimental rod bundles [fr

  1. A computer program to evaluate the experimental data in instrumental multielement neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greim, L.; Motamedi, K.; Niedergesaess, R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code evaluating experimental data of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for determination of atomic abundancies is described. The experimental data are, beside a probe designation, the probe weight, irradiation parameters and a Ge(Li)-pulse-height-spectrum from the activity measurement. The organisation of the necessary nuclear data, comprising all methods of activation in reactor-irradiations, is given. Furthermore the automatic evaluation of spectra, the designation of the resulting peaks to nuclei and the calculation of atomic abundancies are described. The complete evaluation of a spectrum with many lines, e.g. 100 lines of 20 nuclei, takes less than 1 minute machine-time on the TR 440 computer. (orig.) [de

  2. Numerical analysis of temperature fluctuation in core outlet region of China experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huanjun; Xu Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature fluctuation in core outlet region of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) was numerically simulated by the CFD software Star CCM+. With the core outlet temperatures, flows etc. under rated conditions given as boundary conditions, a 1/4 region model of the reactor core outlet region was established and calculated using LES method for this problem. The analysis results show that while CEFR operates under rated conditions, the temperature fluctuation in lower part of core outlet region is mainly concentrated in area over the edge components (steel components, control rod assembly), and one in upper part is remarkable in area above all the components. The largest fluctuation amplitude is 19 K and the remarkable frequency is below 5 Hz, and it belongs to typically low frequency fluctuation. The conclusion is useful for further experimental work. (authors)

  3. Experimental tests on buckling of torispherical heads comparison with plastic bifurcation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Autrusson, B.

    1984-06-01

    Sixteen torispherical heads have been tested under internal pressure. All these heads were made by cold spinning from mild steel plates. Deflections on the axis and in the knuckle region have been recorded. As an practical result of these experiments, buckling pressure is given for each tested head. It is also indicated the maximum pressure reached during the tests, this pressure is very higher than the buckling pressure. It is also seen that buckling pressure is little sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. These experimental buckling pressure are compared with computation results obtained by plastic bifurcation analysis. Five different models of bifurcation matrix have been considered. If tangent matrix is unconservative, the use of tangent modulus (in lieu of YOUNG's modulus) is overconservative. Finally a mixing of tangent normal modulus and secant shearing modulus seems to be a good enough model (not to far from experimental results, and with not to large standard deviation)

  4. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A. H.; McLinden, M. O.; Tew, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO 2 concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa

  5. Comparison of typical inelastic analysis predictions with benchmark problem experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of exemplary inelastic analyses are presented for a series of experimental benchmark problems. Consistent analytical procedures and constitutive relations were used in each of the analyses, and published material behavior data were used in all cases. Two finite-element inelastic computer programs were employed. These programs implement the analysis procedures and constitutive equations for Type 304 stainless steel that are currently used in many analyses of elevated-temperature nuclear reactor system components. The analysis procedures and constitutive relations are briefly discussed, and representative analytical results are presented and compared to the test data. The results that are presented demonstrate the feasibility of performing inelastic analyses, and they are indicative of the general level of agreement that the analyst might expect when using conventional inelastic analysis procedures. (U.S.)

  6. Comparison of typical inelastic analysis predictions with benchmark problem experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of exemplary inelastic analyses for experimental benchmark problems on reactor components are presented. Consistent analytical procedures and constitutive relations were used in each of the analyses, and the material behavior data presented in the Appendix were used in all cases. Two finite-element inelastic computer programs were employed. These programs implement the analysis procedures and constitutive equations for type 304 stainless steel that are currently used in many analyses of elevated-temperature nuclear reactor system components. The analysis procedures and constitutive relations are briefly discussed, and representative analytical results are presented and compared to the test data. The results that are presented demonstrate the feasibility of performing inelastic analyses for the types of problems discussed, and they are indicative of the general level of agreement that the analyst might expect when using conventional inelastic analysis procedures. (U.S.)

  7. Experimental Research in Operation Management in Engine Room by using Language Sentiment/Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Papachristos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues for the necessity of a combination MMR methods (questionnaire, interview and sentiment/opinion techniques to personal satisfaction analysis at the maritime and training education and proposes a generic, but practical research approach for this purpose. The proposed approach concerns the personal satisfaction evaluation of Engine Room simulator systems and combines the speech recording (sentiment/opinion analysis for measuring emotional user responses with usability testing (SUS tool. The experimental procedure presented here is a primary effort to research the emotion analysis (satisfaction of the users-students in Engine Room Simulators. Finally, the ultimate goal of this research is to find and test the critical factors that influence the educational practice and user’s satisfaction of Engine Room Simulator Systems and the ability to conduct full-time system control by the marine crew.

  8. Experimental analysis, modeling and simulation of a solar energy accumulator with paraffin wax as PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.; Henríquez-Vargas, L.; Aravena, R.; Sepúlveda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhancement of paraffin wax thermal conductivity using soft drink can stripes. • Thermal analysis and simulations results agree well with experimental data. • Increase in accumulator thermal efficiencies through addition of external aluminum stripes. • Proposed accumulator allows up to 13,000 kJ of energy storage. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Promising results obtained in a prototype heat exchanger encouraged the construction of this unit 6 times bigger. We experimentally evaluated and model a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 300 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 59.25 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes. The effect of adding 2.75 kg of aluminum fins for enhancing heat transfer from the outer surface of the cans to the circulant air was experimentally analyzed. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in about 4 h. The accumulated energy in form of latent heat (about 13,000 kJ) allowed to increase the temperature of 0.040 kg/s of circulant air in at least 20 °C during a period of 2.5 h. For an air mass rate of 0.018 kg/s the period was extended practically to 5 h. The accumulator thermal analysis was presented and a subsequent numerical simulation with Matlab was performed to compare with the experimental results obtaining good agreement specially for higher air mass flow rates. The low cost accumulator presented is of simple construction and will allow extended use of solar energy for applications such as drying processes or household calefaction system.

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis of convective heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewale Vinod C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator is made up of Cu tubing material having cavity diameter 385 mm to analyze the different heat losses such as conduction, convection and radiation. As the convection loss plays major role in heat loss analysis of cavity receiver, the experimental analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the temperature range of 55-75°C at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° inclination angle of downward facing cavity receiver. The numerical analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the low temperature range (55-75°C as well as high temperature range (150-300 °C for no wind condition only. The experimental set-up mainly consists of spherical cavity receiver which is insulated with glass wool insulation to reduce the heat losses from outside surface. The numerical analysis is carried out by using CFD software and the results are compared with the experimental results and found good agreement. The result shows that the convective loss increases with decrease in cavity inclination angle and decreases with decrease in mean cavity receiver temperature. The maximum losses are obtained at 0° inclination angle and the minimum losses are obtained at 90° inclination angle of cavity due to increase in stagnation zone in to the cavity from 0° to 90° inclination. The Nusselt number correlation is developed for the low temperature range 55-75°C based on the experimental data. The analysis is also carried out to study the effect of wind speed and wind direction on convective heat losses. The convective heat losses are studied for two wind speeds (3 m/s and 5 m/s and four wind directions [α is 0° (Side-on wind, 30°, 60°, and 90° (head-on wind]. It is found that the convective heat losses for both wind speed are higher than the losses obtained by no wind test. The highest heat losses are found for wind direction α is 60° with respect to receiver stand and lowest heat losses are found

  10. Continuum of Risk Analysis Methods to Assess Tillage System Sustainability at the Experimental Plot Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S. Kanwar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a broad continuum of risk analysis methods including mean-variance and coefficient of variation (CV statistical criteria, second-degree stochastic dominance (SSD, stochastic dominance with respect to a function (SDRF, and stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF for comparing income-risk efficiency sustainability of conventional and reduced tillage systems. Fourteen years (1990–2003 of economic budget data derived from 35 treatments on 36 experimental plots under corn (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L. at the Iowa State University Northeast Research Station near Nashua, IA, USA were used. In addition to the other analyses, a visually-based Stoplight or “probability of target value” procedure was employed for displaying gross margin and net return probability distribution information. Mean-variance and CV analysis of the economic measures alone provided somewhat contradictive and inconclusive sustainability rankings, i.e., corn/soybean gross margin and net return showed that different tillage system alternatives were the highest ranked depending on the criterion and type of crop. Stochastic dominance analysis results were similar for SSD and SDRF in that both the conventional and reduced tillage system alternatives were highly ranked depending on the type of crop and tillage system. For the SERF analysis, results were dependent on the type of crop and level of risk aversion. The conventional tillage system was preferred for both corn and soybean for the Stoplight analysis. The results of this study are unique in that they highlight the potential of both traditional stochastic dominance and SERF methods for distinguishing economically sustainable choices between different tillage systems across a range of risk aversion. This study also indicates that the SERF risk analysis method appears to be a useful and easily understood tool to assist farm managers, experimental researchers, and potentially policy

  11. Transient analysis of mercury experimental loop using the RELAP5 code. 3rd report. Transient analysis using mercury properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2000-02-01

    In order to promote the Neutron Science Project of JAERI, the design of a 5MW-spallation target system is in progress with the purpose of producing a practical neutron application while at the same time adhering to the highest levels of safety. To establish the safety of the target system, it is important to understand the transient behaviors during anticipated operational events of the system, and to design the safety protection systems for the safe termination of the transients. This report presents the analytical results of transient behaviors in the mercury experimental loop using mercury properties. At first, the analytical pressure distributions were compared with experimental data measured with the mercury experimental loop. The modeling data were modified to reproduce the actual pressure distributions of the mercury experimental loop. Then a loss of forced convection and a loss of coolant accident were analyzed. In the case of the pump trip, the transient analysis was conducted using two types of mercury pumps, the mechanical type pump with moment of inertia, and the electrical-magnetic type pump without moment of inertia. The results show there was no clear difference in the two analyses, since the mercury had a large inertia, which was 13.5 times that of the water. Moreover, in the case of a pipe rupture at the pump exit, a moderate pressure decrease was confirmed when a small breakage area existed in which the coolant flowed out gradually. Based on these results, it was appeared that the transient fluctuation of pressure in the mercury loop would not become large and accidents would have to be detected by small fluctuations in pressure. Based on these analyses, we plan to conduct a simulation test to verify the RELAP5 code, and then the analysis of a full-scale mercury system will be performed. (author)

  12. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Dick J; Spottiswoode, James P; Bijl, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental

  13. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick J Bierman

    Full Text Available We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit. We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003 with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of

  14. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CE/CTM-SP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analitica

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  15. Experimental vs. analytical modal analysis of a composite circumferentially asymmetric stiffness box beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalski, Jarosław; Kowalczuk, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical vs. experimental modal analysis of a composite thin-walled beam featuring a circumfer-entially asymmetric stiffness (CAS) profile characteristics. The adopted lamination scheme results in the complex elastic deformation modes exhibiting mutual coupling of flapwise bending, transverse shear and torsion. The analytical model used in this study is based on the authors previous research and takes into account most classical and non-classical effects specific for thin-walled composite structures. The theoretical outcomes are compared to experimental ones obtained by two different test methods, namely an impact hammer test and a laser vibrometer test. In this second experiment the macro fibre composite (MFC) patch actuators have been used to excite the system. For comparative purposes two different transducer types providing different excitation load have been examined. The performed analytical and laboratory experiments demonstrate extremely high consistent findings irrespective of the means of excitation. Therefore, the laser-based motion analysis system combined with piezo-actuator excitation may be considered as a feasible and accurate method for static and dynamic experiments on systems exhibiting complex deformation modes. These include also highly flexible structures where the deformations can not be measured by conventional contact methods e.g. due to the influence of an accelerometer mass. The discussed laser-based motion measuring technique can also be used in future modal analysis experiments on rotating beams.

  16. Experimental analysis of the environmental contamination of electrical equipment; Analisis experimental de la contaminacion ambiental en equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Ponce Velez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the main causes that originate the contamination problems in insulating materials. This as the result of different studies performed in experimental testing stations, as well as in transmission, distribution and laboratory power lines by the Departamento de Materiales of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra un resumen de los principales factores que originan los problemas de contaminacion en aislamientos. Esto, como resultado de diversos estudios realizados tanto en estaciones de prueba experimentales como en lineas de transmision, distribucion y laboratorio por el Departamento de Materiales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  17. The use of experimental data in an MTR-type nuclear reactor safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Simon E.

    Reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) are a category of events required for research reactor safety analysis. A subset of this is unprotected RIAs in which mechanical systems or human intervention are not credited in the response of the system. Light-water cooled and moderated MTR-type ( i.e., aluminum-clad uranium plate fuel) reactors are self-limiting up to some reactivity insertion limit beyond which fuel damage occurs. This characteristic was studied in the Borax and Spert reactor tests of the 1950s and 1960s in the USA. This thesis considers the use of this experimental data in generic MTR-type reactor safety analysis. The approach presented herein is based on fundamental phenomenological understanding and uses correlations in the reactor test data with suitable account taken for differences in important system parameters. Specifically, a semi-empirical approach is used to quantify the relationship between the power, energy and temperature rise response of the system as well as parametric dependencies on void coefficient and the degree of subcooling. Secondary effects including the dependence on coolant flow are also examined. A rigorous curve fitting approach and error assessment is used to quantify the trends in the experimental data. In addition to the initial power burst stage of an unprotected transient, the longer term stability of the system is considered with a stylized treatment of characteristic power/temperature oscillations (chugging). A bridge from the HEU-based experimental data to the LEU fuel cycle is assessed and outlined based on existing simulation results presented in the literature. A cell-model based parametric study is included. The results are used to construct a practical safety analysis methodology for determining reactivity insertion safety limits for a light-water moderated and cooled MTR-type core.

  18. An experimental-numerical method for comparative analysis of joint prosthesis; Un metodo numerico-experimental para el analisis comparativo de protesis articulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claramunt, R.; Rincon, E.; Zubizarreta, V.; Ros, A.

    2001-07-01

    The difficulty that exists in the analysis of mechanical stresses in bones is high due to its complex mechanical and morphological characteristics. This complexity makes generalists modelling and conclusions derived from prototype tests very questionable. In this article a relatively simple comparative analysis systematic method that allow us to establish some behaviour differences in different kind of prosthesis is presented. The method, applicable in principle to any joint problem, is based on analysing perturbations produced in natural stress states of a bone after insertion of a joint prosthesis and combines numerical analysis using a 3-D finite element model and experimental studies based on photoelastic coating and electric extensometry. The experimental method is applied to compare two total hip prosthesis cement-free femoral stems of different philosophy. One anatomic of new generation, being of oblique setting over cancellous bone and the other madreporique of trochantero-diaphyseal support over cortical bone. (Author) 4 refs.

  19. Experimental device, corresponding forward model and processing of the experimental data using wavelet analysis for tomographic image reconstruction applied to eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, P.Y.; Madaoui, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of eddy current non destructive evaluation using a tomographic image reconstruction process, the success of the reconstruction depends not only on the choice of the forward model and of the inversion algorithms, but also on the ability to extract the pertinent data from the raw signal provided by the sensor. We present in this paper, an experimental device designed for imaging purposes, the corresponding forward model, and a pre-processing of the experimental data using wavelet analysis. These three steps implemented with an inversion algorithm, will allow in the future to perform image reconstruction of 3-D flaws. (authors)

  20. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  1. Steady and unsteady experimental analysis of a turbocharger for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontempo, R.; Cardone, M.; Manna, M.; Vorraro, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Steady and unsteady characteristics of a turbocharger are analysed by experimental means. • The steady state characteristic maps are obtained for both the compressor and the turbine. • The validity of the classical adiabatic assumption is questioned. • The compressor efficiency evaluated through the adiabatic assumption may lead to a 5–10% relative error. • The mild and deep compressor surge phenomena have been experimentally investigated. - Abstract: The paper describes the steady and unsteady performance characteristics of a small size turbocharger typically employed in automotive downsized engine applications. The analysis is carried out by experimental means using an innovative hot gas generator system specifically designed for turbocharger testing which is capable of delivering a wide range of flow rates with adequate thermodynamic characteristics. More in detail, the gas generator consists of a medium size direct injection compression ignition Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) feeding the turbine of the test article. To independently set the hot gas mass flow rate and the turbine inlet temperature, the operating parameters of the aforementioned ICE are specified through an electronic control unit in a fully automated manner. Compared to previously presented data [1] (Energy Procedia, vol. 45, pp 1116-1125, 2014), those reported herein have been collected with the help of newly installed equipment and controlling software allowing for the estimation of the thermal power transferred from the turbocharger to the environment. In particular, thanks to a first law analysis, the collected measurements have shown that the algebraic sum of the thermal power transferred to the lubricating oil as well as to the environment is roughly speaking 20–30% of the compressor total enthalpy change per unit time. Moreover, it has been shown that evaluating the compressor efficiency through classical expression based on the adiabatic assumption leads to

  2. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator - Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype...... for electromagnetic bearings and other machinery with build-in actuators. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows one to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method without a priori study of a model. Depending on the algorithm for estimating the Jacobian required...

  3. Modal Analysis and Experimental Determination of Optimum Tool Shank Overhang of a Lathe Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin SARDAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibration of Tool Shank of a cutting tool has large influence on tolerances and surface finish of products. Frequency and amplitude of vibrations depend on the overhang of the shank of the cutting tool. In turning operations, when the tool overhang is about 2 times of the tool height, the amplitude of the vibration is almost zero and dimensional tolerances and surface finish of the product becomes high. In this paper, the above statement is verified firstly by using a finite element analysis of the cutting tool with ANSYS software package and secondly, with experimental verification with a piezoelectric sensor.

  4. Design, Analysis, Prototyping, and Experimental Evaluation of an Efficient Double Coil Magnetorheological Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A double coil magnetorheological (MR valve with an outer annular resistance gap was designed and prototyped. The finite element modeling and analysis of double coil MR valve were carried out using ANSYS/Emag software, and the optimal magnetic field distribution and magnetic flux density of the double coil MR valve were achieved. The mechanism of the pressure drop was studied by building a mathematical model of pressure drop in the double coil MR valve. The proposed double coil MR valve was prototyped and its performance was experimentally evaluated. The new MR valve design has improved the efficiency of double coil MR valve significantly.

  5. An experimental applications of impedance measurements by spectral analysis to electrochemistry and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Milocco, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    An impedance measurement system based on the spectral analysis of excitation and response signals was implemented using a pseudo-random binary sequence in the generation of the electrical perturbation signal. The spectral density functions were estimated through finite Fourier transforms of the original time history records by fast computation of Fourier series. Experimental results obtained using the FFT algorithm in the developed impedance measurement system which covers a wide frequency range, 10 KHz >= f >= 1 mHz, are given both for dummy cells representing conventional electric circuits in electrochemistry and corrosion systems and for the Fe/acidic chloride solution interfaces under different polarization conditions. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Experimental Analysis of Variable Capacity Heat Pump Systems equipped with a liquid-cooled frequency inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Ebraheem, Thair

    2013-01-01

    Using an inverter-driven compressor in variable capacity heat pump systems has a main drawback, which is the extra loss in the inverter. The present experimental study aims to recover the inverter losses by using brine-cooled and water-cooled inverters, thereby improving the total efficiency of the heat pump system. In order to achieve this goal, a test rig with the air-cooled, water-cooled and brine-cooled inverters is designed and built, and a comparative analysis of the recovered heat, inv...

  7. Watchdog - a workflow management system for the distributed analysis of large-scale experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Michael; Friedel, Caroline C

    2018-03-13

    The development of high-throughput experimental technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, have led to new challenges for handling, analyzing and integrating the resulting large and diverse datasets. Bioinformatical analysis of these data commonly requires a number of mutually dependent steps applied to numerous samples for multiple conditions and replicates. To support these analyses, a number of workflow management systems (WMSs) have been developed to allow automated execution of corresponding analysis workflows. Major advantages of WMSs are the easy reproducibility of results as well as the reusability of workflows or their components. In this article, we present Watchdog, a WMS for the automated analysis of large-scale experimental data. Main features include straightforward processing of replicate data, support for distributed computer systems, customizable error detection and manual intervention into workflow execution. Watchdog is implemented in Java and thus platform-independent and allows easy sharing of workflows and corresponding program modules. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for workflow construction using pre-defined modules as well as a helper script for creating new module definitions. Execution of workflows is possible using either the GUI or a command-line interface and a web-interface is provided for monitoring the execution status and intervening in case of errors. To illustrate its potentials on a real-life example, a comprehensive workflow and modules for the analysis of RNA-seq experiments were implemented and are provided with the software in addition to simple test examples. Watchdog is a powerful and flexible WMS for the analysis of large-scale high-throughput experiments. We believe it will greatly benefit both users with and without programming skills who want to develop and apply bioinformatical workflows with reasonable overhead. The software, example workflows and a comprehensive documentation are freely

  8. An experimental and theoretical analysis of a foil-air bearing rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, P.; Hassan, M. F. Bin

    2018-01-01

    Although there is considerable research on the experimental testing of foil-air bearing (FAB) rotor systems, only a small fraction has been correlated with simulations from a full nonlinear model that links the rotor, air film and foil domains, due to modelling complexity and computational burden. An approach for the simultaneous solution of the three domains as a coupled dynamical system, introduced by the first author and adopted by independent researchers, has recently demonstrated its capability to address this problem. This paper uses this approach, with further developments, in an experimental and theoretical study of a FAB-rotor test rig. The test rig is described in detail, including issues with its commissioning. The theoretical analysis uses a recently introduced modal-based bump foil model that accounts for interaction between the bumps and their inertia. The imposition of pressure constraints on the air film is found to delay the predicted onset of instability speed. The results lend experimental validation to a recent theoretically-based claim that the Gümbel condition may not be appropriate for a practical single-pad FAB. The satisfactory prediction of the salient features of the measured nonlinear behavior shows that the air film is indeed highly influential on the response, in contrast to an earlier finding.

  9. Experimental And Theoretical Stress Analysis For Composite Plate Under Combined Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Qasim Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of thermal and mechanical loadings on the distribution of stress-strain for E-glass fiber /polyester composite plates are investigated experimentally and numerically. The experimental work has been carried out by applying to a uniform temperature and tensile load on the composite plate inside the furnace and the deformation of plate measured by a dial gauge. Two parameter studies, the fiber volume fraction and fiber orientation on the stress-strain for plates subjected to identical mechanical and temperature gradient. The results presented showed that, the maximum absolute of total strain in longitudinal direction occurred at 50 N tension load and fiber angle 60º, while the minimum absolute values of it occurred at 15 N tension loads and fiber angle 0º. However the maximum absolute of total strain in transverse direction occurred at 15N tension load and fiber angle 0º, while the minimum absolute values of it are obtained at 50 N tension loads and fiber angle 60º. Also, the total strain in longitudinal and transverse direction decrease with increasing the fiber volume fraction. Comparison of the results in the experimental test with the numerical analysis of the total strain and evaluated the agreement between the two methods used, the maximum discrepancywas 20%.

  10. Analysis of experimental evidence that shows adverse effects of salt and its relation to hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bravo A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study by Taylor et al published in June 2010 in the American Journal of Hypertension questions the effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the diet in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular conditions. The publication of this article has lead to great controversy and medical associations and learned societies responded promptly. The response criticized the results of the meta-analysis and pointed out its methodological shortcomings. In this review we critically appraise the experimental evidence that shows the importance of diet salt intake and its role as a determinant of blood pressure. We briefly describe the paradigm that explains the role of salt intake in contributing in the regulation of blood pressure (Guyton hypothesis and model and we mention the experimental evidence that supports this. We briefly comment on the classical studies that indicate that salt intake (NaCl contributes directly to the development of high blood pressure and target tissues. Finally, we briefly mention the experimental data that is related with the controversy on the role of salt (NaCl or sodium as prohypertensive agents.

  11. Experimental and NMR theoretical methodology applied to geometric analysis of the bioactive clerodane trans-dehydrocrotonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Breno Almeida; Firme, Caio Lima, E-mail: firme.caio@gmail.com, E-mail: caiofirme@quimica.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biotecnologia; Kaiser, Carlos R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Schilling, Eduardo; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    trans-Dehydrocrotonin (t-DCTN) a bioactive 19-nor-diterpenoid clerodane type isolated from Croton cajucara Benth, is one of the most investigated clerodane in the current literature. In this work, a new approach joining X-ray diffraction data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and theoretical calculations was applied to the thorough characterization of t-DCTN. For that, the geometry of t-DCTN was reevaluated by X-ray diffraction as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data, whose geometrical parameters where compared to those obtained from B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) level of theory. From the evaluation of both calculated and experimental values of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants, it was found very good correlations between theoretical and experimental magnetic properties of t-DCTN. Additionally, the delocalization indexes between hydrogen atoms correlated accurately with theoretical and experimental spin-spin coupling constants. An additional topological analysis from quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) showed intramolecular interactions for t-DCTN. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the chlorination of uranium oxide by gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.; Park, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine the operating condition of an uranium chlorination process with U 3 O 8 -C-Cl 2 system, the experimental conditions have been evaluated preliminarily by the thermochemical analysis and experimentally confirmed in this study. The dry-type chlorination of U 3 O 8 occurs as irreversible and exothermic reaction and produces many kinds of chloride compounds such as UCl 3 , UCl 4 , UCl 5 , and UCl 6 in the air and humidity controlled argon environment. Taking account of Gibbs free energy and vapor pressure for various chloride compounds, the proper temperature range of chlorination appears to be 863 to 953 K in aspects of increasing reaction rate and the yield of nonvolatile product. In the course of the experimental confirmation the powder of U 3 O 8 is perfectly converted into uranium chlorides within 4 hours above 863 K, and then the maximum fraction of uranium chloride remaining in the reactor is about 30% of total conversion mass. (author)

  13. Correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear in turning: Numerical and experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balla Srinivasa Prasad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear when in dry turning of AISI 4140 steel using uncoated carbide insert DNMA 432 is analyzed via experiments and finite element simulations. 3D Finite element simulations results are utilized to predict the evolution of cutting forces, vibration displacement amplitudes and tool wear in vibration induced turning. In the present paper, the primary concern is to find the relative vibration and tool wear with the variation of process parameters. These changes lead to accelerated tool wear and even breakage. The cutting forces in the feed direction are also predicted and compared with the experimental trends. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used to detect vibration amplitudes and the usage of Kistler 9272 dynamometer for recording the cutting forces during the cutting process is well demonstrated. A sincere effort is put to investigate the influence of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut on vibration amplitude and tool flank wear at different levels of workpiece hardness. Empirical models have been developed using second order polynomial equations for correlating the interaction and higher order influences of various process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is carried out to identify the significant factors that are affecting the vibration amplitude and tool flank wear. Response surface methodology (RSM is implemented to investigate the progression of flank wear and displacement amplitude based on experimental data. While measuring the displacement amplitude, R-square values for experimental and numerical methods are 98.6 and 97.8. Based on the R-square values of ANOVA it is found that the numerical values show good agreement with the experimental values and are helpful in estimating displacement amplitude. In the case of predicting the tool wear, R-square values were found to be 97.69 and 96.08, respectively for numerical and experimental measures while determining the tool

  14. Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F. W.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and

  15. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY WORK OF U-SHAPE BOREHOLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Filatau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady numerical model of borehole heat exchanger heat regime was developed. General numerical modeling results are borehole heat flux, heat carrier inlet temperature and average soil temperature distribution. Proposed model is based on solution of heat conduction equation in transient plane axially symmetric formulation with boundary conditions for borehole heat exchanger and undisturbed soil domain. Solution method is finite difference method. Numerical model is verified with comparisons numerical results and experimental data from developed laboratory installation for simulation unsteady heat regime of horizontal positioned U-shape ground heat exchanger in sand medium.Cooling of water is organized in ground exchanger in experiment. Experiment includes two steps. Thermal properties of sand is determined at the first stage. Thermal conductivity of sand is determined by stationary plate method, thermal diffusivity is determined by regular regime method using cylindrical calorimeter. Determined properties are used further in processing of experimental results at second step for analysis of transient work of ground heat exchanger. Results of four experiments are analyzed with different duration and time behavior of mass flow and heat carrier temperature. Divergences of experimental and simulated results for temperature of heat carrier changes in the range 0,5–1,8 %, for sand temperature in the range 1,0–2,3 %, for heat flux in the range 3,6–5,4 %. Experimental results can be used for validation of other simulation methods of ground heat exchangers. Presented numerical model can be used for analyzing of heat supply systems with heat pumps.

  16. Pyrolysis of Municipal Green Waste: A Modelling, Simulation and Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J. Kabir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical conversion of carbonaceous feedstock in the absence of oxygen to produce bio-fuel (bio-oil, bio-char and syn-gas. Bio-fuel production from municipal green waste (MGW through the pyrolysis process has attracted considerable attention recently in the renewable energy sector because it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to energy security. This study analyses properties of MGW feedstock available in Rockhampton city of Central Queensland, Australia, and presents an experimental investigation of producing bio-fuel from that MGW through the pyrolysis process using a short sealed rotary furnace. It was found from the experiment that about 19.97% bio-oil, 40.83% bio-char and 29.77% syn-gas can be produced from the MGW. Then, a four-stage steady state simulation model is developed for pyrolysis process performance simulation using Aspen Plus software. In the first stage, the moisture content of the MGW feed is reduced. In the second stage, the MGW is decomposed according to its elemental constituents. In the third stage, condensate material is separated and, finally, the pyrolysis reactions are modelled using the Gibbs free energy minimisation approach. The MGW’s ultimate and proximate analysis data were used in the Aspen Plus simulation as input parameters. The model is validated with experimentally measured data. A good agreement between simulation and experimental results was found. More specifically, the variation of modelling and experimental elemental compositions of the MGW was found to be 7.3% for carbon, 15.82% for hydrogen, 7.04% for nitrogen and 5.56% for sulphur. The validated model is used to optimise the biofuel production from the MGW as a function of operating variables such as temperature, moisture content, particle size and process heat air–fuel ratio. The modelling and optimisation results are presented, analysed and discussed.

  17. Experimental analysis of natural convection in a cavity with relation 2:1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes S, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work develop an experimental study of the natural convection in Transient State in a cavity of the relation 2:1 (long-height), heated by a heat flux on a side wall with the opposite wall at constant temperature and equal at the temperature of the fluid. The experimental work was made for a Rayleigh number of approximately 10 9 , and the Prandtl number of 7.69. The work objective is to describe the velocity fields by mean of optic methods at different times, wide of limit layers, and searching the best visual conditions for know widely the phenomena in study. We carry out a comparison of the experimental results with the analysis of scales of Patterson and Imberger (9), with the adaptations of Poujol (19), for the condition of a constant heat flux, given this theories good results. The experimental work it have the formation of a vortex near of the hot wall, this vortex, decrease only in size during the heat transfer. In the top of the cavity in the right corner we found a divergence zone such as a H ydraulic jump , mentioned by Ivey (13), and we found too a second vortex in the bottom of the wall with constant temperature, that decrease and finally disappear when the fluid reach a permanent state. This work contribute to the mechanical design of the cavity, and at the description of the best photographic conditions for the study of the natural convection, giving good results for the study of the limit layers, thermic, hydrodynamic and the intrusion. (Author)

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis on noise reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Y Cao, T.; Su, J.; Qin, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, analysis on noise source and reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan used for air-conditioners was carried out by experimental and numerical methods. Firstly, an experimental system using microphone mounted on volute surface for measuring surface pressure fluctuations of volute was designed and introduced, then surface pressure fluctuations of the whole volute for a multi-blade centrifugal fan were measured by this system, and the inlet noise for this fan was also obtained. And then, based on the experimental results, the aerodynamic noise source of the studied fan was analysed. The surface pressure fluctuations of the volute showed that there were largest surface pressure fluctuations near the volute tongue, and peaks appeared at the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF). The spectra of fan inlet noise showed that the peaks also appeared at BPF, and noise levels in a wide range of frequency were also larger. Secondly, the internal flow of the fan was simulated by commercial software under the same conditions with the experiment, and then the fluid flow and acoustic power field were obtained and discussed. The contours of acoustic power level showed that the larger noise was generated at the impeller area close to the outlet of scroll and at the volute tongue, which is same as that from experiment. Based on all of the results, we can find that the vortex noise is an important part of fan noise for the studied fan, and the rotation noise also cannot be neglected. Finally, several reduction methods that are thought to be effective based on experimental and numerical results were suggested.

  19. Experimental analysis on classification of unmanned aerial vehicle images using the probabilistic latent semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wenbin; Tang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to classify UAV images through the image annotation which is a semi-supervised method. During the annotation process, we first divide whole image into different sizes of blocks and generate suitable visual words which are the K-means clustering centers or just pixels in small size image block. Then, given a set of image blocks for each semantic concept as training data, learning is based on the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA). The probability distributions of visual words in every document can be learned through the PLSA model. The labeling of every document (image block) is done by computing the similarity of its feature distribution to the distribution of the training documents with the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. Finally, the classification of the UAV images will be done by combining all the image blocks in every block size. The UAV images using in our experiments was acquired during Sichuan earthquake in 2008. The results show that smaller size block image will get better classification results.

  20. Fourier Analysis: Graphical Animation and Analysis of Experimental Data with Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Fourier formulation, any function that can be represented in a graph may be approximated by the “sum” of infinite sinusoidal functions (Fourier series, termed as “waves”.The adopted approach is accessible to students of the first years of university studies, in which the emphasis is put on the understanding of mathematical concepts through illustrative graphic representations, the students being encouraged to prepare animated Excel-based computational modules (VBA-Visual Basic for Applications.Reference is made to the part played by both trigonometric and complex representations of Fourier series in the concept of discrete Fourier transform. Its connection with the continuous Fourier transform is demonstrated and a brief mention is made of the generalization leading to Laplace transform.As application, the example presented refers to the analysis of vibrations measured on engineering structures: horizontal accelerations of a one-storey building deriving from environment noise. This example is integrated in the curriculum of the discipline “Matemática Aplicada à Engenharia Civil” (Mathematics Applied to Civil Engineering, lectured at ISEL (Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa. In this discipline, the students have the possibility of performing measurements using an accelerometer and a data acquisition system, which, when connected to a PC, make it possible to record the accelerations measured in a file format recognizable by Excel.

  1. SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOLID PARTICLES AT THE EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE FOR MULTI-STAGE BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hrnčířová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of ash content particles produced in biomass combustion at an experimental device. The main parts of the device are: the water heater, the gasifying chamber, the air preheater, and the fuel feeder. This device can be modified for combustion in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Sawdust and wood chips were used as fuel, and were laid loosely into the device. Ash specimens were extracted from various parts of the device. For the measurements themselves, we used the Analysette 22 MicroTec Plus universal laser diffraction device manufactured by the Fritch Company, in the size range from 0.08 μm to 2000 μm. The device utilizes laser diffraction for particle size analysis.

  2. A combined experimental and FE analysis procedure to evaluate tensile behavior of zircaloy pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Balakrishnan, K.S.; Anantharaman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of transverse mechanical properties from the ring type of specimens directly machined from the nuclear reactor pressure tubes is not straightforward because of the presence of combined membrane as well as bending stresses arising in the loaded condition. In this work, we have performed ring-tensile tests on the un-irradiated ring tensile specimen using two split semi-cylindrical mandrels as the loading device. A 3-D finite element (FE) analysis was performed in order to determine the material true stress-strain curve by comparing experimental load-displacement data with those predicted by FE analysis. In order to validate the methodology, miniaturized tensile specimens were machined from these tubes and tested. It was observed that the stress-strain data as obtained from ring tensile specimen could describe the load displacement curve of the miniaturized flat tensile specimen very well. (author)

  3. Multi-objective experimental design for (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin, Jeroen; Cajot, Simon; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Ampofo-Asiama, Jerry; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan; Geeraerd, Annemie; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2015-10-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis is an excellent technique to resolve fluxes in the central carbon metabolism but costs can be significant when using specialized tracers. This work presents a framework for cost-effective design of (13)C-tracer experiments, illustrated on two different networks. Linear and non-linear optimal input mixtures are computed for networks for Streptomyces lividans and a carcinoma cell line. If only glucose tracers are considered as labeled substrate for a carcinoma cell line or S. lividans, the best parameter estimation accuracy is obtained by mixtures containing high amounts of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose combined with uniformly labeled glucose. Experimental designs are evaluated based on a linear (D-criterion) and non-linear approach (S-criterion). Both approaches generate almost the same input mixture, however, the linear approach is favored due to its low computational effort. The high amount of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose in the optimal designs coincides with a high experimental cost, which is further enhanced when labeling is introduced in glutamine and aspartate tracers. Multi-objective optimization gives the possibility to assess experimental quality and cost at the same time and can reveal excellent compromise experiments. For example, the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% position one labeled glutamine and the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% uniformly labeled glutamine perform equally well for the carcinoma cell line, but the first mixture offers a decrease in cost of $ 120 per ml-scale cell culture experiment. We demonstrated the validity of a multi-objective linear approach to perform optimal experimental designs for the non-linear problem of (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. Tools and a workflow are provided to perform multi-objective design. The effortless calculation of the D-criterion can be exploited to perform high-throughput screening of possible (13)C-tracers, while the illustrated benefit of multi

  4. iLAP: a workflow-driven software for experimental protocol development, data acquisition and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally James

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the genome biology community has expended considerable effort to confront the challenges of managing heterogeneous data in a structured and organized way and developed laboratory information management systems (LIMS for both raw and processed data. On the other hand, electronic notebooks were developed to record and manage scientific data, and facilitate data-sharing. Software which enables both, management of large datasets and digital recording of laboratory procedures would serve a real need in laboratories using medium and high-throughput techniques. Results We have developed iLAP (Laboratory data management, Analysis, and Protocol development, a workflow-driven information management system specifically designed to create and manage experimental protocols, and to analyze and share laboratory data. The system combines experimental protocol development, wizard-based data acquisition, and high-throughput data analysis into a single, integrated system. We demonstrate the power and the flexibility of the platform using a microscopy case study based on a combinatorial multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (m-FISH protocol and 3D-image reconstruction. iLAP is freely available under the open source license AGPL from http://genome.tugraz.at/iLAP/. Conclusion iLAP is a flexible and versatile information management system, which has the potential to close the gap between electronic notebooks and LIMS and can therefore be of great value for a broad scientific community.

  5. Experimental Analysis of a Heat Cost Allocation Method for Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Saba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct estimate of individual thermal energy consumptions, and consequently, a fair heat cost allocation among the residents of apartment buildings with centralized heating systems, represents an important driving force towards energy saving, energy efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Nowadays, in those contexts where direct heat meters cannot be used because of the layout of the hot water distribution system, electronic Heat Cost Allocators (HCAs have the highest market share for the assessment of individual thermal energy consumptions. The uncertainty associated with the parameterization of heat cost allocation devices and the installation effects arising in real applications can negatively affect the accuracy of these devices, as far as the estimation of the individual fractions of thermal energy consumption is concerned. This work deals with the experimental analysis of a novel heat cost allocation method for apartment buildings and its comparison with conventional HCAs. The method allows the indirect estimation of the thermal energy exchanged by water radiators without the need for surface temperature measurements, reducing some of the drawbacks associated with the on-site installation. The experimental analysis was carried out in a full-scale central heating system test facility available at the Italian National Metrology Institute (INRIM and characterized by SI-traceable direct heat meters installed on each water radiator.

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis of liquid layer instability in hybrid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobald, Mario; Verri, Isabella; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The combustion behavior of different hybrid rocket fuels has been analyzed in the frame of this research. Tests have been performed in a 2D slab burner configuration with windows on two sides. Four different liquefying paraffin-based fuels, hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) have been tested in combination with gaseous oxygen (GOX). Experimental high-speed video data have been analyzed manually and with the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique. Application of POD enables the recognition of the main structures of the flow field and the combustion flame appearing in the video data. These results include spatial and temporal analysis of the structures. For liquefying fuels these spatial values relate to the wavelengths associated to the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability (KHI). A theoretical long-wave solution of the KHI problem shows good agreement with the experimental results. Distinct frequencies found in the POD analysis can be related to the precombustion chamber configuration which can lead to vortex shedding phenomena.

  7. Theoretical and experimental analysis of optical gyroscopes based on fiber ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-ying; Xue, Chen-yang; Cui, Xiao-wen; Cui, Dan-feng; Wei, Li-ping; Wang, Yong-hua; Li, Yan-na

    2014-12-01

    The research on gyroscopes has lasted for a long time, but there is not a thorough analysis of them. In this paper, a detailed theoretical analysis of fiber ring gyroscope and its gyroscope effect were presented, the performance characteristics of optical resonator gyroscope ranging from transmission function Tfrr, Finesse, Q-factor, the gyro sensitivity, signal noise ratio, random walk to dynamic range are all deduced in detail. In addition, a large number of experiments have been done to verify the deduced theoretical results. Simulating the relevance of dQ and turn number of fiber ring, analyzing the frequency difference of two counter transmitted waves (CW and CCW) of the rotated system, make the conclusion that with the increase of turn number of ring, the resonance depth increased while the dQ value decreased, obtain a high sensitivity of 0.210/h, random walk of 0.00350/√h, and Q factor of 8×106. Moreover, in the digital frequency locked dual rotation gyro experiments, obvious step effect was observed. And the experimental line of frequency difference is very agreement with the theoretical line. The research provides a good theoretical and experimental basis for the study of gyroscopes.

  8. Experimental and computational analysis of pressure response in a multiphase flow loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Munzarin; Amin, Al; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Imtiaz, Syed

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in pipes are useful to understand fluid mechanics encountered in the oil and gas industries. In the present day oil and gas exploration is successively inducing subsea operation in the deep sea and arctic condition. During the transport of petroleum products, understanding the fluid dynamics inside the pipe network is important for flow assurance. In this case the information regarding static and dynamic pressure response, pressure loss, optimum flow rate, pipe diameter etc. are the important parameter for flow assurance. The principal aim of this research is to represents computational analysis and experimental analysis of multi-phase (L/G) in a pipe network. This computational study considers a two-phase fluid flow through a horizontal flow loop with at different Reynolds number in order to determine the pressure distribution, frictional pressure loss profiles by volume of fluid (VOF) method. However, numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data. The experiment is conducted in 76.20 mm ID transparent circular pipe using water and air in the flow loop. Static pressure transducers are used to measure local pressure response in multiphase pipeline.

  9. Tyre friction behaviour under abrupt wheel torque transients on slippery road surfaces: experimental analysis and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanović, Vladimir; Deur, Joško; Kostelac, Milan; Pentek, Tibor; Hrovat, Davor

    2011-10-01

    The paper shows that, during abrupt wheel torque transients for ice surface and low vehicle speeds, the tyre can develop significantly larger longitudinal force than the peak value of the tyre static curve. This so-called dynamic tyre friction potential (DTFP) effect has many influencing factors such as the rate of change of the wheel torque, the vehicle speed, and the tyre dwell time. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the DTFP behaviour based on the experimental data collected by using an in-wheel motor-based tyre test vehicle. The analysis results and an insight into the brush structure of a tyre model lead to the hypothesis that the different influencing factors may be predominantly explained by the bristle dwell time (BDT) effect. Following this hypothesis, the LuGre model of the tyre friction dynamics is extended with a physical BDT sub-model. The experimental validation results show that the proposed model can accurately capture the low-speed tyre-ice friction behaviour during abrupt wheel torque transients.

  10. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus

  11. Articles Published in Four School Psychology Journals from 2000 to 2005: An Analysis of Experimental/Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Stacy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Hautau, Briana; Carroll, Erin E.

    2008-01-01

    Using an experimenter-developed system, articles from four school psychology journals for the years 2000-2005 (n = 929) were classified. Results showed that 40% of the articles were narrative, 29% correlational, 16% descriptive, 8% causal-experimental, 4% causal-comparative, and 2% were meta-analytic. Further analysis of the causal-experimental…

  12. Decree No. 67/77 of 6 May establishing a National Uranium Undertaking as a public body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree, promulgated on 29 March 1977, sets up a National Uranium Undertaking (ENU). The ENU Statute which is attached to the Decree lays down that its main purpose is to prospect for and inventory uranium deposits, to explore known deposits, to set up facilities for recovery and treatment of uranium ores, and finally, to market the products obtained. The ENU has taken over the work which, until now, had been carried out in that field by the Junta de Energia Nuclear and it is placed under the authority of the Minister of Industry and Technology. (NEA) [fr

  13. Experimental study on quantitative analysis of fatty liver by computed tomography in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Chung Jin; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1985-01-01

    For the study of correlation of CT number and fatty contact of the liver, total 35 rabbit were used. The rabbits were divided into one control and three experimental groups according to the amount of carbon tetrachloride, administered 1 ml, 2 ml, and 3 ml per kg of body weight respectively. The carbon tetrachloride was administered via intragastric route. CT was performed 72 hours following administration of carbon tetrachloride, and immediately prior to CT scan each rabbit was anesthetized by means of IM injection of ketamine and IV injection of succinylcholine to stop motion and respiration. CT numbers were measured and histological study for the deposition of fat in the liver tissue was done. Also biochemical analysis of lipid in the blood and in the extraction of liver tissue was performed. Comparison of CT number with biochemical and histological data was done. The result was as follows: 1. In each experimental group, the degree of accumulation of fat in the liver was proportional to the amount of carbon tetrachloride. 2. Degree of decreasing CT number was correlated with the increase in the accumulation of fat in the liver. 3. In the control and experimental (1, 2, 3) groups, when the amount of carbon tetrachloride increased, the amount of total lipid, cholesterol and triglyceride on biochemical analysis of the liver increased. Also increase in the amount of plasma lipids on biochemical analysis and great degree of increase in accumulation of fat in the liver on histological examination were seen. But no changes in the amount of phospholipid and protein on biochemical analysis of the liver were noticed. 4. Increase in the amount of total lipid could make a change in the CT number of the liver remarkably (r=-0.63). As the amount of cholesterol and triglyceride increased, the CT number of the liver decreased (r=-0.61 and r=-0.76 respectively). But there was no significant correlation between the amount of protein and phospholipid and the degree of decrease in

  14. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental investigation of a Solo V161 Stirling cogeneration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogdakis, E.D.; Antonakos, G.D.; Koronaki, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the Stirling engine implementation technology, a Solo Stirling Engine V161 cogeneration module has been installed at the Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics of National Technical University of Athens. A special thermodynamic analysis of the engine's performance has been conducted introducing and utilizing specially designed computing codes along with the thermal balance study of the unit. Measurements were conducted under different operational conditions concerning various heat load stages of the engine, working pressure, as well as electric power production. Analysis of the experimental results has shown that the overall performance of the Stirling unit proved very promising and quite adequate for various areal applications, equally competing with other CHP systems. The performance of the unit experienced significant stability all over the operating range. The power stand ratio 0.35 differentiates Stirling cogeneration units from others that use diverging technologies significantly. The energy savings using a Stirling CHP unit, in respect to the concurrent use of a thermal and an electrical system at the same equivalent power has revealed 36.8%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analysis of an a-type Stirling engine. ► Development of generated electrical and thermal power of the m-CHP Solo Stirling Unit to engine's load comparison. ► Stirling m-CHP until heat balance analysis. ► Evaluation of the Solo Stirling V161 unit efficiency.

  15. Numerical-experimental analysis of a rin AISI{sub 7}Mg Alloy; Analisis numerico experimental de un rin de aleacion AISi{sub 7}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauceda Mesa, Israel; Mata Lucero, Omar; Tirado Delgado, Luis; Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    2005-10-15

    The present work shows the results obtained from an investigation mode on the behaviour of a rin of alloy AISi{sub 7}Mg, which is used in compact Volkswagen's cars. Due to two kind of analysis were realized, firstly an experimental and numerical analysis was done, using a special machine for test the flexionante torque and material fatigue, besides was used an equipment of laser to scanner zone with strength concentrations and the maximum displacement amplitudes. The second analysis was done with the finite element technique, using the software ANSYS and CATIA. The difference between life fatigue cycles obtained from the two analyses was 0.6%. While the time optimize by MEF, was of 85% less than experimental analysis. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se hicieron investigaciones del comportamiento de un rin de aleacion AISi{sub 7}Mg, el cual es usado en automoviles compactos de volkswagen (VW). Para esto, se realizo analisis experimental y numerico. En el primero se utilizo una maquina para prueba de fatiga de momento flexionante, un equipo de medicion de laser escaner donde se detectaron las zonas de concentraciones de esfuerzos y la maxima amplitud de desplazamiento en el rin. Mientras que en el segundo se obtuvieron los esfuerzos que ocasionaban la fatiga por el elemento finito, utilizando los paquetes de computo Ansys y Catia. La diferencia de los ciclos de vida de fatiga obtenidos entre ambos analisis fue del 0.6%. Mientras que el tiempo que se optimizo por el MEF, fue de un 85% menos que el analisis experimental.

  16. The Risa R/Bioconductor package: integrative data analysis from experimental metadata and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Beltrán, Alejandra; Neumann, Steffen; Maguire, Eamonn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Rocca-Serra, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The ISA-Tab format and software suite have been developed to break the silo effect induced by technology-specific formats for a variety of data types and to better support experimental metadata tracking. Experimentalists seldom use a single technique to monitor biological signals. Providing a multi-purpose, pragmatic and accessible format that abstracts away common constructs for describing Investigations, Studies and Assays, ISA is increasingly popular. To attract further interest towards the format and extend support to ensure reproducible research and reusable data, we present the Risa package, which delivers a central component to support the ISA format by enabling effortless integration with R, the popular, open source data crunching environment. The Risa package bridges the gap between the metadata collection and curation in an ISA-compliant way and the data analysis using the widely used statistical computing environment R. The package offers functionality for: i) parsing ISA-Tab datasets into R objects, ii) augmenting annotation with extra metadata not explicitly stated in the ISA syntax; iii) interfacing with domain specific R packages iv) suggesting potentially useful R packages available in Bioconductor for subsequent processing of the experimental data described in the ISA format; and finally v) saving back to ISA-Tab files augmented with analysis specific metadata from R. We demonstrate these features by presenting use cases for mass spectrometry data and DNA microarray data. The Risa package is open source (with LGPL license) and freely available through Bioconductor. By making Risa available, we aim to facilitate the task of processing experimental data, encouraging a uniform representation of experimental information and results while delivering tools for ensuring traceability and provenance tracking. The Risa package is available since Bioconductor 2.11 (version 1.0.0) and version 1.2.1 appeared in Bioconductor 2.12, both along with documentation

  17. Study of a 5 kW PEMFC using experimental design and statistical analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahdame, B.; Francois, X.; Kauffmann, J.M. [Laboratory of Electrical Engineering and Systems (L2ES), Unite mixte de recherche UTBM and UFC - EA 3898, L2ES-UTBM Batiment F, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 BELFORT Cedex (France); Candusso, D.; Harel, F.; De Bernardinis, A.; Coquery, G. [The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (INRETS), 2 avenue du General Malleret-Joinville, 94 114 ARCUEIL Cedex (France)

    2007-02-15

    Within the framework of the French inter lab SPACT project (Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications), the behavior of a 5 kW PEM fuel cell stack, fed by humidified hydrogen and compressed air, is investigated in a test platform at Belfort, France. A set of polarization curves are recorded, under various conditions of stack temperature, gas pressure, and stoichiometry rates, in order to obtain a kind of cartography, representing the static stack performance. Initially, the tests are defined considering experimental design techniques. In order to study the relative impacts of the physical factors on the fuel cell voltage, some polarization curve results are selected from the static tests available applying experimental design methodology. First, several analyses are used to estimate the impact of the stack temperature, gas pressure, and stoichiometry rate on the fuel cell voltage. Statistical sensitivity analyses (ANOVA) are used to compute, from the available data, the effects and respective contributions of the various physical factors on the stack voltage. The potential for the detection of any interactions between the different parameters is shown. Also, some graphic representations are used to display the results of the statistical analyses made for different current values of the polarization curves. Then, the experimental design method and its associated statistical tools are employed in order to identify the influence of the stack temperature and gas pressure on the fuel cell voltage. Moreover, it is shown how it is possible to reduce the number of experiments needed and how certain optimizations of the fuel cell operating parameters leading to higher performances can be achieved. The work presented aims at showing the suitability of the experimental design method for the characterization, analysis, and improvement of a complex system like a fuel cell generator. The future outlook is proposed in the final part of the paper. The methodologies

  18. Correct approach to consideration of experimental resolution in parametric analysis of scaling violation in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.V.; Usubov, Z.U.; Zhigunov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    A problem of parametric analysis of the scaling violation in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interactions in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered. For a correct consideration of the experimental resolution we use the χ 2 -method, which is demonstrated by numeric experiments and analysis of the 15-foot bubble chamber neutrino experimental data. The model parameters obtained in this approach differ noticeably from those obtained earlier. (orig.)

  19. ChIP-chip versus ChIP-seq: Lessons for experimental design and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) or high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) allows genome-wide discovery of protein-DNA interactions such as transcription factor bindings and histone modifications. Previous reports only compared a small number of profiles, and little has been done to compare histone modification profiles generated by the two technologies or to assess the impact of input DNA libraries in ChIP-seq analysis. Here, we performed a systematic analysis of a modENCODE dataset consisting of 31 pairs of ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq profiles of the coactivator CBP, RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII), and six histone modifications across four developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Results Both technologies produce highly reproducible profiles within each platform, ChIP-seq generally produces profiles with a better signal-to-noise ratio, and allows detection of more peaks and narrower peaks. The set of peaks identified by the two technologies can be significantly different, but the extent to which they differ varies depending on the factor and the analysis algorithm. Importantly, we found that there is a significant variation among multiple sequencing profiles of input DNA libraries and that this variation most likely arises from both differences in experimental condition and sequencing depth. We further show that using an inappropriate input DNA profile can impact the average signal profiles around genomic features and peak calling results, highlighting the importance of having high quality input DNA data for normalization in ChIP-seq analysis. Conclusions Our findings highlight the biases present in each of the platforms, show the variability that can arise from both technology and analysis methods, and emphasize the importance of obtaining high quality and deeply sequenced input DNA libraries for ChIP-seq analysis. PMID:21356108

  20. Experimental and numerical performance analysis of a converging channel heat exchanger for PV cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, Ahmer A.B.; Bahaidarah, Haitham M.S.; Gandhidasan, Palanichamy; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of varying converging angle on temperature characteristics of PV surface studied. • Optical, CFD, thermal, and electrical models developed for the analysis. • Experimental measurements carried out for two configurations for June and December. • Using this cooling technique, maximum cell temperature reduction was 57.8%. • Maximum percentage improvement in power output was 35.5%. - Abstract: An experimental and numerical investigation of a cooling technique called as converging channel cooling intended to achieve low and uniform temperature on the surface of PV panel is presented in this paper. Experimental evaluation for an uncooled PV system and a converging channel cooled PV system was carried out subjected to the hot climate of Saudi Arabia for the month of June and December. Detailed modeling was performed using numerical analysis to investigate the effect of changing the converging angle on the thermal characteristics of the PV system. Based on the developed model, two degrees angle showed the best performance in terms of temperature distribution and average cell temperature with a standard deviation of 0.91 °C. A comprehensive system model was developed to assess the performance of PV systems numerically by coupling the optical, radiation, thermal, computational fluid dynamics, and electrical model. Thermal measurements for an uncooled PV showed cell temperature as high as 71.2 °C and 48.3 °C for the month of June and December, respectively. By employing converging cooling, cell temperature was reduced significantly to 45.1 °C for June and to 36.4 °C for December. Maximum percentage improvement in power output was 35.5% whereas maximum percentage increase in the conversion efficiency was 36.1% when compared to the performance of an uncooled PV system. For cost feasibility of an uncooled and cooled PV system, levelized cost of energy (LCE) analysis was performed using the annual energy yield simulation for both systems. LCE

  1. Narratives of Choice amongst white Australians who undertake Surrogacy Arrangements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on a rhetorical analysis of interviews with fifteen white Australian citizens who had undertaken offshore commercial surrogacy in India. Extending previous research, the findings suggest that genetic relatedness was valorized, and surrogacy constructed as a less tenuous route to family formation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the need for further research on 1) how the contentious nature of offshore commercial surrogacy may prevent full consideration of its ethical implications, 2) the differing belief systems between India and Australia in terms of children as alienable objects, and 3) ongoing consideration of how and when genetic-relatedness is made to matter.

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  3. An interdisciplinary and experimental approach applied to an analysis of the communication of influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte JUANALS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the added value of an interdisciplinary and experimental approach applied to an analysis of the inter-organizational communication of influence. The field analyzed is the international industrial standardization of societal security. A communicational problem has been investigated with an experimental method based on natural language processing and knowledge management tools. The purpose of the methodological framework is to clarify the way international standards are designed and the policies that are supported by these standards. Furthermore, strategies of influence of public and private stakeholders involved in the NGOs which produce these texts have also been studied. The means of inter-organizational communication between organizations (companies or governmental authorities and NGOs can be compared to the lobbying developed in the context of the construction of Europe and globalization. Understanding the prescriptive process has become a crucial issue for States, organizations and citizens. This research contributes to the critical assessment of the new industrial policies currently being developed from the point of view of their characteristics and the way they have been designed.

  4. Comprehensive Analysis and Experimental Validation of an Improved Mathematical Modeling of Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Bal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple, accurate, and easy to model approach for the simulation of photovoltaic (PV array and also provides a comparative analysis of the same with two other widely used models. It is highly imperative that the maximum power point (MPP is achieved effectively and thus a simple and robust mathematical model is necessary that poses less mathematical complexity as well as low data storage requirement, in which the maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm can be realized in an effective way. Further, the resemblance of the P-V and I-V curves as obtained on the basis of experimental data should also be taken into account for theoretical validation. In addition, the study incorporates the root mean square deviation (RMSD from the experimental data, the fill factor (FF, the efficiency of the model, and the time required for simulation. Two models have been used to investigate the I-V and P-V characteristics. Perturb and Observe method has been adopted for MPPT. The MPP tracking is realized using field programmable gate array (FPGA to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. All the systems are modeled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  5. Analysis of the Bactericidal Response to an Experimental Neisseria meningitidis Vesicle Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Elizabeth E.; Burden, Robert; Labrie, Joseph E.; Wen, Zhiyun; Wang, Xin-Min; Zollinger, Wendell D.; Zhang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit immunogenicity studies on an experimental trivalent native outer membrane vesicle vaccine derived from three serogroup B strains were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this vaccine at inducing an antibody response with serum bactericidal activity against meningococcal strains of other serogroups in addition to serogroup B strains. The results showed that the vaccine was capable of inducing an effective broad-based bactericidal antibody response in rabbits against a small sample of Neisseria meningitidis strains of serogroups C, W135, and X and, to a lesser extent, serogroups A and Y. Analysis of antibody specificity using a bactericidal depletion assay revealed that antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), PorA, and NadA induced in rabbits by the experimental trivalent outer membrane vesicle vaccine were responsible for most of the bactericidal activity against strains of the other N. meningitidis serogroups. In the case of serogroup A N. meningitidis strains, the outer membrane antigen NadA was primarily responsible for protection. The outer membrane antigens fHbp and OpcA were also effective in removing some bactericidal activity from the sera. PMID:22461527

  6. Computational and experimental analysis of redundancy in the central metabolism of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Segura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous model-based analysis of the metabolic network of Geobacter sulfurreducens suggested the existence of several redundant pathways. Here, we identified eight sets of redundant pathways that included redundancy for the assimilation of acetate, and for the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. These equivalent pathways and two other sub-optimal pathways were studied using 5 single-gene deletion mutants in those pathways for the evaluation of the predictive capacity of the model. The growth phenotypes of these mutants were studied under 12 different conditions of electron donor and acceptor availability. The comparison of the model predictions with the resulting experimental phenotypes indicated that pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase is the only activity able to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. However, the results and the modeling showed that the two acetate activation pathways present are not only active, but needed due to the additional role of the acetyl-CoA transferase in the TCA cycle, probably reflecting the adaptation of these bacteria to acetate utilization. In other cases, the data reconciliation suggested additional capacity constraints that were confirmed with biochemical assays. The results demonstrate the need to experimentally verify the activity of key enzymes when developing in silico models of microbial physiology based on sequence-based reconstruction of metabolic networks.

  7. Experimental vibration analysis for a 3D scaled model of a three-floor steel structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto F. Castillo

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental study of a three dimensional physical model of a three-floor structure subjected to forced vibrations by imposing displacements in its support. The aim of this work is to analyze the behavior of the building when a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA is acting. An analytic simplified analysis and a numerical study are developed to obtain the natural frequencies of the structure. Experiments are carried out in a vibrating table. The frequency range to be experimentally analyzed is determined by the first natural frequency of the structure for which the DVA damping effects are verified. The equipment capabilities, i.e. the frequencies, amplitudes and admissible load, limit the analyses. Nevertheless, satisfactory results are obtained for the study of the first mode of vibration. The effect of different amplitudes of the imposed support motion is also analyzed. In addition, the damping effect of the DVA device is evaluated upon varying its mass and its location in the structure. The characteristic curves in the frequency domain are obtained computing the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT of the acceleration history registered with piezoelectric accelerometers at different checkpoints for the cases analyzed.

  8. Experimental analysis of the production of micro- and nanofibres by Laser Spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, F.; Pou, J.; Lusquinos, F.; Riveiro, A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser Spinning is a new technique for the production of glass fibres with diameters in the nanometre to micrometre scale. It allows large quantities of nanofibres to be made with specific, controllable chemical compositions. Furthermore, the production of amorphous micro- and nanofibres of non-ready glass former materials was demonstrated. All these novel characteristics will potentially open up a whole new range of applications for the fibres. In this technique a high power laser is employed to melt the precursor solid material, while a supersonic gas jet is injected into the melt volume. The melt forms glass fibres as a result of its viscous elongation and cooling by the drag force and convective heat transfer produced by the gas jet. The influence of several operating conditions controlling the morphology, composition, and diameter distribution of the fibres is experimentally assessed by means of electron microscopy analysis, X-ray fluorescence and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The experimental results are discussed based on a theoretical explanation of the process of fibre formation. This leads ultimately to the deduction of a set of rules regarding the influence of the factors studied on the production of nanofibres by Laser Spinning

  9. High repeatability from 3D experimental platform for quantitative analysis of cellular branch pattern formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Nobata, Rina; Kawahara, Tomohiro

    2018-04-24

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell and tissue cultures more closely mimic biological environments than two-dimensional (2D) cultures and are therefore highly desirable in culture experiments. However, 3D cultures often fail to yield repeatable experimental results because of variation in the initial culture conditions, such as cell density and distribution in the extracellular matrix, and therefore reducing such variation is a paramount concern. Here, we present a 3D culture platform that demonstrates highly repeatable experimental results, obtained by controlling the initial cell cluster shape in the gel cube culture device. A micro-mould with the desired shape was fabricated by photolithography or machining, creating a 3D pocket in the extracellular matrix contained in the device. Highly concentrated human bronchial epithelial cells were then injected in the pocket so that the cell cluster shape matched the fabricated mould shape. Subsequently, the cubic device supplied multi-directional scanning, enabling high-resolution capture of the whole tissue structure with only a low-magnification lens. The proposed device significantly improved the repeatability of the developed branch pattern, and multi-directional scanning enabled quantitative analysis of the developed branch pattern formations. A mathematical simulation was also conducted to reveal the mechanisms of branch pattern formation. The proposed platform offers the potential to accelerate any research field that conducts 3D culture experiments, including tissue regeneration and drug development.

  10. The Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Ballizing Process of Steel Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyl T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of experimental and numerical research of ballizing process of the steel tubes. Ballizing process is a method of burnishing technology of an internal diameter by precisely forcing a ball through a slightly undersized pre-machined tubes. Ballizing process is a fast, low-cost process for sizing and finishing tubes. It consists of pressing a slightly oversized ball through an unfinished tube to quickly bring the hole to desired size. The ball is typically made from a very hard material such as tungsten carbide or bearing steel. Ballizing process is by cold surface plastic forming of the surface structure, thereby leaving a layer of harder material and reducing its roughness. After theoretical and experimental analysis it was determined that the smaller the diameter of the balls, the bigger intensity of stress and strain and strain rate. The paper presents influence of ballizing process on the strain and stress state and on the surface roughness reduction rate of the steel tubes.

  11. Equilibrium p-T Phase Diagram of Boron: Experimental Study and Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state phase transformations and melting of high-purity crystalline boron have been in situ and ex situ studied at pressures to 20 GPa in the 1500–2500 K temperature range where diffusion processes become fast and lead to formation of thermodynamically stable phases. The equilibrium phase diagram of boron has been constructed based on thermodynamic analysis of experimental and literature data. The high-temperature part of the diagram contains p-T domains of thermodynamic stability of rhombohedral β-B106, orthorhombic γ-B28, pseudo-cubic (tetragonal) t'-B52, and liquid boron (L). The positions of two triple points have been experimentally estimated, i.e. β–t'–L at ~ 8.0 GPa and ~ 2490 K; and β–γ–t' at ~ 9.6 GPa and ~ 2230 K. Finally, the proposed phase diagram explains all thermodynamic aspects of boron allotropy and significantly improves our understanding of the fifth element. PMID:23912523

  12. Theoretical analysis and experimental study on the PV-IESAHP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingying

    2017-05-01

    Solar photovoltaic/thermal integration (PV/T) and heat pump are very important techniques for energy conservation and carbon reduction. A practical design for an integrated PV/T and heat pump system is presented, the integrated system is called the Photovoltaic-Indirect Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump (PV-IESAHP) system, which uses the heat energy supplied by PV/T as an evaporating heat source and can achieve high coefficient of performance(COP). It is essential to master the completed design idea and thermodynamic analysis method for the integration of PV/T and heat pump. In this study a kind of theoretical and matching performance model of the PV-IESAHP system is established, and a series of experiments were conducted to study the performance of the heat-pipe type PV/T experimental system and heat hump experimental system. Moreover, energy and energy analyses were used to investigate the performance of the systems. The results show that the COP of the PV-IESAHP system is about 4.0, and the energy efficiency about 0.05, which not only implies that the PV-IESAHP system has a significant energy-saving potential, but also will provide a theoretical basis for the application and parameters design of the PV-IESAHP system in the future.

  13. Experimental study of surface roughness in Electric Discharge Machining (EDM based on Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Deris Ashanira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Discharge Machining (EDM is one of the modern machining which is capable in handling hard and difficult-to-machine material. The successful of EDM basically depends on its performances such as surface roughness (Ra, material removal rate (MRR, electrode wear rate (EWR and dimensional accuracy (DA. Ra is considered as the most important performance due to it role as a technological quality measurement for a product and also a factor that significantly affects the manufacturing process. This paper presents the experimental study of surface roughness in die sinking EDM using stainless steel SS316L with copper impregnated graphite electrode. The machining experimental is conducted based on the two levels full factorial design of design of experiment (DOE with five machining parameters which are peak current, servo voltage, servo speed, pulse on time and pulse off time. The results were analyzed using grey relational analysis (GRA and it was found that pulse on time and servo voltage give the most influence to the Ra value.

  14. Combined Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Processes Determining Cathode Performance in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukla, Maija M.; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Merkle, R.; Mastrikov, Yuri; Maier, J.

    2013-02-11

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980’s as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnot’s cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

  15. Combined theoretical and experimental analysis of processes determining cathode performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklja, M M; Kotomin, E A; Merkle, R; Mastrikov, Yu A; Maier, J

    2013-04-21

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980's as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnot's cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

  16. Experimental analysis of tablet properties for discrete element modeling of an active coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Sarah; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Coating of solid dosage forms is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, numerical simulations of drug manufacturing processes have been gaining interest as process analytical technology tools. The discrete element method (DEM) in particular is suitable to model tablet-coating processes. For the development of accurate simulations, information on the material properties of the tablets is required. In this study, the mechanical parameters Young's modulus, coefficient of restitution (CoR), and coefficients of friction (CoF) of gastrointestinal therapeutic systems (GITS) and of active-coated GITS were measured experimentally. The dynamic angle of repose of these tablets in a drum coater was investigated to revise the CoF. The resulting values were used as input data in DEM simulations to compare simulation and experiment. A mean value of Young's modulus of 31.9 MPa was determined by the uniaxial compression test. The CoR was found to be 0.78. For both tablet-steel and tablet-tablet friction, active-coated GITS showed a higher CoF compared with GITS. According to the values of the dynamic angle of repose, the CoF was adjusted to obtain consistent tablet motion in the simulation and in the experiment. On the basis of this experimental characterization, mechanical parameters are integrated into DEM simulation programs to perform numerical analysis of coating processes.

  17. Experimental analysis of ammonia condensation on smooth and integral-fin titanium tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Diz, Ruben [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    This paper reports on the experimental research conducted to study the condensation of ammonia on smooth and integral-fin (32 fpi) titanium tubes of 19.05 mm outer diameter. Experiments were carried out at saturation temperatures of 30, 35, 40 and 45 C and wall subcoolings from 1 to 8 C. The results show that the condensation coefficients on the smooth tubes are well predicted by the Nusselt theory with an average error of +0.66% and within a deviation between -6.6% and +8.3%. The enhancement factors provided by the integral-fin tubes range from 0.77 to 1.22. The low enhancement factors are due to the high condensate retention between fins, which brings about flooded fractions of the tube perimeter from 62.9% to 73.2%, and the low thermal conductivity of titanium. The Briggs and Rose [1994. Effect of fin efficiency on a model for condensation heat transfer on a horizontal, integral-fin tube. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 457-463.] model, which accounts for the conduction in the fins, predicts the experimental data with a mean overestimation of 20%. The analysis of the partial thermal resistances in the overall heat transfer process points out the convenience of enhancing the outside ammonia condensation when high water velocities are considered inside the tubes. (author)

  18. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of a CsI(Tl) based electronic portal imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Amit; Zeman, Herbert; Samant, Sanjiv; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Weinberg, Brent; DiBianca, Frank

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the design and analysis of a portal imaging system based on a thick transparent scintillator. A theoretical analysis using Monte Carlo simulation was performed to calculate the x-ray quantum detection efficiency (QDE), signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the zero frequency detective quantum efficiency [DQE(0)] of the system. A prototype electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was built, using a 12.7 mm thick, 20.32 cm diameter, CsI(Tl) scintillator, coupled to a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD TV camera. The system geometry of the prototype EPID was optimized to achieve high spatial resolution. The experimental evaluation of the prototype EPID involved the determination of contrast resolution, depth of focus, light scatter and mirror glare. Images of humanoid and contrast detail phantoms were acquired using the prototype EPID and were compared with those obtained using conventional and high contrast portal film and a commercial EPID. A theoretical analysis was also carried out for a proposed full field of view system using a large area, thinned CCD camera and a 12.7 mm thick CsI(Tl) crystal. Results indicate that this proposed design could achieve DQE(0) levels up to 11%, due to its order of magnitude higher QDE compared to phosphor screen-metal plate based EPID designs, as well as significantly higher light collection compared to conventional TV camera based systems

  19. Ulna-humerus contact mechanics: Finite element analysis and experimental measurements using a tactile pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renani, Mohsen Sharifi; Rahman, Munsur; Cil, Akin; Stylianou, Antonis P

    2017-12-01

    Elbow articular cartilage withstands high compressive and shear forces while protecting the bone from excessive loading. Better understanding of elbow cartilage contact mechanics can provide insight into cartilage degeneration. In this study a tactile pressure sensor was used to measure the contact pressure distribution within the ulno-humeral joint of two cadaver specimens at 20° flexion angle across three different axial loads of 80 N, 110 N, and 140 N. Corresponding 3D finite element (FE) models were constructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contact analysis was performed for each specimen with boundary and loading conditions identical to the experiment. Direct comparison between FE results and experimental measurements was conducted for the validation of the FE models and a sensitivity analysis was employed for assessing the effect of cartilage parameters on the model's outputs. The results showed a good agreement between the FE models and the experiments in terms of contact characteristics. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that outcomes of the model, particularly peak contact pressure is more sensitive to the Poisson's ratio rather than to Young's modulus under static conditions. This result suggests that selection of Poisson's ratio is very critical for accurate prediction of contact mechanics within the ulno-humeral joint. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Maurizio, E-mail: mmanera@unite.it [Faculty of Biosciences, Food and Environmental Technologies, University of Teramo, Piano d’Accio, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Giari, Luisa [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); De Pasquale, Joseph A. [Morphogenyx Inc., PO Box 717, East Northport, NY 11731 (United States); Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  1. A study on identification of nonlinear structure by experimental modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Akira; Suzuki, Kohei; Nakamura, Hajime.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, identification techniques based on the experimental modal analysis for the equivalent modal parameters of nonlinear structures are examined from a practical viewpoint. First, using a simple cantilever model with gap or friction at the supported end, the gain characteristics of transfer function are evaluated through the sinusoidal sweep test and random wave test. Second, the equivalent modal parameters such as natural frequency and damping ratio are estimated by two types of identification techniques: ARMA (autoregressive/moving average) model fitting and curve fitting with iterative calculations. From the comparison of the response of the model obtained by the random excitation test and numerical calculation using the equivalent modal parameters, it has been clarified that the ARMA model fitting can be applied to linearized modal parameter identification for nonlinear structures. (author)

  2. Control analysis and experimental verification of a practical dc–dc boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Swapna Dash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents detailed open loop and closed loop analysis on boost dc–dc converter for both voltage mode control and current mode control. Here the boost dc–dc converter is a practical converter considering all possible parasitic elements like ESR and on state voltage drops. The open loop control, closed loop current mode control and voltage mode control are verified. The comparative study of all control techniques is presented. The PI compensator for closed loop current mode control is designed using these classical techniques like root locus technique and bode diagram. The simulation results are validated with the experimental results of voltage mode control for both open loop and closed loop control.

  3. Analysis of heavy alloying elements segregation in gravity cast experimental Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Żydek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure of experimental AZ91 alloy with an addition of rare earth elements (RE at a level of 4 wt.% was examined by means of light microscopy. The investigated AZ91 + 4 wt.% RE alloy was fabricated by adding cerium rich mish metal to molten commercial AZ91 alloy. In the microstructure of the resulting alloy, besides α solid solution, α + γ eutectic and discontinuous precipitates of γ phase, also the Al11RE3 phase with needle-like morphology and the polygonal Al10RE2Mn7 phase were revealed. No segregation of rare earth elements was found in the investigated gravity cast alloy, which was confirmed by statistical analysis of cerium concentrations in selected parts of the cast. Similar results were obtained for manganese. Ce and Mn concentrations were determined by a spectrophotometric method.

  4. Stress Regression Analysis of Asphalt Concrete Deck Pavement Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design and Interlayer Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuntao; Feng, Jianhu; Wang, Hu; Hong, Shidi; Zheng, Supei

    2018-03-01

    A three-dimensional finite element box girder bridge and its asphalt concrete deck pavement were established by ANSYS software, and the interlayer bonding condition of asphalt concrete deck pavement was assumed to be contact bonding condition. Orthogonal experimental design is used to arrange the testing plans of material parameters, and an evaluation of the effect of different material parameters in the mechanical response of asphalt concrete surface layer was conducted by multiple linear regression model and using the results from the finite element analysis. Results indicated that stress regression equations can well predict the stress of the asphalt concrete surface layer, and elastic modulus of waterproof layer has a significant influence on stress values of asphalt concrete surface layer.

  5. Quarkonium production at the LHC: A data-driven analysis of remarkably simple experimental patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Faccioli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The LHC quarkonium production data reveal a startling observation: the J/ψ, ψ(2S, χc1, χc2 and ϒ(nS pT-differential cross sections in the central rapidity region are compatible with one universal momentum scaling pattern. Considering also the absence of strong polarizations of directly and indirectly produced S-wave mesons, we conclude that there is currently no evidence of a dependence of the partonic production mechanisms on the quantum numbers and mass of the final state. The experimental observations supporting this universal production scenario are remarkably significant, as shown by a new analysis approach, unbiased by specific theoretical calculations of partonic cross sections, which are only considered a posteriori, in comparisons with the data-driven results. Keywords: Quarkonium, Polarization, NRQCD, QCD, Hadron formation

  6. Assessment, modelization and analysis of 106 Ru experimental transfers through a freshwater trophic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vray, F.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments are carried out in order to study 106 RU transfers through a freshwater ecosystem including 2 abiotic compartments (water and sediment) and 3 trophic levels (10 species). Experimental results are expressed mathematically so as they can be included into a global model which is then tested in two different situations. The comparison of the available data concerning the in situ measured concentrations to the corresponding calculated ones validates the whole procedure. Analysis of the so validated results lightens ruthenium distribution process in the environment. The rare detection of this radionuclide in organisms living in areas contaminated by known meaningful releases can be explained by a relativity high detection limit and by a slight role of the sediment as a secondary contamination source. (author). 78 figs., 18 tabs

  7. A meta-analysis of the response of soil moisture to experimental warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wenfang; Yuan, Wenping; Dong, Wenjie; Xia, Jiangzhou; Liu, Dan; Chen, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable for regulating carbon, water and energy cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. However, numerous inconsistent conclusions have been reported regarding the responses of soil moisture to warming. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis for examination of the response of soil moisture to experimental warming across global warming sites including several ecosystem types. The results showed that soil moisture decreased in response to warming treatments when compared with control treatments in most ecosystem types. The largest reduction of soil moisture was observed in forests, while intermediate reductions were observed in grassland and cropland, and they were both larger than the reductions observed in shrubland and tundra ecosystems. Increases (or no change) in soil moisture also occurred in some ecosystems. Taken together, these results showed a trend of soil drying in most ecosystems, which may have exerted profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes as well as feedbacks to the climate system. (letter)

  8. Experimental analysis of a nuclear reactor prestressed concrete pressure vessels model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallin, C.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensible analysis was made of the performance of each set of sensors used to measure the strain and displacement of a 1/20 scale Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel (PCPV) model tested at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). Among the three Kinds of sensors used (strain gage, displacement transducers and load cells) the displacement transducers showed the best behavior. The displacemente transducers data was statistically analysed and a linear behavior of the model was observed during the first pressurizations tests. By means of a linear statistical correlation between experimental and expected theoretical data it was found that the model looses the linearity at a pressure between 110-125 atm. (Author) [pt

  9. Theoretical and experimental analysis of photonic structures for fluorescent concentrators with increased efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Peters, Marius; Blaesi, Benedikt; Gombert, Andreas; Glunz, Stefan; Willeke, Gerhard [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Proenneke, Liv [Institut fuer Physikalische Elektronik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Steidl, Lorenz; Zentel, Rudolf [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Universitaet Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Rau, Uwe [IEF-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In this study we present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the application of photonic band stop filters on top of photovoltaic fluorescent concentrators in order to increase the photon collection efficiency. The light guiding effect of the fluorescent concentrator relies on total internal reflection. The escape cone of total internal reflection is their major loss mechanism. Our ray tracing simulation allows to calculate the beneficial effect of photonic band stop reflection filters, which reduce these losses, and to simulate the angular distribution of the light trapped in the concentrator. We present simulations of the optical properties of 1D and 3D photonic structures and how 3D structures are realized with colloidal opals. We also show that the application of a 1D photonic structure increases the efficiency of a real system by 20% relative. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

    2010-05-01

    The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating.

  11. A ferrofluid based energy harvester: Computational modeling, analysis, and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Alazemi, Saad F.; Daqaq, Mohammed F.; Li, Gang

    2018-03-01

    A computational model is described and implemented in this work to analyze the performance of a ferrofluid based electromagnetic energy harvester. The energy harvester converts ambient vibratory energy into an electromotive force through a sloshing motion of a ferrofluid. The computational model solves the coupled Maxwell's equations and Navier-Stokes equations for the dynamic behavior of the magnetic field and fluid motion. The model is validated against experimental results for eight different configurations of the system. The validated model is then employed to study the underlying mechanisms that determine the electromotive force of the energy harvester. Furthermore, computational analysis is performed to test the effect of several modeling aspects, such as three-dimensional effect, surface tension, and type of the ferrofluid-magnetic field coupling on the accuracy of the model prediction.

  12. Experimental analysis of the velocity field in an anular channel with helicoidal wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, M.J.S. de.

    1979-06-01

    In general, nuclear reactor fuel elements are rod bundles with coolant flowing axially among them. LMFBR's (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) have wire wrapped fuel rods, with the wire working as spacer and mixer. The present work consists in the experimental analysis of the velocity field created by a typical LMFBR fuel rod placed in a cylinder, yielding an annular channel with helicoidal wire. Using hot wire anemometry, the main and secondary velocity fields were measured. The range for Re was from 2.2x 10 4 to 6.1x 10 4 , for air. The aspect ratio, P/D, and the lead-to-diameter ratio, 1/D, were 1.2 and 15, respectively. (Author) [pt

  13. Wireless Information-Theoretic Security in an Outdoor Topology with Obstacles: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagiuklas Tasos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Wireless Information-Theoretic Security (WITS scheme, which has been recently introduced as a robust physical layer-based security solution, especially for infrastructureless networks. An autonomic network of moving users was implemented via 802.11n nodes of an ad hoc network for an outdoor topology with obstacles. Obstructed-Line-of-Sight (OLOS and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS propagation scenarios were examined. Low-speed user movement was considered, so that Doppler spread could be discarded. A transmitter and a legitimate receiver exchanged information in the presence of a moving eavesdropper. Average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR values were acquired for both the main and the wiretap channel, and the Probability of Nonzero Secrecy Capacity was calculated based on theoretical formula. Experimental results validate theoretical findings stressing the importance of user location and mobility schemes on the robustness of Wireless Information-Theoretic Security and call for further theoretical analysis.

  14. Experimental Study of the Nuclear Rotational Motion with Statistical Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Leoni, S; Frattini, S; Montingelli, G; Vigezzi, E; Døssing, T; Herskind, B; Matsuo, M

    1999-01-01

    The gamma-decay of excited rotating nuclei in the high level density region a few MeV above the yrast line has been studied through a statistical analysis of the fluctuation of counts in gamma-gamma coincident spectra. In particular, making use of the covariance technique between spectra gated by different intrinsic configurations, one can measure how the cascades feeding into different selected bands are similar. The aim is to learn about the transition between order to chaos in the nuclear many-body system, in terms of the validity of selection rules associated with the quantum numbers of the intrinsic structure. Experimental results on the nucleus sup 1 sup 6 sup 4 Yb are presented and compared to model predictions based on cranked shell model calculations including a two-body residual interaction.

  15. Reverse Schreinemakers Method for Experimental Analysis of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    from determining the composition of salt mixtures by pH titration are discussed, and the derived method significantly improves the obtained result from titration. Furthermore, the method reduces the required experimental work needed for analysis of phase composition. The method is applicable to multi......A method based on Schreinemakers's tie-line theory of 1893 is derived for determining the composition and phase amounts in solubility experiments for multi-solvent electrolyte systems. The method uses the lever rule in reverse compared to Schreinemakers's wet residue method, and is therefore called...... the reverse Schreinemakers (RS) method. The method is based on simple mass balance principles similar to the wet residues method. It allows for accurate determination of the mixed-solvent phase composition even though part of the solvent may precipitate as complexes between solvent and salt. Discrepancies...

  16. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the impact on ablation depth of microchannel milling using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chen; Pan, Zhang; Jianxiong, Chen; Tu, Yiliu

    2018-04-01

    The plasma brightness cannot be used as a direct indicator of ablation depth detection by femtosecond laser was experimentally demonstrated, which led to the difficulty of depth measurement in the maching process. The tests of microchannel milling on the silicon wafer were carried out in the micromachining center in order to obtain the influences of parameters on the ablation depth. The test results showed that the defocusing distance had no significant impact on ablation depth in LAV effective range. Meanwhile, the reason of this was explained in this paper based on the theoretical analysis and simulation calculation. Then it was proven that the ablation depth mainly depends on laser fluence, step distance and scanning velocity. Finally, a research was further carried out to study the laser parameters which relate with the microchannel ablation depth inside the quartz glass for more efficiency and less cost in processing by femtosecond laser.

  17. Examining the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome: preliminary experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis methodology with 8 children with fragile X. No child met criteria for attention-maintained problem behavior, 5 children met criteria for escape-maintained problem behavior, and 4 children met criteria for tangible-maintained problem behavior. Results are discussed and compared with previous findings on the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome, and implications for intervention are discussed. It is noted that the external validity of these findings is limited by the small sample size.

  18. Experimental Analysis of Concrete Strength at High Temperatures and after Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Klingsch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the cement industry has been criticized for emitting large amounts of carbon dioxide; hence it is developing environment-friendly cement, e.g., blended, supersulfated slag cement (SSC. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the compressive strength development of concrete made from blended cement in comparison to ordinary cement at high temperature. Three different types of cement were used during these tests, an ordinary portland cement (CEM I, a portland limestone cement (CEM II-A-LL and a new, supersulfated slag cement (SSC. The compressive strength development for a full thermal cycle, including cooling down phase, was investigated on concrete cylinders. It is shown that the SSC concrete specimens perform similar to ordinary cement specimens. 

  19. Analysis and experimental evaluation of a Stewart platform-based force/torque sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    The kinematic analysis and experimentation of a force/torque sensor whose design is based on the mechanism of the Stewart Platform are discussed. Besides being used for measurement of forces/torques, the sensor also serves as a compliant platform which provides passive compliance during a robotic assembly task. It consists of two platforms, the upper compliant platform (UCP) and the lower compliant platform (LCP), coupled together through six spring-loaded pistons whose length variations are measured by six linear voltage differential transformers (LVDT) mounted along the pistons. Solutions to the forward and inverse kinematics of the force sensor are derived. Based on the known spring constant and the piston length changes, forces/torques applied to the LCP gripper are computed using vector algebra. Results of experiments conducted to evaluate the sensing capability of the force sensor are reported and discussed.

  20. Experimental analysis of turbulence effect in settling velocity of suspended sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salinas–Tapia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Settling velocities of sediment particles for different size ranges were measured in this work using PIV with the help of discriminatory filters. An experimental channel 10x15 cm cross section was used in order to obtain two set of turbulent characteristics corresponding with two different flow rates. The purpose was to analyze the effect of turbulence on the solids settling velocity. The technique allowed us to measure the individual settling velocity of the particles and the flow velocity field of the fluid. Capture and image analysis was performed with digital cameras (CCD using the software Sharp–provision PIV and the statistical cross correlation technique. Results showed that settling velocity of particles is affected by turbulence which enhances the fluid drag coefficient. Physical explanation of this phenomenon is related with the magnitude of the vertical fluctuating velocity of the fluid. However, more research is needed in order to define settling velocity formulas that takes into account this effect

  1. Using experimental modal analysis to assess the behaviour of timber elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Fekih, Lassaad Ben; Descamps, Thierry

    2018-03-01

    Timber frameworks are one of the most important and widespread types of structures. Their configurations and joints are usually complex and require a high level of craftsmanship to assemble. In the field of restoration, a good understanding of the structural behaviour is necessary and is often based on assessment techniques dedicated to wood characterisation. This paper presents the use of experimental modal analysis for finite element updating. To do this, several timber beams in a free supported condition were analysed in order to extract their bending natural characteristics (frequency, damping and mode shapes). Corresponding ABAQUS finite element models were derived which included the effects of local defects (holes, cracks and wood nodes), moisture and structural decay. To achieve the modal updating, additional simulations were performed in order to study the sensitivity of the mechanical parameters. With the intent to estimate their mechanical properties, a procedure of modal updating was carried out in MatLab with a Python script. This was created to extract the modal information from the ABAQUS modal analysis results to be compared with the experimental results. The updating was based on a minimum of unconstrained multivariable function using a derivative-free method. The objective function was selected from the conventional comparison tools (absolute or relative frequency difference, and/or modal assurance criterion). This testing technique was used to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of timber beams, such as the anisotropic Young's Moduli and damping ratio. To verify the modulus, a series of static 4-point bending tests and STS04 classifications were conducted. The results also revealed that local defects have a negligible influence on natural frequencies. The results demonstrate that this assessment tool offers an effective method to obtain the mechanical properties of timber elements, especially when on-site and non-destructive techniques are

  2. Nonlinear response analysis and experimental verification for thin-walled plates to thermal-acoustic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundong SHA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For large deflection strongly nonlinear response problem of thin-walled structure to thermal-acoustic load, thermal-acoustic excitation test and corresponding simulation analysis for clamped metallic thin-walled plate have been implemented. Comparing calculated values with experimental values shows the consistency and verifies the effectiveness of calculation method and model for thin-walled plate subjected to thermal-acoustic load. Then this paper further completes dynamic response calculation for the cross reinforcement plate under different thermal-acoustic load combinations. Based on the obtained time-domain displacement response, analyses about structure vibration forms are mainly focused on three typical motions of post-buckled plate, indicating that the relative strength between thermal load and acoustic load determines jump forms of plate. The Probability spectrum Density Functions (PDF of displacement response were drawn and analyzed by employing statistical analysis method, and it clearly shows that the PDF of post-buckled plate exhibits bimodal phenomena. Then the Power Spectral Density (PSD functions were used to analyze variations of response frequencies and corresponding peaks with the increase of temperatures, as well as how softening and hardening areas of the plate are determined. In the last section, this paper discusses the change laws of tensile stress and compressive stress in pre/post buckling areas, and gives the reasons for N glyph trend of the stress Root Mean Square (RMS. Keywords: Buckling, Experimental verification, Nonlinear response, Power spectral density, Probability spectrum density, Snap-through, Thermal-acoustic load, Thin-walled structure

  3. A meta-analysis of experimental studies of diversion programs for juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S; Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan

    2012-02-01

    Research to establish an evidence-base for the treatment of conduct problems and delinquency in adolescence is well established; however, an evidence-base for interventions with offenders who are diverted from the juvenile justice system has yet to be synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of experimental studies testing juvenile diversion programs and to examine the moderating effect of program type and implementation quality. A literature search using PsycINFO, Web of Science, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service data-bases and research institute websites yielded 28 eligible studies involving 57 experimental comparisons and 19,301 youths. Recidivism was the most common outcome reported across all studies. Overall, the effect of diversion programs on recidivism was non-significant (k=45, OR=0.83, 95%CI=0.43-1.58). Of the five program types identified, including case management (k=18, OR=0.78), individual treatment (k=11, OR=0.83), family treatment (k=4, OR=0.57), youth court (k=6, OR=0.93), and restorative justice (k=6, OR=0.87), only family treatment led to a statistically significant reduction in recidivism. Restorative justice studies that were implemented with active involvement of researchers led to statistically significant reductions in recidivism (k=3, OR=0.69). Other outcomes, including frequency of offending, truancy, and psycho-social problems were reported infrequently and were not subjected to meta-analysis. High levels of heterogeneity characterize diversion research. Results of this study recommend against implementation of programs limited to case management and highlight the promise of family interventions and restorative justice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    environment and conditions. Materials and materials technologies (fabrication, welding, joining) have to be fully qualified in front of a rigorous licensing process within the next decade. Therefore, materials development for DEMO is based on present technologies and knowledge with some reasonable extrapolation. The 9% Cr steel EUROFER steel is the primary EU candidate structural material. For increased thermal efficiency the temperature window of the structural materials needs to be enlarged. Various ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Fe-Cr-steels are candidates for higher temperature application. The large fraction of high energy neutrons in the fusion neutron spectrum results in gaseous transmutations (He and H) that are more than one order of magnitude higher than in fission. Even though fission based material test reactors are the essential and indispensable pillar of the current and future irradiation qualification programme, they can not provide sufficient data for a successful licensing process towards DEMO. For this reason, the construction and use of a facility called IFMIF, designed for simulating as closely a possible the fusion neutron spectrum, is mandatory. Meantime, and complimentary, an enhanced material science programme should increase knowledge and understanding of radiation effects. The focus of this programme for the next decade should be on the development and validation of predictive capabilities for modelling micro-structural evolution and mechanical properties of EUROFER-type steels under fusion reactor relevant conditions, addressing in particular the Helium issue. In a longer term perspective, this should result in the implementation of an integrated approach involving modelling and model-oriented experimental validation into a strategy of accelerated development and testing of candidate fusion materials, material systems and material technologies. (author)

  5. Geolocation with error analysis using imagery from an experimental spotlight SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, William Mark

    This dissertation covers the development of a geometry-based sensor model for a specific monostatic spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system---referred to as the ExSAR (for experimental SAR). This sensor model facilitates single- and multiple-image geopositioning with error analysis. It allows for the use of known ground control points in refining the collection geometry parameters (a process called image resection) and for the subsequent geopositioning of other points using the resected image. Theoretically, the model also allows for the potential recovery of bias-like, persistent errors common across multiple images. The model also includes multi-image correspondence equations to aid in the cross-image identification of conjugate points. The sensor model development begins with a generic, theoretical approach to the modeling of spotlight SAR. A closed-form solution to the range and range-rate condition equations and the corresponding error propagation equation are presented. (The SAR condition equations have traditionally been solved iteratively.) The application of the closed-form solution in the image-to-ground and ground-to-image transformations is documented. The theoretical work also includes a preliminary error sensitivity analysis and a treatment of the spotlight SAR resection process. The ExSAR-specific model is established and assessed with an extensive set of images collected using the experimental radar over arrays of ground control points. Using this set, the imagery metadata elements are assessed, and the optimal element set for geopositioning is determined. The ExSAR imagery is shown to be transformed to the ground plane in only one dimension. The eventual ExSAR sensor model is used with known elevations and single-image geopositioning to show a horizontal accuracy of 8.23 m (rms). With resection using five ground-surveyed control points per image, the horizontal accuracy of reserved check points is 0.45 m (rms). Resections using the same

  6. Designing and Undertaking a Health Economics Study of Digital Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A 2D optomechanical focused laser spot scanner: analysis and experimental results for microstereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P S; Deshmukh, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a 2D optomechanical-focused laser spot scanning system (patent pending) which allows uniform intensity focused spot scanning with high speed and high resolution over a large range of scan. Such scanning is useful where variation of focused spot characteristics affects the performance of applications such as micro-/nano-stereolithography, laser micro-machining, scanning optical tweezers, optical scanning microscopy, and so on. Proposed scanning is achieved by using linear movement of mirrors and lens maintaining the alignment of motion and optical axis of laser. Higher speed and high resolution at the same time are achieved by use of two serial double parallelogram flexural mechanisms with mechatronics developed around them. Optical analysis is carried out to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed system numerically and is further supported by the experimental results. Additional analysis is carried out to demonstrate robustness of the scanner in the case of small misalignment errors incurred in actual practice. Although the proposed scanner is useful in general in several applications mentioned above, discussion in this paper is focused on microstereolithography

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of behavior of electromagnetic annular linear induction pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsteins, Linards

    2015-01-01

    The research explores the issue of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability in electromagnetic induction pumps with focus on the regimes of high slip Reynolds magnetic number (Rm s ) in Annular Linear Induction Pumps (ALIP) operating with liquid sodium. The context of the thesis is French GEN IV Sodium Fast Reactor research and development program for ASTRID in a framework of which the use of high discharge ALIP in the secondary cooling loops is being studied. CEA has designed, realized and will exploit PEMDYN facility, able to represent MHD instability in high discharge ALIP. In the thesis stability of an ideal ALIP is elaborated theoretically using linear stability analysis. Analysis revealed that strong amplification of perturbation is expected after convective stability threshold is reached. Theory is supported with numerical results and experiments reported in literature. Stable operation and stabilization technique operating with two frequencies in case of an ideal ALIP is discussed and necessary conditions derived. Detailed numerical models of flat linear induction pump (FLIP) taking into account effects of a real pump are developed. New technique of magnetic field measurements has been introduced and experimental results demonstrate a qualitative agreement with numerical models capturing all principal phenomena such as oscillation of magnetic field and perturbed velocity profiles. These results give significantly more profound insight in the phenomenon of MHD instability and can be used as a reference in further studies. (author) [fr

  9. Aligning experimental design with bioinformatics analysis to meet discovery research objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael D

    2002-01-01

    The utility of genomic technology and bioinformatic analytical support to provide new and needed insight into the molecular basis of disease, development, and diversity continues to grow as more research model systems and populations are investigated. Yet deriving results that meet a specific set of research objectives requires aligning or coordinating the design of the experiment, the laboratory techniques, and the data analysis. The following paragraphs describe several important interdependent factors that need to be considered to generate high quality data from the microarray platform. These factors include aligning oligonucleotide probe design with the sample labeling strategy if oligonucleotide probes are employed, recognizing that compromises are inherent in different sample procurement methods, normalizing 2-color microarray raw data, and distinguishing the difference between gene clustering and sample clustering. These factors do not represent an exhaustive list of technical variables in microarray-based research, but this list highlights those variables that span both experimental execution and data analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Management, Analysis, and Visualization of Experimental and Observational Data -- The Convergence of Data and Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Greenwald, Martin; Kleese van Dam, Kersten; Parashar, Manish; Wild, Stefan, M.; Wiley, H. Steven

    2016-10-27

    Scientific user facilities---particle accelerators, telescopes, colliders, supercomputers, light sources, sequencing facilities, and more---operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) generate ever increasing volumes of data at unprecedented rates from experiments, observations, and simulations. At the same time there is a growing community of experimentalists that require real-time data analysis feedback, to enable them to steer their complex experimental instruments to optimized scientific outcomes and new discoveries. Recent efforts in DOE-SC have focused on articulating the data-centric challenges and opportunities facing these science communities. Key challenges include difficulties coping with data size, rate, and complexity in the context of both real-time and post-experiment data analysis and interpretation. Solutions will require algorithmic and mathematical advances, as well as hardware and software infrastructures that adequately support data-intensive scientific workloads. This paper presents the summary findings of a workshop held by DOE-SC in September 2015, convened to identify the major challenges and the research that is needed to meet those challenges.

  11. Model analysis and experimental characterization of a microstrip vertex detector for a e+e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.P.

    1989-09-01

    This thesis is constituted by several topics, apparently weakly correlated, but that are all addressed to improve the performances of the ALEPH microvertex detector both in the present version and in the upgraded one with JFET-CMOS electronics. A wide program of computer simulations about the upgraded JFET-CMOS version of the read-out electronics have been carried out to test its working principle and radiation hardness measurements have been performed on the prototypes of the same electronics to test its capability to stand the radiation environment foreseen in ALEPH. Extensive calculations of the capacitances in a microstrip detector are presented and their influence on the detector, both from the point of view of its noise performances and of the capacitive charge division method, has been analyzed theoretically, both through analytic calculations and numerical simulations; experimental measurements on the same relevant capacitances are discussed. Strictly connected to this point a computer code simulating the interaction of a minimum ionizing particle with the detector has been written and algorithms to determine the interaction point have been studied. This code has been later inserted in the Monte Carlo program of ALEPH. A point not strictly connected to ALEPH and still treated here is the analysis of the noise of two JFET devices, that is however interesting not as much for the results themselves, as for the analysis technique used that brought to identify noise sources that are usually difficult to detect and neglected. (orig.)

  12. Longitudinal analysis of the group A Streptococcus transcriptome in experimental pharyngitis in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F; Graham, Morag R; Ireland, Robin M; Johnson, Claire A; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Babar, Imran; Parkins, Larye D; Romero, Romina A; Corn, G Judson; Gardner, Don J; Bailey, John R; Parnell, Michael J; Musser, James M

    2005-06-21

    Identification of the genetic events that contribute to host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding the natural history of infectious diseases and developing therapeutics. Transcriptome studies conducted on pathogens have been central to this goal in recent years. However, most of these investigations have focused on specific end points or disease phases, rather than analysis of the entire time course of infection. To gain a more complete understanding of how bacterial gene expression changes over time in a primate host, the transcriptome of group A Streptococcus (GAS) was analyzed during an 86-day infection protocol in 20 cynomolgus macaques with experimental pharyngitis. The study used 260 custom Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) chips, and data were confirmed by TaqMan analysis. Colonization, acute, and asymptomatic phases of disease were identified. Successful colonization and severe inflammation were significantly correlated with an early onset of superantigen gene expression. The differential expression of two-component regulators covR and spy0680 (M1_spy0874) was significantly associated with GAS colony-forming units, inflammation, and phases of disease. Prophage virulence gene expression and prophage induction occurred predominantly during high pathogen cell densities and acute inflammation. We discovered that temporal changes in the GAS transcriptome were integrally linked to the phase of clinical disease and host-defense response. Knowledge of the gene expression patterns characterizing each phase of pathogen-host interaction provides avenues for targeted investigation of proven and putative virulence factors and genes of unknown function and will assist vaccine research.

  13. An Experimental Study of Cavitation Detection in a Centrifugal Pump Using Envelope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chek Zin; Leong, M. Salman

    Cavitation represents one of the most common faults in pumps and could potentially lead to a series of failure in mechanical seal, impeller, bearing, shaft, motor, etc. In this work, an experimental rig was setup to investigate cavitation detection using vibration envelope analysis method, and measured parameters included sound, pressure and flow rate for feasibility of cavitation detection. The experiment testing included 3 operating points of the centrifugal pump (B.E.P, 90% of B.E.P and 80% of B.E.P). Suction pressure of the centrifugal pump was decreased gradually until the inception point of cavitation. Vibration measurements were undertaken at various locations including casing, bearing, suction and discharge flange of the centrifugal pump. Comparisons of envelope spectrums under cavitating and non-cavitating conditions were presented. Envelope analysis was proven useful in detecting cavitation over the 3 testing conditions. During the normal operating condition, vibration peak synchronous to rotational speed was more pronounced. It was however during cavitation condition, the half order sub-harmonic vibration component was clearly evident in the envelope spectrums undertaken at all measurement locations except at the pump bearing. The possible explanation of the strong sub-harmonic (½ of BPF) during cavitation existence in the centrifugal pump was due to insufficient time for the bubbles to collapse completely before the end of the single cycle.

  14. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Leng, J S; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs. (paper)

  15. Experimental analysis of the flow near the boundary of random porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenxing; Mirbod, Parisa

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to experimentally examine flow over and near random porous media. Different porous materials were chosen to achieve porosity ranging from 0.95 to 0.99. In this study, we report the detailed velocity measurements of the flow over and near random porous material inside a rectangular duct using a planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. By controlling the flow rate, two different Reynolds numbers were achieved. We determined the slip velocity at the interface between the porous media and free flow. Values of the slip velocity normalized either by the maximum flow velocity or by the shear rate at the interface and the screening distance K1/2 were found to depend on porosity. It was also shown that the depth of penetration inside the porous material was larger than the screening length using Brinkman's prediction. Moreover, we examined a model for the laminar coupled flow over and inside porous media and analyzed the permeability of a random porous medium. This study provided detailed analysis of flow over and at the interface of various specific random porous media using the PIV technique. This analysis has the potential to serve as a first step toward using random porous media as a new passive technique to control the flow over smooth surfaces.

  16. Identification of Preferred Sources of Information for Undertaking Studies in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wyrwicka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a survey has been conducted among first-year students about sources of information which influence the decision of undertaking field studies in Safety Engineering, Management Engineering and Logistics in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology. The goal of these analyses is both to assess the effectiveness of promotion and also show trends in the use of diverse channels of information transfer of studies. The results of the investigation show that internet promotion via university and faculty website plays the dominant role but also direct promotion, such as opinion of older friends, is crucial. Furthermore, from year to year the analyses indicate the significant increase of official media and reveal that the prospective students rely on a few sources of information simultaneously.

  17. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Locomotion with flexible propulsors: I. Experimental analysis of pectoral fin swimming in sunfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V; Madden, Peter G A; Mittal, Rajat; Dong, Haibo; Bozkurttas, Meliha

    2006-12-01

    A full understanding of the mechanics of locomotion can be achieved by incorporating descriptions of (1) three-dimensional kinematics of propulsor movement, (2) material properties of the propulsor, (3) power input and control and (4) the fluid dynamics effects of propulsor motion into (5) a three-dimensional computational framework that models the complexity of propulsors that deform and change area. In addition, robotic models would allow for further experimental investigation of changes to propulsor design and for testing of hypothesized relationships between movement and force production. Such a comprehensive suite of data is not yet available for any flexible propulsor. In this paper, we summarize our research program with the goal of producing a comprehensive data set for each of the five components noted above through a study of pectoral fin locomotion in one species of fish: the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. Many fish use pectoral fins exclusively for locomotion, and pectoral fins in most fish are integral to generating force during maneuvering. Pectoral fins are complex structures composed of jointed bony supports that are under active control via pectoral fin musculature. During propulsion in sunfish, the fin deforms considerably, has two leading edges, and sunfish can rotate the whole fin or just control individual sections to vector thrust. Fin material properties vary along the length of fin rays and among rays. Experimental fluid dynamic analysis of sunfish pectoral fin locomotion reveals that the fin generates thrust throughout the fin beat cycle, and that the upper and lower edges each produce distinct simultaneous leading edge vortices. The following companion paper provides data on the computational approach taken to understand locomotion using flexible pectoral fins.

  19. Experimental analysis on a novel solar collector system achieved by supercritical CO2 natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xin-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 flow is proposed for natural circulation solar water heater system. • Experimental system established and consists of supercritical fluid high pressure side and water side. • Stable supercritical CO 2 natural convective flow is well induced and water heating process achieved. • Seasonal solar collector system efficiency above 60% achieved and optimization discussed. - Abstract: Solar collector has become a hot topic both in scientific research and engineering applications. Among the various applications, the hot water supply demand accounts for a large part of social energy consumption and has become one promising field. The present study deals with a novel solar thermal conversion and water heater system achieved by supercritical CO 2 natural circulation. Experimental systems are established and tested in Zhejiang Province (around N 30.0°, E 120.6°) of southeast China. The current system is designed to operate in the supercritical region, thus the system can be compactly made and achieve smooth high rate natural convective flow. During the tests, supercritical CO 2 pipe flow with Reynolds number higher than 6700 is found. The CO 2 fluid temperature in the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 °C and a stable supply of hot water above 45 °C is achieved. In the seasonal tests, relative high collector efficiency generally above 60.0% is obtained. Thermal and performance analysis is carried out with the experiment data. Comparisons between the present system and previous solar water heaters are also made in this paper

  20. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  1. Experimental analysis of the concrete contribution to shear strength beams without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Samora

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many theories and empirical formulas for estimating the shear strength of reinforced concrete structures without transverse reinforcement. The security factor of any reinforced concrete structure, against a possible collapse, is that it does not depend on the tensile strength of the concrete and the formation of any collapse is ductile, thus giving advance warning. The cracking from tensile stress can cause breakage of the concrete and should be avoided at all cost, with the intent that any such breakage does not incur any type of failure within the structure. In the present research study, experiments were performed in order to analyze the complementary mechanisms of the shear strength of lattice beams of reinforced concrete frames without transverse reinforcement. The experimental program entails the testing of eight frames that were subjected to a simple bending process. Two concrete resistance classes for analyzing compressive strength were considered on the construction of frames, 20 MPa and 40 MPa. To resist the bending stresses, the beams of the frames are designed in domain 3 of the ultimate limit states. Different rates and diameters of longitudinal reinforcement were used, 1.32% and 1.55% with 12.5 mm diameter and 16.0 mm in longitudinal tensile reinforcement. From the obtained results, an analysis was made of the criteria already proposed for defining the norms pertinent to the portion of relevant contribution for the shear resistance mechanisms of concrete without the use of transverse reinforcement and the influence of the concrete resistance and longitudinal reinforcement rates established in the experimental numerical results.

  2. Experimental analysis of high-speed gamma-ray tomography performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maad, R.; Johansen, G. A.

    2008-08-01

    High-speed gamma-ray tomography (HSGT) based on multiple fan-beam collimated radioisotope sources has proved to be an efficient and fast method for cross sectional imaging of the dynamics in different industrial processes. The objective of the tomography system described here is to identify the flow regime of gas/liquid pipe flows. The performance of such systems is characterized by the spatial resolution, the speed of response and the measurement resolution of the attenuation coefficient. The work presented here is an experimental analysis of how the measurement geometry and the reconstruction method affect the error of the reconstructed pixel values. These relationships are well established for medical x-ray tomography where high intensity x-ray tubes are used as sources. For radioisotope sources, however, the radiation intensity is limited, which causes the measurement uncertainty, i.e. the Poisson noise, to be considerably higher. In addition, the influence of scattered radiation is more severe in a multiple source radioisotope system compared to that of x-ray systems. A computer-controlled flexible geometry gamma-ray tomograph has been developed to acquire experimental data for different fan-beam measurement geometries, and these data have subsequently been used for image reconstruction using seven different iterative image reconstruction algorithms. The results show that the reconstruction algorithms perform cross sectional images with different quality and that there is virtually nothing to be gained by using more than seven sources for flow regime classification of multiphase pipe flow consisting of gas, oil and water.

  3. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Housley, Gregory K. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  4. Hypergravity Loading the Cultured Osteoblasts: Modeling and Experimental Analysis of Cellular Morphology and the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searby, N. D.; Steele, C. R.; Globus, R. K.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Bone forming cells, osteoblasts, respond to various mechanical forces, including mechanical strain and fluid-induced shear stress. This study examined whether osteoblasts detect changes in gravity as a mechanical force, as assessed by cellular morphology and dimensions of the cytoskeletal network. We used modeling to evaluate how gravity influences cell morphology given theoretical differences in densities between the surrounding medium, cytoplasm, and nucleus. A mechanical model was built based on analysis of axisymmetric shell structures (Fast4 software) to study the effects of 10 times gravity (10G) on cell height. The model indicated 0.02% decrease in overall cell height when the medium was 10% denser than the nucleus or cytoplasm, 5.9 x 10(exp-5)% decrease when the nucleus was 10% denser than the cytoplasm or medium, and 1.3 x 10(exp-5)% decrease when the cell cytoplasm was 10% denser than the nucleus or medium. To experimentally evaluate the influence of gravity, cultured primary fetal rat osteoblasts were grown to near confluence and centrifuged at 10G for 3 hours. Actin, microtubules, and nuclei were fluorescently labeled and analyzed by confocal microscopy to determine overall microtubule and actin network height. Centrifugation led to an apparent reduction in height of both the microtubule (-16%) and the actin (-20%) networks relative to stationary controls. Thus, both modeling and experiments indicate that hypergravity reduces the height of the osteoblast cell layer and their microtubule and actin networks. This combination of modeling and experimental analyses will help us to better understand the mechanical loading of osteoblasts.

  5. Why Start a Higher Degree by Research? An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Motivations to Undertake Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of candidates embarking on higher degrees by research (HDRs, e.g., PhD, professional doctorate, practice-based doctorate), we still have limited knowledge about why they are choosing this path. What are the factors that motivate students to embark on research degrees? Given that many of those who succeed in…

  6. A study on the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks when undertaking a three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) allows the possibility of modifying some of the diagnostic tools used in orthodontics, such as cephalometry. The first step must be to study the characteristics of these devices in terms of accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used landmarks. The aims were 1- To assess intra and inter-observer reliability in the location of anatomical landmarks belonging to hard tissues of the skull in images taken with a CBCT device, 2- To determine which of those landmarks are more vs. less reliable and 3- To introduce planes of reference so as to create cephalometric analyses appropriated to the 3D reality. Study design: Fifteen patients who had a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. To assess the reproducibility on landmark location and the differences in the measurements of two observers at different times, 41 landmarks were defined on the three spatial axes (X,Y,Z) and located. 3.690 measurements were taken and, as each determination has 3 coordinates, 11.070 data were processed with SPSS® statistical package. To discover the reproducibility of the method on landmark location, an ANOVA was undertaken using two variation factors: time (t1, t2 and t3) and observer (Ob1 and Ob2) for each axis (X, Y and Z) and landmark. The order of the CBCT scans submitted to the observers (Ob1, Ob2) at t1, t2, and t3, were different and randomly allocated. Multiple comparisons were undertaken using the Bonferroni test. The intra- and inter-examiner ICC´s were calculated. Results: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was high, both being ICC ≥ 0.99, with the best frequency on axis Z. Conclusions: The most reliable landmarks were: Nasion, Sella, Basion, left Porion, point A, anterior nasal spine, Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton, frontozygomatic sutures, first lower molars and upper and lower incisors. Those with less reliability were the supraorbitals, right zygion and posterior nasal spine. Key words:Cone Beam Computed Tomography, cephalometry, landmark, orthodontics, reliability. PMID:22322503

  7. Experimental Study On The Flexural And Shear Analysis Of Concrete Beams Rein Forced With Glass Fiber -Reinforced (Gfrp Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Atutis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes experimental studies examining the flexuraland shear analysis of the beams reinforced with GFRP bars. Atesting program consisted of two beams reinforced with longitudinalprestressed GFRP tendons, two beams reinforced withlongitudinal GFRP bars and two beams reinforced with longitudinalsteel reinforcement and shear reinforcement of GFRP bars.The experimental flexural and shear strength of concrete beamswere compared with theoretical strength calculated according toa number of design recommendations, and the significance ofprestressing for deflection and cracking was analyzed.

  8. Preliminary analysis of the results and description of the meteorological experiments I and II performed at Aramar Experimental Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, L. de

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental program in Applied Meteorology that has been developed at Aramar Experimental Center (CEA) located in Ipero, S.P - Brazil. The program intends to study the meteorological systems and the regional circulation around Aramar to use the information in atmospheric transport and diffusion of radionuclides studies, as soon, analysis of impacts on the environment at Aramar site. The results collected during the first and second Meteorological Experiment are examined. (author)

  9. A novel pulse technique for thermal diffusivity determination of high-temperature levitated materials - Inverse analysis and experimental set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, F.; Khodadadi, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the thermal diffusivity of materials at high temperatures, a two-step extended flash technique, which is applicable to levitated spherical samples, is proposed. The containerless flash method is modeled as an axisymmetric transient conduction heat transfer problem within the sphere subjected to a radiative boundary condition on its surface. The problem of nonlinearity which arises from the radiative heat transfer boundary condition is solved by replacing it with the measured time-dependent surface temperature data, thus giving rise to an 'Inverse Analysis'. Upon obtaining the analytic solution for the temperature field, the determination of the thermal diffusivity turns into a minimization problem, whereby the difference between the actual surface boundary condition and the analytic solution is minimized. In performing the proposed experiments, there is a need to undertake a cool-down experiment which should be governed by the lumped parameter analysis.

  10. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  11. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  12. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  13. 'You have to be mindful of whose story it is': the challenges of undertaking life story work with people with dementia and their family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Jane; Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Clarke, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    Life story work is increasingly being used with people with dementia; this work offers a critical appraisal of some challenges that may be faced in practice. An in-depth case study analysis was undertaken to understand the experiences of people with dementia, family carers and care staff in using life story work in an NHS Mental Health and Social Care Trust. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, observation, conversations and field notes. Private memories were sometimes recalled by the person with dementia that were not for inclusion in any written product; enabling the person with dementia to tell their own life story could be a challenge; quality of the life story books was variable and; at times, life story work may be overused with the person with dementia. Services should not be deterred from undertaking life story work with people with dementia, but there is a need to adopt a planned approach to its implementation that includes facilitation, education and supervision. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well.

  15. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan

    2017-10-23

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device\\'s top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  16. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The surface oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg melt were analyzed with XPS. • Certain Al must be added in bath containing Mg to get stable galvanizing melts. • The oxidation products vary with the bath composition. • Oxidation can be predicted in galvanizing by using the calculated phase diagrams. • The thermodynamic analysis can be used to design the practical bath melts. - Abstract: Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.

  17. Hybrid motion sensing and experimental modal analysis using collocated smartphone camera and accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Ekin; Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art multisensory technologies and heterogeneous sensor networks propose a wide range of response measurement opportunities for structural health monitoring (SHM). Measuring and fusing different physical quantities in terms of structural vibrations can provide alternative acquisition methods and improve the quality of the modal testing results. In this study, a recently introduced SHM concept, SHM with smartphones, is focused to utilize multisensory smartphone features for a hybridized structural vibration response measurement framework. Based on vibration testing of a small-scale multistory laboratory model, displacement and acceleration responses are monitored using two different smartphone sensors, an embedded camera and accelerometer, respectively. Double-integration or differentiation among different measurement types is performed to combine multisensory measurements on a comparative basis. In addition, distributed sensor signals from collocated devices are processed for modal identification, and performance of smartphone-based sensing platforms are tested under different configuration scenarios and heterogeneity levels. The results of these tests show a novel and successful implementation of a hybrid motion sensing platform through multiple sensor type and device integration. Despite the heterogeneity of motion data obtained from different smartphone devices and technologies, it is shown that multisensory response measurements can be blended for experimental modal analysis. Getting benefit from the accessibility of smartphone technology, similar smartphone-based dynamic testing methodologies can provide innovative SHM solutions with mobile, programmable, and cost-free interfaces. (paper)

  18. Hybrid motion sensing and experimental modal analysis using collocated smartphone camera and accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ekin; Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.

    2017-10-01

    State-of-the-art multisensory technologies and heterogeneous sensor networks propose a wide range of response measurement opportunities for structural health monitoring (SHM). Measuring and fusing different physical quantities in terms of structural vibrations can provide alternative acquisition methods and improve the quality of the modal testing results. In this study, a recently introduced SHM concept, SHM with smartphones, is focused to utilize multisensory smartphone features for a hybridized structural vibration response measurement framework. Based on vibration testing of a small-scale multistory laboratory model, displacement and acceleration responses are monitored using two different smartphone sensors, an embedded camera and accelerometer, respectively. Double-integration or differentiation among different measurement types is performed to combine multisensory measurements on a comparative basis. In addition, distributed sensor signals from collocated devices are processed for modal identification, and performance of smartphone-based sensing platforms are tested under different configuration scenarios and heterogeneity levels. The results of these tests show a novel and successful implementation of a hybrid motion sensing platform through multiple sensor type and device integration. Despite the heterogeneity of motion data obtained from different smartphone devices and technologies, it is shown that multisensory response measurements can be blended for experimental modal analysis. Getting benefit from the accessibility of smartphone technology, similar smartphone-based dynamic testing methodologies can provide innovative SHM solutions with mobile, programmable, and cost-free interfaces.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of fluid - structure interaction effects in a fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, A.; Forni, M.; Melloni, R.; Paoluzzi, R.; Bonacina, G.; Castoldi, A.; Zola, M.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic experiments in air and water (simulating liquid sodium) were performed by ISMES, on behalf of ENEA, on various core element groups of the Italian PEC fast reactor. Bundles of one, seven and nineteen mock-ups reproducing fuel, reflecting and neutron shield elements in full scale were analysed on shaking tables. Tests concerned both groups of equal elements and mixed configurations which corresponded to real core parts. The effects of PEC core-restraint ring were also studied. Seismic excitations of up to 2.5 g were applied to core diagrid. Test results were analysed by use of the one-dimensional program CORALIE and the two-dimensional program CLASH. The study allowed the fluid effects in the PEC core to be evaluated; it also contributed to validation of the above mentioned programs for their general use for fast reactor core analysis. This paper presents the main features of the experimental and the numerical studies and reports comparisons between calculations and measurements. (author)

  20. Experimental analysis and prediction of antisymmetric wave motion in a tapered anisotropic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jochen; Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Opoka, Szymon; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results for wave propagation in an anisotropic multilayered structure with linearly varying cross section. Knowing the dispersion and wave propagation properties in such a structure is of great importance for non-destructive material testing and structural health monitoring applications for accurate damage detection and localization. In the proposed study, the wavefield is generated by a circular piezoelectric wafer active sensor and measured by a scanning laser-Doppler-vibrometer. The measurements are compared with a theoretical group delay estimation and a signal prediction for the antisymmetric wave motion along the non-uniform propagation path. The required dispersion curves are derived from the well-known global matrix method for segments of constant thickness. A multidimensional frequency-wavenumber analysis of linescan data and the full wavefield provides further insight of the adiabatic wave motion because the wavenumber changes along the tapered geometry of the waveguide. In addition, it is demonstrated that a terahertz time-domain system can be used in glass-fiber reinforced plastic structures as a tool to estimate the thickness profile of thin structures by means of time-of-flight measurements. This information is particularly important for guided wave-based diagnostics of structures with unknown thickness.

  1. Analysis and experimental verification of a control scheme for unified power quality conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Cheng Zhu; Xun Li; Yong Kang; Jian Chen [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Techmnology, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Improving power quality for sensitive load by a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) in a distributed generation system is presented in this paper. The power balance of a UPQC, consisting of back-to-back connected series and shunt Active Filters (AF), is analysed. Based on the analysis a novel control scheme is established in a 2-phase Synchronous Rotating d-q Frame (SRF). In this control scheme, the series AF is controlled as a current source and makes the input current sinusoidal, while the shunt AF is controlled as a voltage source and keeps the load voltage in the normal value. With the proposed control strategy, the UPQC is capable of compensating not only harmonic and reactive currents of the load but also grid voltage distortion. There is no harmonic interference between harmonic-producing loads and harmonic-sensitive loads, which are connected on the common bus. The performance of a UPQC with the proposed control scheme under nonlinear load and grid voltage distortion is investigated with simulation as well as experimental works. (Author)

  2. Brief experimental analysis of reading deficits for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M; Reyes-Giordano, Kimberly; Wolosik, Katarzyna; Aghjayan, Anto; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are especially high among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there are a number of empirically supported reading interventions for children with ADHD, there is little data to guide the selection of the most efficacious reading intervention for a specific child. Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a procedure that directly compares the efficacy of various academic interventions with the goal of guiding the selection of the intervention that results in optimal efficacy. The current proof of concept study examined the efficacy of the BEA methodology for determining the relative effectiveness of seven reading interventions for children with ADHD. The seven interventions included empirically supported ADHD interventions as well as traditional interventions found in the BEA literature. Six children diagnosed with ADHD completed the proof of concept study. Results indicated that the BEA successfully determined an efficacious intervention for each participant. The efficacy of the interventions and the optimal intervention based on BEA procedures varied for each child, suggesting the importance of a BEA approach when comparing various interventions for reading in children with ADHD. Implications and future directions for selecting effective reading interventions for children with ADHD are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Responses of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen to experimental warming: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Yuan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling and strongly influence feedbacks of ecosystem to global warming. However, the inconsistent responses of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) to experimental warming have been observed, and the response on ratio between MBC and MBN (MBC:MBN) has not been identified. This meta-analysis synthesized the warming experiments at 58 sites globally to investigate the responses of MBC:MBN to climate warming. Our results showed that warming significantly increased MBC by 3.61 ± 0.80% and MBN by 5.85 ± 0.90% and thus decreased the MBC:MBN by 3.34 ± 0.66%. MBC showed positive responses to warming but MBN exhibited negative responses to warming at low warming magnitude (2°C) the results were inverted. The different effects of warming magnitude on microbial biomass resulted from the warming-induced decline in soil moisture and substrate supply. Moreover, MBC and MBN had strong positive responses to warming at the mid-term (3-4 years) or short-term (1-2 years) duration, but the responses tended to decrease at long-term (≥ 5 years) warming duration. This study fills the knowledge gap on the responses of MBC:MBN to warming and may benefit the development of coupled carbon and nitrogen models.

  4. Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooled experimental Accelerator Driven System. Windowless target unit thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Ferri, R.; Moreau, V.

    2004-01-01

    A main concern related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the safe management of nuclear wastes, with particular attention to long-lived fission products. An increasing attention has recently been addressed to transmutation systems (Accelerator Driven System: ADS) able to 'burn' the actinides and some of the long-lived fission products (High-Level Waste: HLW), transforming them in short or medium-lived wastes that may be easier managed and stored in the geological disposal, with the consequent easier acceptability by population. An ADS consists of a subcritical-core coupled with an accelerator by means of a target. This paper deals with the thermal-hydraulic analysis, performed with STAR-CD and RELAP5 codes for the windowless target unit of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled experimental ADS (XADS), both to assess its behaviour during operational and accident sequences and to provide input data for the thermal-mechanical analyses. It also reports a description of modifications properly implemented in the codes used for the assessment of this kind of plants. (author)

  5. Experimental observations and finite element analysis of the initiation of fiber microbuckling in notched composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.; Ochoa, Ozden O.

    1990-01-01

    A better understanding of the factors that affect the semi-circular edge-notched compressive strength is developed, and the associated failure mode(s) of thermoplastic composite laminates with multidirectional stacking sequences are identified. The primary variables in this investigation are the resin nonlinear shear constitutive behavior, stacking sequence (orientation of plies adjacent to the 0 degree plies), resin-rich regions between the 0 degree plies and the off-axis supporting plies, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength, and initial fiber waviness. Two thermoplastic composite material systems are used in this investigation. The materials are the commercial APC-2 (AS4/PEEK) and a poor interface experimental material, AU4U/PEEK, designed for this investigation. Notched compression specimens are studied at 21, 77, and 132 C. Geometric and material nonlinear two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to model the initiation of fiber microbuckling of both the ideal straight fiber and the more realistic initially wavy fiber. The effects of free surface, fiber constitutive properties, matrix constitutive behavior, initial fiber curvature, and fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength on fiber microbuckling initiation strain levels are considered.

  6. Bias determination for space accelerometers using the ZARM Catapult system - experimental setup and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Accelerometers for space applications - like the electrostatic differential accelrometer for the MICROSCOPE mission for testing the equivalence principle in space - have to be tested and qualified in μg-conditions in order to demonstrate the system operation and to determine the characteristic sensor parameters. One important characteristic property is the sensor bias. In principle one can determine the sensor bias directly by using the ZARM catapult system as test platform. Even in the evacuated drop tube the residual air pressure results in an air friction that depends on the capsule velocity. At the apex (highest point of the capsule trajectory) the acceleration (relative to the gravitational acceleration g) becomes zero due to the zero velocity at the apex. The direct measurement of the vertical linear acceleration sensor bias is affected by some additional effects that have to be understood in order to be able to determine the sensor bias. Two catapult campaigns have been carried out to demonstrate the principles of the bias determination using a SuperStar accelerometer (Onera). The presentation gives an overview on the experimental setup and on the corresponding data analysis.

  7. Experimental Analysis of Natural Gravel Covering as Cool Roofing and Cool Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive solutions for building energy efficiency represent an interesting research focus nowadays. In particular, natural materials are widely investigated for their potential intrinsic high thermal energy and environmental performance. In this view, natural stones represent a promising solution as building envelope covering and urban pavement. This paper concerns the experimental characterization of several low-cost and local gravel coverings for roofs and urban paving, properly selected for their natural high albedo characteristics. To this aim, the in-field albedo of gravel samples is measured with varying grain size. These in-field measurements are compared to in-lab measurements of solar reflectance and thermal emissivity. The analysis shows a significant variation of the albedo with varying grain size. Both in-lab and in-field measurements agree that the stones with the finest grain size, i.e., fine sand, have the best optic-thermal performance in terms of solar reflectance (62%. This feature results in the reduction of the surface temperature when exposed to solar radiation. Moreover, a natural mixed stone is compared to the high reflectance stone, demonstrating that the chosen stone presents an intrinsic “cool” behavior. Therefore, this natural, low-cost, durable and sustainable material could be successfully considered as a natural cool roof or cool paving solution.

  8. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-03-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24 in. x 24 in. x 10 in. schedule 160 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. are described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 100 psi and 7000 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 15,084 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  9. Quantitative and morphological analysis of the computed tomographic images in experimental myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Yasuaki

    1984-12-01

    Experimental myocardial infarction in the dog was evaluated by the cardiac scan system developed together by the Department of Radiology, Dokkyo University Hospital, and Toshiba Co. Ltd. Analysis of the CT image of myocardial infarction treated by ligating the coronary arteries demonstrated the following: 1) In perfusion phase representing initial 4 min after injection of the contrast material, infarcted areas were shown as areas of low density. Pattern of these low dense areas appeared homogeneous and correlated quite well with the infarcted areas proved on necropsy. 2) In delayed scan performed between 8-12 min after the infusion of the contrast material, delayed enhancement occurred, for which visual pattern was quite variable from case to case. 3) In gated scan, time-related to ECG cycle, pictures of end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) in cardiac cycle were aquired. And alteration rates of endocardial space, (ED-ES/ED) x 100%, were obtained by dividing CT sliced endocardial space into 16 segments. By using these rates, abnormal motion of the infarcted area and compensatory motion of the normal myocardium were analyzed quantitatively. (author).

  10. A novel self-powered MR damper: theoretical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinchun, Guan; Hui, Li; Jinping, Ou; Yonghu, Huang; Yi, Ru

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel magnetorheological (MR) damper with a self-powered capability, which is proposed to have energy harvesting and MR damping technologies integrated into a single device. Vibration energy harvesting mechanisms were adopted, based on ball-screw mechanisms and a rotary permanent magnet dc generator, to convert the external vibration energy into electrical energy to power the MR damping unit. The configuration and operating principles of the proposed self-powered MR damper were presented. Considering the core loss effect on the magnetic field, a theoretical analysis of the proposed MR damper was carried out and a mechanical model was developed. Finally, a prototype with a capacity of 10 kN was fabricated and experimentally investigated in both the direct-supply mode and the supply-with-rectifier mode. The results indicated that the proposed configuration is feasible and that both modes can realize good self-adaptability of the MR damping force. However, the direct-supply mode has a sag effect in the force–displacement curve and provides a lower energy-dissipating capacity than the direct-supply mode does under the same conditions. (paper)

  11. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan; Günthner, Willibald A.; Kessler, Stephan; Zhang, Lu

    2017-06-01

    As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR), such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  12. Experimental analysis of the structure-borne tyre/road noise due to road discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, P.; Berckmans, D.; De Coninck, F.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2009-11-01

    Tyre/road noise has become the major source of traffic noise in urban regions. Although tyre/road noise has been studied for decades, little can be found in the literature about the noise resulting from crossing road discontinuities such as expansion joints, railway crossings, and potholes. Both vehicle interior and exterior noise can reach significant peak levels as a result of crossing such a pavement discontinuity. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the generating phenomena of structure borne tyre/road noise due to a road discontinuity. Both exterior and interior tyre/road noise are considered. The influence of driving speed, cleat dimension, inflation pressure, tyre temperature and preload onto the noise generating phenomena is investigated. A novel test setup was designed and built at the K.U. Leuven Noise and Vibration Engineering Laboratory in order to measure the structural and acoustic response of a tyre rolling over a cleat. The vehicle interior noise is analysed by means of a test circuit cleat test.

  13. Experimental Analysis of the Potential Induced Degradation Effect on Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Akcaoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy applications are increasing daily, and solar electricity, in the form of photovoltaics, is getting more and more important worldwide. As photovoltaics are connected both in series and in parallel, the panels are exposed to high potentials compared to the ground; thus, high voltage stress (HVS occurs. The scope of this paper is to analyze experimentally the potential induced degradation (PID in organic solar cells. To that end, organic solar cells are manufactured and are then undergone a series of voltage-dependent degradation and time-dependent voltage degradation tests. In addition to that, they are also exposed to gaseous oxygen, oxygen plasma, air degradation, and annealing, and the degradation effects are compared with PID results. From the analysis, it is apparent that annealing, air, gaseous oxygen, and oxygen plasma degradation have similar effects with PID, while due to simple diode characteristics, organic cells proved to be relatively durable to potential induced degradation. At low voltages (10 V, the organic cells withstood degradation adequately, with a drop of 23% in their initial efficiency. As voltage increased, the degradation rate increased considerably reaching a 93% efficiency drop when 30 V was applied for 20 minutes.

  14. Femtosecond inscribed mode modulators in large mode area fibers: experimental and theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Ria G.; Gelszinnis, Philipp; Voigtländer, Christian; Schulze, Christian; Thomas, Jens U.; Richter, Daniel; Duparré, Michael; Nolte, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    We present the experimental and theoretical analysis of a mode modulator in a few mode LMA fiber. The mode modulator consists of a section with a modified refractive index alongside the fiber core in the cladding, disturbing the guidance of the modes in the core. The extent of excitation of these disturbed modes depends on the overlap of the excited undisturbed and disturbed modes. At the end of the modulator, undisturbed modes will be excited again in the fiber core, in dependency of the spatial field distribution of the disturbed modes at the boundary. In the mode modulator disturbed higher order modes lead to modal interference, causing a dependency of the spatial distribution of the light in the mode modulator on the propagation length of the disturbed modes. Hence, the modal output field depends on the length of the mode modulator. For the experiments, the mode modulator was inscribed directly into the LMA fiber with ultrashort laser pulses. During the inscription process the modal content at the end of the fiber was measured using a computer generated hologram as a correlation filter. In dependency of the length of the modulator strong oscillations between the content of the fundamental and the higher order modes are observable. In the case of an initially excited fundamental mode, its content could be reduced to below 5%, whereat the content of the LP11 modes was up to 90%. While measurement and simulation show qualitative agreement, differences are caused by inhomogeneities of the refractive index modifications.

  15. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  16. Assessment and improvement of statistical tools for comparative proteomics analysis of sparse data sets with few experimental replicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; León, Ileana R.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    with varying numbers of missing values. We applied three tools, including standard t test, moderated t test, also known as limma, and rank products for the detection of significantly changing features in simulated and experimental proteomics data sets with missing values. The rank product method was improved...... to work with data sets containing missing values. Extensive analysis of simulated and experimental data sets revealed that the performance of the statistical analysis tools depended on simple properties of the data sets. High-confidence results were obtained by using the limma and rank products methods...

  17. Incorporation of Uncertainty Analysis in Experimental/Computational Fluid Dynamics Validations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Hugh

    2002-01-01

    A quantitative approach to verification and validation of simulations was developed which properly takes into account the uncertainties in experimental data and the uncertainties in the simulation result...

  18. An experimental analysis of illumination intensity and temperature dependency of photovoltaic cell parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuce, Erdem; Cuce, Pinar Mert; Bali, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • R sh is rather sensitive to the variations in T c . • For higher G values, G ∗ is not affected from the variations in light intensity. • Ideality factor decreases linearly with increasing T c . • A linear decrease of R s and R sh has been observed with increasing T c . • Fill factor increases exponentially with G while it decreases linearly with T c . - Abstract: It is well known that accurate knowledge of photovoltaic cell parameters from the measured current–voltage characteristics is of vital importance for the quality control and the performance assessment of photovoltaic cells/modules. Although many attempts have been made so far for a thorough analysis of cell parameters, there are still significant discrepancies between the previously published results. In this regard, a detailed investigation of cell parameters through a comprehensive experimental and statistical work is important to elucidate the aforementioned contradictions. Therefore in the present work, effects of two main environmental factors on performance parameters of mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules have been experimentally investigated. The experiments have been carried out under a calibrated solar simulator for various intensity levels and cell temperatures in the range 200–500 W/m 2 and 15–60 °C, respectively. The results indicated that light intensity has a dominant effect on current parameters. Photocurrent, short circuit current and maximum current increase linearly with increasing intensity level. A new term, solar intensity coefficient, has been defined first time to characterize the solar radiation dependency of current parameters. On the other hand, it has been observed that cell temperature has a dramatic effect on voltage parameters. Open circuit voltage and maximum voltage considerably decrease with increasing cell temperature. Temperature coefficients of voltage parameters have been calculated for each case. Shunt

  19. Decreased pain sensitivity among people with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of experimental pain induction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Thompson, Trevor; Acaster, Sarah; Vancampfort, Davy; Gaughran, Fiona; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-11-01

    Patients with schizophrenia report reduced pain sensitivity in clinical studies, but experimental studies are required to establish pain sensitivity as a potential endophenotype. We conducted a systematic review of electronic databases from database inception until April 15, 2015, including experimental studies investigating pain among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder vs healthy controls. A random-effect meta-analysis yielding Hedges' g ±95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect size (ES) measure was conducted. Primary outcome was a pooled composite of pain threshold and pain tolerance; secondary outcomes included these parameters individually, plus sensory threshold, physiological pain response, and pain intensity or unpleasantness. Across 17 studies, patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 387; age, 30.7 ± 6.9 years; females, 31.9%; illness duration, 7.0 ± 5.7 years) were compared with controls (n = 483; age, 29.5 ± 7.4 years; females, 31.0%). Patients had elevated pain threshold/pain tolerance vs controls (ES = 0.583; 95% CI, 0.212-0.954; P = 0.002; studies = 15). Results were similar in antipsychotic-free individuals (ES = 0.599; 95% CI, 0.291-0.907; P pain tolerance (ES = 0.566; 95% CI, 0.235-0.897; P = 0.0001; studies = 6), sensory threshold (ES = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.505-1.727; P pain threshold (ES = 0.696; 95% CI, 0.407-0.986; P pain intensity/unpleasantness ratings (ES = 0.547; 95% CI, 0.146-0.949; P = 0.008). Findings were similarly significant in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia (analysable parameters = 4) and antipsychotic-treated individuals (analysable parameters = 2). Finally, greater psychiatric symptoms moderated increased pain threshold, and younger patient age moderated increased pain tolerance. Decreased pain sensitivity seems to be an endophenotype of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. How this alteration links to other dimensions of schizophrenia and physical comorbidity-related help-seeking behaviour

  20. Experimental study and finite element analysis based on equivalent load method for laser ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Fengpeng; Qiu, Zhaoguo

    2016-07-01

    The laser ultrasonic generation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave in an elastic plate is studied by experiment and finite element method. In order to eliminate the measurement error and the time delay of the experimental system, the linear fitting method of experimental data is applied. The finite element analysis software ABAQUS is used to simulate the propagation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave caused by laser excitation on a sheet metal sample surface. The equivalent load method is proposed and applied. The pulsed laser is equivalent to the surface load in time and space domain to meet the Gaussian profile. The relationship between the physical parameters of the laser and the load is established by the correction factor. The numerical solution is in good agreement with the experimental result. The simple and effective numerical and experimental methods for laser ultrasonic measurement of the elastic constants are demonstrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multilevel analysis quantifies variation in the experimental effect while optimizing power and preventing false positives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Dolan, Conor V; Verhage, Matthijs; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In neuroscience, experimental designs in which multiple measurements are collected in the same research object or treatment facility are common. Such designs result in clustered or nested data. When clusters include measurements from different experimental conditions, both the mean of

  2. Numerical and experimental analysis of time-dependent load transfer in reinforced concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Kataoka

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the influence of the steel reinforcement ratio in concrete columns on their properties of creep and shrinkage. Experimental tests and three-dimensional finite element-based simulations of the experimental curves from plain concrete cylinders and plain concrete columns derived by curve fitting were performed using the ACI 209 model available in DIANA 9.3. Columns with longitudinal reinforcement ratios of 0%, 1.4% and 2.8%, loaded to 30% and 40% of their 7-day compressive strength, were investigated. The results indicated that numerical simulation does not predict experimental data for a long period. However, simulations fitted with experimental curves derived from plain concrete columns presented values close to those of experimental data for 91 days.

  3. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  4. Analysis of the optimal fuel composition for the Indonesian experimental power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.), Ibaraki (Japan); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Banten (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Arbie, Bakri; Subki, Iyos [PT MOTAB Technology, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2017-03-15

    The optimal fuel composition of the 10 MWth Experimental Power Reactor (RDE), to be built by the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), is a very important design parameter since it will directly affect the fuel cost, new and spent fuel storage capacity, and other back-end environmental burden. The RDE is a very small sized pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with low enriched uranium (LEU) UO{sub 2} TRISO fuel under multipass or once-through-then-out fueling scheme. A scoping study on fuel composition parameters, namely heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and uranium enrichment is conducted. All burnup, criticality calculations and core equilibrium search are carried out by using BATAN-MPASS, a general in-core fuel management code for pebble bed HTGRs, featured with many automatic equilibrium searching options as well as thermal-hydraulic calculation capability. The RDE User Requirement Document issued by BATAN is used to derive the main core design parameters and constraints. The scoping study is conducted over uranium enrichment in the range of 10 to 20 w/o and HM loading in the range of 4 g to 10 g/pebble. Fissile loading per unit energy generated (kg/GWd) is taken as the objective function for the present scoping study. The analysis results show that the optimal HM loading is around 8 g/pebble. Under the constraint of 80 GWd/t fuel discharge burnup imposed by the technical specification, the uranium enrichment for the optimal HM loading is approximately 13 w/o.

  5. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  6. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR, such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  7. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  8. Experimental and modeling analysis of coupled non-Fickian transport and sorption in natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Shira; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-05-01

    We present experimental breakthrough curve (BTC) data and a modeling investigation of conservative and sorbing tracer transport in natural soils. By analyzing the data using the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, we probe the traditional approach of using conservative tracer model parameters as a basis for quantifying the transport of sorbing solutes in the same domain when non-Fickian transport is present. Many known contaminants in groundwater are sorbed to the host solid porous medium, to varying extents, while being transported; this enhances the long tailing of BTCs which often already occurs because of the inherent non-Fickian nature of the transport. The CTRW framework has been shown to account very well for non-Fickian conservative (nonsorbing) transport. Here, we examine two BTC data sets in laboratory columns packed with natural soils; the first (previously analyzed by Mao and Ren (2004)) comprises transport of (conservative) bromide and (sorbing) atrazine tracers, while the second presents new data with bromide and tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA), a key flame retardant, as a sorbing solute. TBNPA has received little attention in the past, and is shown to be sorbed onto Bet Dagan soil in a nonlinear manner. We find that the transport behavior of bromide is non-Fickian in all cases, which is caused by the heterogeneity of the soil. Comparative model analysis of the non-Fickian BTCs of the conservative, and sorbing tracers and examination of the fitting parameters, exemplify the coupling between transport and adsorption/desorption processes. The difference in transport parameters used to match the conservative and sorbing data sets shows that conservative tracer parameters (average velocity and dispersion coefficient) are not valid for the transport of reactive tracers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of crystallographic preferred orientations of experimentally deformed Black Hills Quartzite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kilian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The crystallographic preferred orientations (textures of three samples of Black Hills Quartzite (BHQ deformed experimentally in the dislocation creep regimes 1, 2 and 3 (according to Hirth and Tullis, 1992 have been analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD. All samples were deformed to relatively high strain at temperatures of 850 to 915 °C and are almost completely dynamically recrystallized. A texture transition from peripheral [c] axes in regime 1 to a central [c] maximum in regime 3 is observed. Separate pole figures are calculated for different grain sizes, aspect ratios and long-axis trends of grains, and high and low levels of intragranular deformation intensity as measured by the mean grain kernel average misorientation (gKAM. Misorientation relations are analyzed for grains of different texture components (named Y, B, R and σ grains, with reference to previously published prism, basal, rhomb and σ1 grains. Results show that regimes 1 and 3 correspond to clear end-member textures, with regime 2 being transitional. Texture strength and the development of a central [c]-axis maximum from a girdle distribution depend on deformation intensity at the grain scale and on the contribution of dislocation creep, which increases towards regime 3. Adding to this calculations of resolved shear stresses and misorientation analysis, it becomes clear that the peripheral [c]-axis maximum in regime 1 is not due to deformation by basal 〈a〉 slip. Instead, we interpret the texture transition as a result of different texture forming processes, one being more efficient at high stresses (nucleation or growth of grains with peripheral [c] axes, the other depending on strain (dislocation glide involving prism and rhomb 〈a〉 slip systems, and not as a result of temperature-dependent activity of different slip systems.

  10. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of Creosote degradation process under isothermal experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Bojan Ž; Janković, Marija M

    2013-01-01

    Isothermal degradation process of commercial Creosote was analyzed by the thermogravimetric (TG) technique in a nitrogen atmosphere, at four different operating temperatures (230, 250, 270 and 290°C). The kinetic triplet [Ea , A and f(α)] and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH (≠), ΔS (≠)and ΔG (≠)) for investigated Creosote samples were calculated. It was found that two-parameter autocatalytic Šesták-Berggren (SB) kinetic model best describes the process, but in the form of accommodation function with phenomenological character. Applying the multiplicative factor, the true value of activation energy (E (true) a ) was calculated. The experimental density distribution function of the apparent activation energy values was evaluated from isoconversional kinetic analysis. Based of the characteristic shape of distribution curve, it was concluded that the isothermal degradation of Creosote represents a complex physico-chemical process, given the chemical structure of the studied system. It is assumed that the considered process probably includes primary and secondary (autocatalytic) pyrolysis reactions, together with various decomposition reactions and radicals recombination pathways. The objective of the presented work is the proof of principle of the pyrolysis-based thermo-chemical conversion technologies for the production of value-added chemicals from the complex organic compounds, which even include chemical contaminants (such as PAHs). Also, the present work allows us that by using a unified kinetic approach we can obtain a significant physico-chemical characteristics of the tested system, which can then be used in the procedure for the separation of organics from creosote-treated woods and creosote-contaminated soils. The significance of this research is to identify the global kinetic behavior of some target contaminant compounds for pyrolysis, which are primarily PAHs.

  11. Analysis of crystallographic preferred orientations of experimentally deformed Black Hills Quartzite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-10-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientations (textures) of three samples of Black Hills Quartzite (BHQ) deformed experimentally in the dislocation creep regimes 1, 2 and 3 (according to Hirth and Tullis, 1992) have been analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). All samples were deformed to relatively high strain at temperatures of 850 to 915 °C and are almost completely dynamically recrystallized. A texture transition from peripheral [c] axes in regime 1 to a central [c] maximum in regime 3 is observed. Separate pole figures are calculated for different grain sizes, aspect ratios and long-axis trends of grains, and high and low levels of intragranular deformation intensity as measured by the mean grain kernel average misorientation (gKAM). Misorientation relations are analyzed for grains of different texture components (named Y, B, R and σ grains, with reference to previously published prism, basal, rhomb and σ1 grains). Results show that regimes 1 and 3 correspond to clear end-member textures, with regime 2 being transitional. Texture strength and the development of a central [c]-axis maximum from a girdle distribution depend on deformation intensity at the grain scale and on the contribution of dislocation creep, which increases towards regime 3. Adding to this calculations of resolved shear stresses and misorientation analysis, it becomes clear that the peripheral [c]-axis maximum in regime 1 is not due to deformation by basal a slip. Instead, we interpret the texture transition as a result of different texture forming processes, one being more efficient at high stresses (nucleation or growth of grains with peripheral [c] axes), the other depending on strain (dislocation glide involving prism and rhomb a slip systems), and not as a result of temperature-dependent activity of different slip systems.

  12. Experimental and computational analysis of micromotions of an uncemented femoral knee implant using elastic and plastic bone material models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berahmani, Sanaz; Janssen, Dennis; Verdonschot, Nico

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to calculate micromotions at the bone-implant interface of an uncemented femoral total knee replacement (TKR) using a reliable computational model. In the current study, experimental measurements of micromotions were compared with predicted micromotions by Finite Element Analysis

  13. The Role of the Media in Body Image Concerns among Women: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental and Correlational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly; Ward, L. Monique; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample…

  14. Genetic analysis of inflammation, cytokine mRNA expression and disease course of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J C; Andersson, M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    Genetic analysis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can provide clues to the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying the susceptibility genes of DA rats may be particularly rewarding since they are prone to develop a remarkably MS-like chronic and demyelinating disease...

  15. Experimental study on solids circulation patterns and bubble behavior using particle imagevelocimetry combined with digital image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, J.A.; Roghair, Ivo; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrodynamics, viz. the solids circulation patterns and bubble behavior, of a freely bubbling gas-solid fluidized bed has been investigated experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) combined with Digital Image Analysis (DIA). Coupling of these non-invasive measuring techniques allows

  16. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  17. Nurses on the move: evaluation of a program to assist international students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Carmel; Rolls, Colleen; Campbell, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a Teaching and Learning Enhancement Scheme (TALES) program designed to meet the unique need of the 2005 cohort of international nursing students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing (BN) program at the Victorian campus of Australian Catholic University (ACU) National. The program involved a team approach with three academic mentors and the international students working together to produce satisfactory learning outcomes through fortnightly meetings and provision of additional assistance including compiling a portfolio, reflective writing, English, including colloquial English and pronunciation, as well as familiarisation with handover and abbreviations common in the clinical field, general communication, assistance with preparing a resume and participation in simulated interviews. This relatively small group of international students (20) confirmed the findings of other studies from other countries of international nursing students' in terms of concerns in regard to studying in a foreign country, namely English proficiency, communication difficulties, cultural differences and unfamiliarity with the health care environment. The assistance provided by the program was identified by the completing students as invaluable in helping them settle into study and successfully complete the theoretical and clinical components of the course.

  18. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2018-01-25

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE URGENCY OF UNDERTAKING LAND CONSOLIDATION WORKS IN THE VILLAGES OF THE SŁAWNO MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Leń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is to analyze the spatial structure of land and identification of the needs of consolidation works and exchange of land in the villages of the Sławno municipality, lying in the district of Opoczno, in the Łódzkie Voivodship. The authors use the method of zero unitarisation for the purposes of determining the order of undertaking consolidation works and exchange of land in the area of research. The basis for calculation is the database of 19 factors (x1–x19 characteristic for the listed five groups of issues, describing each of the following villages. The obtained results, in a form of synthetic meter for each village, allowed creating the hierarchy of the urgency of carrying out consolidation works. The problem of excessive fragmentation of farms, constituting the collections of a certain number of parcels, in a broader sense, is one of the elements that prevent the acceleration of reforms by conversion of the Land and Buildings Register (EGiB in a full valuable real estate cadastre in Poland. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the fact that there are ecological grounds in the study area, significant from the point of view of environmental protection.

  20. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  1. Numerical simulation and experimental analysis for a Risers Uphold Sub-Surface Buoy (BSR); Simulacao numerica e ensaio experimental da Boia de Sub-superficie de Suporte de Risers - BSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jairo B. de; Almeida, Jose Carlos L. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rangel, Marcos; Fernandes, Antonio C.; Santos, Melquisedec F. dos; Sales Junior, Joel Sena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents results, numeric and experimental, due to installation operation of a Risers Uphold Sub-Surface Buoy, (BSR). This kind of installation developed by PETROBRAS is unique in the world. The work of BSR installation was based on a numeric pre analysis to verify the system and determine the main parameters to be experimentally verified. The second phase of the work was the experimental analysis in a deep water ocean basin. s. The work describes the BSR and their main accessories, the experimental environment and the model constructed in aluminum in a 1:12 scale and the main results. (author)

  2. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  3. Experimental simulation and analysis of off-normal heat loads accompanying plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Bakker, J.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.

    1990-12-01

    The plasma disruption heat load is simulated experimentally using a pulsed laser beam with high energy density and short pulse duration (0.2-20 mm) covering a certain range of ITER design values. The present status of the laser heat flux test facility and new experimental tools are described. Spatial and time resolved profiles of the laser beam are given. Experimental results are presented including the variation of angle of incidence of the laser beam relative to the material surface. The nature and effects of the induced vapour plume are discussed. Materials studied are relevant to the ITER design. Experimental results are compared with numerical calculations. Some implications for the design of First Wall and Divertor of ITER are addressed. (author). 13 refs.; 5 figs

  4. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration)

    2012-07-16

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2011. It is the third report in a series examining financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), and a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the

  5. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental

  6. Experimental analysis on stress wave in inhomogeneous multi-layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yun Ho; Ham, Hyo Sick

    1998-01-01

    The guided wave propagation in inhomogeneous multi-layered structures is experimentally explored based on theoretical dispersion curves. It turns out that proper selection of incident angle and frequency is critical for guided wave generation in multi-layered structures. Theoretical dispersion curves greatly depend on adhesive zone thickness, layer thickness and material properties. It was possible to determine the adhesive zone thickness of an inhomogeneous multi-layered structure by monitoring experimentally the change of dispersion curves.

  7. Opening the Implicit Leadership Theories’ Black Box: An Experimental Approach with Conjoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo M. Tavares; Filipe Sobral; Rafael Goldszmidt; Felipe Araújo

    2018-01-01

    Although research on implicit leadership theories (ILTs) has concentrated on determining which attributes define a leadership prototype, little attention has been paid to testing the relative importance of each of these attributes for individuals’ leadership perceptions. Building on socio-cognitive theories of impression processes, we experimentally explore the formation of leadership perceptions based on the recognition of six key attributes in a series of three experimental studies comprisi...

  8. Theoretical and experimental analysis of rare earth whispering gallery mode laser relative intensity noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppe, Jean-Baptiste; Mortier, Michel; Féron, Patrice; Dumeige, Yannick

    2017-12-01

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) of a solid state whispering-gallery-mode class-B laser is studied both theoretically and experimentally under different pumping regimes. In particular, we show that harmonics of the spiking frequency are observed in the RIN spectrum. A rate equation model including Langevin forces and the nonlinear coupling between inverted ion and photon number fluctuations has been developed to reproduce the experimental results and to extract relevant physical parameters from the fitting of the RIN spectrum.

  9. Parametric simulation and experimental analysis of earth air heat exchanger with solar air heating duct

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Jakhar; Rohit Misra; M.S. Soni; Nikhil Gakkhar

    2016-01-01

    Earth air heat exchanger (EAHE) systems are insufficient to meet the thermal comfort requirements in winter conditions. The low heating potential of such systems can be improved by integrating the system with solar air heating duct (SAHD). The aim of this paper is to present a model to estimate the heating potential for EAHE system with and without SAHD. The model is generated using TRNSYS 17 simulation tool and validated against experimental investigation on an experimental set-up in Ajmer, ...

  10. Environmental modeling of uranium interstitial compositions of non-stoichiometric oxides: experimental and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Study of uranium interstitial compositions of non-stoichiometric oxides UO2+x (x ∈ 0.1-0.02) in gas and condense phases has been presented, using various soft-ionization mass spectrometric methods such as ESI-, APCI-, and MALDI-MS at a wide dynamic temperature gradient (∈ 25-300 °C). Linearly polarized vibrational spectroscopy has been utilized in order to assign unambiguously, the vibrational frequencies of uranium non-stoichiometric oxides. Experimental design has involved xUO2.66·yUO2.33, xUO2.66·yUO2.33/SiO2, xUO2.66·yUO2.33/SiO2 (NaOH) and SiO2/x'NaOH·y'UO2(NO3)2·6H2O, multicomponent systems (x = 1, y ∈ 0.1-1.0 and x' = 1, y' ∈ 0.1-0.6) as well as phase transitions UO2(NO3)2·6H2O → {U4O9(UO2.25)} → U3O7(UO2.33) → U3O8(UO2.66) → {UO3}, thus ensuring a maximal representativeness to real environmental conditions, where diverse chemical, geochemical and biochemical reactions, including complexation and sorption onto minerals have occurred. Experimental factors such as UV-irradiation, pH, temperature, concentration levels, solvent types and ion strength have been taken into consideration, too. As far as uranium speciation represents a challenging analytical task in terms of chemical identification diverse coordination species, mechanistic aspects relating incorporation of oxygen into UO 2+x form the shown full methods validation significantly impacts the field of environmental radioanalytical chemistry. UO2 is the most commonly used fuel in nuclear reactors around the globe; however, a large non-stoichiometric range ∈ UO1.65-UO2.25 has occurred due to radiolysis of water on UO2 surface yielding to H2O2, OH(·), and more. Each of those compositions has different oxygen diffusion. And in this respect enormous effort has been concentrated to study the potential impact of hazardous radionuclide on the environment, encompassing from the reprocessing to the disposal stages of the fuel waste, including the waste itself, the

  11. Chemical bond in borides. Theoretical and experimental analysis; Chemische Bindung in Boriden. Theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, Vanessa

    2013-04-18

    The aim of this work was the analysis of the bonding situation in different borides by examining the electron density in these structures. The main focus of the analysis was on the QTAIM analysis and the evaluation of the Electron Localizability Indicator (ELI-D). For the calculation of the electron density different methods (extended Hueckel, LMTO, (L)APW) were used to prove which method leads to most precise results. The (L)APW-method was found to be the most exact one and the one with the longest computational times. The examined compounds were boron-rich Borides containing icosahedra, Transition Metal Borides and Na{sub 3}B{sub 20}. Most of the structures of the examined boron-rich Borides can be derived directly from the MgB{sub 7} structure type (MgB{sub 7}, MgB{sub 12}C{sub 2}, LiB{sub 13}C{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}C{sub 2}, LiB{sub 12}PC). The influence of the different cations as well as the interstitial atoms could be analyzed by comparing these compounds. Structures which can be derived from the alpha-rhombohedral Boron were also analyzed (B{sub 12}O{sub 2}, B{sub 12}P{sub 2}, B{sub 12}As{sub 2}). Assuming Bader-Charges the icosahedron is always positively charged if the electronegativity of the interstitial atoms is higher than the electronegativity of the Boron atoms. If their electronegativitiy is lower, the icosahedra are negatively charged. From the ELI-D-basins the bonding situation can be analyzed according to Wade by bisecting the basins of the exohedral bonds. The icosahedra are always negatively charged. However, Wade's rule is never exactly fulfilled as the charge is never exactly -2. To verify the results from theoretical calculations and vice versa, experimental electron density analyses of MgB{sub 7} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}C{sub 2} were performed. However, only the examination of MgB{sub 7} gave reliable results. They promoted the results by the calculations and underlined the correctness of the used methods. Results received by single

  12. Identification and characterization of insect-specific proteins by genome data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Hongsheng; Shi, Junjie

    2007-01-01

    Insects constitute the vast majority of known species with their importance including biodiversity, agricultural, and human health concerns. It is likely that the successful adaptation of the Insecta clade depends on specific components in its proteome that give rise to specialized features....... However, proteome determination is an intensive undertaking. Here we present results from a computational method that uses genome analysis to characterize insect and eukaryote proteomes as an approximation complementary to experimental approaches....

  13. Data Processing System (DPS) software with experimental design, statistical analysis and data mining developed for use in entomological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi-Yi; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2013-04-01

    A comprehensive but simple-to-use software package called DPS (Data Processing System) has been developed to execute a range of standard numerical analyses and operations used in experimental design, statistics and data mining. This program runs on standard Windows computers. Many of the functions are specific to entomological and other biological research and are not found in standard statistical software. This paper presents applications of DPS to experimental design, statistical analysis and data mining in entomology. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DISK SPRING CONFIGURATIONS WITH REGARD TO LOAD CAPACITY OF SAFETY PROGRESSIVE GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł LONKWIC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of various disk spring package configurations on brake load of safety progressive gears. The numerical analysis is performed using the Abaqus/CAE software and the designed 3D models. The numerical results are then verified in experimental tests. The tests also examine the effect of lubrication on brake load of spring packages. In addition, the paper investigates the work conditions of safety progressive gears at emergency braking. The experimental results show agreement with the numerical results.

  15. Experimental modal analysis and dynamic strain fiber Bragg gratings for structural health monitoring of composite antenna sub-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulou, A.; Fransen, S.; Gomez-Molinero, V.; Kostopoulos, V.

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a new structural health monitoring system for composite aerospace structures based on dynamic response strain measurements and experimental modal analysis techniques. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors were used for monitoring the dynamic response of the composite structure. The structural dynamic behavior has been numerically simulated and experimentally verified by means of vibration testing. The hypothesis of all vibration tests was that actual damage in composites reduces their stiffness and produces an eigenfrequency shifting to lower values in the same sense as mass increase produces. Thus, damage was simulated by slightly varying locally the mass of the structure at different zones. The correlation between the simulated damage and the loss of stiffness was analytically defined. Experimental modal analysis based on the strain responses was conducted and the extracted strain mode shapes were the input for the damage detection expert system. A feed-forward back propagation neural network was the core of the damage detection system. The features-input to the neural network consisted of the strain mode shapes, extracted from the experimental modal analysis. Dedicated training and validation activities were carried out based on the experimental results. The system showed high reliability, confirmed by the ability of the neural network to recognize the size and the position of damage on the structure. The experiments were performed on a real structure i.e. a lightweight antenna sub-reflector, manufactured and tested at EADS CASA ESPACIO. An integrated FBG sensor network, based on the advantage of multiplexing, was mounted on the structure with optimum topology. Numerical simulation was used as a support tool at all the steps of the work. Potential applications for the proposed system are during ground qualification extensive tests of space structures and during the mission as modal analysis tool on board, being able

  16. Experimental Modal Analysis and Dynaic Strain Fiber Bragg Gratings for Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulou, A.; Fransen, S.; Gomez Molinero, V.; Kostopoulos, V.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a new structural health monitoring system for composite aerospace structures based on dynamic response strain measurements and experimental modal analysis techniques. Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) optical sensors were used for monitoring the dynamic response of the composite structure. The structural dynamic behaviour has been numerically simulated and experimentally verified by means of vibration testing. The hypothesis of all vibration tests was that actual damage in composites reduces their stiffness and produces the same result as mass increase produces. Thus, damage was simulated by slightly varying locally the mass of the structure at different zones. Experimental modal analysis based on the strain responses was conducted and the extracted strain mode shapes were the input for the damage detection expert system. A feed-forward back propagation neural network was the core of the damage detection system. The features-input to the neural network consisted of the strain mode shapes, extracted from the experimental modal analysis. Dedicated training and validation activities were carried out based on the experimental results. The system showed high reliability, confirmed by the ability of the neural network to recognize the size and the position of damage on the structure. The experiments were performed on a real structure i.e. a lightweight antenna sub- reflector, manufactured and tested at EADS CASA ESPACIO. An integrated FBG sensor network, based on the advantage of multiplexing, was mounted on the structure with optimum topology. Numerical simulation of both structures was used as a support tool at all the steps of the work. Potential applications for the proposed system are during ground qualification extensive tests of space structures and during the mission as modal analysis tool on board, being able via the FBG responses to identify a potential failure.

  17. In vitro analysis of anterior and posterior fixation in an experimental unstable burst fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallemeier, Patricia M; Beaubien, Brian P; Buttermann, Glenn R; Polga, David J; Wood, Kirkham B

    2008-05-01

    A biomechanical comparison of fixation constructs in an experimental fracture model. To determine the relative postoperative stability of anterior graft and plating with that of posterior or combined fixation constructs in an unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture model. Several treatment modalities have been proposed for unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures, but the optimal technique is unclear. Previous cadaveric biomechanical studies in unstable burst fracture models have not considered the commonly used posterior (interpedicular) and anterior (plate) constructs. Nine human spine segments (T11-L3) were potted in epoxy and scanned using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Intact specimens had baseline flexibility testing. Unstable L1 burst fractures as verified by computed tomography were created using an impulse load and posterior surgical osteoligamentous destabilization (ie, transection of the lamina, interspinous ligaments, facet capsules, and ligamentum flavum). Specimens were instrumented posteriorly with pedicle screws and rods and tested to 6 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and torsion. Corpectomy and strut grafting were then performed, and testing was repeated in varying order with posterior fixation, anterior plating and circumferential fixation. Range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone was calculated for each test and fixation groups were compared using analysis of variance. All specimens had AO B1.2 (unstable burst) fractures. Mean ROM for posterior-only constructs was significantly less than that of the intact in lateral bending, flexion, and extension (Pbending (Ptorsion (all at Ptorsion. Increased ROM was correlated with greater fracture comminution for posterior-only fixation (P<0.05), and was weakly correlated with lower dual energy x-ray absorptiometry score (R=0.3) for anterior-only fixation. Circumferential instrumentation provided the most rigid fixation, followed by posterior fixation with anterior strut

  18. A systematic scoping review of the evidence for consumer involvement in organisations undertaking systematic reviews: focus on Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Richard F; Norman, Gill; Golder, Su; Griffith, Polly

    2016-01-01

    Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews of clinical trial evidence. We looked for published evidence that reports where consumers (patients and the public) have been involved in Cochrane systematic reviews, and also in reviews published by other organisations.We found 36 studies that reported about consumer involvement either in individual systematic reviews, or in other organisations. The studies showed that consumers were involved in reviews in a range of different ways: coordinating and producing reviews, making reviews more accessible, and spreading the results of reviews ("knowledge transfer"). The most common role was commenting on reviews ("peer reviewing"). Consumers also had other general roles, for example in educating people about evidence or helping other consumers. There were some interesting examples of new ways of involving consumers. The studies showed that most consumers came from rich and English speaking countries. There was little evidence about how consumer involvement had changed the reviews ("impact"). The studies found that consumer involvement needed to be properly supported.In future we believe that more research should be done to understand what kind of consumer involvement has the best impact; that more review authors should report how consumers have been involved; and that consumers who help with reviews should come from more varied backgrounds. Background Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews, and is committed to consumer involvement in the production and dissemination of its reviews. The review aims to systematically scope the evidence base for consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews; with an emphasis on Cochrane. Methods In June 2015 we searched six databases and other sources for studies of consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews, or in individual systematic

  19. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  20. Analysis of the experimental data of air pollution using atmospheric dispersion modeling and rough set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfa, I.K.I

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains four chapters and list of references:In chapter 1, we introduce a brief survey about the atmospheric concepts and the topological methods for data analysis.In section 1.1, we give introduce a general introduction. We recall some of atmospheric fundamentals in Section 1.2. Section 1.3, shows the concepts of modern topological methods for data analysis.In chapter 2, we have studied the properties of atmosphere and focus on concept of Rough set and its properties. This concepts of rough set has been applied to analyze the atmospheric data.In section 2.1, we introduce a general introduction about concept of rough set and properties of atmosphere. Section 2.2 focuses on the concept of rough set and its properties and generalization of approximation of rough set theory by using topological space. In section 2.3 we have studied the stabilities of atmosphere for Inshas location for all seasons using different schemes and compared these schemes using statistical and rough set methods. In section 2.4, we introduce mixing height of plume for all seasons. Section 2.5 introduced seasonal surface layer turbulence processes for Inshas location. Section 2.6 gives a comparison between the seasonal surface layer turbulence processes for Inshas location and for different locations using rough set theory.In chapter 3 we focus on the concept of variable precision rough set (VPRS) and its properties and using it to compare, between the estimated and observed data of the concentration of air pollution for Inshas location. In Section 3.1 we introduce a general introduction about VPRS and air pollution. In Section 3.2 we have focused on the concept and properties of VPRS. In Section 3.3 we have introduced a method to estimate the concentration of air pollution for Inshas location using Gaussian plume model. Section 3.4 has showed the experimental data. The estimated data have been compared with the observed data using statistical methods in Section 3.5. In Section 3

  1. Analysis of the absorptive behavior of photopolymer materials. Part II. Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Qi, Yue; Tolstik, Elen; Guo, Jinxin; Sheridan, John T.

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a model describing photopolymer materials, which incorporates both the physical electromagnetic and photochemical effects taking place, was developed. This model is now validated by applying it to fit experimental data for two different types of photopolymer materials. The first photopolymer material, acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol, is studied when four photosensitizers are used, i.e. Erythrosine B, Eosin Y, Phloxine B and Rose Bengal. The second type of photopolymer material involves phenanthrenequinone in a polymethylmethacrylate matrix. Using our model, the values of physical parameters, are extracted by numerical fitting experimentally obtained normalized transmittance growth curves. Experimental data sets for different exposure intensities, dye concentrations, and exposure geometries are studied. The advantages of our approach are demonstrated and it is shown that the parameters proposed by us to quantify the absorptive behavior in our model are both physical and can be estimated.

  2. Statistical analysis of sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals using Taguchi experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Sima; Halladj, Rouein; Nazari, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals. ► Using Taguchi experimental design (L9) for optimizing the experimental procedure. ► The significant effects of all the ultrasonic parameters on the response. - Abstract: SAPO-34 nanocrystals with high crystallinity were synthesized by means of sonochemical method. An L9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method was implemented to investigate the effects of sonication conditions on the preparation of SAPO-34 with respect to crystallinity of the final product phase. The experimental data establish the favorable phase crystallinity which is improved by increasing the ultrasonic power and the sonication temperature. In the case of ultrasonic irradiation time, however, an initial increases in crystallinity from 5 min to 15 min is followed by a decrease in crystallinity for longer sonication time

  3. Memory characteristics of hysteresis and creep in multi-layer piezoelectric actuators: An experimental analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Biggio, Matteo; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro; Storace, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide an experimental characterization of creep and hysteresis in a multi layer piezoelectric actuator (PEA), taking into account their relationships in terms of memory structure. We fit the well-known log-t model to the response of the PEA when driven by piecewise-constant signals, and find that both the instantaneous and the delayed response of the PEA display hysteretic dependence on the voltage level. We investigate experimentally the dependence of the creep coefficient on the input history, by driving the PEA along first order reversal curves and congruent minor loops, and find that it displays peculiar features like strict congruence of the minor loops and discontinuities. We finally explain the observed experimental behaviors in terms of a slow relaxation of the staircase interface line in the Preisach plane.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Decision Support Systems for Advanced MCR Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Human error is recognized as one of the main causes of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, and there have been efforts to reduce and prevent human errors by developing various operator support systems. Before adapting these support systems to actual NPPs, it is necessary to validate their reliability and to evaluate their effect on operator performance. Particularly for safety-critical systems such as NPPs, the validation and evaluation of support systems is as important as the design of good systems. Such evaluations may be carried out through a theoretical modelling or experimentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of decision support systems on operator performance by both theoretical and experimental methods. The target system is an integrated decision support system including four decision support sub-systems. In the results of both the theoretical and experimental evaluations, the decision support systems revealed positive effects, and several trends were observed. (authors)

  5. The influence of experimental silane primers on dentin bond strength and morphology: a laboratory and finite element analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ammar A; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Saidin, Syafiqah; Kadir, M R Abdul

    2014-12-01

    The inconsistency of dentin bonding affects retention and microleakage. The purpose of this laboratory and finite element analysis study was to investigate the effects on the formation of a hybrid layer of an experimental silane coupling agent containing primer solutions composed of different percentages of hydroxyethyl methacrylate. A total of 125 sound human premolars were restored in vitro. Simple class I cavities were formed on each tooth, followed by the application of different compositions of experimental silane primers (0%, 5%, 25%, and 50% of hydroxyethyl methacrylate), bonding agents, and dental composite resins. Bond strength tests and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed. The laboratory experimental results were validated with finite element analysis to determine the pattern of stress distribution. Simulations were conducted by placing the restorative composite resin in a premolar tooth by imitating simple class I cavities. The laboratory and finite element analysis data were significantly different from each other, as determined by 1-way ANOVA. A post hoc analysis was conducted on the bond strength data to further clarify the effects of silane primers. The strongest bond of hybrid layer (16.96 MPa) was found in the primer with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate, suggesting a barely visible hybrid layer barrier. The control specimens without the application of the primer and the primer specimens with no hydroxyethyl methacrylate exhibited the lowest strength values (8.30 MPa and 11.78 MPa) with intermittent and low visibility of the hybrid layer. These results were supported by finite element analysis that suggested an evenly distributed stress on the model with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Different compositions of experimental silane primers affected the formation of the hybrid layer and its resulting bond strength. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Palmer, C. S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Loftin, S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Osiek, B. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2014-08-18

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  7. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, Leslie A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  8. Experimental and theoretical analysis of 2-amino 1-methyl benzimidazole molecule based on DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, E. B.; Cevik, M.; Kurt, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this work were shown spectroscopic properties, molecular structure and electronic properties of 2-amino 1 methyl benzimidazole molecule. The theoretical calculations in the title molecule were performed with density functional theory method. Experimental wavenumber of 2-amino 1 methyl benzimidazole molecule were recorded with FT-Raman, dispersive Raman and FT-IR between 4000 and 0, 4000-400 and 4000-370 cm-1, respectively. The scaled theoretical wavenumber are assigned based on total energy distribution. Other experimental spectra were recorded in specific solvents.

  9. Mixture level models in Toshiba and General Electric blowdown experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebrim, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Three different mixture level tracking methods to vertical flow channels were tested in two Blowdown experiments. The aim of the tests is to observe the Computational efficiency and the agreement of their results with the experimental data. The first method has been used in the system code ATHLET. The second one has been used in the system code developed at BNL. The third one is described in a report but there is no notice that it has been tested. The results show that the first and the third method produce good agreement with the experimental data. The third method need a fine nodalization to yield good results. (C.M.)

  10. Ministerial Decree of 15 February 1974 establishing the inventory of qualified experts and physicians authorized to undertake the health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 and provides for the legal and administrative acknowledgment of experts and physicians who are required to undertake supervision of protection against the hazards of ionizing radiations. (NEA) [fr

  11. Media effects of experimental presentation of the ideal physique on eating disorder symptoms: a meta-analysis of laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenblas, Heather A; Campbell, Anna; Menzel, Jessie E; Doughty, Jessica; Levine, Michael; Thompson, J Kevin

    2013-02-01

    Older meta-analyses of the effects of the media's portrayal of the ideal physique have found small effects revealing that exposure to the ideal physique increases body image concerns. These meta-analyses also included correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies, with limited examination of moderators and other relevant outcomes besides body image. We conducted a systematic literature search and identified 33 experimental (i.e., pre and post data for both experimental and control groups) laboratory studies examining the effects of acute exposure to the media's portrayal of the ideal physique on eating disorder symptoms (i.e., body image, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, anger, anxiety and depression) and the mechanisms that moderate this effect. Fourteen separate meta-analyses revealed a range of small to moderate effect sizes for change in outcomes from pre to post for both experimental and control groups. Exposure to images of the ideal physique resulted in small effect sizes for increased depression and anger and decreased self-esteem and positive affect. Moderator analyses revealed moderate effect sizes for increased depression and body dissatisfaction among high-risk participants. This meta-analysis makes it clear that media exposure of the ideal physique results in small changes in eating disorder symptoms, particularly with participants at high risk for developing an eating disorder. Further research is needed to examine the longitudinal effects of media exposure of eating disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Video Analysis of Projectile Motion Using Tablet Computers as Experimental Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Müller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tablet computers were used as experimental tools to record and analyse the motion of a ball thrown vertically from a moving skateboard. Special applications plotted the measurement data component by component, allowing a simple determination of initial conditions and "g" in order to explore the underlying laws of motion. This experiment…

  13. Numerical Analysis and Experimental Verification of Stresses Building up in Microelectronics Packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaie Adli, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis comprises a thorough study of the microelectronics packaging process by means of various experimental and numerical methods to estimate the process induced residual stresses. The main objective of the packaging is to encapsulate the die, interconnections and the other exposed internal

  14. Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

  15. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here, an experimental set-up developed for the first time in India for the determination of mixing ratio and carbon isotopic ratio of air-CO2. The set-up includes traps for collection and extraction of CO2 from air samples using cryogenic procedures, followed by the measurement of CO2 mixing ratio using an MKS ...

  16. Failure mode and effect analysis experimental reliability determination for the CANDU reactor equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental tests performed in order to prove the reliability parameters for certain equipment manufactured in INR Pitesti, for NPP Cernavoda. The tests were provided by Technical Specifications and test procedures. A comparison, referring to the reliability parameters, between Canadian equipment and INR manufactured equipment ones is also given. The results of tests and conclusions are shown. (author)

  17. Theoretical Analysis of Experimental Data on Dy-160 That were Obtained in Studying Beta Decay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Usmanov, P. N.; Adam, Jindřich; Salikhbaev, U. S.; Solnyshkin, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 12 (2010), s. 1990-1996 ISSN 1063-7788 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Dy-160 * nucleus * experimental data Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2010

  18. Ultrafast Gain Dynamics in Quantum Dot Amplifiers: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Gehrig, Edeltraud; Hess, Ortwin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast gain dynamics in an optical amplifier with an active layer of self-organized quantum dots (QDs) emitting near 1.3$muhbox m$is characterized experimentally in a pump-probe experiment and modeled theoretically on the basis of QD Maxwell–Bloch equations. Experiment and theory are in good a...

  19. Analysis of Experimentation Results on University Graduates' Readiness Formation to Act in Extraordinary Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloshavenko, Vera L.; Prozorova, Galina V.; Sienkiewicz, Lyudmila B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the experimentation on graduates' readiness formation to act in extraordinary situations conducted in the Tyumen Industrial University in training bachelors in "Oil and Gas Business". The criteria of graduates' readiness formation to act in extraordinary situations are the following: practicability, validity,…

  20. Continuous versus pulsating flow boiling. Experimental comparison, visualization, and statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study investigates an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The hypothesis is that pulsations increase the flow boiling heat transfer by means of better bulk fluid mixing, increased wall wetting, and flow-regime destabilization...